370 relations: Acid-base extraction, Action potential, Adrenaline, Affix, Albert Niemann (chemist), Alcoholic drink, Alkaloid, Altitude sickness, American Pharmacists Association, American Society of Nephrology, Ammonia, AMPA receptor, Amphetamine, Anesthetic, Angelo Mariani (chemist), Anhedonia, Antarctica, Antofagasta, Arginine, Arizona, Arthur Conan Doyle, Asthma, Base (chemistry), Beale Street, Benzocaine, Benzoyl group, Benzoylecgonine, Beverage can, Biomimetics, Biosynthesis, Black cocaine, Blas Valera, Blood plasma, Blood–brain barrier, Blunt (cigar), Bolivia, Boston, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Bridgeport, Connecticut, Brillo Pad, British Library, Bronchospasm, Bruxism, Caffeine, Calcium hydroxide, California, Cannabis, Cannabis (drug), Cardiac arrest, Cartilage, ..., Cauterization, Central America, Central nervous system, Chemical synapse, Chewing tobacco, Chicago, Cholinesterase, Chore Boy, Chris Farley, Circulatory system, Cleft lip and cleft palate, CLOCK, Club drug, Coca, Coca alkaloid, Coca eradication, Coca production in Colombia, Coca tea, Coca wine, Coca-Cola, Cocaethylene, Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, Cocaine Anonymous, Cocaine dependence, Cocaine paste, Colombia, Controlled Substances Act, Crack cocaine, Crack epidemic, Crime, Currency, Cusco, CYP3A4, D-IX, Defoliant, Delphi method, Dendrite, Dendritic spine, Designer drug, Developed country, Diastereomer, Disco, Doctor of Philosophy, Dominican Republic, Dopamine, Dopamine transporter, Downregulation and upregulation, Drinking straw, Drosophila melanogaster, Drug cartel, Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug harmfulness, Drug injection, Drug withdrawal, Dynorphin, East Coast of the United States, Ecgonine, Embolism, Enantiomer, England and Wales, Eosinophilia, Epidural administration, Ernest Shackleton, Ester, Ethanol, Euphoria, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Eye drop, Fever, Flatulence, Florida, Formication, FOSB, Franz Joseph I of Austria, Free base, Friedrich Gaedcke, Friedrich Wöhler, Frigate, Georgia (U.S. state), Gingivitis, Glaucoma, Glomerulonephritis, Glucose, Glutamine, Go-fast boat, Goodpasture syndrome, Gulf of Mexico, Hallucination, Harrison Narcotics Tax Act, Hawaii, Health food store, Heart arrhythmia, Heart rate, Hectare, Heinrich Quincke, Hemoptysis, Hepatitis C, Heroin, Huallaga River, Hydrochloride, Hydrolysis, Hypertension, Hyperthermia, Illegal drug trade in Colombia, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Influenza, Infusion, Inositol, Insufflation, Insufflation (medicine), Intracerebral hemorrhage, Intrauterine growth restriction, Intravenous therapy, Ion channel, Iquique, Ireland, Italy, Itch, JAMA (journal), James Leonard Corning, John Belushi, John Pemberton, Karl Koller (ophthalmologist), Karl von Scherzer, La Paz, Lacrimal canaliculi, Lactose, Layne Staley, Legal status of cocaine, Lidocaine, Ligand-gated ion channel, Lima, Lime (material), Lincoln Journal Star, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Liquid–liquid extraction, List of cocaine analogues, Literature, Liver, Local anesthetic, Love rose, Lupus erythematosus, Luxury goods, Mannich reaction, Mannitol, Memphis, Tennessee, Mesolimbic pathway, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methamphetamine, Methylecgonidine, Mexico, Mexico–United States border, Miami, Milan, Military chaplain, Mitch Hedberg, Modafinil, Moffett's solution, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Mood (psychology), Morphine, Mucous membrane, Mucus, Mule (smuggling), Mydriasis, Myocardial infarction, N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid, Nail (anatomy), Narco-submarine, Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act, Nasal septum, Nasal spray, National Drug Intelligence Center, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Neurotransmitter, Nicolás Monardes, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Norcocaine, Norepinephrine, Nostril, Nucleophile, Nucleus accumbens, Office of National Drug Control Policy, On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves, Onomatopoeia, Ophthalmology, Organized crime, Ornithine, Otorhinolaryngology, Paolo Mantegazza, Parachute (drugs), Paranoia, Parke-Davis, Parkinson's disease, Pen, Peru, Peruvians, Phase (matter), Phencyclidine, Phenylephrine, Phenytoin, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Physical dependence, Physician, Physiology, Placental abruption, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, Platelet, Prefrontal cortex, Prenatal cocaine exposure, Procaine, Prohibition of drugs, Proxymetacaine, Psychoactive drug, Psychological dependence, Psychomotor agitation, Psychosis, Puerto Rico, Pure Food and Drug Act, Pyridoxal phosphate, Pyrolysis, Quechuan languages, Quinine, Racemic mixture, Recreational drug use, Relapse, Respiratory system, Reverse tolerance, Richard Willstätter, River Phoenix, Robert Falcon Scott, Robert Robinson (organic chemist), Route 36 (bar), Route of administration, Salt (chemistry), San Diego, Satan, Sepsis, Serotonin, Serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Sherlock Holmes, Shortness of breath, Sigma receptor, Sigmund Freud, Sinaloa Cartel, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Sinus ostium, SMS Novara, Smuggling, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate, Sodium hydroxide, South Pole, Spain, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Speedball (drug), Spinal anaesthesia, Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons, Starbucks, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, Stimulant, Stimulation, Striatum, Stroke, Strychnine, Studio 54, Substance use disorder, Substantia nigra, Sucrose, Sulfuric acid, Suppository, Syringe, TA-CD, Tachycardia, Talc, Tetracaine, Texas, The Bahamas, The Economist, Thesis, Thrombosis, Tinnitus, Tonne, Tooth decay, Tooth enamel, Topical anesthetic, Topical medication, Topical tac, Transcriptional regulation, Transmitter, Trepanning, Tribe, Tropane, Tropane alkaloid, Tropinone, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, United States Department of Defense, University of Göttingen, University of Würzburg, Vasculitis, Vasoconstriction, Vein, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vesicular monoamine transporter, Victorian era, Vin Mariani, Western Australia, William Stewart Halsted, Wine, World Drug Report, World Health Assembly, World Health Organization, Xerostomia, Ypadu, 5-HT2 receptor, 5-HT3 receptor. 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Acid-base extraction is a procedure using sequential liquid–liquid extractions to purify acids and bases from mixtures based on their chemical properties.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Albert Friedrich Emil Niemann (May 20, 1834 – January 19, 1861) was a German chemist.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude.
The American Pharmacists Association (APhA, previously known as the American Pharmaceutical Association), founded in 1852, is the first-established professional society of pharmacists within the United States.
Founded in 1966, the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) is the world’s largest professional society devoted to the study of kidney disease.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Angelo Mariani or Ange-François Mariani (1838 in Pero-Casevecchie, Haute-Corse – 1914) was a French chemist from the island of Corsica.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Antofagasta is a port city in northern Chile, about north of Santiago.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Beale Street is a street in Downtown Memphis, Tennessee, which runs from the Mississippi River to East Street, a distance of approximately.
Benzocaine, sold under the brand name Orajel among others, is an ester local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops.
In organic chemistry, benzoyl is the functional group with the formula C6H5CO-.
Benzoylecgonine is the main metabolite of cocaine.
A beverage can is a metal container designed to hold a fixed portion of liquid such as carbonated soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, fruit juices, teas, herbal teas, energy drinks, etc.
Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Black cocaine, also known as Coca Negra, is a mixture of regular cocaine base or cocaine hydrochloride with various other substances.
Three signatures of Blas Valera (private collection, C. Miccinelli - Naples (Italy)) Blas Valera was born in Levanto, Chachapoyas, Peru, in 1545.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
A blunt is a cigar which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a Corona.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
Bridgeport is a historic seaport city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.
Brillo Pad is a trade name for a scouring pad, used for cleaning dishes, and made from steel wool impregnated with soap.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
Bronchospasm or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles.
Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Cauterization (or cauterisation, or cautery) is a medical practice or technique of burning a part of a body to remove or close off a part of it.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or upper lip teeth and chewing.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.
Chore Boy is a brand name for a coarse scouring pad made of steel wool or bronze wool.
Christopher Crosby Farley (February 15, 1964 – December 18, 1997) was an American actor and comedian.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).
Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) is a gene encoding a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor (CLOCK) that is believed to affect both the persistence and period of circadian rhythms.
Club drugs, also called rave drugs, or party drugs are a loosely defined category of recreational drugs which are associated with discothèques in the 1970s and nightclubs, dance clubs, electronic dance music parties, and raves in the 1980s to the 2010s.
Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
Coca alkaloids are the alkaloids found in the coca plant, Erythroxylum coca.
Coca eradication is a strategy promoted by the United States government starting in 1961 as part of its "War on Drugs" to eliminate the cultivation of coca, a plant whose leaves are not only traditionally used by indigenous cultures but also, in modern society, in the manufacture of cocaine.
In 2012, coca production in Colombia amounted to 0.2% of Colombia's overall GDP and 3% of Colombia's GDP related to the agricultural sector.
Coca tea, also called mate de coca, is an herbal tea (infusion) made using the raw or dried leaves of the coca plant, which is native to South America.
Coca wine is an alcoholic beverage combining wine with cocaine.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
Cocaethylene (ethylbenzoylecgonine) is the ethyl ester of benzoylecgonine.
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, also known as CART, is a neuropeptide protein that in humans is encoded by the CARTPT gene.
Cocaine Anonymous (CA) is a twelve-step program for people who seek recovery from drug addiction.
Cocaine dependence is a psychological desire to use cocaine regularly.
Coca paste (paco, basuco, oxi) is a crude extract of the coca leaf which contains 40% to 91% cocaine sulfate along with companion coca alkaloids and varying quantities of benzoic acid, methanol, and kerosene.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked.
The American crack epidemic was a surge of crack cocaine use in major cities across the United States between the early 1980s and the early 1990s.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
D-IX was a methamphetamine-based experimental performance enhancer developed by the Nazis in 1944 for military application.
A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off.
The Delphi method is a structured communication technique or method, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
A dendritic spine (or spine) is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single axon at the synapse.
A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or detection in standard drug tests.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Diastereomers (sometimes called diastereoisomers) are a type of a stereoisomer.
Disco is a musical style that emerged in the mid 1960s and early 1970s from America's urban nightlife scene, where it originated in house parties and makeshift discothèques, reaching its peak popularity between the mid-1970s and early 1980s.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
A drinking straw or drinking tube is a small pipe that allows its user to more conveniently consume a beverage.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
A drug cartel is any criminal organization with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
Drug harmfulness is the degree to which a psychoactive drug is harmful to a user and is measured in various ways, such as by addictiveness and the potential for physical harm.
Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous).
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Dynorphins (Dyn) are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin.
The East Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean.
Ecgonine (tropane derivative) is a tropane alkaloid found naturally in coca leaves.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds.
Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.
Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was a polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic, and one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is an agency of the European Union located in Lisbon, Portugal.
Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to administer.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
In medicine, formication is the sensation that resembles that of small insects crawling on (or under) the skin.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.
Friedrich Georg Carl (Friedrich) Gaedcke (5 June 1828 – 19 September 1890) was a German chemist.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that occurs around the teeth.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Glomerulonephritis (GN), also known as glomerular nephritis, is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys).
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A go-fast boat is a small, fast boat designed with a long narrow platform and a planing hull to enable it to reach high speeds.
Goodpasture syndrome (GPS) is a rare autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the basement membrane in lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding from the lungs and kidney failure.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (Ch. 1) was a United States federal law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, and distribution of opiates and coca products.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
A health food store or health food shop is a type of grocery store that primarily sells health foods, organic foods, local produce, and often nutritional supplements.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
Heinrich Irenaeus Quincke (26 August 1842 – 19 May 1922) was a German internist and surgeon.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
The Huallaga River is a tributary of the Marañón River, part of the Amazon Basin.
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Illegal drug trade in Colombia (Narcotráfico en Colombia) refers to a practice of Colombian criminal groups of producing and distributing illegal drugs.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time (a process often called steeping).
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
In religious and magical practice, insufflation and exsufflation are ritual acts of blowing, breathing, hissing, or puffing that signify variously expulsion or renunciation of evil or of the devil (the Evil One), or infilling or blessing with good (especially, in religious use, with the Spirit or grace of God).
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to poor growth of a fetus while in the mother's womb during pregnancy.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Iquique is a port city and commune in northern Chile, capital of both the Iquique Province and Tarapacá Region.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
James Leonard Corning (1855 – 1923) was an American neurologist, mainly known for his early experiments on neuraxial blockade in New York City.
John Adam Belushi (January 24, 1949 – March 5, 1982) was an American comedian, actor, and singer.
John Stith Pemberton (July 8, 1831 – August 16, 1888) was an American pharmacist who is best known as the inventor of Coca-Cola.
Karl Koller (December 3, 1857 – March 21, 1944) was an Austrian ophthalmologist who began his medical career as a surgeon at the Vienna General Hospital and a colleague of Sigmund Freud.
Karl Ritter von Scherzer (sometimes written Carl; May 1, 1821 in Vienna – February 19, 1903 in Görz) was an Austrian explorer, diplomat and natural scientist.
La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).
The lacrimal canaliculi, (sing. canaliculus), also known as the lacrimal canals or lacrimal ducts, are the small channels in each eyelid that commence at minute orifices, termed puncta lacrimalia, on the summits of the papillae lacrimales, seen on the margins of the lids at the lateral extremity of the lacus lacrimalis.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Layne Staley (born Layne Rutherford Staley, August 22, 1967 – April 5, 2002) was an American musician known for being the lead vocalist, occasional rhythm guitarist and co-songwriter of the rock band Alice in Chains from 1987 until 1998.
The legal status of cocaine differs from legal elements in some countries to outright illegal status in others.
Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
The Lincoln Journal Star is a daily newspaper that serves Lincoln, Nebraska, It is the most widely read newspaper in Lincoln and the second-largest in Nebraska (after the Omaha World-Herald).
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) is an imprint of the publishing conglomerate Wolters Kluwer.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
This is a list of cocaine analogues.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.
A love rose consists of a glass tube with a paper or plastic rose inside of it, and a bit of cork or foil on the ends to keep the rose from falling out.
Lupus erythematosus is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.
In economics, a luxury good (or upmarket good) is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, and is a contrast to a "necessity good", where demand increases proportionally less than income.
The Mannich reaction is an organic reaction which consists of an amino alkylation of an acidic proton placed next to a carbonyl functional group by formaldehyde and a primary or secondary amine or ammonia.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methylecgonidine (anhydromethylecgonine; anhydroecgonine methyl ester; AEME) is a chemical intermediate derived from ecgonine or cocaine.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
A military chaplain ministers to military personnel and, in most cases, their families and civilians working for the military.
Mitchell Lee "Mitch" Hedberg (February 24, 1968 – March 30, 2005) was an American stand-up comedian known for his surreal humor and unconventional, often deadpan comedic delivery.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Moffett's solution is a mixture of adrenaline, sodium bicarbonate and cocaine that is used to provide topical analgesia and vasoconstriction during ear, nose, and throat surgery, especially for operations on the nose.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
A mule or courier is someone who personally smuggles contraband across a border (as opposed to sending by mail, etc.) for a smuggling organization.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor mimicking the action of glutamate, the neurotransmitter which normally acts at that receptor.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
A narco-submarine (also called drug sub and Bigfoot submarine) is a type of custom-made ocean-going self-propelled submersible vessel built by drug traffickers to smuggle drugs.
The Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act was a 1922 act of the 67th United States Congress.
The nasal septum separates the left and right airways in the nose, dividing the two nostrils.
Nasal sprays, or nasal drops, are used as local treatments for conditions such as nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis.
The United States National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC), established in 1993, was a component of the U.S. Department of Justice and a member of the Intelligence Community.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicolás Bautista Monardes (1493 – 10 October 1588) was a Spanish physician and botanist.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Norcocaine is a minor metabolite of cocaine.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
The Office of National Drug Control Policy is a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.
On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves is an 1860 dissertation written by Dr.
An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle.
Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.
Paolo Mantegazza (31 October 1831 – 28 August 1910) was an Italian neurologist, physiologist, and anthropologist, noted for his experimental investigation of coca leaves into its effects on the human psyche.
Parachuting or bombing is a method of swallowing drugs by rolling or folding powdered or crushed drugs in a piece of toilet paper (or other similar paper) to ingest while avoiding the unpleasant taste of the chemical.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
A pen is a common writing instrument used to apply ink to a surface, usually paper, for writing or drawing.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peruvians (Peruanos) are the citizens of the Republic of Peru or their descendants abroad.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.
Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.
Philip Seymour Hoffman (July 23, 1967 – February 2, 2014) was an American actor, director, and producer.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Placental abruption is when the placenta separates early from the uterus, in other words separates before childbirth.
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) also known as endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor or serpin E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINE1 gene.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), theorized in the 1970s, occurs when a pregnant woman uses cocaine and thereby exposes her fetus to the drug.
Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group.
The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances.
Proxymetacaine (INN) or proparacaine (USAN) is a topical anesthetic drug of the aminoester group.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was the first of a series of significant consumer protection laws which was enacted by Congress in the 20th century and led to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
In medicine, relapse or recidivism is a recurrence of a past (typically medical) condition.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Reverse tolerance or drug sensitization is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' increased reaction (positive or negative) to a drug following its repeated use.
Richard Martin Willstätter, (13 August 1872 – 3 August 1942) was a German organic chemist whose study of the structure of plant pigments, chlorophyll included, won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
River Jude Phoenix (né Bottom; August 23, 1970 – October 31, 1993) was an American actor, musician, and activist.
Captain Robert Falcon Scott, (6 June 1868 – 29 March 1912) was a British Royal Navy officer and explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic regions: the Discovery Expedition (1901–1904) and the ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition (1910–1913).
Sir Robert Robinson (13 September 1886 – 8 February 1975) was a British organic chemist and Nobel laureate recognised in 1947 for his research on plant dyestuffs (anthocyanins) and alkaloids.
Route 36 is an illegal after-hours lounge in La Paz, Bolivia, and, according to The Guardian, the world's first cocaine bar.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Sherlock Holmes is a fictional private detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
The Sinaloa Cartel (Cártel de Sinaloa) is an international drug trafficking, money laundering, and organized crime syndicate.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
A sinus ostium is the opening that connects a sinus to the nasal cavity itself.
SMS Novara may refer to one of two ships of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, both named after the 1849 Battle of Novara in which Austrian forces had defeated troops of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
Speedball (or powerball) is a mix of cocaine with heroin or morphine taken intravenously or by insufflation.
Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal block, subarachnoid block, intradural block and intrathecal block, is a form of regional anaesthesia involving the injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually long.
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).
Starbucks Corporation is an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain.
Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a type of severe skin reaction.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Stimulation is the encouragement of development or the cause of activity generally.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
Studio 54 is a former nightclub and currently a Broadway theatre, located at 254 West 54th Street, between Eighth Avenue and Broadway in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.
A syringe is a simple reciprocating pump consisting of a plunger (though in modern syringes it's actually a piston) that fits tightly within a cylindrical tube called a barrel.
TA-CD is an active vaccine developed by the Xenova Group which is used to negate the effects of cocaine, making it suitable for use in treatment of addiction.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
Tetracaine, also known as amethocaine, is a local anesthetic used to numb the eyes, nose, or throat.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
TAC stands for tetracaine, adrenaline, and cocaine, it was introduced by Pryor et al.
In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA (transcription), thereby orchestrating gene activity.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.
Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives from Old French from Medieval Latin trepanum from Greek trypanon, literally "borer, auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
Tropane is a nitrogenous bicyclic organic compound.
Tropane alkaloids are a class of bicyclic alkaloids and secondary metabolites that contain a tropane ring in their chemical structure.
Tropinone is an alkaloid, famously synthesised in 1917 by Robert Robinson as a synthetic precursor to atropine, a scarce commodity during World War I. Tropinone and the alkaloids cocaine and atropine all share the same tropane core structure.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force.
The United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) is one of the five United Nations Research and Training Institutes.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.
The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg (also referred to as the University of Würzburg, in German Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg) is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany.
Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of presynaptic neurons.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Vin Mariani (French: Mariani wine) was a tonic and patent medicine created about 1863 by Angelo Mariani, a French chemist who became intrigued with coca and its economic potential after reading Paolo Mantegazza’s paper on coca's effects.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
William Stewart Halsted, M.D. (September 23, 1852 – September 7, 1922) was an American surgeon who emphasized strict aseptic technique during surgical procedures, was an early champion of newly discovered anesthetics, and introduced several new operations, including the radical mastectomy for breast cancer.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
The World Drug Report is a United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime annual publication that analyzes market trends, compiling detailed statistics on drug markets.
The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 194 member states.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
Ypadú or ypadu is an unrefined, unconcentrated powder made from coca leaves and the ash of various other plants.
The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
ATC code N01BC01, ATC code R02AD03, ATC code S01HA01, ATC code S02DA02, ATCvet code QN01BC01, ATCvet code QR02AD03, ATCvet code QS01HA01, ATCvet code QS02DA02, Adverse effects of cocaine, Benzoyl methyl ecgonine, Benzoylmethylecgonine, Bolivian marching powder, Cocain, Cocaine Abuse, Cocaine HCl, Cocaine hydro-chloride, Cocaine hydrochloride, Cocaine spoon, Cocaine spoons, Cocaine trade, Cocaine trafficking, Cocaine use, Cocaine-related disorders, Cocoaine, Coke (drug), Columbian marching powder, Crack heads, Crack overdose, Crack+cocaine, Crackpipe, Effects of cocaine, Erythroxyline, Farlopa, Freebase cocaine, Gaggas, Kilogram of cocaine, Llello, Methyl benzoylecgonine, Methyl-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclooctane-2-carboxylate, Methylbenzoylecgonine, Nose Candy, Nose candy, Powdered cocaine, Prohibition of cocaine in the United States, Synthetic cocaine, Ye yo, Yeyo.