108 relations: Alcoholic drink, Alcoholism, Alliteration, Alprazolam, Amphetamine, Anhedonia, Anorexia nervosa, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antipsychotic, Anxiolytic, Atypical depression, Autoimmune disease, Behaviour therapy, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Bipolar disorder, Bipolar disorder not otherwise specified, Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disorder, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Catatonia, Central nervous system, Childbirth, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cirrhosis, Clonazepam, Cocaine, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Creativity, Cyclothymia, Delusion, Dementia, Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, Depressive personality disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diazepam, Disease, Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, Double depression, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, DSM-IV codes, Dysthymia, Endocrine disease, Gastrointestinal disease, Grief, Hallucination, Henry Maudsley, ..., Hypersomnia, Hypnotic, Hypomania, Influenza, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Interpersonal psychotherapy, Kay Redfield Jamison, Light therapy, Lithium (medication), Lorazepam, Luteal phase, Major depressive disorder, Major depressive episode, Mania, Melancholic depression, Menstrual cycle, Metabolic disorder, Methamphetamine, Minor depressive disorder, Mitochondrial disease, Mixed affective state, Mixed anxiety–depressive disorder, Mood (psychology), Mood stabilizer, Myocardial infarction, Natural selection, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neurological disorder, Norepinephrine, Nortriptyline, Paroxetine, Personality disorder, Poet, Postpartum depression, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Premenstrual syndrome, Psychiatrist, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychomotor retardation, Psychosis, Psychotic depression, Rapid eye movement sleep, Recurrent brief depression, Respiratory disease, Schizophrenia, Seasonal affective disorder, Serotonin, Sertraline, Slow-wave sleep, Social rejection, Stimulant, Stimulus (physiology), Substance abuse, Substance intoxication, Suicide, Suicide prevention, Weight gain. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alliteration is a figure of speech and a stylistic literary device which is identified by the repeated sound of the first or second letter in a series of words, or the repetition of the same letter sounds in stressed syllables of a phrase.
Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax, is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytic—a minor tranquilizer.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Atypical depression, or depression with atypical features as it has been known in the DSM IV, is depression that shares many of the typical symptoms of the psychiatric syndromes major depression or dysthymia but is characterized by improved mood in response to positive events.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Behaviour therapy is a broad term referring to clinical psychotherapy that uses techniques derived from behaviourism.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BD-NOS) is a diagnosis for bipolar disorder (BD) when it does not fall within the other established sub-types.
Bipolar I disorder (BD-I; pronounced "type one bipolar disorder") is a bipolar spectrum disorder characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, with or without mixed or psychotic features.
Bipolar II disorder (BP-II; pronounced "type two bipolar" or "bipolar type two" disorder) is a bipolar spectrum disorder (see also Bipolar disorder) characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Catatonia is a state of psycho-motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
Cyclothymia, also known as cyclothymic disorder, is a mental disorder that involves periods of symptoms of depression and periods of symptoms of hypomania.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (DD-NOS) is designated by the code 311 in the DSM-IV for depressive disorders that are impairing but do not fit any of the officially specified diagnoses.
Depressive personality disorder (also known as melancholic personality disorder) is a psychiatric diagnosis that denotes a personality disorder with depressive features.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a mental disorder in children and adolescents characterized by a persistently irritable or angry mood and frequent temper outbursts that are disproportionate to the situation and significantly more severe than the typical reaction of same-aged peers.
Double depression refers to the co-existence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and persistent depressive disorder (PDD), previously only referred to as dysthymia.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
DSM-IV codes are the classification found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR, a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that includes all currently recognized mental health disorders.
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.
Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Grief is a multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something that has died, to which a bond or affection was formed.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Henry Maudsley FRCP (5 February 183523 January 1918) was a pioneering British psychiatrist, commemorated in the Maudsley Hospital in London and in the annual Maudsley Lecture of the Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, attachment-focused psychotherapy that centers on resolving interpersonal problems and symptomatic recovery.
Kay Redfield Jamison (born June 22, 1946) is an American clinical psychologist and writer.
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
The luteal phase is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle (in humans and a few other animals) or the earlier phase of the estrous cycle (in other placental mammals).
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
A major depressive episode (MDE) is a period characterized by the symptoms of major depressive disorder.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Melancholic depression, or depression with melancholic features, is a DSM-IV subtype of clinical depression requiring at least one of the following symptoms.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Minor depressive disorder, also known as minor depression, is a mood disorder that does not meet the full criteria for major depressive disorder but at least two depressive symptoms are present for two weeks.
Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.
Traditionally, a mixed affective state, formerly known as a mixed-manic or mixed episode, has been defined as a state wherein features unique to both depression and mania—such as despair, fatigue, morbid or suicidal ideation, racing thoughts, pressure of activity, and heightened irritability—occur either simultaneously or in very short succession.
Mixed anxiety–depressive disorder (MADD) is a diagnostic category defining patients who have both anxiety and depressive symptoms of limited and equal intensity accompanied by at least some autonomic features.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Nortriptyline, sold under the brand names Allegron, Aventyl, Noritren, Nortrilen, and Pamelor among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used to treat clinical depression.
Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and disabling form of premenstrual syndrome affecting 3–8% of menstruating women.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the one to two weeks before a woman's period.
A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychomotor retardation (also known as "psychomotor impairment" or "motormental retardation" or "psychomotor slowing") involves a slowing-down of thought and a reduction of physical movements in an individual.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Psychotic depression, also known as depressive psychosis, is a major depressive episode that is accompanied by psychotic symptoms.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
Recurrent brief depression (RBD) defines a mental disorder characterized by intermittent depressive episodes, not related to menstrual cycles in women, occurring between approximately 6-12 times per year, over at least one year or more fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for major depressive episodes (DSM-IV and ICD-10) except for duration which in RBD is less than 14 days, typically 2–4 days.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder subset in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year exhibit depressive symptoms at the same time each year, most commonly in the winter.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Slow-wave sleep (SWS), often referred to as deep sleep, consists of stage three (combined stages 3 and 4) of non-rapid eye movement sleep.
Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or social interaction.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance intoxication is a type of substance use disorder which is potentially maladaptive and impairing, but reversible, and associated with recent use of a substance.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Suicide prevention is an umbrella term used for the collective efforts of local citizen organizations, health professionals and related professionals to reduce the incidence of suicide.
Weight gain is an increase in body weight.
Affect disorder, Affective Disorder, Affective disorder, Affective psychoses, Affective psychosis, Cyclical mood disorder, Depression and Mood Disorders, Depressive disorders, Episodic mood disorders, F30-39, List of mood disorders, MD-NOS, Mood (affective) disorder, Mood (affective) disorders, Mood Disorder, Mood Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, Mood affective disorder, Mood disorder not otherwise specified, Mood disorders, Mood disorders not otherwise specified, Mood disturbance, Mood disturbances, Mood problem, Persistent mood (affective) disorders, Substance Induced Mood Disorder, Substance induced mood disorder, Substance-Induced Mood Disorder, Substance-induced mood disorder, Types of depression, Types of psychological depression.