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The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Abhira tribe were a people mentioned in ancient Indian epics and scriptures as early as the Vedas.
Abiria was a region in Sindh province of Pakistan described by the Classical authors, mainly Ptolemy.
Abu Ma'shar Al-Sindi, Abulmazar(Latin) (Arabic) ابو ماشرالسندي (d.170 A.H.): was a scholar of Hadith literature (8th century Hijra) from Mansura, Sindh now the part of Pakistan.
Abu Raja Al-Sindi(Arabic)ابو راجه السندي (d. 321 AH/d. 10th century AD) was an Arabic scholar of Sindhi origin in the present day Pakistan.
Abu Zayd Ahmed ibn Sahl Balkhi (ابو زید احمد بن سهل بلخی) was a Persian Muslim polymath: a geographer, mathematician, physician, psychologist and scientist.
Shaikh Abu al-Fazal ibn Mubarak (ابو الفضل) also known as Abu'l-Fazl, Abu'l Fadl and Abu'l-Fadl 'Allami (14 January 1551 – 12 August 1602) was the Grand vizier of the Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbar's reign in three volumes, (the third volume is known as the Ain-i-Akbari) and a Persian translation of the Bible.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
ActionAid is an international non-governmental organization whose primary aim is to work against poverty and injustice worldwide.
Adamjee Government Science College (Adamjee Science College) is an educational institution in Karachi, Pakistan.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).
Aga Khan I (آغا خان اوّل|Āghā Khān-i Awwal or آقا خان اوّل|Āqā Khān-i Awwal|), was the title accorded to Hasan Ali Shah (حسن علی شاه|Ḥasan ‘Alī Shāh|) (1804 – 1881), the governor of Kirman, 46th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili Muslims, and prominent Muslim leader in Iran and later in the Indian subcontinent.
The Aga Khan University (abbreviated AKU) (آغا خان یونیورسٹی, آغا خان يونيورسٽي) is an independent research university with its primary campus in Karachi, Pakistan, with additional campuses and training programmes in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, United Kingdom and Afghanistan.
Ahir or Aheer is an ethnic group, some members of which identify as being of the Indian Yadav community because they consider the two terms to be synonymous.
The Ain-i-Akbari (آئینِ اکبری) or the "Constitution of Akbar", is a 16th-century, detailed document recording the administration of emperor Akbar's empire, written by his vizier, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak.
Ajmer (अजमेर) is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District.
Ajrak (اجرڪ) is a unique form of blockprinted shawls and tiles found in Sindh, Pakistan.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
The Akbarnama which translates to Book of Akbar, is the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor (r. 1556–1605), commissioned by Akbar himself by his court historian and biographer, Abul Fazl who was one of the nine jewels in Akbar's court.
ʾAḥmad Ibn Yaḥyā al-Balādhurī (أحمد بن يحيى بن جابر البلاذري) was a 9th-century Muslim historian.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Applied Economics Research Centre (AERC) is a research institute of University of Karachi.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arghun Khan a.k.a. Argon (Mongolian Cyrillic: Аргун хан; c. 1258 – 7 March 1291) was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291.
The Arghun dynasty ruled the area between southern Afghanistan and the Sindh province of Pakistan from the late 15th century to the early 16th century.
Aror (Sindhi: اروهڙ) or Alor or Arorkot (Sindhi: اروهڙ ڪوٽ) is the medieval name of the city of Rohri (in Sindh, modern Pakistan).
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
The Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology (abbreviated APIIT) is an educational organisation specialising in providing education and training programmes in computing and information technology.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.
The Asian elephant, or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia, from India and Nepal in the west to Borneo in the south.
The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), also known as Iranian cheetah, is a Critically Endangered cheetah subspecies surviving today only in Iran.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Sindhi Awami Tahreek (Sindhi People's Movement) or now Awami Tahreek, Pakistan (ATP), is a left-wing, pro-social democratic, pro-socialist, and progressive political party based in Sindh, and headquartered in Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan.
Ayub Bridge (ایوب پل), named after Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), is a railway bridge over the Indus river between Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh province, Pakistan.
Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.
Badin (بدين بدین) is the main city and capital of Badin District in Sindh, Pakistan.
The Badin District (ضلعو بدين, ضلع بدین) is a district in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Bagh Print is a traditional hand block print with natural colours, an Indian Handicraft practised in Bagh, Dhar district in Madhya Pradesh, India.
Bahria University (جامعہ بحریہ) or BU, is a public research university primarily located in Islamabad, Pakistan.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
Banking in Pakistan first formally started in Pakistan during the period of British colonialism in the South Asia.
Baqai Medical University (جامعہ طبی بقائی بقائي ميڊيڪل يونيورسٽي) is located on Super Highway, Toll Plaza, Gadap suburb of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
The Battle of Halani was fought in 1782 between the Baloch tribe Talpurs and the Sindhi tribe Kalhora for the control of the Sindh region, in modern-day Pakistan.
The Battle of Dubbo, sometime called as The Battle of Hyderabad was fought on 24 March 1843 between the forces of British East India Company and the Talpur Emirs of Sindh near Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Battle of Miani (or Battle of Meeanee) was a battle between forces of the Bombay Army of the British East India company, under Charles Napier and the Talpur Amirs of Sindh, led by Mir Nasir Khan Talpur.
Bawarij (باوارج) were Sindhi pirates from Sindh named for their distinctive barja warships.
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
The Berar Subah was one of the Subahs (imperial first-level provinces) of the Mughal Empire, the first to be added to the original twelve, in Dakhin (Deccan, central India) from 1596 to 1724.
Bhit or Bhit Shah (ڀٽ شاهه) is a small town located in Matiari District, Sindh, Pakistan.
The black partridge (Melanoperdix niger), also known as the black wood partridge, is a small (up to 27 cm long) partridge with a thick bill, grey legs and dark brown iris.
The blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), also known as the Indian antelope, is an antelope found in India, Nepal and Pakistan.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
The Brahma from Mirpur Khas is a famous bronze image of the Brahma made in Sindh, in modern Pakistan, dated to the 5th or 6th century, during the Gupta period.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bungarus is a genus of venomous elapid snakes, the kraits ("krait" is pronounced, rhyming with "kite"), found in South and Southeast Asia.
Bushehr, or Bushire (بوشهر; also Romanised as Būshehr, Bouchehr, Buschir and Busehr; also Bandar Bushehr (بندر بوشهر), also Romanised as Bandar Būshehr and Bandar-e Būshehr; previously known as Beh Ardasher, Antiochia in Persis (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Περσίδος) and Bukht Ardashir), is the capital city of Bushehr Province, Iran.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Capparis decidua is commonly known as karira, is a useful plant in its marginal habitat.
Celestial globes show the apparent positions of the stars in the sky.
Ceriops tagal (spurred mangrove, Indian mangrove, Indiese wortelboom, Isinkaha) is a mangrove tree species in the family Rhizophoraceae.
Chach (c. 631-711 CE) (چچ)Wink, André.
Chandka Medical College (چانڈکا طبی کالج, چانڈکا طبی ڪاليج, or CMC), established on 20 April 1973, is a third public sector medical college under the Government of Sindh where more than 300 students of tagged districts including Larkana, Qamber Shahdadkot District, Shikarpur, Jacobabad, Kashmor and Naushahro Feroze get admission.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
General Sir Charles James Napier, (10 August 178229 August 1853), was an officer and veteran of the British Army's Peninsula, and 1812 campaigns, and later a Major General of the Bombay Army, during which period he led the military conquest of Sindh, before serving as the Governor of Sindh, and Commander-in-Chief in India.
The Chaukhandi Tombs (چوکنڈی قبرستان; چوڪُنڊي) form an early Islamic cemetery situated east of Karachi, in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Chauth (from Sanskrit meaning one-fourth) was a regular tax or tribute imposed, from early 18th century, by the Maratha Empire in India.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
A Chief Minister (وزیر اعلى—), is the elected head of government of Sindh province in Pakistan.
The Chief Secretary Sindh, also referred to as CS Sindh, is the bureaucratic chief and highest-ranking official of the Government of Sindh.
The chinkara (Gazella bennettii), also known as the Indian gazelle, is a gazelle species native to Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The province of Sindh is situated in a subtropical region; it is hot in the summer and cold in winter.
College of Digital Sciences (CDS) was at Gulshan-e-Iqbal in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The RLAK (named after Begum Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan) Government College of Home Economics (also known as RLAK CHE) is an all-girls college, established in 1952 in Karachi, province of Sindh, Pakistan.
The College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan (طبیب و جراح کالج پاکستان, abbreviated as CPSP) is a public regulatory college in Pakistan.
Commecs College (کامکس کالج) is a higher secondary intermediate school in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Conservatism in Pakistan (پاكستانی قدامت پسندی), generally relates to the traditional, social, and religious identities in the politics of Pakistan.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The Culture of Sindh (سنڌ جي ثقافت,سندھ کی ثقافت) has its roots in the Indus Valley Civilization.
Dadu District (دادو), (دادو) is a district of Sindh Province, Pakistan.
Dadu (دادو), (دادُو), is a town in Sindh, Pakistan.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.
Dawn News is one of Pakistan's 24-hour Urdu news channel.
The Dawood University of Engineering and Technology (initials:DUET) (انجنيئرڱ ۽ ٽيڪنيڀياس جي جامعہ دائود) is a public university located in the industrial area of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Debal (ديبل; ديبل) was an ancient port located near modern Karachi, Pakistan.
Defence Authority Degree College The Defence Authority Degree College for Boys & Girls, also known as DADC, is a co-education degree college located at D.H.A., Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Demetrius I (Greek: Δημήτριος Α΄) was a Greek king (reigned c. 200–180 BC) of Gandhara.
Dhow (Arabic داو dāw) is the generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with settee or sometimes lateen sails, used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean region.
Karachi Central District (ضلع کراچی وسطی) is an administrative district of Karachi Division in Sindh, Pakistan.
Karachi East District (ضلع کراچی شرقی) is an administrative district of Karachi Division in Sindh, Pakistan.
Karachi South District (ضلع کراچی جنوبی) is an administrative district of Karachi Division in Sindh, Pakistan.
Karachi West District (ضلع کراچی غربی) is an administrative district of Karachi Division in Sindh, Pakistan.
The Districts of Pakistan (اِضلاعِ پاكِستان), are the third-order administrative divisions of Pakistan, below provinces and divisions, but form the first-tier of local government.
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan.
Mubarak Khan Lasharie or more popular as Darya Khan Lasharie (دريا خان لاشاری.), was a famous general of Samma Dynasty of Sindh, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of Samma ruler Jam Feroz whose deeds of valour are sung all over Sindh to this day.
Dow International Medical College (ڈاؤ بین القوامی طبی کالج) is a government-owned public sector medical college in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, which is recognized by the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC).
The Dow University of Health Sciences (initials: DUHS) (ڊائو يونيورسٽي آف هيلٿ سائنسز), is one of the oldest public sector universities in Pakistan.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The economy of Sindh is the 2nd largest of all the provinces in Pakistan.
Since its establishment in 1947, Pakistan has had an asymmetric federal government and is a federal parliamentary democratic republic.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Eugene Ehrlich (21 May 1922 – 5 April 2008) was a lexicographer and author.
The Faiz Mahal (فَیض محل) is a palace in Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan.
Shaikh Abu al-Faiz ibn Mubarak, popularly known by his pen-name, Faizi (20 September 1547–15 October 1595) was a Persian poet and scholar of late medieval India.
Fatima Jinnah Dental College, commonly referred to by the acronym FJDC, is the oldest dental school in Karachi and one of the oldest in Pakistan.
The Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology (وفاقی جامعہ اردو; alternatively known as FUU), is a public research university primarily located in the residential Gulshan Town of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
A firman (فرمان farmân), or ferman (Turkish), at the constitutional level, was a royal mandate or decree issued by a sovereign in an Islamic state, namely the Ottoman Empire.
The fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized wild cat of South and Southeast Asia.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
The Ghanchi (Ghaanchi) are a Gujrati Muslim community found in the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan in India.
Student Boys Group Ghotki Ghotki District (ضِلعو گھوٽڪي) is a district in Pakistan, located in the Sindh province.
Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College (GMMMC)http://www.gmmmc.edu.pk/ (Urdu غلام محمد مهر میڈیکل کالج) is a constituent College of Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University,http://beta.smbbmu.edu.pk/ located in the center of Sukkur city.
Godhra is a Municipality in Panchmahal district in Indian state of Gujarat.
Gorakh (گورک), (گورکھ) is a Hill Station of Sindh, Pakistan.
Government College for Men, Nazimabad is a boys degree college located in Nazimabad, Karachi, Pakistan adjacent to the famous Nazimabad Flyover and Petrol Pump bus stop.
Government College of Commerce & Economics is one of the premier institutions of commerce education in the city of Karachi.
Government High School Ranipur was established as Government AV (Anglo Vernacular) School in Ranipur in 1939, it was upgraded as Government Middle School and subsequently as Government High School Ranipur in 1961.
Government Islamia Science College Sukkur is an educational institute in the Pakistani city of Sukkur.
Government National College, Karachi is a college in Karachi, Pakistan.
The Government of Sindh (سنڌ سرڪار) is the provincial government of the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
The Governor of Sindh is the appointed head of the provincial government in Sindh, Pakistan.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, also known as the Pratihara Empire, was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-7th to the 11th century.
The Habbari dynasty ruled the Abbasid province of Greater Sindh from 841 to 1024.
Hala (هـالا) is a city and taluka of Matiari district of Sindh, Pakistan.
Hamdard University (Urdu) (همدرد يونيورسٽي) is a private research university with campuses in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan.
Hamida Banu Begum (1527 – 29 August 1604) was a wife of the second Mughal emperor Humayun and the mother of his successor, the third Mughal emperor Akbar.
Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.
Harsha (c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE.
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae.
Hemming and seaming are two similar metalworking processes in which a sheet metal edge is rolled over onto itself.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
introduction There are five High Courts of Pakistan, each of four based in the capital city of one of the four provinces.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
General Hosh Muhammad Sheedi qambrani or Hoshu Sheedi (Sindhi: هوش محمد شيدي; ہوش محمّد شیدی) was a supreme commander of "" Sindh's Talpur army.
Hot Mobile (הוט מובייל, formerly known as Mirs Communications Ltd. until May 2012), is a wireless telecommunications company based in Israel and a subsidiary of Hot Telecommunication Systems Ltd. (HOT).
The houbara bustard or North African houbara (Chlamydotis undulata) is a large bird in the bustard family.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Hur (حر meaning "free", "not slave") is a Sufi Muslim community in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
The Hussain Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry, ICCBS, widely known as HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, is an advanced research center in Karachi, Sindh Province of Pakistan.
Haiderābād District (ضلعو حيدرآباد ضِلع حیدرآباد), is a district of Sindh, Pakistan.
Hyderabad (Sindhi and حيدرآباد; is a city located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Located 140 kilometres east of Karachi, Hyderabad is the 2nd largest in Sindh province, and the 8th largest city in Pakistan. Founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty, Hyderabad served as the Kalhoro, and later Talpur, capital until the British transferred the capital to Karachi in 1843.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
Muḥammad Abū’l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal (محمد أبو القاسم بن حوقل, born in Nisibis, Upper Mesopotamia; travelled 943-969 CE) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim writer, geographer, and chronicler.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian hog deer (Hyelaphus porcinus) is a small deer whose habitat ranges from Pakistan, through northern India, to mainland southeast Asia, which inhabits much of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, Bangladesh, southwestern Yunnan Province in China, all the way to western Thailand.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians (Sakas), who migrated into parts of central, northern and western South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture (انڊس ويلي اسڪول آف آرٽ اينڊ آرڪيٽيڪچر) is a not-for-profit degree awarding institution in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Institute of Business Administration (IBA) (انسٽيٽيوٽ آف بزنس ايڊمنسٽريشن) is an independent university in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Institute of Business Management (IoBM) (انسٽيٽيوٽ آف بزنس مينيجمينٽ), also known as "CBM" is a private university and business school in Karachi, Pakistan.
The Institute of Industrial Electronics Engineering (IIEE), is located in Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Institute of Sindhology (سنڌولوجي) is one of the major resources on the history of Sindh.
Iqra University (اقرا يونيورسٽي) is a private university primarily located in the Defence residential area of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
ISLAMIA SCIENCE COLLEGE KARACHI (اسلامیہ سائنس کالج.) is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Isra University (اسرا يونيورسٽي) (جامع اسراء) is a private university, legislated by the Isra University Act of 1997, located in Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan.
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al-Istakhri (آبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن محمد الفارسي الإصطخري) (also Estakhri, استخری, i.e. from the Iranian city of Istakhr, b. - d. 957 AD) was a Persian medieval geographer in medieval Islam and traveler of the 10th century.
Jackals are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the genus Canis, which also includes wolves, coyotes and the domestic dog.
Jacobabad or Khangarh (Sindhi and جيڪب آباد) is a city in Sindh, Pakistan, serving as both the capital city of Jacobabad District and the administrative centre of Jacobabad Taluka, an administrative subdivision of the district.
Jacobabad District is a district in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Nasir al-Din Abu al-Fatah Firuz Shah II, son of Jam Nizam al-Din commonly known as Jam Feroz (1508–1524/5), was the last ruler of the Samma Dynasty of Sindh.
Jám Nizámuddín II (ڄام نظام الدين عرف, جام نظام الدين ثاني; 1439–1509), also known as Jam Nizam al-Din or Jám Nindó (ڄام نندو), was the Rajput Sultan of Sindh between 1461 and 1508 CE.
Jam Unar bin Babinah (ڄام انڙ) was the Rajput ruler and founder of the indigenous Samma Dynasty, which ruled the Sindh and parts of Punjab and Balochistan from 1335-1520 C.E.
Jamshoro (ڄام شورو), (جامشورو), is a city and capital of Jamshoro District, Sindh, Pakistan.
Jamshoro District (ضلعو ڄام شورو, ضِلع جامشورو), is a district of Sindh province, Pakistan.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jinnah Medical and Dental College (جناح طبی اور دندان سازی کالج or JMDC) was established in 1998 in Karachi, Sindh Pakistan.
Jinnah Polytechnic Institute (JPI) is a polytechnic institute located in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (J.P.M.C., also known as Jinnah Hospital, Karachi) is located at Rafiqui Shaheed Road in Karachi Cantonment area of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Jinnah Sindh Medical University (جناح سنڌ ميڊيڪل يونيورسٽي) (جامعہ طبی جناح سندھ), formerly known as Sindh Medical College, is a medical university in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Jinnah University for Women (JUW) (جناح يونيورسٽي فار وومين) is a private research university in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Jinnahpur refers to an alleged plot in Pakistan to form a breakaway autonomous state to serve as a homeland for the Karachi based Urdu-speaking Muhajir community.
During the months of July and August 2011, a number of targeted killings in Karachi, Pakistan left hundreds of people dead.
Kahu-Jo-Darro is ancient Buddhist archaeological site near Mirpurkhas, Pakistan.
The Kalhoro/Kalhora' (written in Sindhi: ڪلهوڙو/ڪلهوڙا) is a Sindhi tribe and are the descendants of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, the paternal uncle and Sahabi (Companion) of ProphetMuhammad.
The Kalhora dynasty or Kalhoro dynasty (ڪلهوڙا راڄ) was a Shia Muslim Sindh dynasty of Baloch origin which ruled and other parts of present-day Pakistan from 1701 to 1783.
Kanishka I (कनिष्क), or Kanishka the Great, was the emperor of the Kushan dynasty in the second century (c. 127–150 CE).
The Karachi Institute of Power Engineering, commonly refers to KINPOE, formerly known as Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, is a post-graduate and engineering university that offers programme to the field of nuclear and power engineering, and the physical sciences.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
The Karachi School of Business and Leadership (KSBL) (ڪراچي اسڪول آف بزنس اينڊ ليڊرشپ) is an independent graduate business school located in Karachi, Pakistan.
Karoonjhar Mountains are located in Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan.
Kashmore or Kashmor (ڪشمور) (کشمور), is a town, a tehsil and the administrative centre for Kashmore District in the Sindh Province of Pakistan.
Kashmore District (ضلو ڪشمور), (ضِلع کشمور), previously known as Khizmer or Khizmore, is a district of the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Kâtip Çelebi (كاتب چلبى, Kātib Çelebi "Gentleman Scribe"), the pen name of Mustafa bin Abdullah (1609–1657), also later known as Haji Khalifa (Hacı Halife) or Kalfa, was an Ottoman scholar.
Khadi (IAST) or khaddar is handspun, hand-woven natural fiber cloth from India, Bangladesh and Pakistan mainly made out of cotton.
Al Khafif was the ruler of Mansurah in Sindh.
Khairpur (خيرپُور; خیرپور, khīr´pūr) is a city and the capital of the Khairpur District, in Pakistan's Sindh province.
The State of Khairpur (خيرپور رياست، ریاست خیرپور), also transliterated as Khairpur or Khayrpur, was a princely state of British India on the Indus River in modern-day Sindh, Pakistan, with its capital city at Khairpur.
Khairpur District is a district in the Pakistani province of Sindh in Sukkur Division.
The Khalji or Khilji dynasty was a Muslim dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent between 1290 and 1320.
Khawaja Muhammad Zaman of Luari (1713 - 1775 AD: 1125 - 1188 AH) (خواجہ محمد زمان لواري وارو) was a sufi saint and poet from Sindh.
The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamist, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate.
The Kidarites (Chinese: 寄多羅 Jiduolo) were a dynasty of the "Ki" clan named after their ruler Kidara.
Kilwa Kisiwani is a community on an Indian Ocean island off the southern coast of present-day Tanzania in eastern Africa.
The Kirthar Mountains (كوه کیر تھر) (کير ٿر جبل) are a mountain range located in the Pakistani provinces of Balochistan and Sindh.
The Kirthar National Park (alternatively Khirthar National Park) (کِیرتھر نیشنل پارک), Sindhi (کيرٿرنيشنل پارڪ) is situated in the Kirthar Mountains in Karachi and Jamshoro District in Sindh, Pakistan.
Korangi District (ضلع کورنگی) is one of the six administrative districts of Karachi.
The ancient site at Kot Diji (کوٹ ڈیجی) was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization.
The Kot Diji Fort (Fort of the Daughter), formally known as Fort Ahmadabad, is a 19th century Talpur-era fort located in the town of Kot Diji in Khairpur District, Pakistan about 25 miles east of the Indus River at the edge of the Thar Desert.
Kotri Barrage is a barrage on the Indus River between Jamshoro and Hyderabad in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Kushano-Sassanids (also called Kushanshas or Indo-Sassanians) were a branch of the Sassanid Persians who established their rule in Bactria and in northwestern Pakistan during the 3rd and 4th centuries at the expense of the declining Kushans.
Kutchi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Kutch region of the India.
Syed Usman MarvandiSarah Ansari (1992) Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sindh, 1843–1947.
The Lansdowne Bridge (Sindhi لينسڊائون پل; لینس ڈاؤن پل) is a 19th century bridge that spans the Indus River between the cities of Sukkur and Rohri, in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Larkana (لاڑکانہ; لاڙڪاڻو) is a city in the north-west of the Sindh province of Pakistan, where the historic Indus River flows in south of the city.
Larkana District (Sindhi: ضلعو لاڙڪاڻو; ضلع لاڑکانہ) is a district of Sindh province of Pakistan.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The Legal Framework Order, 1970 (LFO) was a decree issued by then-President of Pakistan Gen.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUHMS) (لياقت يونيورسٽي آف ميڊيڪل اينڊ هيلٿ سائنسز) is a Medical University located at Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
The following is a list of cities in Sindh province, Pakistan.
A Chief Minister in Pakistan is the elected Head of Government of one of Pakistan's four Provinces or the two non-provincial sub-national territories that have assemblies.
A Governor in Pakistan is the appointed Head of State of a province.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank some area by level of "human development" and separate developed (Very High development), developing (High and Medium development), and underdeveloped (Low development) areas.
This is a partial listing of prominent political families of Pakistan given in alphabetical order.
This is a list of provinces of Pakistan by their gross state product (GSP) (the value of the total economy, and goods and services produced in the respective province) in nominal terms.
The following is a list of notable people once living in the Sindhi province.
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry.
Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or cire perdue in French) is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi (1692- 1761) (مخدوم محمد هاشم ٺٺوي, مخدوم محمد ہاشم ٹھٹھوی) was an islamic scholar, author, philanthropist, and a spiritual leader who was considered a saint by his followers.
Makli Necropolis (مکلی کا شہرِ خموشاں; مڪلئَ جو مقام) is one of the largest funerary sites in the world, spread over an area of 10 square kilometres near the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Malir District (ضلع ملیر) is an administrative district of Karachi Division in Sindh, Pakistan.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
Manilkara zapota, commonly known as the sapodilla, is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean.
Mansura (Arabic: المنصورة, al-manṣūrah), was the first Sindhi Muslim capital from the year 711.AD to 1006.AD, the city was founded as a central garrison by the Umayyad Forces in Sindh, the city transformed into a very vibrant metropolis during the Abbasid Era surpassing the wealth of Multan in the north and Debal in the south.
The Maratha (IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Matyari or Matiari (مٹیاری) is the capital city of Matiari District, Sindh, Pakistan.
Matiari District (ضِلعو مٽیاري) is a district in the Pakistani province of Sindh.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Mazar-e-Quaid, also known as the Jinnah Mausoleum or the National Mausoleum, is the final resting place of Quaid-e-Azam ("Great Leader") Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan.
Mehran University of Engineering and Technology (انجنيئرڱ ۽ ٽيڪنيڀياس جي جامعہ مهراڻ) (Often referred as Mehran University or MUET) is a public research university located in Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan focused on STEM education.
Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.
Menander I Soter (Μένανδρος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ, Ménandros A' ho Sōtḗr, "Menander I the Saviour"; known in Indian Pali sources as Milinda) was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (165Bopearachchi (1998) and (1991), respectively. The first date is estimated by Osmund Bopearachchi and R. C. Senior, the other Boperachchi/155 –130 BC) who administered a large empire in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro (died 1772) ميان غلام شاه ڪلهوڙو) was famous ruler of the Kalhora Dynasty whose rule began in 1757 when he was appointed ruler of Sindh by tribal Chiefs of kalhora replacing his brother Mian Muradyab Kalhoro. He was recognized and bestowed upon title of Shah Wardí Khan by Afghan King Ahmad Shah Durrani. He was able to bring stability in Sindh after the rule of Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro; he reorganized the country and defeated the Marathas and their permanent vassal the Rao of Kuchch in the Thar Desert and returned victoriously. Ghulam Shah also ordered construction of the Shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai.
Mir Hajji Mulla Ahmad Nasr Allah Tattavi (d.1588) was born in Thatta, Sindh.
Mir Ali Sher Tattavi, Qaune (b.1728 - d.1788) was a Sindhi Muslim historian born after the rule of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
Mirpur Khas (Sindhi and; meaning "Town of the most-high Mirs") is the capital city of Mirpur Khas District in the province of Sindh in Pakistan and was the capital of an eponymous princely state.
Mirpur Khas District (ضلعو ميرپورخاص ضِلع مِيرپُورخاص), is one of the districts in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Mirpur Mathelo Taluka is an administrative subdivision (taluka) of Ghotki District in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Mirza Ghazi Beg Tarkhan (میرزا غازى بیگ ترخان) of the Tarkhan dynasty in Sindh ruled from the capital city of Thatta.
Mirza Kalich Beg (مرزا قليچ بيگ) is a scholar known for his contributions to the Sindhi literature.
Mithi (مٺي, مِٹّھی), is the capital of Tharparkar District in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Mohammad Ali Jinnah University (محمد علي جناح يونيورسٽي) (جامعہ محمد علی جناح, abbreviated as MAJU) is a semi-government university primarily located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Mohatta Palace (موہٹہ پیلس) is a museum located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The Muhajir people (also spelled Mahajir and Mohajir) (مهاجر) are Muslim immigrants, of multi-ethnic origin, and their descendants, who migrated from various regions of India after the independence of Pakistan.
‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; c. 695715) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad Caliphate.
Muhammad saleh Thattvi (1074 AH/1663–64 AD), Mughal metallurgist, astronomer, geometer and craftsman, was born and raised in Thatta, Sindh province in Pakistan, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and the governorship of the Mughal Nawab Mirza Ghazi Beg of Sindh.
Mohammad Zubair Umar (محمد زبیر عمر) is a Pakistani politician currently serving as 32nd Governor of Sindh.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Muscat (مسقط) is the capital and largest city of Oman.
Muslim Rajputs or Musulman Rajputs, are patrilineal descendants of Rajputs of Northern regions of the Indian Subcontinent who are followers of Islam.
The Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) (متحدہ قومی موومنٹ), is a secular political party in Pakistan that was founded by Altaf Hussain in 1984.
The name in Indian languages is Bharata after the emperor Bharata.
The National Academy of Performing Arts (قومی کالج انجام دینا هنر, abbreviated as NAPA) is an performing arts school located at Hindu Gymkhana in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Qaumi Assembly Pakistan (قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان or National Assembly of Pakistan (ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Aiwan-e Bala (upper house). The Qaumi Assembly and the Aiwan-e Bala both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority. Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the President of Pakistan, it is dissolved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. On March 17, 2013 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution. Pakistani general election, 2013 (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on May 11, 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on June 1, 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 after completing its 5 year term.
The National Museum of Pakistan (قومی عجائب گھر پاکِستان) is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
The National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (Initials: NUCES and FAST-NU) (نيشنل يونيورسٽي آف ڪمپيوٽر اينڊ امرجنگ سائنسز) is a public research university in Pakistan.
National University of Sciences and Technology (قومی جامعہ علوم اور صنعت و حرفت), commonly referred to as NUST, is a public research university with main campus in Islamabad, Pakistan and other subsidiary campuses in different cities of Pakistan.
Naushahro Feroze (نوشہروفِيروز, نوشهرو فیروز), is the capital city of Naushahro Feroze District in Sindh province of Pakistan.
Naushahro Feroze District (نوشهرو فیروز) is a district in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Nawab (Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state.
Nawabshah (Sindhi and نوابشاہ) is the old name of Shaheed Benazir Abad District of Sindh province, Pakistan.
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
The NED University of Engineering and Technology (انجنيئرڱ ۽ ٽيڪنالاجي جي جامعہ اين اي ڊي, جامعہ این ای ڈی برائے انجنئرنگ اور ٹیکنالوجی), is a public university located in the urban area of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Nerium oleander is a shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae, toxic in all its parts.
Nizami Ganjavi (translit) (1141–1209), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi, whose formal name was Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī,Mo'in, Muhammad(2006), "Tahlil-i Haft Paykar-i Nezami", Tehran.: p. 2: Some commentators have mentioned his name as “Ilyas the son of Yusuf the son of Zakki the son of Mua’yyad” while others have mentioned that Mu’ayyad is a title for Zakki. Mohammad Moin, rejects the first interpretation claiming that if it were to mean 'Zakki son of Muayyad' it should have been read as 'Zakki i Muayyad' where izafe (-i-) shows the son-parent relationship but here it is 'Zakki Muayyad' and Zakki ends in silence/stop and there is no izafe (-i-). Some may argue that izafe is dropped due to meter constraints but dropping parenthood izafe is very strange and rare. So it is possible that Muayyad was a sobriquet for Zaki or part of his name (like Muayyad al-Din Zaki). This is supported by the fact that later biographers also state Yusuf was the son of Mu’ayyad was a 12th-century Persian Sunni Muslim poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. excerpt: Greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic..... Nezami is admired in Persian-speaking lands for his originality and clarity of style, though his love of language for its own sake and of philosophical and scientific learning makes his work difficult for the average reader. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, the Kurdistan region and Tajikistan.
The olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), also known as the Pacific ridley sea turtle, are smallest and most abundant of all sea turtles found in the world, species of sea turtle found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Ovis is a genus of mammals, part of the goat-antelope subfamily of the ruminant family Bovidae.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pacco Qillo (پكا قلعه, پڪو قلعو, Strong Fort), formally known as Pakka Qilla, is a fort in Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (پاکستان مسلم لیگ (ن) PML-N) is a centre-right conservative party in Pakistan.
The Pakistan Navy Engineering College (Urdu: نيوى انجنيريگ كالج; initials: PNEC) is an accredited research college operated by the Pakistan Navy.
The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.
Pakistan Shipowners' College is a Government (Public) college, located at Shahrah e Noorjahan, in North Nazimabad, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Pakistan Steel Cadet College, is a residential educational institution under the management of Pakistan Steel Mills Corporation.
Pakistani English or Paklish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan.
The Parkari Koli language (sometimes called just Parkari) is a language mainly spoken in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
The Parmar (Pawar) are a Rajput clan in India, who claim descent from the Agnivansha dynasty.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators.
The Port of Karachi (کراچی بندرگاہ Bandar gāh Karāchī) is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum) located in Karachi, Pakistan.
The Port Muhammad Bin Qasim (بندر گاہ محمد بن قاسم Bandar-gāh Muhammad bin Qāsim), also known as Port Qasim, is a deep-water seaport in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, on the coastline of the Arabian Sea.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.
Provincial Assembly of Sindh (Sindhiصوباۂي اسيمبلي سنڌ, صوبائی اسمبلی سندھ) is a unicameral house of elected representatives of people of Sindh established under Article 106 of the Constitution of Pakistan.
Punch; or, The London Charivari was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire established in 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
Qadiani or Qadiyani (قادیانی qādiyānī in Urdu and Arabic) is a pejorative term used by some South Asian Muslims to refer to Ahmadi Muslims, primarily in Pakistan.
Qambar, also known as the city that shares its name with Qambar Hasan, is the capital of Qambar Shahdadkot District, Sindh, Pakistan.
Qambar Shahdadkot District (ضلعو قمبر شهداد ڪوٽ) is a district of Sindh, Pakistan.
The Qasim Fort is a small fort constructed in the 18th century by the Talpur dynasty when the port of Karachi traded with Oman and Bahrain.
The Quaid-e-AWam University of Engineering, Sciences and Technology (popularize as QUEST) (انجنيئرڱ ۽ ٽيڪنيڀياس جي جامعہ قائد عوام) is a public research university located in the urban neighborhood of Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Rai Dynasty (c. 524–632 CE) was at power during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Sindh, in modern Pakistan.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Raja Dahar (راجا ڏاھر; राजा दाहिर, IAST: Rājā Dāhir; 663 – 712 CE) was the last Hindu ruler of Sindh.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Ralli quilts are traditional quilts made by women in the areas of Sindh, Pakistan, western India, and in surrounding areas.
The Rani Bagh ("Queen's Garden"), previously Das Garden, is a zoological garden located in Hyderabad City, Sindh, Pakistan.
Ranikot Fort (رني ڪوٽ, قِلعہ رانی کوٹ) (also known as Rannikot) is a historical fort near Sann, Jamshoro District, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Rann of Kutch is a large area of salt marshes located mostly in Gujarat (primarily the Kutch district), India and the southern tip of Sindh, Pakistan.
Rehan College of Education, is located in Korangi No.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842) was an Irish and British politician and colonial administrator.
Rohida is a village in Sirohi district of Indian state of Rajasthan.
Rohri (Sindhi: روهڙي; روہڑی) is a town of Sukkur District, Sindh province, Pakistan.
The Ror dynasty (روهڙا راڄ) was a power from the Indian subcontinent that ruled modern-day Sindh and northwest India from 450 BC.
Sheikh Muhammad Ikram (Urdu: شیخ محمد اکرام; b. 10 September 1908 – 17 January 1973) better known as S. M. Ikram, was a Pakistani historian, biographer, and littérateur.
Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī (ابومحمد مصلحالدین بن عبدالله شیرازی), better known by his pen-name Saadi (سعدی Saʿdī()), also known as Saadi of Shiraz (سعدی شیرازی Saadi Shirazi), was a major Persian poet and literary of the medieval period.
Sachal Sarmast (1739–1827) (سچلُ سرمستُ, سچل سرمست) was a Sufi poet from Sindh in modern-day Pakistan.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Saint Joseph's College for Women is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Sāmarrāʾ (سَامَرَّاء) is a city in Iraq.
Samma are a clan.
The Samma dynasty (سمن جو راڄ, سلسله سماں) was a Muslim Rajput power on the Indian Subcontinent, that ruled in Sindh, Kutch, Saurastra and parts of Punjab and Balochistan from 1351 to 1524 CE, with their capital at Thatta in modern Pakistan; before being replaced by the Arghun dynasty.
Sammaat is the name of the original population of the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Sanghar (سانگھڙ; سانگھڑ) is a city in Sanghar District, Sindh, Pakistan. Sanghar is the headquarters of Sanghar District and Sanghar Taluka (a subdivision of the district). It is one of the agriculture towns situated approximately 265 km from Karachi city. It has road links with Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Mirpur Khas, Khairpur and other major cities of Sindh.
Sanghar District (ضلعو سانگھڙ: ضلع سانگھڑ) is one of the largest districts of Sindh province, Pakistan.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Santri is a cultural 'stream' of people within the population of Javanese who practice a more orthodox version of Islam, in contrast to the abangan classes.
Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Sauvīra was an ancient kingdom of the lower Indus Valley mentioned in the Late Vedic and early Buddhist literature and the Hindu epic Mahabharata.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Sehwan (سيوهڻ شريف, سیہون; also commonly referred to as Sehwan Sharif, or Noble Sehwan, is a historic city located in Jamshoro District of Sindh province in Pakistan and is situated on the west bank of the Indus north-west of Hyderabad. The city is renowned for being home of one of Pakistan's most important Sufi shrines, the Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. Due to the popularity of its Sufi shrine, the terms "Sehwan" and "Qalandar" are often used interchangeably in Pakistan. Sehwan is one of Pakistan's most important spiritual centres, along with other shrines such as the Shrine of Abdullah Shah Ghazi in Karachi, Data Durbar Complex in Lahore, Bari Imam in Noorpur Shehan near Islamabad, and the lustrous tombs of the Suhrawardi sufis in Multan.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier.
Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (also referred to by the honorifics: Lakhino Latif, Latif Ghot, Bhittai, and Bhitt Jo Shah) (18 November 1689 – 1 January 1752) (شاه عبداللطيف ڀٽائي, شاہ عبداللطیف بھٹائی) was a Sindhi Sufi scholar, mystic, saint, and poet, widely considered to be the greatest Muslim poet of the Sindhi language.
Shah Abdul Latif University (جامعہ شاہ عبداللطیف, شاه عبداللطيف يونيورسٽي; abbreviated as SALU), is a public research university located in rural Khairpur of Sindh, Pakistan.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
The Shah Jahan Mosque, also known as the Jamia Masjid of Thatta (جامع مسجد ٹھٹہ), is a 17th-century building that serves as the central mosque for the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Shaheed Benazirabad District (Sindhi ضلعو بينظير آباد), previously known as Nawabshah District (Sindhi نوابشاہ), is one of the districts in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical College (شہید محترمہ بینظیر بھٹو طبی کالج, or SMBBMC) is a medical school in Lyari, Karachi, Pakistan, that opened in March 2011.
Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST) (شهيد ذولفقار علي ڀٽو انسٽيٽيوٽ آف سائنس اينڊ ٽيڪنالاجي) is a private chartered institute with multiple campuses in the residential and commercial areas of Pakistan and UAE.
Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.
Shikarpur district (Sindhi:شڪارپور): (ضِلع شِكارپُور), is a district in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Shikarpur (Urdu and شِکارپُور) is small city and the capital of Shikarpur District in Sindh province of Pakistan.
The Shunga Empire (IAST) was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE.
Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi II (پير صبغت الله شاه راشدي شهيد; (Sindhi) صبغت الله شاهه راشدي), Pir Pagaro the sixth, was a spiritual leader of the Hur Movement during Sindh's independence struggle against British colonial rule.
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Sinbad (or Sindbad) the Sailor (as-Sindibādu l-Baḥriyy) is a fictional mariner and the hero of a story-cycle of Middle Eastern origin.
The Sind Division was the name an administrative division of the British Raj located in Sindh.
Sind ibn Ali-Musa, Sind ibn ʿAlī (died after 864 AD), was a renowned Sindhi Muslim astronomer, translator, mathematician and engineer.
Sind was a province of British India from 1936 to 1947 and Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sind or Sindh (سنڌ, سندھ, सिन्ध) can refer to.
Sindh Agriculture University, (Sindhi: سنڌ زرعي يونيورسٽي ٽنڊو ڄام) is situated in Tando Jam town at 18 km from Hyderabad, on Hyderabad-Mirpurkhas highway and is about 200 km from Karachi airport linked with super highway to Hyderabad.
The High Court of Sindh is the highest judicial institution of the province of Sindh.
The Sindh ibex or Turkman wild goat (Capra aegagrus blythi) is a vulnerable subspecies of wild goat commonly native to southern Pakistan.
The Sindh Muslim Government Law College (Urdu: سنده مسلم گورنمنٹس لا کالج) or S. M. Law College (Urdu: ایس ایم لاء کالج) is located on Dr.
Sindhi women wear the Shalwar kameez or the sari and the men wear the shalwar kameez or the kurta with pyjamma.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.
Sindhu was a kingdom of India mentioned in the epic Mahabharata and in the Harivamsa Purana.
Sindhudesh (سنڌو ديش, literally "Sindhi Country") is an idea of a separate Homeland for Sindhis proposed by Sindhi nationalist parties for the creation of a "Sindhi state", which would be either autonomous within Pakistan or independent from it.
Sir Syed Government Girls College is located in Nazimabad at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology (انجنيئرڱ ۽ ٽيڪنيڀياس جي جامعہ سر سيد) (known as "SSUET") is a private research university located in the urban area of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Sukkur Institute of Science & Technology (or SiSTech) is an institute that provides educational programs in computer science, information technology and business studies in the Sukkur district.
The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the groups like Lal Salam which is the Pakistani section of the International Marxist Tendency, The Struggle, to the Stalinist group like Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) While capitalism has always held its sway, the prevalence of the socialist ideology has nevertheless continued to be found in a number of instances in Pakistan's political past and prominent personalities.
Sofala, at present known as Nova Sofala, used to be the chief seaport of the Mwenemutapa Kingdom, whose capital was at Mount Fura.
The Soomra dynasty were rulers from the Indian subcontinent.
Soomro (or Soomra, Sumrah; (سومرو) is a Sindhi tribe mainly based in Sindh, parts of Punjab bordering Sindh and in Balochistan, Pakistan.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (P. g. gangetica)(~3,500 individuals) and the Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor)(~1,500 individuals).
A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or yarn from natural or synthetic fibres.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Saint Patrick's College or St.
A Subah was the term for a province in the Mughal Empire.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sufism in Sindh covers the tradition of Sufism in Sindh, which is reputed to be an area of mystics.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sujawal (سجاول), is an historical and a densely populated city.
Sujawal District (also spelled Sajawal; ضلعو سجاول, ضلع سجاول) is a new district of the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Sukkur is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh along the western bank of the Indus River, directly across from the historic city of Rohri.
Sukkur Barrage (سکر بئراج, سکھر بیراج) is a barrage on the River Indus near the city of Sukkur in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Sukkur district (ضلعو سکر), (ضِلع سکّھر), is a district in Sindh Province in Pakistan.
The Sukkur IBA University (previously Sukkur Institute of Business Administration or Sukkur IBA) (سکر آئي بي اي يونيورسٽي) is a higher education institute in Sukkur, Pakistan.
Syed Murad Ali Shah (سید مراد على شاه) is a Pakistani politician and structural engineer who served as the Chief Minister of Sindh and a member of the Sindh Assembly.
Mir Tahir Muhammad Ibn Hassan Sabzavari Tattavi was a Sindhi Muslim poet and historian during the rule of the Mughal Empire, who composed poetry under the pen-name Nisyani.
Talpur (بلوچ, Sindhi: سنڌي) is a Sindhi speaking Baloch tribe settled in Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan in Pakistan.
The Talpur dynasty (سلسله تالپور) (ٽالپردور) was a dynasty of the Talpur tribe that conquered and ruled Sindh, and other parts of present-day Pakistan, from 1783 to 1843.
Tando Allahyar (ٽنڊوالهيار, in Sindhi), is a town in Sindh, Pakistan.
Tando Allahyar District (ضلعو ٽنڊو الهيار) is a district in the province of Sindh in Pakistan.
Tando Muhammad Khan (Sindhi: ٽنڊو محمد خان, Urdu: ٹنڈو محمد خان) is the headquarters of the Tando Muhammad Khan District in the second smallest and second most populous of the four Pakistani provinces, Sindh.
Tando Muhammad Khan District (ضلعو ٽنڊو محمد خان, ضلع ٹنڈو محمد خان) is a district in the southern part of Sindh province in Pakistan.
Tarkhan (Old Turkic Tarqan; ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ Darqan or Darkhan; ترخان;; طرخان; alternative spellings Tarkan, Tarkhaan, Tarqan, Tarchan, Turxan, Tarcan, Tárkány, Tarján, Torgyán or Turgan) is an ancient Central Asian title used by various Turkic peoples, Indo-Europeans (i.e. Iranian, Tokharian, Punjabi), and by the Hungarians and Mongols.
The Tarkhan dynasty (سلسله ترخان), or Turkhan dynasty, was established by Turkic Tarkhan and ruled Sindh, Pakistan from 1554 to 1591 AD.
Tecomella undulata is a tree species, locally known as rohida found in Thar Desert regions of India and Pakistan.
A tehsil (also known as a mandal, taluk, taluq or taluka) is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.
TES Public Higher Secondary School is a public higher secondary school in Daur, Pakistan.
Textile Institute of Pakistan (TIP) (ٽيڪسٽائيل انسٽيٽيوٽ آف پاڪستان) is a private sector, not-for-profit degree-awarding institution in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
Tharparkar District (ضلعو ٿرپارڪر, (ضِلع تھرپارکر), is one of the twenty nine districts of Sindh province in Pakistan. It is largest district of Sindh province by land area. It is headquartered at Mithi. It has the lowest Human Development Index of all the districts in Sindh. Thar has a fertile desert and the livelihood of Thari people depends on rainfall agriculture. Tharparkar has the only fertile desert in the world.
Thatta (ٺٽو) is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Thatta District (ضلو ٺٽو; ضِلع ٹهٹہ) is located in the southern area, locally called Laar, of the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
The Express Tribune is a major daily English-language newspaper based in Pakistan.
The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians is a book comprising translations of medieval Persian chronicles based on the work of Henry Miers Elliot.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The thermal equator (also known as "the heat equator") is a belt encircling the Earth, defined by the set of locations having the highest mean annual temperature at each longitude around the globe.
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about north of Delhi, between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Najib-ud-daulah Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
Time in Pakistan is given by Pakistan Standard Time (PKT).
Tomb paintings of Sindh are found mainly in the Shahdadkot tehsil of Qamber-Shahdadkot in Sindh, Pakistan.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
The Tughlaq dynasty also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim dynasty of Turko-Indian origin which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India.
A turban (from Persian دولبند, dulband; via Middle French turbant) is a type of headwear based on cloth winding.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Umarkot (عُمَركوٹ, عمرڪوٽ), formerly known as Amarkot (امَرکوٹ), is a town in Umarkot District in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
Umarkot District (ضلعو عمر ڪوٽ, (ضِلع عُمَرکوٹ), is a district of Sindh province, Pakistan. The city of Umarkot is the capital of the district.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A Union Council (شیروان, Sherwan) forms the second-tier of local government and fifth administrative division in Pakistan.
The University of Karachi (جامعۂ كراچى; ڪراچي يونيورسٽي; or KU) is a public university university located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The University of Sindh (سنڌ يونيورسٽي; جامعه سندھ, informally known as Sindh University) is a public research university in the residential area of Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The urial (Ovis orientalis vignei), also known as the arkars or shapo, is a subspecies group of the wild sheep Ovis orientalis.
Usman Institute of Technology (UIT), is a not-for profit institute.
Vachellia nilotica (commonly known as gum arabic tree, babul, thorn mimosa, Egyptian acacia or thorny acacia) is a tree in the family Fabaceae.
A veranda or verandah (from Bengali baranda) is a roofed, open-air gallery or porch.
The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas (35–405 CE) were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states).
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
The Ziauddin University (جامعہ ضیاء الدین, abbreviated as ZU), is a private research university located in Clifton in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Al-Sind, Ba'ab-ul-Islam, Baabul Islam, Bab ul Islam, Bab-ul-Islam, Babul Islam, Gateway of Islam, Geography of Sindh, Greater Sindh, Islamic conquest of Sindh, Islamization of Sindh, Jeay sindh mahaz, Kingdom of Sindh, Languages of Sindh, Mehran, Pakistan, PK-SD, Pakistani Sindh, Province of Sindh, Scinde, Scindh, Sind, Sind Province, Sind province, Sind, Pakistan, Sindh (Pakistan), Sindh (Province), Sindh (region), Sindh Province, Sindh Wildlife Department, Sindh province, Sindh region, Sindh, Pakistan, Sindhi land, Sindhi province, Sindhistan, South Pakistan, Southeast Pakistan, Southeastern Pakistan, Southern Pakistan, Sovira, Tattah subah, Thatta subah, The Gateway of Islam, The Sind, The Sindh, The gateway of Islam, سنڌ.