354 relations: Acamprosate, Acetylcholine, Addiction, Adenosine, Agonist, Alcohol, Alcoholic drink, Alpha-Methyltryptamine, Alprazolam, Alzheimer's disease, Amanita muscaria, Amisulpride, Amoxapine, AMPA receptor, Amphetamine, Analgesic, Anandamide, Ancient Egypt, Anesthetic, Aniracetam, Anorectic, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antiparkinson medication, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Apraclonidine, Arecoline, Arguments for and against drug prohibition, Aripiprazole, Aspirin, Atomoxetine, Atropine, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Atypical antipsychotic, Bad trip, Banana, Barbiturate, Behavior, Benmoxin, Benzatropine, Benzodiazepine, Bicuculline, Bipolar disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Brain, Bremelanotide, ..., Buprenorphine, Bupropion, Butorphanol, Caffeine, Cannabidiol, Cannabinoid receptor, Cannabinol, Cannabis (drug), Capsule (pharmacy), Carvedilol, Central nervous system, Challenging behaviour, Chemical substance, Chemical synthesis, Cholinergic, Citalopram, Clonazepam, Clonidine, Cocaine, Codeine, Coevolution, Coffee, Cognition, Consciousness, Constitutionality, Contact high, Controlled Substances Act, Cough medicine, Counterculture of the 1960s, CX717, Cyclooxygenase, Cyproheptadine, Datura stramonium, Demand reduction, Depressant, Depression (mood), Deramciclane, Desensitization (medicine), Designer drug, Detoxification, Dextromethorphan, Diazepam, Dimenhydrinate, Diphenhydramine, Dissociative, Dopamine, Doxylamine, Droperidol, Drug, Drug harmfulness, Drug rehabilitation, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Duloxetine, Dysthymia, Eating disorder, Eicosanoid, Empathogen–entactogen, Endogeny (biology), Entheogen, Ephedrine, Eszopiclone, Ethanol, Euphoria, Fatty acid amide hydrolase, Fear, Fenfluramine, Fitz Hugh Ludlow, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Food and Drug Administration, Freedom of Information Act, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Garlic, General anaesthetic, GHB receptor, Guanfacine, Guantanamo Bay detention camp, Hallucinogen, Hallucinogenic fish, Haloperidol, Health professional, Heroin, Histamine H1 receptor, Histamine receptor, Homeostasis, Hyoscine, Hypericum perforatum, Hypnotic, Ibogaine, Ibuprofen, Imidazoline receptor, Imipramine, India, Inflammation, Ingestion, Inhalant, Injection (medicine), Insufflation, Insufflation (medicine), Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Inverse agonist, Iproniazid, Isocarboxazid, Jason Leopold, JWH-018, Ketamine, Kynurenic acid, L-DOPA, Liberty, Linezolid, List of Pakistani detainees at Guantanamo Bay, List of psychoactive plants, Lorazepam, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Major depressive disorder, Mania, MDMA, Meclizine, Medical prescription, Melanocortin, Melatonin receptor, Memantine, Mental disorder, Mescaline, Mesolimbic pathway, Methadone, Methamphetamine, Methoxy arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, Methylphenidate, Metoprolol, Mianserin, Mirtazapine, Moclobemide, Modafinil, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Mood (psychology), Mood stabilizer, Morphine, Moxonidine, Muscarinic antagonist, Muscimol, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, N-Arachidonylglycine, N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid, Nalbuphine, Naloxone, Naltrexone, Narcolepsy, Narcotic, National Minimum Drinking Age Act, Native American Church, NBQX, Nepeta, Netherlands, Neuroethics, Neuron, Neuroplasticity, Neuropsychopharmacology, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter receptor, Niacin, Nicotine, Nicotinic antagonist, Nightclub, Nitrous oxide, NMDA receptor, NMDA receptor antagonist, Non-lethal weapon, Nonbenzodiazepine, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nootropic, Norepinephrine, Nucleus accumbens, Olanzapine, Opiate, Opioid, Opioid receptor, Opioid use disorder, Opipramol, Orexin receptor, Over-the-counter drug, Oxycodone, Pain, Pain management, Paracelsus, Pentazocine, Perception, Performance-enhancing substance, Peyote, Pharmacotherapy, Phencyclidine, Phenelzine, Phenethylamine, Phenylephrine, Phenylpropanolamine, Physical dependence, Physician, Piracetam, Poly drug use, Pramipexole, Prazosin, Prehistory, Prescription drug, Prodrug, Prohibition, Prohibition in the United States, Project MKUltra, Propofol, Propranolol, Pseudoephedrine, Psilocybin, Psilocybin mushroom, Psychedelic drug, Psychological dependence, Psychological trauma, Psychosis, Psychotherapy, Quetiapine, Ralph Metzner, Ram Dass, Ramelteon, Rasagiline, Receptor antagonist, Recreational drug use, Rectified spirit, Reinforcement, Responsible drug use, Reuptake, Reward system, Rilmenidine, Rimonabant, Risperidone, Ritanserin, Ropinirole, Salvia divinorum, Salvinorin A, SB-334867, SB-408124, Schizoaffective disorder, Schizophrenia, Second Opium War, Sedative, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Selegiline, Self-medication, Sensitization, Serotonin, Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sertraline, Sha Mohammed Alikhel, Shamanism, Sigma receptor, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Smoking, Social status, Soviet Union, Stimulant, Subcutaneous injection, Substance dependence, Support group, Surgery, Suvorexant, Synapse, T-HCA, TAAR1, Tablet (pharmacy), TCS-OX2-29, Temazepam, Tetrahydrocannabinol, The Hasheesh Eater, Theobromine, Theophylline, Thujone, Tiagabine, Timothy Leary, Topiramate, Tramadol, Tranylcypromine, Trazodone, Treaty, Tricyclic, Truthout, Tryptamine, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, URB597, Vaporization, Vaporizer (inhalation device), Venlafaxine, Vigabatrin, Wakefulness, War on Terror, Wired (magazine), World Health Organization, Yohimbine, Zaleplon, Zolpidem, 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine, 6-APB. Expand index (304 more) » « Shrink index
Acamprosate, sold under the brand name Campral, is a medication used along with counselling to treat alcohol dependence.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
α-Methyltryptamine (abbreviated as αMT, AMT) is a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogen drug of the tryptamine class.
Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax, is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytic—a minor tranquilizer.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amisulpride, sold under the brand name Solian among others, is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia.
Amoxapine, sold under the brand name Asendin among others, is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA), though it is often classified as a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Aniracetam (brand names Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan), also known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, is a racetam which is sold in Europe as a prescription drug.
An anorectic or anorexic is a drug which reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
An antiparkinson medication is a type of drug which is intended to treat and relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Apraclonidine (INN), also known under the brand name Iopidine, is a sympathomimetic used in glaucoma therapy.
Arecoline is a nicotinic acid-based alkaloid found in the areca nut, the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu).
Arguments about the prohibition of drugs, and over drug policy reform, are subjects of considerable controversy.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Atomoxetine, sold under the brand name Strattera among others, is a norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor which is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
A bad trip (drug-induced temporary psychosis or psychedelic crisis) is a frightening and unpleasant experience triggered by psychoactive drugs, especially psychedelic drugs such as LSD and magic mushrooms.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Benmoxin (trade names Neuralex, Nerusil), also known as mebamoxine, is an irreversible and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class.
Benzatropine, also known as benztropine, is an anticholinergic marketed under the trade name Cogentin which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, and dystonia.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Bicuculline is a phthalide-isoquinoline compound that is a light-sensitive competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Bremelanotide (tentative brand name Rekynda; former developmental code name PT-141) is a peptide melanocortin receptor agonist which is under development by Palatin Technologies as a treatment for female sexual dysfunction.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Butorphanol (BC 2627) is a morphinan-type synthetic agonist–antagonist opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid constituent of cannabis.
Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.
Cannabinol (CBN) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in Cannabis, and is mostly found in aged Cannabis. Pharmacologically relevant quantities are formed as a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.
Carvedilol, sold under the brand name Coreg among others, is a medication used for treating mild to severe congestive heart failure (CHF), left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) following heart attack in people who are otherwise stable, and for treating high blood pressure.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Challenging behaviour also known as behaviours which challenge, is defined as "culturally abnormal behaviour(s) of such intensity, frequency or duration that the physical safety of the person or others is placed in serious jeopardy, or behaviour which is likely to seriously limit or deny access to the use of ordinary community facilities".
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
A contact high is a psychological phenomenon that occurs in otherwise sober people and animals who come into contact with someone who is under the influence of drugs.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity.
CX717 is an ampakine compound created by Christopher Marrs and Gary Rogers in 1996 at Cortex Pharmaceuticals.
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.
Cyproheptadine, sold under the brand name Periactin among others, is a first-generation antihistamine with additional anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, and local anesthetic properties.
Datura stramonium, known by the English names jimsonweed or devil's snare, is a plant in the nightshade family.
Demand reduction refers to efforts aimed at reducing the public desire for illegal and illicit drugs.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Deramciclane (EGIS-3886) is a non-benzodiazepine-type anxiolytic drug to treat various types of anxiety disorders.
In medicine, desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organism's negative reaction to a substance or stimulus.
A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or detection in standard drug tests.
Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Dimenhydrinate, marketed as Dramamine and Gravol among others, is an over-the-counter medication used to treat motion sickness and nausea.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Doxylamine is a first-generation antihistamine.
Droperidol (Inapsine, Droleptan, Dridol, Xomolix, Innovar) is an antidopaminergic drug used as an antiemetic (that is, to prevent or treat nausea) and as an antipsychotic.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Drug harmfulness is the degree to which a psychoactive drug is harmful to a user and is measured in various ways, such as by addictiveness and the potential for physical harm.
Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is the processes of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication mostly used for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Eszopiclone, marketed by Sunovion under the brand-name Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Fatty acid amide hydrolase or FAAH (oleamide hydrolase, anandamide amidohydrolase) is a member of the serine hydrolase family of enzymes.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Fenfluramine, formerly sold under the brand name Pondimin among others, is an appetite suppressant which was used to treat obesity and is now no longer marketed.
Fitz Hugh Ludlow, sometimes seen as Fitzhugh Ludlow (September 11, 1836 – September 12, 1870), was an American author, journalist, and explorer; best known for his autobiographical book The Hasheesh Eater (1857).
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Freedom of Information Act may refer to the following legislations in different jurisdictions which mandate the national government to disclose certain data to the general public upon request.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.
The γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) receptor (GHBR), originally identified as GPR172A, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds the neurotransmitter and psychoactive drug γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB).
Guanfacine (trade names Estulic, Tenex, and, in extended release form, Intuniv) is a sympatholytic drug used to treat hypertension and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a United States military prison located within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base,, The Independent, 29 April 2006 also referred to as Guantánamo or GTMO, which is on the coast of Guantánamo Bay in Cuba.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Several species of fish are claimed to produce hallucinogenic effects when consumed.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
The histamine receptors are a class of G protein–coupled receptors which bind histamine as their primary endogenous ligand.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the Apocynaceae family such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana and Tabernaemontana undulata.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
Imidazoline receptors are the primary receptors on which clonidine and other imidazolines act.
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.
Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
In religious and magical practice, insufflation and exsufflation are ritual acts of blowing, breathing, hissing, or puffing that signify variously expulsion or renunciation of evil or of the devil (the Evil One), or infilling or blessing with good (especially, in religious use, with the Spirit or grace of God).
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.
Iproniazid (Marsilid, Rivivol, Euphozid, Iprazid, Ipronid, Ipronin) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class.
Isocarboxazid (Marplan, Marplon, Enerzer) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class used as an antidepressant.
Jason Arthur Leopold (born October 7, 1969) He used to be an investigative reporter for Al Jazeera America and Vice News.
JWH-018 (1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) or AM-678 is an analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family that acts as a full agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, with some selectivity for CB2.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Kynurenic acid (KYNA or KYN) is a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Linezolid is an antibiotic used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.
According to the United States Department of Defense, there were five dozen Pakistan detainees in Guantanamo prior to May 15, 2006.
A list of plants that are used as psychoactive drugs.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Meclizine (INN, or meclozine) is an antihistamine of the diphenylmethylpiperazine group considered to be an antiemetic.
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.
The melanocortins are a group of peptide hormones which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and are derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the pituitary gland.
A melatonin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) which binds melatonin.
Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. It was first synthesized by Eli Lilly and Company in 1968 as a potential agent to treat diabetes; the NMDA activity was discovered in the 1980s.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methoxy arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, commonly referred as MAFP, is an irreversible active site-directed enzyme inhibitor that inhibits nearly all serine hydrolases and serine proteases.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β1 receptor blocker type.
Mianserin, sold under the brand name Tolvon among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used in the treatment of depression in Europe and elsewhere in the world.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as the UK and Australia (TGA approved in December 2000). It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost. No significant rise in blood pressure occurs when moclobemide is combined with amines such as tyramine-containing foods or pressor amine drugs, unlike with the older nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which cause a severe rise in blood pressure with such combination. Due to the lack of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Moxonidine (INN) is a new-generation alpha-2/imidazoline receptor agonist antihypertensive drug licensed for the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension.
A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
N-Arachidonylglycine (NAGly) is a carboxylic metabolite of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA).
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor mimicking the action of glutamate, the neurotransmitter which normally acts at that receptor.
Nalbuphine, sold under the brand names Nubain and Nalpain among others, is a opioid analgesic which is used in the treatment of pain.
Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.
Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 was passed by the United States Congress on July 17, 1984.
The Native American Church (NAC), also known as Peyotism and Peyote Religion, is a Native American religion that teaches a combination of traditional Native American beliefs and Christianity, with sacramental use of the entheogen peyote.
NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzoquinoxaline) is an AMPA receptor antagonist.
Nepeta is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Neuroethics refers to two related fields of study: what the philosopher Adina Roskies has called the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neuropsychopharmacology, an interdisciplinary science related to psychopharmacology (how drugs affect the mind) and fundamental neuroscience, is the study of the neural mechanisms that drugs act upon to influence behavior.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
A neurotransmitter receptor (also known as a neuroreceptor) is a membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
A nicotinic antagonist is a type of anticholinergic drug that inhibits the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that usually operates late into the night.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than-lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons such as knives and firearms.
Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.
Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.
Opipramol, sold under the brand name Insidon among others, is an anxiolytic and antidepressant which is used throughout Europe.
The orexin receptor (also referred to as the hypocretin receptor) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that binds the neuropeptide orexin.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
Pentazocine, sold under the brand name Talwin among others, is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic agent which is used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Piracetam (sold under many brand names) is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide.
Poly drug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect.
Pramipexole (Mirapex, Mirapexin, Sifrol) is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class indicated for treating Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Prazosin, trade names Minipress, Vasoflex, Lentopres and Hypovase, is a sympatholytic drug used to treat high blood pressure, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during which such illegality was enforced.
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.
Project MKUltra, also called the CIA mind control program, is the code name given to a program of experiments on human subjects that were designed and undertaken by the United States Central Intelligence Agency—and which were, at times, illegal.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Ralph Metzner PhD (born May 18 1936, in Germany) is an American psychologist, writer and researcher, who participated in psychedelic research at Harvard University in the early 1960s with Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert (later named Ram Dass).
Ram Dass (born Richard Alpert; April 6, 1931) is an American spiritual teacher, former academic and clinical psychologist, and the author of the seminal 1971 book Be Here Now. He is known for his personal and professional associations with Timothy Leary at Harvard University in the early 1960s, for his travels to India and his relationship with the Hindu guru Neem Karoli Baba, and for founding the charitable organizations Seva Foundation and Hanuman Foundation.
Ramelteon, marketed as Rozerem among others, is a sleep agent that selectively binds to the MT1 and MT2 receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), instead of binding to GABAA receptors, such as with drugs like zolpidem.
Rasagiline (Azilect, TVP-1012, N-propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan) is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B used as a monotherapy to treat symptoms in early Parkinson's disease or as an adjunct therapy in more advanced cases.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Rectified spirit, also known as neutral spirits, rectified alcohol, or ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is highly concentrated ethanol which has been purified by means of repeated distillation, a process that is called rectification.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
Responsible drug use maximizes the benefits and reduces the risk of negative impact on the lives of both the user and others.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Rilmenidine is a prescription medication for the treatment of hypertension.
Rimonabant (also known as SR141716; trade names Acomplia, Zimulti) is an anorectic antiobesity drug that was first approved in Europe in 2006 but was withdrawn worldwide in 2008 due to serious psychiatric side effects; it was never approved in the United States.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Ritanserin (INN, USAN, BAN) is a serotonin receptor antagonist which was never marketed for clinical use but has been used in scientific research.
Ropinirole (INN; trade names Requip, Repreve, Ronirol, Adartrel) is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class of medications.
Salvia divinorum (also known as sage of the diviners, ska maría pastora, seer's sage, yerba de la pastora or simply salvia) is a plant species with transient psychoactive properties when its leaves are consumed by chewing, smoking or as a tea.
Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum, a Mexican plant which has a long history of use as an entheogen by indigenous Mazatec shamans.
SB-334867 is an orexin antagonist.
SB-408124 is a drug which is a non-peptide antagonist selective for the orexin receptor subtype OX1, with around 70x selectivity for OX1 over OX2 receptors, and improved oral bioavailability compared to the older OX1 antagonist SB-334867.
Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Selegiline, also known as L-deprenyl, is a substituted phenethylamine.
Self-medication is a human behavior in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for physical or psychological ailments.
Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT).
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Sha Mohammed Alikhel is a Pakistani who was held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
In a support group, members provide each other with various types of help, usually nonprofessional and nonmaterial, for a particular shared, usually burdensome, characteristic.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Suvorexant, sold under the trade name Belsomra, is a medication for the treatment of insomnia.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
trans-4-Hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA), also known as γ-hydroxycrotonic acid (GHC), is an agent used in scientific research to study the GHB receptor.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
TCS-OX2-29 is an orexin antagonist.
Temazepam (brand names Restoril and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
The Hasheesh Eater (1857) is an autobiographical book by Fitz Hugh Ludlow describing the author's altered states of consciousness and philosophical flights of fancy while he was using a cannabis extract.
Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Tiagabine (trade name Gabitril) is an anticonvulsant medication used in the treatment of epilepsy that is produced by Cephalon.
Timothy Francis Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American psychologist and writer known for advocating the exploration of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled conditions.
Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.
Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.
Tranylcypromine (contracted from trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine; original trade name Parnate)Drugs.com.
Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
Tricyclics are chemical compounds that contain three interconnected rings of atoms.
Truthout is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, progressive news and commentary website.
Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
URB597 (KDS-4103) is a relatively selective inhibitor of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH).
Vaporization (or vapourisation) of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor.
A vaporizer or vaporiser (a ‘vape’) is a device used to vaporize substances for inhalation.
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the breakdown of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting as a suicide inhibitor of the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T).
Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavioral responses to the external world such as communication, ambulation, eating, and sex.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa.
Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata, Starnoc, and Andante) is a sedative-hypnotic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia.
Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a sedative primarily used for the treatment of trouble sleeping.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug.
6-APB (6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran) is an empathogenic psychoactive compound of the substituted benzofuran, substituted amphetamine and substituted phenethylamine classes.
Consciousness altering drugs, Consciousness-altering drugs, Intoxicant, Intoxicants, Mind altering drug, Mind altering drugs, Mind altering substance, Mind altering substances, Mind changing drug, Mind-altering drug, Mind-altering drugs, Mind-altering substance, Mind-altering substances, Mind-changing drug, Mood altering drug, Mood-altering drug, Psycho-active drugs, Psycho-pharmaceutical, Psychoactive, Psychoactive Drugs, Psychoactive compound, Psychoactive constituent, Psychoactive drugs, Psychoactive effect, Psychoactive medication, Psychoactive medications, Psychoactive substance, Psychoactive substances, Psychoactives, Psychoactivity, Psychoaktiv, Psychopharmaceutical, Psychopharmaceuticals, Psychopharmica, Psychotrope, Psychotropic, Psychotropic agent, Psychotropic drug, Psychotropic drugs, Psychotropic medication, Psychotropic medications, Psychotropic substance, Psychotropic substances, Psychotropics.