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Aberdeenshire or the County of Aberdeen (Coontie o Aiberdeen, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is a historic county and registration county of Scotland.
In the United Kingdom, the Accession Council is a ceremonial body which assembles in St James's Palace upon the death of a monarch (Demise of the Crown), to formally proclaim the accession of the successor to the throne.
The Accession Declaration Act 1910 is an Act which was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to alter the declaration that the Sovereign is required to make at his or her accession to the throne as first required by the Bill of Rights of 1689.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
The Act of Security 1704 (also referred to as the Act for the Security of the Kingdom) was a response by the Parliament of Scotland to the Parliament of England's Act of Settlement 1701.
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Sir Alan Frederick Lascelles (11 April 1887 – 10 August 1981) was a British courtier and civil servant who held several positions in the first half of the twentieth century, culminating in his position as Private Secretary to both King George VI and to Queen Elizabeth II.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.
Alexander II (Mediaeval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Uilliam; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Uilleim; 24 August 11986 July 1249) was King of Scots from 1214 until his death in 1249.
Alexander III (Medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Alaxandair; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Alasdair) (4 September 1241 – 19 March 1286) was King of Scots from 1249 to his death.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
The Alien Act was a law passed by the Parliament of England in 1705, as a response to the Parliament of Scotland's Act of Security of 1704, which in turn was partially a response to the English Act of Settlement 1701.
Alison Weir (born 8 July 1951) is a British writer of history books, and latterly historical novels, mostly in the form of biographies about British royalty.
An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Angevins ("from Anjou") were a royal house that ruled England in the 12th and early 13th centuries; its monarchs were Henry II, Richard I and John.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
Lady Antonia Margaret Caroline Fraser, (née Pakenham; born 27 August 1932) is a British author of history, novels, biographies and detective fiction.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Ascot Racecourse ("ascot" pronounced, often incorrectly pronounced) is a British racecourse, located in Ascot, Berkshire, England, which is used for thoroughbred horse racing.
Æthelstan or Athelstan (Old English: Æþelstan, or Æðelstān, meaning "noble stone"; 89427 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939.
Éire is Irish for "Ireland", the name of an island and a sovereign state.
The Balfour Declaration of 1926, issued by the 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London, was named after Lord President of the Council (and former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Arthur Balfour.
Balmoral Castle is a large estate house in Royal Deeside, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, near the village of Crathie, west of Ballater and east of Braemar.
A banner of arms is a type of heraldic flag which has the same image as a coat of arms, i.e. the shield of a full heraldic achievement, rendered in a square or rectangular shape of the flag.
The Battle of Bosworth Field (or Battle of Bosworth) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century.
The Battle of Flodden, Flodden Field, or occasionally Branxton (Brainston Moor) was a military combat in the War of the League of Cambrai between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, resulting in an English victory.
The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England, and was the final battle of the English Civil War.
Benjamin John Pimlott FBA (4 July 1945 – 10 April 2004), known as Ben Pimlott, was a British historian of the post-war period in Britain.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
The Bishops' Wars (Bellum Episcopale) were conflicts, both political and military, which occurred in 1639 and 1640 centred on the nature of the governance of the Church of Scotland, and the rights and powers of the Crown.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations.
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
A capital gains tax (CGT) is a tax on capital gains, the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset that was greater than the amount realized on the sale.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.
The Church in Wales (Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is the Anglican church in Wales, composed of six dioceses.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, which is composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive.
Clarence House is a royal residence in London, situated on The Mall, in the City of Westminster.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Henry Colin Gray Matthew (15 January 1941 – 29 October 1999) was a British historian and academic.
The Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces is a position vested in the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, who as Sovereign and head of state is the "Head of the Armed Forces".
The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2011, commonly known as CHOGM 2011, was the twenty-second Meeting of the Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations. Held in Perth, Western Australia, between 28 and 30 October 2011 and hosted by the Prime Minister Julia Gillard.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.
With the death of King Alexander III in 1286, the crown of Scotland passed to his only surviving descendant, his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway.
Confederate Ireland or the Union of the Irish (Hiberni Unanimes) refers to the period of Irish self-government between 1642 and 1649, during the Eleven Years' War.
Conn O'Neill, 1st Earl of Tyrone (Conn Bacach mac Cuinn Ó Néill) (c. 1480–1559) was King of Tír Eógain, the largest and most powerful Gaelic lordship in Ireland.
The Conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of Wales,Examples of historians using the term include Professor J.E. Lloyd, regarded as the founder of the modern academic study of Welsh history, in his History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, first published in 1911, and Professor R.R. Davies, the leading modern scholar of the period, in his works including The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063–1415, published 2000.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such.
A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey.
In the United Kingdom, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British Royal Family to whom the monarch, currently Elizabeth II, delegates certain state functions and powers when not in the United Kingdom or unavailable for other reasons (such as short-term incapacity or sickness).
The Court of Session (Cùirt an t-Seisein; Coort o Session) is the supreme civil court of Scotland, and constitutes part of the College of Justice; the supreme criminal court of Scotland is the High Court of Justiciary.
The Court of St James's is the royal court for the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
Coutts and Co. is a private bank and wealth manager, founded in 1692.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
The Crown Estate is a collection of lands and holdings in the United Kingdom belonging to the British monarch as a corporation sole, making it the "Sovereign's public estate", which is neither government property nor part of the monarch's private estate.
The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, originally the Crown Jewels of England, are 140 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn by British kings and queens at their coronations.
The Crown Proceedings Act 1947 (c. 44) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that allowed, for the first time, civil actions against the Crown to be brought in the same way as against any other party.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; – 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and later King of the Scots from 1124 to 1153.
David II (Medieval Gaelic: Daibhidh a Briuis, Modern Gaelic: Dàibhidh Bruis; Norman French: Dauid de Brus, Early Scots: Dauid Brus; 5 March 132422 February 1371) was King of Scots for over 41 years, from 1329 until his death in 1371.
Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.
Debrett's is a professional coaching company, publisher and authority on etiquette and behaviour, founded in 1769 with the publication of the first edition of The New Peerage.
The Defence of the Seven Sacraments (in Latin: Assertio Septem Sacramentorum) is a theological treatise published in 1521, written by King Henry VIII of England, allegedly with the assistance of Thomas More.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was a member of the British royal family.
Diarmait Mac Murchada (Modern Irish: Diarmaid Mac Murchadha), anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough, Dermod MacMurrough, Dermot MacMorrogh or Dermot MacMorrow (c. 1110c. 1 May 1171), was a King of Leinster in Ireland.
Dieu et mon droit, meaning God and my right, is the motto of the Monarch of the United Kingdom outside Scotland.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
The Duchy of Cornwall (Duketh Kernow) is one of two royal duchies in England, the other being the Duchy of Lancaster.
The Duchy of Lancaster is, since 1399, the private estate of the British sovereign as Duke of Lancaster.
Donnchad mac Crinain (Modern Gaelic: Donnchadh mac Crìonain; anglicised as Duncan I, and nicknamed An t-Ilgarach, "the Diseased" or "the Sick"; ca. 1001 – 14 August 1040) was king of Scotland (Alba) from 1034 to 1040.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Edward Balliol (1283 – 1367) was a pretender to the Scottish throne (1314–1356).
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death.
Edward V (2 November 1470 –)R.
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.
In 1936, a constitutional crisis in the British Empire arose when King-Emperor Edward VIII proposed to marry Wallis Simpson, an American socialite who was divorced from her first husband and was pursuing the divorce of her second.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was the wife of Henry VII and the first Tudor queen.
Emperor (or Empress) of India The Indian form of the title was Kaisar-i-Hind.
Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.
Faber and Faber Limited, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the United Kingdom.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Fidei defensor (feminine: Fidei defensatrix) is a Latin title which translates to Defender of the Faith in English and Défenseur de la Foi in French.
The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in the Kingdom of England in which a group of rebellious major landowners (commonly referred to as barons) led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England.
The First Minister of Scotland (Prìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba; Heid Meinister o Scotland) is the leader of the Scottish Government.
The First Minister of Wales (Prif Weinidog Cymru) is the leader of the Welsh Government, Wales' devolved administration, which was established in 1999.
The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that received Royal Assent on 15 September 2011, introducing fixed-term elections to the Westminster parliament for the first time.
The flag of England is derived from St George's Cross (heraldic blazon: Argent, a cross gules).
The Flag of Scotland (bratach na h-Alba; Banner o Scotland) is also known as St Andrew's Cross or the Saltire.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
The fount of honour (fons honorum) refers to a person, who, by virtue of his or her official position, has the exclusive right of conferring legitimate titles of nobility and orders of chivalry on other persons.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Garters are articles of clothing: narrow bands of fabric fastened about the leg, used to keep up stockings, and sometimes socks.
The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Church's governing body.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown dependencies.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
A grant-in-aid is money coming from central government for a specific project.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Hansard is the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates in Britain and many Commonwealth countries.
Harold Godwinson (– 14 October 1066), often called Harold II, was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
In diplomatic usage, head of mission (HOM) or chief of mission (COM) from the French "chef de mission diplomatique" (CMD) is the head of a diplomatic representation, such as an ambassador, high commissioner, nuncio, chargé d'affaires, permanent representative, and to a consul-general or consul.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Head of the Commonwealth is the "symbol of the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations (commonly known as the Commonwealth), an intergovernmental organisation that currently comprises fifty-three sovereign states.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
Henry Stuart (or Stewart), Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567), styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567.
Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service (HMDS) is the diplomatic service of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, dealing with foreign affairs, as opposed to the Home Civil Service, which deals with domestic affairs.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.
His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 (1 Edw. 8 & 1 Geo. 6 c. 3) was the Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that recognised and ratified the abdication of King Edward VIII and passed succession to his brother King George VI.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
The Palace of Holyroodhouse, commonly referred to as Holyrood Palace, is the official residence of the British monarch in Scotland, Queen Elizabeth II.
Honi soit qui mal y pense (UK: or US) is a French maxim used as the motto of the British chivalric Order of the Garter.
The House of Alpin, also known as the Alpínid dynasty, Clann Chináeda, and Clann Chinaeda meic Ailpín, was the kin-group which ruled in Pictland and then the kingdom of Alba from the advent of Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín) in the 840s until the death of Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) in 1034.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty that ruled the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which was one of the Ernestine duchies.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (commonly known as members or seats) in a parliament or other legislature.
In my defens God me defend is the motto of both the Royal coat of arms of the Kingdom of Scotland and Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom used in Scotland.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
The Invitation to William was a letter sent by seven notable Englishmen, later named the Immortal Seven, to William III, Prince of Orange, received by him on 30 June 1688 (Julian calendar, 10 July Gregorian calendar).
Ipsos MORI is a market research organisation in the United Kingdom.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.
Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II, and regent of England from 1326 until 1330.
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena.
James Hepburn (– 14 April 1578), 1st Duke of Orkney and 4th Earl of Bothwell (better known simply as Lord Bothwell), was a prominent Scottish nobleman.
James I (late July 139421 February 1437), the youngest of three sons, was born in Dunfermline Abbey to King Robert III and his wife Annabella Drummond.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James II (16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460), who reigned as King of Scots from 1437 on, was the son of King James I and Joan Beaufort.
James III (10 July 1451/May 1452 – 11 June 1488) was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488.
James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death.
James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) was King of Scotland from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Sir John Rupert "Jock" Colville, CB, CVO (28 January 1915 – 19 November 1987), was a British civil servant.
John Balliol (– late 1314), known derisively as Toom Tabard (meaning "empty coat") was King of Scots from 1292 to 1296.
John Knox (– 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was an English nobleman, soldier, statesman, and prince, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.
There are various levels of judiciary in England and Wales — different types of courts have different styles of judges.
Kenneth MacAlpin (Medieval Gaelic: Cináed mac Ailpin, Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Ailpein; 810 – 13 February 858), known in most modern regnal lists as Kenneth I, was a king of the Picts who, according to national myth, was the first king of Scots.
Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England.
The Kingdom of Alba refers to the Kingdom of Scotland between the deaths of Donald II (Domnall mac Causantin) in 900 and of Alexander III in 1286, which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Strathclyde (lit. "Strath of the River Clyde"), originally Ystrad Clud or Alclud (and Strath-Clota in Anglo-Saxon), was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in Hen Ogledd ("the Old North"), the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England.
To kiss hands is a constitutional term used in the United Kingdom to refer to the formal installation of Crown-appointed British government ministers to their office.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Lady Jane Grey (Her exact date of birth is uncertain; many historians agree on the long-held estimate of 1537 while others set it in the later half of 1536 based on newer research. – 12 February 1554), known also as Lady Jane Dudley (after her marriage) and as "the Nine Days' Queen", was an English noblewoman and de facto Queen of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553.
The lance is a pole weapon designed to be used by a mounted warrior or cavalry soldier (lancer).
The Lascelles Principles were a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom between 1950 and 2011, under which the Sovereign could refuse a request from the Prime Minister to dissolve Parliament if three conditions were met.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nghymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced.
The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.
British royal residences are palaces, castles and houses occupied by members of the British royal family in the United Kingdom.
There are and have been throughout recorded history a great many monarchies in the world.
The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom, supervising the departments which support and provide advice to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom while also acting as the main channel of communication between the Sovereign and the House of Lords.
Lord High Commissioner is the style of High Commissioners, i.e. direct representatives of the monarch, in three cases in the Kingdom of Scotland and the United Kingdom, two of which are no longer extant.
Lord Protector (pl. Lords Protectors) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for the head of state.
The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.
Lulach mac Gille Coemgáin (Modern Gaelic: Lughlagh mac Gille Chomghain, known in English simply as Lulach, and nicknamed Tairbith, "the Unfortunate" and Fatuus, "the Simple-minded" or "the Foolish"; before 1033 – 17 March 1058) was King of Scots between 15 August 1057 and 17 March 1058.
Macbeth (Medieval Gaelic: Mac Bethad mac Findlaích; Modern Gaelic: MacBheatha mac Fhionnlaigh; nicknamed Rí Deircc, "the Red King"; – 15 August 1057) was King of Scots from 1040 until his death.
MacCormick v Lord Advocate 1953 SC 396, 1953 SLT 255 was a UK administrative law and Scottish legal action on whether Queen Elizabeth II was entitled to use the numeral "II" in her title in use in Scotland, there having never been an earlier Elizabeth reigning in Scotland.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Majesty (abbreviation HM, oral address Your Majesty) is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin maiestas, meaning greatness, and used as a style by many monarchs, usually kings or sultanss.
Malcolm II (Gaelic: Máel Coluim; c. 954 - 25 November 1034) was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.
Malcolm III (Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Donnchada; c. 26 March 1031 – 13 November 1093) was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093.
Malcolm IV (Mediaeval Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Eanraig), nicknamed Virgo, "the Maiden" (between 23 April and 24 May 11419 December 1165), King of Scots, was the eldest son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria (died 1152) and Ada de Warenne.
Manus O'Donnell (Irish: Manus Ó Domhnaill, died 1564), was an Irish lord, son of Hugh Duff O'Donnell.
Margaret of Anjou (Marguerite; 23 March 1430 – 25 August 1482) was the Queen of England by marriage to King Henry VI from 1445 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Margaret, Maid of Norway (9 April 1283 – 26 September 1290) was a Norwegian princess who was recognised as Queen of Scots following the death of her grandfather, King Alexander III, in March 1286.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid (Modern Irish: Maolsheachlann Mac Maolruanaidh), also known as Máel Sechnaill I, anglicised as Malachy MacMulrooney (died 27 November 862) was High King of Ireland.
Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
Michael Raymond Donald Ashley (born 1948) is a British bibliographer, author and editor of science fiction, mystery, and fantasy.
Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Commonwealth realms to describe a minister to the reigning sovereign or their viceroy.
The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign.
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nemo me impune lacessit was the Latin motto of the Royal Stuart dynasty of Scotland from at least the reign of James VI when it appeared on the reverse side of merk coins minted in 1578 and 1580.
The Nine Years' War or Tyrone's Rebellion took place in Ireland from 1593 to 1603.
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.
An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges a duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to monarch or country.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realms.
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.
The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland.
The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the United Kingdom and the British Overseas Territories.
The Ordinances of 1311 were a series of regulations imposed upon King Edward II by the peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England to restrict the power of the king.
The Outer Hebrides, also known as the Western Isles (Na h-Eileanan Siar or Na h-Eileanan an Iar), Innse Gall ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle or the Long Island (An t-Eilean Fada), is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Palace of Whitehall (or Palace of White Hall) at Westminster, Middlesex, was the main residence of the English monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except for Inigo Jones's Banqueting House of 1622, were destroyed by fire.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
A petty kingdom is a kingdom described as minor or "petty" by contrast to an empire or unified kingdom that either preceded or succeeded it (e.g. the numerous kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England unified into the Kingdom of England in the 10th century, or the numerous Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland as the Kingdom of Ireland in the 16th century).
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.
Populus is a market research company in the United Kingdom formed in 2003.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Prince Andrew, Duke of York, (Andrew Albert Christian Edward, born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British royal family.
Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, (Henry Charles Albert David; born 15 September 1984) is a member of the British royal family.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II.
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family.
A private secretary (PS) is a civil servant in a governmental department or ministry, responsible to a secretary of state or minister.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
The Privy Purse is the British Sovereign's private income, mostly from the Duchy of Lancaster.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
The Queen-in-Parliament (or, during the reign of a male monarch, King-in-Parliament), sometimes referred to as the Crown-in-Parliament or, more fully, in the United Kingdom, as the King/Queen in Parliament under God, is a technical term of constitutional law in the Commonwealth realms that refers to the Crown in its legislative role, acting with the advice and consent of the parliament (including, if the parliament is bicameral, both the lower house and upper house).
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Regency Acts are Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed at various times, to provide a regent in the event of the reigning monarch being incapacitated or a minor (under the age of 18).
The Regency in Great Britain was a period when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
A regnal name, or reign name, is a name used by some monarchs and popes during their reigns, and used subsequently to refer to them.
Republic is a British republican pressure group advocating the replacement of the United Kingdom's monarchy with a republic.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Republicanism in the United Kingdom is the political movement that seeks to replace the United Kingdom's monarchy with a republic.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Richard Cromwell (4 October 162612 July 1712) became the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and was one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the post.
Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, The family name ‘de Clare’ was also rendered ‘of Clare’ in contemporary sources.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Richard of York (also known as Richard Plantagenet), 3rd Duke of York KG (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460), was a leading medieval English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother.
Robert II (2 March 1316 – 19 April 1390) reigned as King of Scots from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart.
Robert III (c.1337/40 – 4 April 1406), born John Stewart, was King of Scots from 1390 to his death.
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).
Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; Early Scots: Robert Brus; Robertus Brussius), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329.
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The Royal Banner of the Royal Arms of Scotland, also known as the Royal Banner of Scotland, or more commonly the Lion Rampant of Scotland, and historically as the Royal Standard of Scotland, (Bratach rìoghail na h-Alba, Ryal banner o Scotland) or Banner of the King of Scots, is the Royal Banner of Scotland, and historically, the Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Scotland.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Royal Collection is the art collection of the British Royal Family and the largest private art collection in the world.
A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
The Royal Standards of the United Kingdom refers to either one of two similar flags used by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories.
The Royal Victorian Order (Ordre royal de Victoria) is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria.
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (Modern Irish: Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, or, Ruairí Ó Conchúir; commonly anglicised as Rory O'Connor or Roderic O'Connor) (c. 1116 – 2 December 1198) was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1193.
Sandringham House is a country house in the parish of Sandringham, Norfolk, England.
Scoti or Scotti is a Latin name for the Gaels,Duffy, Seán.
Scotland was divided into a series of kingdoms in the early Middle Ages, i.e. between the end of Roman authority in southern and central Britain from around 400 CE and the rise of the kingdom of Alba in 900 CE.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots Govrenment) is the executive of the devolved Scottish Parliament.
The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
The social season, or Season, has historically referred to the annual period when it is customary for members of a social elite of society to hold debutante balls, dinner parties and large charity events.
The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against the royalist forces of King Henry III, led initially by the king himself and later by his son Prince Edward, the future King Edward I. The war featured a series of massacres of Jews by Montfort's supporters including his sons Henry and Simon, in attacks aimed at seizing and destroying evidence of Baronial debts.
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, informally known as the Northern Ireland Secretary, is the principal secretary of state in Her Majesty's Government with responsibilities for Northern Ireland.
The Seven Bishops of the Church of England were those imprisoned and tried for seditious libel related to their opposition to the second Declaration of Indulgence, issued by James II in 1688.
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (– 4 August 1265), also called Simon de Munford and sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from other Simons de Montfort, was a French-English nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England.
Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia of the Palatinate; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698.
The word Sovereign comes through Old French soverain from the Latin superānus and means "above".
The Sovereign Grant Act 2011 (c. 15) is the Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which introduced the Sovereign Grant, the payment which is paid annually to the Monarch by the Government in order to fund the Monarch's official duties.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
A speech from the throne (or throne speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign, or a representative thereof, reads a prepared speech to members of the nation's legislature when a session is opened, outlining the government's agenda and focus for the forthcoming session; or in some cases, closed.
St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom.
The State Opening of Parliament is an event which formally marks the beginning of a session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The number of states headed by Queen Elizabeth II has varied during her years on the throne, altogether seeing her as sovereign of a total of 32 independent countries during this period.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
A statutory corporation is a corporation created by the state.
In many countries, a statutory instrument is a form of delegated legislation.
Stephen (Étienne; – 25 October 1154), often referred to as Stephen of Blois, was King of England from 1135 to his death, as well as Count of Boulogne from 1125 until 1147 and Duke of Normandy from 1135 until 1144.
Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, gender (for people born before October 2011), legitimacy, and religion.
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England.
The Supreme Head of the Church of England was a title created in 1531 for King Henry VIII of England, who was responsible for the foundation of the English Protestant church that broke away from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church after Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry in 1533 over his divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
Tanistry is a Gaelic system for passing on titles and lands.
The Anarchy was a civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
"The King is dead, long live the King!", or simply "Long live the King!", is a traditional proclamation made following the accession of a new monarch in various countries.
The Lion and the Unicorn are symbols of the United Kingdom.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Treaty of Perth, signed 2 July 1266, ended military conflict between Magnus VI of Norway and Alexander III of Scotland over the sovereignty of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
The Tudor conquest (or reconquest) of Ireland took place under the Tudor dynasty, which held the Kingdom of England during the 16th century.
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.
The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The 2010 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 6 May 2010, with 45,597,461 registered voters entitled to vote to elect members to the House of Commons.
The 2017 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 8 June, having been announced just under two months earlier by Prime Minister Theresa May on 18 April 2017 after it was discussed at cabinet.
The February 1974 United Kingdom general election was held on the 28th day of that month.
The October 1974 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 10 October 1974 to elect 635 members of the British House of Commons.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
In the United Kingdom, the value-added tax (or value added tax, VAT) was introduced in 1973 and is the third-largest source of government revenue, after income tax and National Insurance.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Wallis Simpson (born Bessie Wallis Warfield; 19 June 1896 – 24 April 1986), later known as the Duchess of Windsor, was an American socialite whose intended marriage to the British king Edward VIII caused a constitutional crisis that led to Edward's abdication.
Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651.
Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
William II (Old Norman: Williame; – 2 August 1100), the third son of William the Conqueror, was King of England from 1087 until 1100, with powers over Normandy, and influence in Scotland.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, (15 March 1779 – 24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841).
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
William the Lion (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric (i.e. William, son of Henry); Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough",Uilleam Garbh; e.g. Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10.
The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) (Cogadh an Dá Rí, meaning "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the Catholic King James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be monarch of the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of Ireland.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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