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Alprazolam or, available as the trade name Xanax among others, is a short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class. [1]

166 relations: Acetone, Aggression, Agoraphobia, Alertness, Allergy, Amine, Ammonia, Amnesia, Amphetamine, Anterograde amnesia, Anticonvulsant, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Ataxia, Atropine, Attention, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Australia, Bad trip, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Biological half-life, BMJ (company), Borderline personality disorder, British Medical Association, British National Formulary, Bromine, Cannabis (drug), Capsule (pharmacy), Central nervous system, Chemical classification, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, Cimetidine, Cirrhosis, Clonazepam, Clorazepate, Cocaine, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Comedown (drugs), Congenital disorder, Constipation, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, CYP3A4, Delirium, Depressant, Desipramine, Dextropropoxyphene, ..., Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diazepam, Disinhibition, Dizziness, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug overdose, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, DSM-IV codes, Dysphoria, Episodic dyscontrol syndrome, Erythromycin, Ethanol, Fasciculation, Fatigue (medical), Fluvoxamine, Food and Drug Administration, Formaldehyde, GABA receptor, GABAA receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Generalized anxiety disorder, Glaucoma, Hallucination, Heroin, Hypericum, Hypersomnia, Hypnotic, Hypotension, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypoventilation, Imipramine, Insomnia, Insufflation (medicine), Itraconazole, Jaundice, Kava, Ketoconazole, Kidney, Lactation, Lightheadedness, Liver, Lorazepam, Lung, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Mania, Medical Products Agency (Sweden), Methadone, Motor coordination, Muscle relaxant, Muscle weakness, Myasthenia gravis, National Health Service, Nausea, Nefazodone, Netherlands, Opioid, Opium Law, Oral administration, Orthostatic hypotension, Oxazepam, Palm Beach County, Florida, Panic attack, Panic disorder, Paradoxical reaction, Pfizer, Phencyclidine, Phosphorus tribromide, Physical dependence, Poly drug use, Properties of water, Psychedelic drug, Psychomotor agitation, Psychosis, Rage (emotion), Rash, Rebound effect, Receptor (biochemistry), Relaxed pronunciation, Ritonavir, Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, Ruthenium(IV) oxide, Scopolamine, Sedative, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Seproxetine, Sleep apnea, Social anxiety disorder, Sodium periodate, Solubility, Somnolence, Stimulant, Striatum, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Substance dependence, Suicidal ideation, Sweden, Syncope (medicine), Tablet (pharmacy), Temazepam, Teratology, The New York Times, Time release technology, Tremor, Triazolam, Triazole, Triethyl orthoacetate, Upjohn, Urinary retention, Vertigo, Xerostomia, Xylene, 1,2,3-Triazole. Expand index (116 more) »


Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by anxiety in situations where the sufferer perceives the environment to be dangerous, uncomfortable, or unsafe.

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Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that normally causes little problem.

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Amines (US: or, UK:, or) are organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Amnesia (from Greek ἀμνησία from ἀ- meaning "without" and μνήμη memory), also known as amnesic syndrome, is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.

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Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Anterograde amnesia

Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear, where anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events.

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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.

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Ataxia (from Greek α- + -τάξις.

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Atropine is a medication used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings, some types of slow heart rate, and to decrease saliva production during surgery.

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Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder in which there are significant problems with executive functions (e.g., attentional control and inhibitory control) that cause attention deficits, hyperactivity, or impulsiveness which is not appropriate for a person's age.

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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Bad trip

Bad trip (drug-induced temporary psychosis or psychedelic crisis) is a disturbing experience typically associated with use of a hallucinogen, such as psychedelics — such as LSD, mescaline, psilocybin and DMT — or dissociatives — like Salvinorin A (the active chemical of Salvia divinorum) or Dextromethorphan.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.

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Biological half-life

The biological half-life or terminal half-life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (for example a metabolite, drug, signalling molecule, radioactive nuclide, or other substance) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity, as per the MeSH definition.

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BMJ (company)

BMJ (previously BMJ Group, rebranded in 2013), is a global healthcare knowledge provider of journals, clinical decision support, medical education and intelligent software tools.

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Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder - impulsive or borderline type or emotional intensity disorder, is a Cluster B personality disorder.

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British Medical Association

The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.

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British National Formulary

The British National Formulary (BNF) is a pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the National Health Service (NHS), including indication(s), contraindications, side effects, doses, legal classification, names and prices of available proprietary and generic formulations, and any other notable points.

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Bromine (from βρῶμος, brómos, meaning "strong-smelling" or "stench") is a chemical element with symbol Br, and atomic number 35.

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Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis, also known as marijuana and by numerous other names, is a preparation of the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or medicine.

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Capsule (pharmacy)

In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Chemical classification

Chemical classification systems attempt to classify as elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties.

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Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a category of cancer treatment that uses chemical substances, especially one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) that are given as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of many cancer treatments.

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Cimetidine INN is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production. It is largely used in the treatment of heartburn and peptic ulcers. It has been marketed by GlaxoSmithKline (which is selling the brand to Prestige Brands) under the trade name Tagamet (sometimes Tagamet HB or Tagamet HB200). Cimetidine was approved in the UK in 1976, and was approved in the US by the Food and Drug Administration for prescriptions starting January 1, 1979.

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Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.

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Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.

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Clorazepate (marketed under the brand names Tranxene and Novo-Clopate), also known as clorazepate dipotassium, is a benzodiazepine.

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Cocaine, also known as benzoylmethylecgonine or coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Combined oral contraceptive pill

Combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a birth control method that includes a combination of an estrogen (estradiol) and a progestogen (progestin).

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Comedown (drugs)

Comedown or crashing is the deterioration in mood that happens as a psychoactive drug is cleared from the blood and thus the cerebral circulation.

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Congenital disorder

Congenital disorder, also known as congenital disease, birth defect or anomaly, is a condition existing at or before birth regardless of cause.

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Constipation (also known as costiveness or dyschezia) refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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Controlled Substances Act

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute prescribing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

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Convention on Psychotropic Substances

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.

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Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4), is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.

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Delirium, or acute confusional state, is an organically-caused decline from a previously attained baseline level of cognitive function.

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A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug or endogenous compound that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

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Desipramine (also known as desmethylimipramine) is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).

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Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medication of the benzodiazepine type that alters the function of the brain.

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In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.

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Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.

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Dopamine is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body, as well as elsewhere in biology.

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Dopamine receptor D1

Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.

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Dopamine receptor D2

Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.

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Drug Enforcement Administration

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.

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Drug overdose

The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.

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Drug tolerance

Drug tolerance is a pharmacology concept where a subject's reaction to a specific drug and concentration of the drug is reduced followed repeated use, requiring an increase in concentration to achieve the desired effect.

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Drug withdrawal

Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.

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DSM-IV codes

DSM-IV Codes are the classification found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR, a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that includes all currently recognized mental health disorders.

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Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.

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Episodic dyscontrol syndrome

Episodic dyscontrol syndrome (EDS, or sometimes just dyscontrol), is a pattern of abnormal, episodic, and frequently violent and uncontrollable social behavior in the absence of significant provocation; it can result from limbic system diseases, disorders of the temporal lobe, or abuse of alcohol or other psychoactive substances.

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Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Ethanol, also commonly called ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

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A fasciculation, or muscle twitch, is a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation which may be visible under the skin.

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Fatigue (medical)

Fatigue (also called exhaustion, tiredness, languidness, languor, lassitude, and listlessness) is a subjective feeling of tiredness which is distinct from weakness, and has a gradual onset.

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Fluvoxamine (brand names: Faverin, Fevarin, Floxyfral, and Luvox) is a medication which functions as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and σ1 receptor agonist.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Formaldehyde is a naturally-occurring organic compound with the formula CH2O.

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GABA receptor

The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.

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GABAA receptor

The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

γ-Aminobutyric acid (or GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.

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Glaucoma is a term for a group of eye disorders which result in damage to the optic nerve.

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A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.

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Heroin (diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate, also known as diamorphine (BAN, INN)) and commonly known by its street names of H, smack, boy, horse, brown, black, tar, and others is an opioid analgesic originally synthesized by C. R. Alder Wright in 1874 by adding two acetyl groups to the molecule morphine, which is found naturally in the opium poppy.

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Hypericum is a genus of 490http://hypericum.myspecies.info/ Hypericum Online species of flowering plants in the family Hypericaceae (formerly often considered a subfamily of Clusiaceae).

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In the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published in May 2013, hypersomnia appears under sleep-wake disorders as hypersomnolence, of which there are several subtypes.

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Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA or HTPA axis), also known as the limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (LHPA axis) and, occasionally, as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal–gonadotropic axis, is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three endocrine glands: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the hypothalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

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In medicine, hypoventilation (also known as) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.

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Imipramine (G 22355), sold as Tofranil and also known as melipramine, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) of the dibenzazepine group.

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Insomnia, or trouble sleeping, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired.

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Insufflation (medicine)

Insufflation (Latin insufflatio "blowing on" or "into") is the act of inhaling something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.

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Itraconazole (R51211), invented in 1984, is a triazole antifungal agent prescribed to patients with fungal infections.

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Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by high blood bilirubin levels.

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Kava or kava-kava (Piper methysticum) (Piper: Latin for "pepper", methysticum: Latinized Greek for "intoxicating") is a crop of the western Pacific.

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Ketoconazole (INN, USAN, BAN, JAN) is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.

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The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates.

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Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.

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Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint.

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The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.

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Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication often used to treat anxiety disorders.

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The lung is the essential respiratory organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails.

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Lysergic acid diethylamide

Lysergic acid diethylamide (or or), abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, also known as lysergide (INN) and colloquially as acid, is a psychedelic drug of the ergoline family, well known for its psychological effects - which can include altered thinking processes, closed- and open-eye visuals, synesthesia, an altered sense of time, and spiritual experiences - as well as for its key role in 1960s counterculture.

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Mania is the mood of an abnormally elevated arousal energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although it is often thought of as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable and, indeed, as the mania progresses, irritability becomes more prominent and can eventuate in violence.

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Medical Products Agency (Sweden)

The Medical Products Agency (Läkemedelsverket) is the government agency in Sweden responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and sale of medicinal drugs, medical devices and cosmetics.

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Methadone, also known as Dolophine among other brand names, is a synthetic opioid.

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Motor coordination

Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.

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Muscle relaxant

A muscle relaxant is a drug which affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.

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Muscle weakness

Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.

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Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis (from Greek μύς "muscle", ἀσθένεια "weakness", and gravis "serious"; abbreviated MG) is a neuromuscular disease that leads to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigue.

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National Health Service

The four publicly funded health care systems in the countries of the United Kingdom are referred to as the National Health Service (NHS).

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Nausea (Latin nausea, from Greek ναυσία - nausia, "ναυτία" - nautia, motion sickness", "feeling sick or queasy") is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit.

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Nefazodone (Dutonin, Nefadar, Serzone) is an antidepressant marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb.

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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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An "opioid" is any synthetic narcotic not derived from opium.

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Opium Law

The Opium Law (or Opiumwet in Dutch) is the section of the Dutch law which covers nearly all psychotropic drugs.

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Oral administration

Oral administration (per os) is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth.

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Orthostatic hypotension

Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, orthostasis, and colloquially as head rush or dizzy spell, is a form of low blood pressure in which a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up or stretching.

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Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.

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Palm Beach County, Florida

Palm Beach County is a county located in the state of Florida.

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Panic attack

Panic attacks are periods of intense fear or apprehension of sudden onset accompanied by at least four or more bodily or cognitive symptoms (such as heart palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, or feelings of unreality) and of variable duration from minutes to hours.

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Panic disorder

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurring panic attacks, causing a series of intense episodes of extreme anxiety during panic attacks.

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Paradoxical reaction

A paradoxical reaction or paradoxical effect is an effect of medical treatment, usually a drug, opposite to the effect which would normally be expected.

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Pfizer, Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation headquartered in New York City, New York, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.

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Phencyclidine (a complex clip of the chemical name 1-(1-phenyl cyclohexyl)piperidine), commonly initialized as PCP and known colloquially as Angel Dust, pharmaceutically as Sernyl, and by many other names, is a dissociative drug.

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Phosphorus tribromide

Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula PBr3.

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Physical dependence

Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from chronic use of a drug that has produced tolerance and where negative physical symptoms of withdrawal result from abrupt discontinuation or dosage reduction.

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Poly drug use

Polydrug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect.

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Properties of water

Water is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface, covering 70 percent of the planet. In nature, water exists in liquid, solid, and gaseous states. It is in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas states at standard temperature and pressure. At room temperature, it is a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. Many substances dissolve in water and it is commonly referred to as the universal solvent. Because of this, water in nature and in use is rarely pure and some properties may vary from those of the pure substance. However, there are also many compounds that are essentially, if not completely, insoluble in water. Water is the only common substance found naturally in all three common states of matter and it is essential for all life on Earth. Water makes up 55% to 78% of the human body.

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Psychedelic drug

A psychedelic substance is a psychoactive drug whose primary action is to alter cognition and perception, typically by agonising serotonin receptors.

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Psychomotor agitation

Psychomotor agitation is a series of unintentional and purposeless motions that stem from mental tension and anxiety of an individual.

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Psychosis refers to an abnormal condition of the mind described as involving a "loss of contact with reality".

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Rage (emotion)

Rage (often called fury or frenzy) is a feeling of intense, violent, or growing anger.

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A rash is a change of the skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.

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Rebound effect

The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.

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Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule usually found embedded within the plasma membrane surface of a cell that receives chemical signals from outside the cell.

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Relaxed pronunciation

Relaxed pronunciation (also called condensed pronunciation or word slurs) is a phenomenon that happens when the syllables of common words are slurred together.

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Ritonavir, with trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral drug from the protease inhibitor class used to treat HIV/AIDS.

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Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB) was formerly the statutory regulatory and professional body for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in England, Scotland and Wales.

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Ruthenium(IV) oxide

Ruthenium(IV) oxide (RuO2) is a black chemical compound containing the rare metal ruthenium and oxygen.

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Scopolamine (USAN), hyoscine (BAN) also known as levo-duboisine or burundanga, sold as Scopoderm, is a tropane alkaloid drug with muscarinic antagonist effects.

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A sedative or tranquilizer (or tranquilliser, see American and British English spelling differences) is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

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Seproxetine, also known as (S)-norfluoxetine, is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).

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Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea (or sleep apnoea in British English) is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or instances of shallow or infrequent breathing during sleep.

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Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterised by an intense fear in one or more social situations causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.

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Sodium periodate

Sodium periodate is an inorganic salt, composed of a sodium cation and the periodate anion.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent.

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Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (cf. hypersomnia).

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Stimulants (also referred to as psychostimulants) are psychoactive drugs that induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical functions or both.

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The striatum, also known as the neostriatum or striate nucleus, is a subcortical part of the forebrain and a critical component of the reward system.

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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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Substance dependence

Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.

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Suicidal ideation

Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, concerns thoughts about or an unusual preoccupation with suicide.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Syncope (medicine)

Syncope, also known as fainting, passing out and swooning, is defined as a short loss of consciousness and muscle strength, characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.

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Tablet (pharmacy)

A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.

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Temazepam (brand names Restoril and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.

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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.

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Time release technology

Time release technology (also known as sustained-release, extended-release, controlled-release, and other synonyms) is a mechanism used in pill tablets or capsules to dissolve a drug over time in order to be released slower and steadier into the bloodstream while having the advantage of being taken at less frequent intervals than immediate-release (IR) formulations of the same drug.

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A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.

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Triazolam (original brand name Halcion) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant in the benzodiazepine class.

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A triazole (Htrz) refers to any of the heterocyclic compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, having a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms.

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Triethyl orthoacetate

Triethyl orthoacetate is the ethyl orthoester of acetic acid.

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The Upjohn Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 in Kalamazoo, Michigan by Dr. William E. Upjohn, an 1875 graduate of the University of Michigan medical school.

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Urinary retention

Urinary retention, also known as ischuria, is an inability to completely empty the bladder.

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Vertigo is when a person feels like they are moving when they are not.

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Xerostomia (also termed dry mouth as a symptom or dry mouth syndrome as a syndrome) is dryness in the mouth (xero- + stom- + -ia), which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow (hyposalivation), or have no identifiable cause.

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Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon mixture consisting of a benzene ring with two methyl groups at various substituted positions.

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1,2,3-Triazole is one of a pair of isomeric chemical compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, called triazoles, which have a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alprazolam

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