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Copyright infringement

Index Copyright infringement

Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works. [1]

225 relations: Abandonware, Abstraction-Filtration-Comparison test, Africa, Anti-circumvention, Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement, Archive, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Berne Convention, Bill Gates, BitTorrent (company), BitTorrent tracker, Blog, Blu-ray, Bolivia, Bootleg recording, Brady Haran, Brazil, BSA (The Software Alliance), Canada, Canadian Alliance Against Software Theft, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Cause of action, Center for Copyright Information, Chat room, Cinema of the United States, Coded anti-piracy, Compact disc, Comparison of anti-plagiarism software, Compulsory license, Computer Associates International, Inc. v. Altai, Inc., Contributory copyright infringement, Conversion (law), Copy protection, Copyfraud, Copyleft, Copyright, Copyright Act of 1976, Copyright Alliance, Copyright collective, Copyright Directive, Copyright law of Australia, Copyright law of the United States, Copyright Modernization Act, Copyright troll, Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, Counterfeit, Court, ..., Court of Justice of the European Union, Creative Commons, Creative Commons license, Crime, Criminal justice, Cybercrime, Data storage, Data transmission, Defamation, Defendant, Demand Progress, Derivative work, Digital distribution, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Digital rights management, Dongle, Dowling v. United States (1985), Download, DVD region code, DVD-Video, Economic bubble, Electronic Commerce Directive 2000, Electronic Frontier Foundation, EMule, Encryption, Entertainment Software Association, European Union, Exclusive right, Facebook, Fair dealing, Fair use, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federation Against Copyright Theft, Federation Against Software Theft, Fight for the Future, Film distribution, Fine (penalty), Finland, Fraud, Free Software Foundation, Free software license, Free-rider problem, Freedom of speech, Freeloading, GNU General Public License, GNU Project, Grokster, Hello Internet, Hyperlink, In re Aimster Copyright Litigation, India, Intellectual property, Intellectual property in China, International Data Corporation, International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, International Intellectual Property Alliance, Internet Privacy Act, Internet service provider, Irina Margareta Nistor, Jacobsen v. Katzer, James Parker Jones, Joint Research Centre, Kathleen M. Williams, Law, Lawsuit, Legal aspects of file sharing, Library, LimeWire, Limitations and exceptions to copyright, List of countries' copyright lengths, List of YouTubers, Luxembourg, Magnet URI scheme, Mailing list, Means to an end, Mecklermedia, Media Piracy in Emerging Economies, Mens rea, Mexico, MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd., Microsoft, Misdemeanor, Missionary Church of Kopimism, Moderation system, Moldova, Monopoly, Movie theater, Music piracy, Napster, Netherlands, News aggregator, Nicolae Ceaușescu, No Electronic Theft Act, Notice and take down, Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act, Open Letter to Hobbyists, Palgrave Macmillan, Peer-to-peer, Peer-to-peer file sharing, Pejorative, Pirate Party, Pirated movie release types, Place shifting, Plagiarism, Podcast, Poland, Pornography, Portmanteau, Prison, Product activation, Property, Prosecutor, Psion (company), Public domain, Public Relations Consultants Association Ltd v Newspaper Licensing Agency Ltd, Radio music ripping, Recording Industry Association of America, Regional lockout, Richard Stallman, Romania, Royal charter, Royalty payment, Russia, Safe harbor (law), Screen Producers Australia, Secondary liability, Software copyright, Software licensing audit, Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., Soulseek, SoundExchange, South Africa, Statute of Anne, Statutory damages, Statutory damages for copyright infringement, Stop Online Piracy Act, Streaming media, Substantial similarity, Supreme Court of the United States, Telecoms Package, Texas, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Theft, Torrent file, Trade group efforts against file sharing, Traian Băsescu, Trans-Pacific Partnership, Tribeca Film Festival, TRIPS Agreement, Turkey, Twitter, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, United States, United States Army, United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, United States v. LaMacchia, University, University of Chicago Press, Vicarious liability, Warez, Warren Buffett, Web browser, Web cache, Web portal, Web search engine, Windows Genuine Advantage, WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act, WIPO Copyright Treaty, Work for hire, World Anti-Piracy Observatory, World Wide Web, Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers, YouTube, Zimbabwe. Expand index (175 more) »


Abandonware is a product, typically software, ignored by its owner and manufacturer, and for which no support is available.

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Abstraction-Filtration-Comparison test

The Abstraction-Filtration-Comparison test (AFC) is a method of identifying substantial similarity for the purposes of applying copyright law.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Anti-circumvention refers to laws which prohibit the circumvention of technological barriers for using a digital good in certain ways which the rightsholders do not wish to allow.

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Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement

The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a multinational treaty for the purpose of establishing international standards for intellectual property rights enforcement.

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An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located.

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Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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No description.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Berne Convention

The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, usually known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing copyright, which was first accepted in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886.

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Bill Gates

William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.

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BitTorrent (company)

BitTorrent, Inc., headquartered in San Francisco, California, is a privately held American company that is responsible for the ongoing development of the BitTorrent peer-to-peer protocol, as well as the ongoing development of µTorrent and BitTorrent Mainline, two clients for that protocol.

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BitTorrent tracker

A BitTorrent tracker is a special type of server, one that assists in the communication between peers using the BitTorrent protocol.

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A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").

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Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.

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Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Bootleg recording

A bootleg recording is an audio or video recording of a performance that was not officially released by the artist or under other legal authority.

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Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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BSA (The Software Alliance)

The Software Alliance, also known as BSA, is a trade group established by Microsoft Corporation in 1988 and representing a number of the world's largest software makers and is a member of the International Intellectual Property Alliance.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadian Alliance Against Software Theft

The Canadian Alliance Against Software Theft (CAAST) is a Canadian trade group affiliated with the Software Alliance (formerly known as the Business Software Alliance).

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Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.

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Cause of action

A cause of action, in law, is a set of facts sufficient to justify a right to sue to obtain money, property, or the enforcement of a right against another party.

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Center for Copyright Information

The Center for Copyright Information (CCI) is an American organization focused on advocacy and initiatives in support of copyright law.

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Chat room

The term chat room, or chatroom, is primarily used to describe any form of synchronous conferencing, occasionally even asynchronous conferencing.

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Cinema of the United States

The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.

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Coded anti-piracy

Coded anti-piracy (CAP) is an anti-copyright infringement technology which marks each film print of a motion picture with a distinguishing pattern of dots, used as a forensic identifier to identify the source of illegal copies.

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Compact disc

Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.

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Comparison of anti-plagiarism software

The following tables compare software used for plagiarism detection.

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Compulsory license

A compulsory license provides that the owner of a patent or copyright licenses the use of their rights against payment either set by law or determined through some form of adjudication or arbitration.

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Computer Associates International, Inc. v. Altai, Inc.

Computer Associates International, Inc.

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Contributory copyright infringement

Contributory copyright infringement is a way of imposing secondary liability for infringement of a copyright.

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Conversion (law)

Conversion is an intentional tort consisting of "taking with the intent of exercising over the chattel an ownership inconsistent with the real owner's right of possession".

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Copy protection

Copy protection, also known as content protection, copy prevention and copy restriction, is any effort designed to prevent the reproduction of software, films, music, and other media, usually for copyright reasons.

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Copyfraud refers to false copyright claims by individuals or institutions with respect to content that is in the public domain.

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Copyleft (a play on the word copyright) is the practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line.

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Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.

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Copyright Act of 1976

The Copyright Act of 1976 is a United States copyright law and remains the primary basis of copyright law in the United States, as amended by several later enacted copyright provisions.

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Copyright Alliance

The Copyright Alliance is a nonprofit, nonpartisan 501(c)(4) organization representing artistic creators across a broad range of copyright disciplines.

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Copyright collective

A copyright collective (also known as a copyright collecting agency, licensing agency or copyright collecting society or collective management organization) is a body created by copyright law or private agreement which engages in collective rights management.

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Copyright Directive

The Copyright Directive (officially the Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, also known as the Information Society Directive or the InfoSoc Directive), is a directive of the European Union enacted to implement the WIPO Copyright Treaty and to harmonise aspects of copyright law across Europe, such as copyright exceptions. The directive was enacted under the internal market provisions of the Treaty of Rome. The directive was subject to unprecedented lobbying and has been cited as a success for copyright industries. The directive gives EU Member States significant freedom in certain aspects of transposition. Member States had until 22 December 2002 to implement the directive into their national laws. However, only Greece and Denmark met the deadline and the European Commission eventually initiated enforcement action against six Member States for non-implementation.

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Copyright law of Australia

The copyright law of Australia defines the legally enforceable rights of creators of creative and artistic works under Australian law.

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Copyright law of the United States

The copyright law of the United States is intended to encourage the creation of art and culture by rewarding authors and artists with a set of exclusive rights.

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Copyright Modernization Act

An Act to amend the Copyright Act (the Act), also known as Bill C-11 or the Copyright Modernization Act, was introduced in the House of Commons of Canada on September 29, 2011 by Industry Minister Christian Paradis.

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Copyright troll

A copyright troll is a party (person or company) that enforces copyrights it owns for purposes of making money through litigation, in a manner considered unduly aggressive or opportunistic, generally without producing or licensing the works it owns for paid distribution.

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Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, also known as the CDPA, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that received Royal Assent on 15 November 1988.

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The counterfeit means to imitate something.

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A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.

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Court of Justice of the European Union

The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.

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Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.

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Creative Commons license

A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work.

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In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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Criminal justice

Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.

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Cybercrime, or computer oriented crime, is crime that involves a computer and a network.

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Data storage

Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.

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Data transmission

Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

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Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.

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A defendant is a person accused of committing a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.

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Demand Progress

Demand Progress is an internet activist-related entity encompassing a 501(c)4 arm sponsored by the 1630 Fund and a 501(c)3 arm sponsored by the New Venture Fund.

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Derivative work

In copyright law, a derivative work is an expressive creation that includes major copyright-protected elements of an original, previously created first work (the underlying work).

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Digital distribution

Digital distribution (also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD), among others) is the delivery or distribution of media content such as audio, video, software and video games.

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Digital Millennium Copyright Act

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

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Digital rights management

Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.

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A dongle is a small piece of hardware that connects to another device to provide it with additional functionality.

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Dowling v. United States (1985)

Dowling v. United States, 473 U.S. 207 (1985), was a United States Supreme Court case that discussed whether copies of copyrighted works could be regarded as stolen property for the purposes of a law which criminalized the interstate transportation of property that had been "stolen, converted or taken by fraud" and holding that they could not be so regarded under that law.

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In computer networks, to download (abbreviation DL) is to receive data from a remote system, typically a server such as a web server, an FTP server, an email server, or other similar systems.

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DVD region code

DVD (digital versatile disc) region codes are a digital rights management technique designed to allow rights holders to control the international distribution of a DVD release, including its content, release date, and price, all according to the appropriate region.

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DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD discs, and is the dominant consumer video format in Asia, North America, Europe, and Australia.

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Economic bubble

An economic bubble or asset bubble (sometimes also referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, a speculative mania, or a balloon) is trade in an asset at a price or price range that strongly exceeds the asset's intrinsic value.

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Electronic Commerce Directive 2000

The Electronic Commerce Directive is a European Union Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council from 8 June 2000.

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Electronic Frontier Foundation

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.

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eMule is a free peer-to-peer file sharing application for Microsoft Windows.

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In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.

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Entertainment Software Association

The Entertainment Software Association (ESA) is the trade association of the video game industry in the United States.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Exclusive right

In Anglo-Saxon law, an exclusive right, or exclusivity, is a de facto, non-tangible prerogative existing in law (that is, the power or, in a wider sense, right) to perform an action or acquire a benefit and to permit or deny others the right to perform the same action or to acquire the same benefit.

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Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.

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Fair dealing

Fair dealing is a limitation and exception to the exclusive right granted by copyright law to the author of a creative work.

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Fair use

Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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Federation Against Copyright Theft

The Federation Against Copyright Theft (informally FACT) is the UK's leading trade organisation established to protect and represent the interests of its members' Intellectual Property (IP).

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Federation Against Software Theft

The Federation Against Software Theft (FAST) is a not-for-profit organisation, formed in 1984 with the aim of eliminating copyright infringement of software in the UK.

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Fight for the Future

Fight for the Future (often abbreviated fightfortheftr or FFTF) is a nonprofit advocacy group in the area of digital rights founded in 2011.

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Film distribution

Film distribution is the process of making a movie available for viewing by an audience.

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Fine (penalty)

A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.

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Free Software Foundation

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.

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Free software license

A free software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and redistribute that software.

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Free-rider problem

In economics, the free-rider problem occurs when those who benefit from resources, public goods, or services do not pay for them, which results in an underprovision of those goods or services.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Freeloading (or being a "freeloader") in everyday speech refers to the use by an individual or entity, for their or its own personal gain or benefit, of resources that do not belong to them in private and personal spheres, e.g. an uninvited guest's abuse of friends' and family's hospitality.

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GNU General Public License

The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.

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GNU Project

The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.

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Grokster Ltd. was a privately owned software company based in Nevis, West Indies that created the Grokster peer-to-peer file-sharing client in 2001 that utilized the FastTrack protocol.

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Hello Internet

Hello Internet is an audio podcast hosted by YouTube content creators CGP Grey and Brady Haran.

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In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking, tapping, or hovering.

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In re Aimster Copyright Litigation

In re Aimster Copyright Litigation, 334 F.3d 643 (7th Cir. 2003), was a case in which the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit addressed copyright infringement claims brought against Aimster, concluding that a preliminary injunction against the file-sharing service was appropriate, because the copyright owners were likely to prevail on their claims of contributory infringement and the fact that the services was capable of having non-infringing user was not enough reason to reverse the district court's decision.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.

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Intellectual property in China

Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have been acknowledged and protected in the People's Republic of China since 1979.

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International Data Corporation

International Data Corporation (IDC) is a provider of market intelligence, advisory services, and events for the information technology, telecommunications, and consumer technology markets.

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International Federation of the Phonographic Industry

The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) is the organisation that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide.

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International Intellectual Property Alliance

The International Intellectual Property Alliance (IIPA), formed in 1984, is a private sector coalition of seven trade associations representing U.S. companies that produce copyright-protected material, including computer software, films, television programs, music, books, and journals (electronic and print media).

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Internet Privacy Act

The Internet Privacy Act is a non-existent and fictitious law cited by websites that conduct illegal activities in order to deter organizations that look to prosecute such activities.

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Internet service provider

An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.

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Irina Margareta Nistor

Irina Margareta Nistor, born 26 March 1957, is a Romanian translator and film critic.

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Jacobsen v. Katzer

Jacobsen v. Katzer was a lawsuit between Robert Jacobsen (plaintiff) and Matthew Katzer (defendant), filed March 13, 2006 in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California.

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James Parker Jones

James Parker Jones (born July 3, 1940) is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia and a Judge of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.

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Joint Research Centre

The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the European Commission's science and knowledge service which employs scientists to carry out research in order to provide independent scientific advice and support to EU policy.

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Kathleen M. Williams

Kathleen Mary Williams (born 1956) is United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.

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Legal aspects of file sharing

File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.

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A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.

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LimeWire is a discontinued free peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) client for Windows, macOS, Linux and Solaris.

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Limitations and exceptions to copyright

Limitations and exceptions to copyright are provisions, in local copyright law or Berne Convention, which allow for copyrighted works to be used without a license from the copyright owner.

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List of countries' copyright lengths

Copyright is the right to copy and publish a particular work.

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List of YouTubers

This is a list of notable YouTubers.

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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Magnet URI scheme

The Magnet URI scheme defines the format of magnet links, a de facto standard for identifying files by their content, via cryptographic hash value rather than by their location.

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Mailing list

A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients.

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Means to an end

In philosophy, the term "means to an end" refers to any action (the means) carried out for the sole purpose of achieving something else (an end).

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Mecklermedia (formerly Internet.com LLC, Jupitermedia Inc., Mediabistro Inc. and WebMediaBrands Corporation) was a U.S.-based corporation.

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Media Piracy in Emerging Economies

Media Piracy in Emerging Economies is a report released by the Social Science Research Council in 2011.

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Mens rea

Mens rea (Law Latin for "guilty mind") is the mental element of a person's intention to commit a crime; or knowledge that one's action or lack of action would cause a crime to be committed.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd.

MGM Studios, Inc.

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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.

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Missionary Church of Kopimism

The Missionary Church of Kopimism (in Swedish Missionerande Kopimistsamfundet), is a congregation of file sharers who believe that copying information is a sacred virtue and was founded by Isak Gerson, a 19-year-old philosophy student, and Gustav Nipe in Uppsala, Sweden in the autumn of 2010.

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Moderation system

On Internet websites that invite users to post comments, a moderation system is the method the webmaster chooses to sort contributions that are irrelevant, obscene, illegal, or insulting with regards to useful or informative contributions.

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Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).

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A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Movie theater

A movie theater/theatre (American English), cinema (British English) or cinema hall (Indian English) is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.

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Music piracy

Music piracy is the copying and distributing of copies of a piece of music for which the composer, recording artist, or copyright-holding record company did not give consent.

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Napster is the name given to three music-focused online services.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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News aggregator

In computing, a news aggregator, also termed a feed aggregator, feed reader, news reader, RSS reader or simply aggregator, is client software or a web application which aggregates syndicated web content such as online newspapers, blogs, podcasts, and video blogs (vlogs) in one location for easy viewing.

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Nicolae Ceaușescu

Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.

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No Electronic Theft Act

The United States No Electronic Theft Act (NET Act), a federal law passed in 1997, provides for criminal prosecution of individuals who engage in copyright infringement under certain circumstances, even when there is no monetary profit or commercial benefit from the infringement.

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Notice and take down

Notice and take down is a process operated by online hosts in response to court orders or allegations that content is illegal.

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Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act

The Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act (OCILLA) is United States federal law that creates a conditional safe harbor for online service providers (OSP) (a group which includes internet service providers (ISP)) and other Internet intermediaries by shielding them for their own acts of direct copyright infringement (when they make unauthorized copies) as well as shielding them from potential secondary liability for the infringing acts of others.

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Open Letter to Hobbyists

The Open Letter to Hobbyists was a 1976 open letter written by Bill Gates, the co-founder of Microsoft, to early personal computer hobbyists, in which Gates expresses dismay at the rampant copyright infringement of software taking place in the hobbyist community, particularly with regard to his company's software.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.

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Peer-to-peer file sharing

Peer-to-peer file sharing is the distribution and sharing of digital media using peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technology.

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A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.

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Pirate Party

Pirate Party is a label adopted by political parties in different countries.

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Pirated movie release types

Pirated movies are distributed in a variety of forms by groups such as Warez and organized piracy groups.

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Place shifting

Space shifting (or spaceshifting), also known as place shifting (or placeshifting), allows media, such as music or films, which is stored on one device to be accessed from another place through another device.

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Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.

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A podcast, or generically netcast, is an episodic series of digital audio or video files which a user can download and listen to.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.

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A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.

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A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.

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Product activation

Product activation is a license validation procedure required by some proprietary computer software programs.

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Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.

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Psion (company)

Psion was a designer and manufacturer of mobile handheld computers for commercial and industrial applications.

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Public domain

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.

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Public Relations Consultants Association Ltd v Newspaper Licensing Agency Ltd

Public Relations Consultants Association v The Newspaper Licensing Agency Ltd (UKSC 18, on appeal from: EWCA Civ 890) was a 2011 case UK Supreme Court case decided in 2013.

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Radio music ripping

The term ripping (slang term for digital media extraction) can also apply to radio.

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Recording Industry Association of America

The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization that represents the recording industry in the United States.

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Regional lockout

A regional lockout (or region coding) is a class of digital rights management preventing the use of a certain product or service, such as multimedia or a hardware device, outside a certain region or territory.

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Richard Stallman

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Royal charter

A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.

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Royalty payment

A royalty is a payment made by one party, the licensee or franchisee to another that owns a particular asset, the licensor or franchisor for the right to ongoing use of that asset.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Safe harbor (law)

A safe harbor is a provision of a statute or a regulation that specifies that certain conduct will be deemed not to violate a given rule.

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Screen Producers Australia

Screen Producers Australia, formerly the Screen Producers Association of Australia (SPAA), was formed in 1956 and was originally named the Film and Television Production Association.

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Secondary liability

Secondary liability, or indirect infringement, arises when a party materially contributes to, facilitates, induces, or is otherwise responsible for directly infringing acts carried out by another party.

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Software copyright

Software copyright is the extension of copyright law to machine-readable software.

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Software licensing audit

A software licensing audit or software compliance audit is an important sub-set of software asset management and component of corporate risk management.

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Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc.

Sony Corp.

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Soulseek is a peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing network and application.

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SoundExchange is a non-profit collective rights management organization.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Statute of Anne

The Statute of Anne, also known as the Copyright Act 1710 (cited either as 8 Ann. c. 21 or as 8 Ann. c. 19), is an act of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1710, which was the first statute to provide for copyright regulated by the government and courts, rather than by private parties.

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Statutory damages

Statutory damages are a damage award in civil law, in which the amount awarded is stipulated within the statute rather than being calculated based on the degree of harm to the plaintiff.

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Statutory damages for copyright infringement

Statutory damages for copyright infringement are available under some countries' copyright laws.

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Stop Online Piracy Act

The Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) was a controversial United States bill introduced by U.S. Representative Lamar S. Smith (R-TX) to expand the ability of U.S. law enforcement to combat online copyright infringement and online trafficking in counterfeit goods.

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Streaming media

Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.

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Substantial similarity

Substantial similarity, in US copyright law, is the standard used to determine whether a defendant has infringed the reproduction right of a copyright.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Telecoms Package

The Telecoms Package was the review of the European Union Telecommunications Framework from 2007 – 2009.

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Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.

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Torrent file

In the BitTorrent file distribution system, a torrent file is a computer file that contains metadata about files and folders to be distributed, and usually also a list of the network locations of trackers, which are computers that help participants in the system find each other and form efficient distribution groups called swarms.

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Trade group efforts against file sharing

Arts and media industry trade groups, such as the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) and Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), strongly oppose and attempt to prevent copyright infringement through file sharing.

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Traian Băsescu

Traian Băsescu (born 4 November 1951) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 2004 to 2014.

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Trans-Pacific Partnership

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a trade agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam, and United States signed on 4 February 2016, which was not ratified as required and did not take effect.

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Tribeca Film Festival

The Tribeca Film Festival is a prominent film festival held in the Tribeca neighborhood of Manhattan, showcasing a diverse selection of independent films.

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TRIPS Agreement

The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".

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U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a law enforcement agency of the Federal government of the United States under the jurisdiction of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts

The United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts (in case citations, D. Mass.) is the federal district court whose territorial jurisdiction is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, United States.

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United States v. LaMacchia

United States v. LaMacchia 871 F.Supp.

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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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Vicarious liability

Vicarious liability is a form of a strict, secondary liability that arises under the common law doctrine of agency, respondeat superior, the responsibility of the superior for the acts of their subordinate or, in a broader sense, the responsibility of any third party that had the "right, ability or duty to control" the activities of a violator.

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Warez is a common computing and broader cultural term referring to pirated software (i.e. illegally copied, often after deactivation of anti-piracy measures) that is distributed via the Internet.

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Warren Buffett

Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.

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Web browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.

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Web cache

A web cache (or HTTP cache) is an information technology for the temporary storage (caching) of web documents, such as HTML pages and images, to reduce server lag.

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Web portal

A web portal is a specially designed website that brings information from diverse sources, like emails, online forums and search engines, together in a uniform way.

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Web search engine

A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.

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Windows Genuine Advantage

Windows Genuine Advantage (WGA) is an anti-infringement system created by Microsoft that enforces online validation of the licensing of several recent Microsoft Windows operating systems when accessing several services, such as Windows Update, and downloading Windows components from the Microsoft Download Center.

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WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act

The WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act, is a part of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), a 1998 U.S. law.

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WIPO Copyright Treaty

The World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty (WIPO Copyright Treaty or WCT) is an international treaty on copyright law adopted by the member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1996.

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Work for hire

In the copyright law of the United States, a work made for hire (work for hire or WFH) is a work subject to copyright that is created by an employee as part of their job, or some limited types of works for which all parties agree in writing to the WFH designation.

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World Anti-Piracy Observatory

The World Anti-Piracy Observatory (WAPO) is a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) program engineered to help combat copyright infringement, sometimes known as piracy.

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World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.

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Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers

The Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers (until 1937 the Worshipful Company of Stationers), usually known as the Stationers' Company, is one of the livery companies of the City of London.

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YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.

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Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright_infringement

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