158 relations: Adjective, Afrikaans, Albanian language, Alemannic German, Alphabet, Ancient Rome, Anglo-Saxon runes, ASCII, Attic Greek, Aymara language, Ý, Ƴ, Brazil, Brazilian Portuguese, Canal de Isabel II, Cherokee syllabary, Church Slavonic language, Circumflex, Claudius, Close front rounded vowel, Conjunction (grammar), Consonant, Coptic alphabet, Cornish language, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Dependent and independent variables, Devanagari, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Diphthong, Dot (diacritic), Dutch language, Dutch orthography, EBCDIC, English alphabet, English language, English orthography, Epsilon, Equation, Estonian language, European Portuguese, Ȳ, F, Faroese language, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Finnish language, French orthography, Gallicism, Ge'ez script, ..., German language, German orthography, Gh (digraph), Gimel, Given name, Gothic alphabet, Grave accent, Great Vowel Shift, Greek alphabet, Guarani language, Gujarati alphabet, History of the alphabet, Hook above, Hungarian ly, I, Icelandic language, Icelandic orthography, IJ (digraph), International Phonetic Alphabet, Isabella I of Castile, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Italian language, Italic languages, Izhitsa, Japanese language, Kazakh Short U, Kubutz and Shuruk, Labial consonant, Latin, Latin script, Letter (alphabet), Lithuanian language, Loanword, Logogram, Malagasy language, Mathematics, Meier, Meyer (surname), Middle English, Middle Welsh, Moÿ-de-l'Aisne, Modern Cornish, Modern English, Morphology (linguistics), Near-close front rounded vowel, Niterói, North Germanic languages, Ny (digraph), Old English, Old Italic script, Old Norse, Oxford English Dictionary, Palatal approximant, Palatal consonant, Phoenician alphabet, Polish language, Portugal, Portuguese language, Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990, Portuguese orthography, Proper noun, Quechuan languages, Resale price maintenance, Ring (diacritic), Romanization of Japanese, Roundedness, Royal Spanish Academy, Sacred language, Schneider (surname), Schnyder, Schwa, Schwyz, Semivowel, Short U (Cyrillic), Slavic languages, Slovak language, Spanish language, Spelling pronunciation, Standard Written Form, Switzerland, Teuthonista, Thorn (letter), Tilde, Tupi language, Turkish language, Turkmen language, Typeface, U, U (Cyrillic), Ue (Cyrillic), Ugaritic alphabet, Unicode subscripts and superscripts, Upsilon, Ur (rune), V, Vietnamese language, Vowel, W, Waw (letter), Welsh language, Welsh orthography, West Slavic languages, William Caxton, Y with stroke, Ybarra, Ye olde, Yen sign, Yogh. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anglo-Saxon runes are runes used by the early Anglo-Saxons as an alphabet in their writing.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
Ý (ý) is a letter of Old Norse, Icelandic, Kazakh and Faroese alphabets, as well as in Turkmen language.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Ƴ (minuscule: ƴ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Y with the addition of a hook.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Canal de Isabel II (CYII) is the company that manages the water supplies for Madrid, Spain.
The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s.
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
In mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences, the values of dependent variables depend on the values of independent variables.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Epsilon (uppercase Ε, lowercase ε or lunate ϵ; έψιλον) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid<!-- not close-mid, see Arvanti (1999) - Illustrations of the IPA: Modern Greek. --> front unrounded vowel.
In mathematics, an equation is a statement of an equality containing one or more variables.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
Ȳ (minuscule: ȳ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Y with the addition of a macron (¯).
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
A Gallicism can be.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
Gh is a digraph found in many languages.
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.
The history of alphabetic writing goes back to the consonantal writing system used for Semitic languages in the Levant in the 2nd millennium BCE.
In typesetting, the hook above (dấu hỏi) is a diacritic mark placed on top of vowels in the Vietnamese alphabet.
Ly is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, used in Hungarian.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelled and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Izhitsa (Ѵ, ѵ; OCS Ѷжица, И́жица) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet and several later alphabets, usually the last in the row.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Kazakh Short U (Ұ ұ; italics: Ұ ұ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Kubutz (קֻבּוּץ) and Shuruk (שׁוּרוּק) are the two Hebrew niqqud vowel signs that represent the sound.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Meier may refer to.
Meyer is a surname of English, German, Dutch, or Jewish origin.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 15th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period.
Moÿ-de-l'Aisne is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Modern Cornish (Kernuack Nowedga) is a variety of the revived Cornish language.
Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The near-close front rounded vowel, or near-high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Niterói is a municipality of the state of Rio de Janeiro in the southeast region of Brazil.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Ny is a digraph in a number of languages such as Catalan, Ganda, Filipino/Tagalog, Hungarian, Swahili and Malay.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990 (Acordo Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa de 1990) is an international treaty whose purpose is to create a unified orthography for the Portuguese language, to be used by all the countries that have Portuguese as their official language.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Resale price maintenance (RPM) (US) or retail price maintenance (UK) is the practice whereby a manufacturer and its distributors agree that the distributors will sell the manufacturer's product at certain prices (resale price maintenance), at or above a price floor (minimum resale price maintenance) or at or below a price ceiling (maximum resale price maintenance).
A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters.
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Schneider (German for "tailor", literally "someone who cuts," from the verb schneiden "to cut") is a very common surname in Germany.
Schnyder is used in Switzerland as an alternative form of the more common German surname Schneider (tailor).
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
The town of Schwyz (Schwytz; Svitto) is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Short U (Ў ў; italics: Ў ў) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.
The Standard Written Form or SWF (Furv Skrifys Savonek) of the Cornish language is an orthography standard that is designed to "provide public bodies and the educational system with a universally acceptable, inclusive, and neutral orthography".
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Teuthonista is a phonetic transcription system used predominantly for the transcription of (High) German dialects.
Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Old Tupi or classical Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native Tupi people of Brazil, mostly those who inhabited coastal regions in South and Southeast Brazil.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
U (У у; italics: У у) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ue or Straight U (Ү ү; italics: Ү ү) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928.
Unicode has subscripted and superscripted versions of a number of characters including a full set of Arabic numerals.
Upsilon (or; uppercase Υ, lowercase υ; ύψιλον ýpsilon) or ypsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet.
The reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the Elder Futhark u rune is *Ūruz meaning "wild ox"Page, R.I. (2005).
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
Waw/Vav ("hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician wāw, Aramaic waw, Hebrew vav, Syriac waw ܘ and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group.
William Caxton (c. 1422 – c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer.
Y with stroke (majuscule: Ɏ; minuscule: ɏ) is a letter of the Latin script, derived from Y with the addition of a stroke through the top of the letter.
Ybarra is a surname of Basque origin, and may refer to.
"Ye olde" is a pseudo-Early Modern English stock prefix, used anachronistically, suggestive of a Merry England, Deep England or "old, as in Medieval old" feel.
The yen sign (¥) or the yuan sign (¥/元) is a currency sign used by the Chinese yuan (CNY) and the Japanese yen (JPY) currencies.
The letter yogh (ȝogh) (Ȝ ȝ; Middle English: ȝogh) was used in Middle English and Older Scots, representing y and various velar phonemes.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.