199 relations: Aggression, Agoraphobia, Albumin, Alcohol dependence, Alertness, Allergy, Amnesia, Amphetamine, Anterograde amnesia, Anticholinergic, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Ataxia, Atropine, Attention, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Australia, Bad trip, Balance disorder, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Benzophenone, Biological half-life, Birth defect, Blood proteins, BMJ (company), Borderline personality disorder, Breast milk, British Medical Association, British National Formulary, Cannabis (drug), Capsule (pharmacy), Central nervous system, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, Chromatography, Cimetidine, Cirrhosis, Clonazepam, Cocaine, Coma, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Comedown (drugs), Comorbidity, Concomitant drug, Constipation, Controlled Substances Act, ..., Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Corn starch, CYP3A4, Delirium, Depressant, Desipramine, Dextropropoxyphene, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diazepam, Disinhibition, Dizziness, Docusate, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Dose (biochemistry), Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug overdose, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Drugs controlled by the German Betäubungsmittelgesetz, Dysphoria, Emergency department, Episodic dyscontrol syndrome, Erythromycin, Ethanol, Fasciculation, Fatigue, Fetus, Fluvoxamine, Food and Drug Administration, GABA receptor, GABAA receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Generalized anxiety disorder, Germany, Glaucoma, Hallucination, Heroin, Hyoscine, Hypericum, Hypericum perforatum, Hypersensitivity, Hypnotic, Hypotension, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypoventilation, Imipramine, Immunoassay, Insomnia, Insufflation (medicine), Itraconazole, Jaundice, Kava, Ketoconazole, Kidney, Lightheadedness, Liver, Lorazepam, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Magnesium stearate, Malaise, Mania, MDMA, Medical jurisprudence, Medical Products Agency (Sweden), Mental disorder, Metabolism, Microcrystalline cellulose, Miscarriage, Modified-release dosage, Motor control, Motor coordination, Muscle relaxant, Muscle weakness, Myasthenia gravis, National Health Service, Nausea, Nefazodone, Netherlands, Neuromuscular junction, Opioid, Opium Law, Oral administration, Orally disintegrating tablet, Orthostatic hypotension, Oxazepam, Panic attack, Panic disorder, Paradoxical reaction, Pfizer, Physical dependence, Placenta, Poly drug use, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Potency (pharmacology), Pregnancy, Properties of water, Psychedelic drug, Psychological dependence, Psychomotor agitation, Psychosis, Pulmonary insufficiency, Rage (emotion), Rash, Rebound effect, Receptor (biochemistry), Reflex, Relaxed pronunciation, Respiratory system, Rhabdomyolysis, Ritonavir, Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, Sedative, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Seproxetine, Side effect, Silicon dioxide, Sleep apnea, Social anxiety disorder, Sodium benzoate, Solubility, Somnolence, Special prescription form, Stimulant, Striatum, Substance abuse, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Substance dependence, Suicidal ideation, Suicide, Sweden, Syncope (medicine), Synergy, Tablet (pharmacy), Tachycardia, Temazepam, Teratology, The New York Times, Tremor, Triazolam, Triazolobenzodiazepine, Tricyclic antidepressant, Upjohn, Urgent care, Urinary retention, Vertigo, Xerostomia, 1,2,3-Triazole. Expand index (149 more) » « Shrink index
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Alcohol dependence is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which an individual is physically or psychologically dependent upon alcohol (also known formally as ethanol).
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
A bad trip (drug-induced temporary psychosis or psychedelic crisis) is a frightening and unpleasant experience triggered by psychoactive drugs, especially psychedelic drugs such as LSD and magic mushrooms.
A balance disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
Benzophenone is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CO, generally abbreviated Ph2CO.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma.
BMJ (previously BMJ Group, rebranded in 2013), is a provider of journals, clinical decision support, events and medical education.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.
The British National Formulary (BNF) is a United Kingdom (UK) pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the UK National Health Service (NHS).
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of many cancer treatments.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Cimetidine, sold under the brand name Tagamet among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
Comedown or crashing is the deterioration in mood that happens as a psychoactive drug, typically a stimulant, is either decreasing or is cleared from the blood and thus the cerebral circulation.
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
Concomitant drugs are two or more drugs used or given at or almost at the same time (one after the other, on the same day, etc.). The term has two contextual uses: as used in medicine or as used in drug abuse.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Desipramine, sold under the brand name Norpramin and Pertofrane among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used in the treatment of depression.
Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Docusate, also known as docusate salts or dioctyl sulfosuccinate, is a laxative of the stool softener type used to treat constipation.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Drugs controlled by the German Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtMG).
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
Episodic dyscontrol syndrome (EDS, or sometimes just dyscontrol), is a pattern of abnormal, episodic, and frequently violent and uncontrollable social behavior in the absence of significant provocation; it can result from limbic system diseases, disorders of the temporal lobe, or abuse of alcohol or other psychoactive substances.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
A fasciculation, or muscle twitch, is a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation which may be visible under the skin.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Hypericum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Hypericaceae (formerly considered a subfamily of Clusiaceae).
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum (Latin "pepper" and Latinized Greek "intoxicating") is a crop of the Pacific Islands.
Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Magnesium stearate is the chemical compound with the formula.
Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Medical jurisprudence or legal medicine is the branch of science and medicine involving the study and application of scientific and medical knowledge to legal problems, such as inquests, and in the field of law.
The Medical Products Agency (Läkemedelsverket) is the government agency in Sweden responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development, manufacturing and sale of medicinal drugs, medical devices and cosmetics.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is a term for refined wood pulp and is used as a texturizer, an anti-caking agent, a fat substitute, an emulsifier, an extender, and a bulking agent in food production.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its administration (delayed-release dosage) or for a prolonged period of time (extended-release dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage).
Motor control is the systematic regulation of movement in organisms that possess a nervous system.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nefazodone, sold formerly under the brand names Serzone, Dutonin, and Nefadar among others, is an atypical antidepressant which was first marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1994 but has since largely been discontinued.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
The Opium Law (or Opiumwet in Dutch) is the section of the Dutch law which covers nearly all psychotropic drugs.
An orally disintegrating tablet or orally dissolving tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
A paradoxical reaction or paradoxical effect is an effect of medical treatment, usually a drug, opposite to the effect which would normally be expected.
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Poly drug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also commonly called polyvidone or povidone, is a water-soluble polymer made from the monomer ''N''-vinylpyrrolidone.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Pulmonary insufficiency (or incompetence, or regurgitation) is a condition in which the pulmonary valve is incompetent and allows backflow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle of the heart during diastole.
Rage (often called fury or frenzy) is a feeling of intense, violent, or growing anger.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
Relaxed pronunciation (also called condensed pronunciation or word slurs) is a phenomenon that happens when the syllables of common words are slurred together.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.
The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB) existed from its founding as the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain in 1841 until 2010.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Seproxetine, also known as (S)-norfluoxetine, is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
Sodium benzoate is a substance which has the chemical formula NaC7H5O2.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Special prescription forms, sometimes called narcotic prescription forms, controlled prescription forms, psychotropic prescription forms or triplicate prescription forms (because they often have to be signed in triplicate) are forms required in some countries for the prescription of controlled narcotics and other psychotropic substances, for which a standard medical prescription is not sufficient.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Temazepam (brand names Restoril and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Triazolam (original brand name Halcion) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant in the benzodiazepine class.
Chemical structure of alprazolam, a common triazolobenzodiazepine Triazolobenzodiazepines are a class of benzodiazepine pharmaceutical drugs.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
The Upjohn Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 in Kalamazoo, Michigan by Dr. William E. Upjohn, an 1875 graduate of the University of Michigan medical school.
Urgent care is a category of walk-in clinic focused on the delivery of ambulatory care in a dedicated medical facility outside of a traditional emergency department (emergency room).
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
1,2,3-Triazole is one of a pair of isomeric chemical compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, called triazoles, which have a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
ATC code N05BA12, ATCvet code QN05BA12, Alplax, Alprax, Alprazol, Alpronax, Alprox, Alprozolam, Alviz, Alzam, Alzolam, Anxirid, Apo-Alpraz, Aprazolam, Bestrol, Calmax, Cassadan, Constan, D 65MT, Esparon, Gerax, Helex, Intensol, Niravam, Novo-Alprazol, Nu-Alpraz, Paxal, Restyl, Solanax, Tafil, Texidep, Tranax, Trankimazin, Tranquinal, Xanax, Xanax XR, Xanax xr, Xanex, Xannies, Xanor, Xenax, Zamitol, Zanax, Zanex, Zopax.