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Anorexia nervosa

Index Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction. [1]

227 relations: Abdominal distension, Acceptance and commitment therapy, Acetylcholinesterase, Acute pancreatitis, Adipose tissue, Agouti-related peptide, Alcoholism, Alexithymia, Amenorrhea, Anabolic steroid, Anemia, Anorexia mirabilis, Anterior cingulate cortex, Anti-obesity medication, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Ataxia, Atrophy, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism spectrum, Bad breath, Benjamin Radford, Blood urea nitrogen, Body dysmorphic disorder, Body mass index, Bone density, Borderline personality disorder, Bradycardia, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Bulimia nervosa, BUN-to-creatinine ratio, Butyrylcholinesterase, Calorie restriction, Cancer, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac fibrosis, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac output, Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Caudate nucleus, Causality, Cerebrospinal fluid, Charles Lasègue, Chlorine, Cholesterol, Cholinesterase, Cirrhosis, Classification of childhood weight, Clinical urine tests, Coeliac disease, ..., Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive remediation therapy, Comorbidity, Complete blood count, Complication (medicine), Comprehensive metabolic panel, Constipation, Cooking, Creatine kinase, Cushing's syndrome, Dance, Depression (mood), Diabetes mellitus, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diarrhea, Diuretic, Dopamine, Dysphagia, Eating disorder, Eating disorder not otherwise specified, Eating recovery, Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography, Electrolyte, Emotion, Endophenotype, Epigenetics, Epileptic seizure, Epiphenomenon, Exercise, Fat, Fixation (psychology), Food, Food energy, Fornix (neuroanatomy), Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastrointestinal disease, Gastroparesis, Gene, Genetic association, Genetics, Ghrelin, Glucose tolerance test, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Growth hormone, Harm avoidance, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Hellenistic period, Heritability, Hilde Bruch, Homeostasis, Hyperkalemia, Hyperthyroidism, Hypoglycemia, Hypogonadism, Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesemia, Hypotension, Hypothalamus, Hypothermia, Hypothesis, Inedia, Infant, Infertility, Inflammatory bowel disease, Insomnia, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Insulinoma, Interoception, Irritable bowel syndrome, Δ-opioid receptor, Junctional escape beat, Karen Carpenter, Ketosis, Kidney, Lanugo, Laxative, Lentiform nucleus, Leptin, Leukocytosis, Leukopenia, List of people with anorexia nervosa, Liver, Liver function tests, Long QT syndrome, Luteinizing hormone, Major depressive disorder, Malnutrition, Maudsley family therapy, Medical Hypotheses, Mental status examination, Metoclopramide, Minnesota Starvation Experiment, Mitral valve, Mitral valve prolapse, Model (person), Mood swing, Motivation, Muscle tone, Nasogastric intubation, National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, Neuroendocrinology, Neuropeptide Y, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Obstetrics, Ophthalmoparesis, Orbitofrontal cortex, Orexin, Organ system, Orthorexia nervosa, Orthostatic hypotension, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Overweight, Palpitations, Paralysis, Parietal lobe, Perception, Pericardial effusion, Personality disorder, Placental infarction, Platelet, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Polymorphism (biology), Potassium, Pre-eclampsia, Pro-ana, Protein, Protein (nutrient), Psychiatry, Psychological stress, Psychotherapy, QT interval, Queen Victoria, Raclopride, Recipe, Red blood cell, Refeeding syndrome, Reward system, Rhabdomyolysis, Richard Morton (physician), Self-harm, Serum (blood), SK3, Skeptical Inquirer, Sodium, Solitude, Standardized mortality ratio, Starvation, Striatum, Substance use disorder, Suicide, Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, Syncope (medicine), Syrup of ipecac, Tachycardia, Thiamine, Thrombocythemia, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Trait theory, Tremor, Tryptophan, Twin, Underweight, Vomiting, Weight loss, Wernicke encephalopathy, White blood cell, White matter, William Gull, Zinc, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Expand index (177 more) »

Abdominal distension

Abdominal distension occurs when substances, such as air (gas) or fluid, accumulate in the abdomen causing its outward expansion beyond the normal girth of the stomach and waist.

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Acceptance and commitment therapy

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT, typically pronounced as the word "act") is a form of counseling and a branch of clinical behavior analysis.

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Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.

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Acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Agouti-related peptide

Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

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Alexithymia is a personality construct characterized by the subclinical inability to identify and describe emotions in the self.

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Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.

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Anabolic steroid

Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Anorexia mirabilis

Anorexia mirabilis literally means "miraculous lack of appetite".

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Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.

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Anti-obesity medication

Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.

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Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Autism spectrum

Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.

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Bad breath

Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the breath.

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Benjamin Radford

Benjamin Radford (born October 2, 1970) is an American writer, investigator, and skeptic.

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Blood urea nitrogen

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a medical test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood.

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Body dysmorphic disorder

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.

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Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

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Bone density

Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.

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Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.

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Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.

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Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.

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BUN-to-creatinine ratio

In medicine, the BUN-to-creatinine ratio is the ratio of two serum laboratory values, the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (mg/dL) and serum creatinine (Cr) (mg/dL).

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Butyrylcholinesterase (HGNC symbol BCHE; EC also known as BChE, BuChE, pseudocholinesterase, or plasma (cholin)esterase, is a nonspecific cholinesterase enzyme that hydrolyses many different choline-based esters.

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Calorie restriction

Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.

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Cardiac fibrosis

Cardiac fibrosis may refer to an abnormal thickening of the heart valves due to inappropriate proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts but more commonly refers to the excess deposition of extracellular matrix in the cardiac muscle.

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Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.

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Caudate nucleus

The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.

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Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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Charles Lasègue

Ernest-Charles Lasègue (5 September 1816 – 20 March 1883) was a French physician born in Paris.

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.

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Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.

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Classification of childhood weight

Defining the parameters for childhood obesity has created substantial public awareness over the past decades.

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Clinical urine tests

Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Cognitive remediation therapy

Cognitive remediation is designed to improve neurocognitive abilities such as attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility and planning, and executive functioning which leads to improved psychosocial functioning.

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In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

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Complete blood count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.

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Complication (medicine)

Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.

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Comprehensive metabolic panel

The comprehensive metabolic panel, or chemical screen, (CMP; CPT code 80053) is a panel of 14 blood tests which serves as an initial broad medical screening tool.

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Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.

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Creatine kinase

Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme expressed by various tissues and cell types.

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Cushing's syndrome

Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

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Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.

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Eating disorder

An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.

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Eating disorder not otherwise specified

Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is no longer recognized in the most recent version of the DSM-IV. It has been replaced by Other specified feeding or eating disorder or OSFED.

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Eating recovery

Eating recovery refers to the full spectrum of care that acknowledges and treats the multiple etiologies of anorexia nervosa and bulimia, including the biological, psychological, social and emotional causes of the disorder, through a comprehensive, integrated treatment regimen.

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Endophenotype is a genetic epidemiology term which is used to separate behavioral symptoms into more stable phenotypes with a clear genetic connection.

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Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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An epiphenomenon (plural: epiphenomena) is a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside or in parallel to a primary phenomenon.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fixation (psychology)

"Fixation" (Fixierung) is a concept (in human psychology) that was originated by Sigmund Freud (1905) to denote the persistence of anachronistic sexual traits.

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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Food energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.

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Fornix (neuroanatomy)

The fornix (arch) is a C-shaped bundle of nerve fibers in the brain that acts as the major output tract of the hippocampus.

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Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.

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Gastrointestinal disease

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

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Gastroparesis (GP also called delayed gastric emptying) is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for an abnormally long time.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic association

Genetic association is when one or more genotypes within a population co-occur with a phenotypic trait more often than would be expected by chance occurrence.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.

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Glucose tolerance test

The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood.

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.

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Growth hormone

Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.

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Harm avoidance

In psychology, harm avoidance (HA) is a personality trait characterized by excessive worrying; pessimism; shyness; and being fearful, doubtful, and easily fatigued.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.

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Hilde Bruch

Hilde Bruch (March 11, 1904 December 15, 1984) was a German-born American psychoanalyst, known foremost for her work on eating disorders and obesity.

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.

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Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.

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Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hypomagnesemia, also spelled hypomagnesaemia, is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a low level of magnesium in the blood.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.

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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

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Inedia (Latin for "fasting") or breatharianism is the belief that it is possible for a person to live without consuming food.

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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.

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Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.

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Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.

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Insulin-like growth factor 1

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.

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An insulinoma is a tumor of the pancreas that is derived from beta cells and secretes insulin.

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Interoception is contemporarily defined as the sense of the internal state of the body.

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Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.

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Δ-opioid receptor

The δ-opioid receptor, also known as delta opioid receptor or simply delta receptor, abbreviated DOR, is an inhibitory 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor coupled to the G protein Gi/G0 and has enkephalins as its endogenous ligands.

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Junctional escape beat

A junctional escape beat is a delayed heartbeat originating not from the atrium but from an ectopic focus somewhere in the atrioventricular junction.

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Karen Carpenter

Karen Anne Carpenter (March 2, 1950 – February 4, 1983) was an American singer and drummer, and part of the duo the Carpenters with her brother Richard.

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Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Lanugo (from Latin lana "wool") is very thin, soft, usually unpigmented, downy hair that is sometimes found on the body of a fetal or new-born human.

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Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.

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Lentiform nucleus

The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus comprises the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia.

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Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.

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Leukocytosis is white cells (the leukocyte count) above the normal range in the blood.

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Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.

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List of people with anorexia nervosa

This is a list of notable people who had anorexia nervosa.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Liver function tests

Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.

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Long QT syndrome

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition which affects repolarization of the heart after a heartbeat.

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Luteinizing hormone

Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Maudsley family therapy

Maudsley family therapy also known as family-based treatment or Maudsley approach, is a family therapy for the treatment of anorexia nervosa devised by Christopher Dare and colleagues at the Maudsley Hospital in London.

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Medical Hypotheses

Medical Hypotheses is a medical journal published by Elsevier.

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Mental status examination

The mental status examination or mental state examination (MSE) is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice.

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Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.

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Minnesota Starvation Experiment

The Minnesota Starvation Experiment, also known as the Minnesota Semi-Starvation Experiment, the Minnesota Starvation-Recovery Experiment and the Starvation Study, was a clinical study performed at the University of Minnesota between November 19, 1944 and December 20, 1945.

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Mitral valve

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in the heart, that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

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Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP; a.k.a. floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click murmur syndrome or billowing mitral leaflet) is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.

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Model (person)

A model is a person with a role either to promote, display or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing in fashion shows), or to serve as a visual aid for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

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Mood swing

A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.

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Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.

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Muscle tone

In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.

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Nasogastric intubation

Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.

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National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders

The National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD) is the oldest organization aimed at fighting eating disorders in the United States.

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National Institute of Mental Health

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.

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Neuropeptide Y

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder

Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a general pattern of concern with orderliness, perfectionism, excessive attention to details, mental and interpersonal control, and a need for control over one's environment, at the expense of flexibility, openness to experience, and efficiency.

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Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

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Ophthalmoparesis or ophthalmoplegia refers to weakness (-paresis) or paralysis (-plegia) of one or more extraocular muscles which are responsible for eye movements.

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Orbitofrontal cortex

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.

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Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite.

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Organ system

In biology, an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions.

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Orthorexia nervosa

Orthorexia nervosa (also known as orthorexia) is a proposed eating disorder characterized by an excessive preoccupation with eating healthy food.

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Orthostatic hypotension

Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.

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Osteopenia is a condition in which bone mineral density is lower than normal.

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Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.

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Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.

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Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.

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Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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Pericardial effusion

Pericardial effusion ("fluid around the heart") is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity.

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Personality disorder

Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.

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Placental infarction

A placental infarction results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the placenta, causing its cells to die.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.

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Polymorphism (biology)

Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.

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Pro-ana refers to the promotion of behaviors related to the eating disorder anorexia nervosa.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein (nutrient)

Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychological stress

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.

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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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QT interval

In cardiology, the QT interval is a measure of the time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave in the heart's electrical cycle.

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Raclopride is a synthetic compound that acts as a selective antagonist on D2 dopamine receptors.

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A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a culinary dish.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Refeeding syndrome

Refeeding syndrome is a syndrome consisting of metabolic disturbances that occur as a result of reinstitution of nutrition to patients who are starved, severely malnourished or metabolically stressed due to severe illness.

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Reward system

The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

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Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.

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Richard Morton (physician)

Richard Morton (1637–1698) was an English physician who was the first to state that tubercles were always present in the tuberculosis disease of the lungs.

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Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.

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Serum (blood)

In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.

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SK3 (small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3) also known as KCa2.3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNN3 gene.

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Skeptical Inquirer

Skeptical Inquirer is a bimonthly American magazine published by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI) with the subtitle: The Magazine for Science and Reason.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Solitude is a state of seclusion or isolation, i.e., lack of contact with people.

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Standardized mortality ratio

In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to the general population.

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Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

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The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.

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Substance use disorder

A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.

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Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a gastro-vascular disorder in which the third and final portion of the duodenum is compressed between the abdominal aorta (AA) and the overlying superior mesenteric artery.

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Syncope (medicine)

Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.

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Syrup of ipecac

Syrup of ipecac, commonly referred to as ipecac, is a drug that was once widely used as an expectorant (in low doses) and a rapid-acting emetic (in higher doses).

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.

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Thrombocythemia (also thrombocytosis) is the presence of high platelet (thrombocyte) counts in the blood, and can be either primary (also termed essential thrombocythemia, and caused by a myeloproliferative disease) or secondary (also termed reactive).

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.

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Trait theory

In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to the study of human personality.

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A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.

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Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.

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An underweight person is a person whose body weight is considered too low to be healthy.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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Wernicke encephalopathy

Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) also Wernicke's encephalopathy is the presence of neurological symptoms caused by biochemical lesions of the central nervous system after exhaustion of B-vitamin reserves, in particular thiamine (vitamin B1).

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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White matter

White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

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William Gull

Sir William Withey Gull, 1st Baronet (31 December 1816 – 29 January 1890), was a 19th-century English physician.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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5-HT1A receptor

The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).

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5-HT2A receptor

The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).

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5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa

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