885 relations: Abolitionism in the United States, Abraham Lincoln, Accent (sociolinguistics), Advertising campaign, Aerospace, Affluence in the United States, African Americans, African-American English, Agnosticism, Agricultural soil science, Airline hub, Ajamu Baraka, Alabama people, Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, Alaska, Albion's Seed, Alley Theatre, Alonso Álvarez de Pineda, Alternating current, Amarillo, Texas, American Airlines, American Airlines Group, American Athletic Conference, American Civil War, American English, American football, American frontier, American Heart Association, Amon Carter Museum of American Art, Amtrak, Anadarko Petroleum, Anahuac Disturbances, Ancestral Puebloans, Andeavor, Annexation, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Apache, Appalachian Mountains, Aquifer, Arabic, Aranama language, Archaeology, Arkansas, Arlington, Texas, Army of Northern Virginia, Arts District, Dallas, Asian Americans, Assassination of John F. 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Hobby Airport, Wind farm, Wind power in Texas, Wind turbine, Women's National Basketball Association, World War I, World War II, Write-in candidate, Wyoming, Yale University Press, Ysleta del Sur Pueblo, Zachary Taylor, Zambia, Zilker Park, 100th meridian west, 103rd meridian west, 114th United States Congress, 1886 Indianola hurricane, 1900 Galveston hurricane, 1915 Galveston hurricane, 1980 United States Census, 1980 United States Grand Prix, 2003 Texas redistricting, 2004 Christmas Eve United States winter storm, 2010 United States Census, 2014 American immigration crisis, 32nd parallel north. Expand index (835 more) » « Shrink index
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC).
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
Affluence refers to an individual's or household's economical and financial advantage in comparison to a given reference group.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
African-American English (AAE), also known as Black English in North American linguistics, is the set of English dialects primarily spoken by most black people in North America; most commonly, it refers to a dialect continuum ranging from African-American Vernacular English to a more standard English.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Agricultural soil science is a branch of soil science that deals with the study of edaphic conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber.
Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport.
Ajamu S. Baraka (born October 25, 1953) is an American activist and was the Green Party's nominee for Vice President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The Alabama or Alibamu (Albaamaha) are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans, originally from Alabama.
The Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas is a Federally recognized tribe of Alabama and Koasati in Polk County, Texas.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America is a 1989 book by David Hackett Fischer that details the folkways of four groups of people who moved from distinct regions of Great Britain (Albion) to the United States.
The Alley Theatre is a Tony Award-winning theatre company in Downtown Houston, Texas, it hosts two stages.
Alonso Álvarez de Pineda (Aldeacentenera, 1494-2018) was a Spanish explorer and cartographer who was first documented in Texas history.
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.
Amarillo is the 14th-most populous city in the state of Texas, United States.
American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is a major United States airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex.
American Airlines Group, Inc. is an American publicly traded airline holding company headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas.
The American Athletic Conference (also known as The American and sometimes abbreviated AAC) is an American collegiate athletic conference, featuring 12 member universities and six associate member universities that compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) Division I, with its football teams competing in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS).
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
The American frontier comprises the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912.
The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.
The Amon Carter Museum of American Art (ACMAA) is located in Fort Worth, Texas, in the city's cultural district.
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to three Canadian cities.
Anadarko Petroleum Corporation is an American petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company headquartered in two skyscrapers in The Woodlands, Texas: the Allison Tower and the Hackett Tower, both named after former CEOs of the company.
The Anahuac Disturbances were uprisings of settlers in and around Anahuac, Texas in 1832 and 1835 which helped to precipitate the Texas Revolution.
The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.
Andeavor, formerly known as Tesoro Corporation, or simply as Tesoro, is a Fortune 100 and a Fortune Global 500 company headquartered in Texas at San Antonio, with 2013 annual revenues of $37 billion, and over 13,000 employees worldwide.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876),Callcott, Wilfred H., "Santa Anna, Antonio Lopez De,", accessed April 18, 2017 often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then for Mexican independence.
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aranama (Araname), also known as Tamique, is an extinct unclassified language of Texas, USA.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
Arlington is a principal city in the U.S. state of Texas, located in Tarrant County.
The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.
The Arts District is a performing and visual arts district in Downtown Dallas, Texas.
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.
AT&T Stadium, formerly Cowboys Stadium, is a retractable roof stadium in Arlington, Texas, United States.
The Atakapa Sturtevant, 659 are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands, who spoke the Atakapa language and historically lived along the Gulf of Mexico.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Austin American-Statesman is the major daily newspaper for Austin, the capital city of Texas.
Austin City Limits (ACL) is an American public television music program recorded live in Austin, Texas, by Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station KLRU, and broadcast on many PBS stations around the United States.
The Austin City Limits (ACL) Music Festival is an annual music festival held in Zilker Park in Austin, Texas on two consecutive three-day weekends.
Austin College is a private liberal arts college affiliated by covenant relationship with the Presbyterian Church (USA) and located in Sherman, Texas.
Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.
Austin–Bergstrom International Airport or ABIA is a Class C international airport located in Austin, Texas, United States (the capital of Texas), and serving the Greater Austin metropolitan area, the 31st-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (Jerez de la Frontera, 1488/1490/1492"Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Núñez (1492?-1559?)." American Eras. Vol. 1: Early American Civilizations and Exploration to 1600. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 50-51. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 Dec. 2014.Seville, 1557/1558/1559/1560"Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 08 Dec. 2014.) was a Spanish explorer of the New World, and one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition.
The Balcones Fault or Balcones Fault Zone is a tensional structural system Edwards Aquifer in the U.S. state of Texas that runs approximately from the southwest part of the state near Del Rio to the north central region near Dallas along Interstate 35.
The Bass Performance Hall (also known as Bass Hall) is a performing arts venue, located in Fort Worth, Texas.
The Battle of Appomattox Court House (Virginia, U.S.), fought on the morning of April 9, 1865, was one of the last battles of the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The Battle of Galveston Harbor was a naval engagement between forces from the Union Navy and the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War.
The Battle of Gonzales was the first military engagement of the Texas Revolution.
The Battle of Palmito Ranch is considered by some criteria as the final battle of the American Civil War.
The Battle of Palo Alto was the first major battle of the Mexican–American War and was fought on May 8, 1846, on disputed ground five miles (8 km) from the modern-day city of Brownsville, Texas.
At the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, one of the early engagements of the Mexican–American War, United States General Zachary Taylor engaged the retreating forces of the Mexican Ejército del Norte ("Army of the North") under General Mariano Arista on May 9, 1846.
The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution.
The Battle of the Alamo (February 23 – March 6, 1836) was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution.
Baxter Springs is a city in Cherokee County, Kansas, United States, and located along Spring River.
The Baylor Bears are the athletic teams that represent Baylor University.
Baylor University (BU) is a private Christian university in Waco, Texas.
BBVA Compass Stadium is an American soccer-specific stadium located in Houston, Texas that is home to the Houston Dynamo, a Major League Soccer club, the Houston Dash of the National Women's Soccer League, and to Texas Southern Tigers football.
Beaumont is a city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, Texas in the United States, within the Beaumont–Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. is an American aerospace manufacturer headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas.
Bessie Smith (April 15, 1894 – September 26, 1937) was an American blues singer.
The Bible Belt is an informal region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism plays a strong role in society and politics, and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
The Bidai were a tribe of Atakapa Indians from eastern Texas.
The Big 12 Conference is a ten-school collegiate athletic conference headquartered in Irving, Texas.
The Big Bend is a colloquial name of a geographic region in the western part of the state of Texas in the United States along the border with Mexico, roughly defined as the counties north of the prominent northward bend in the Rio Grande as it passes through the gap between the Chisos Mountains in Texas and the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico.
William Floyd Weld (born July 31, 1945) is an American attorney, businessman, and politician who was the 68th Governor of Massachusetts from 1991 to 1997.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
A biosafety level is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed laboratory facility.
The term black church or African-American church refers to Protestant churches that currently or historically have ministered to predominantly black congregations in the United States.
Lemon Henry "Blind Lemon" Jefferson (September 24, 1893 – December 19, 1929) was an American blues and gospel singer, songwriter, and musician.
Blockbuster LLC, formerly Blockbuster Entertainment, Inc., and also known as Blockbuster Video or simply Blockbuster, was an American-based provider of home movie and video game rental services through video rental shops, DVD-by-mail, streaming, video on demand, and cinema theater.
Bluebonnet is a name given to any number of blue-flowered species of the genus Lupinus predominantly found in southwestern United States and is collectively the state flower of Texas.
Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.
Robert Douglas Bullock, Sr., known as Bob Bullock (July 10, 1929 – June 18, 1999), was a Democratic politician from Texas, whose career spanned four decades.
The Brazos River, called the Rio de los Brazos de Dios (translated as "The River of the Arms of God") by early Spanish explorers, is the 11th-longest river in the United States of America at from its headwater source at the head of Blackwater Draw, Curry County, New Mexico to its mouth at the Gulf of Mexico with a drainage basin.
The breakfast burrito, sometimes referred to as a breakfast wrap outside of the American Southwest, is a variety of American breakfast composed of breakfast items wrapped inside a flour tortilla burrito.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
Brownsville is the county seat of Cameron County, Texas, United States.
Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C60.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Buffalo Bayou, Brazos, and Colorado Railway (B.B.B.C. or B.B.B. & C.), also called the Harrisburg Road or Harrisburg Railroad, was the first operating railroad in Texas.
The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes.
Caddo is a Native American language, the traditional language of the Caddo Nation.
The Caddoan languages are a family of languages native to the Great Plains.
Cambodian Americans (ជនជាតិខ្មែរអាមេរិកាំង) are Americans of Khmer descent.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
The Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, commonly referred to as Capital Metro, is a public transportation provider located in Austin, Texas.
Capital MetroRail is a commuter rail system that serves the Greater Austin area in Texas, and which is owned by the Capital Metro.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the U.S. state of Texas.
Cara Carleton "Carly" Fiorina (née Sneed; born September 6, 1954) is an American businesswoman and political figure, known primarily for her tenure as CEO of Hewlett-Packard (HP).
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cattle drives were a major economic activity in the 19th century American West, particularly between 1856 and 1896.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The North American Central Time Zone (CT) is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
In physical geography, a channel is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of fluid, most commonly the confine of a river, river delta or strait.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, Tsalagi Gawonihisdi) is an endangered Iroquoian language and the native language of the Cherokee people.
Chicano English, or Mexican-American English, is a dialect of American English spoken primarily by Mexican Americans (sometimes known as Chicanos), particularly in the Southwestern United States, ranging from Texas to CaliforniaNewman, Michael.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chili con carne, commonly known in American English as simply "chili", is a spicy stew containing chili peppers, meat (usually beef), and often tomatoes and beans.
Chinese Americans, which includes American-born Chinese, are Americans who have full or partial Chinese ancestry.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Choctaw (in the Choctaw language, Chahta)Common misspellings and variations in other languages include Chacta, Tchakta and Chocktaw.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Circuit of The Americas (COTA) is a grade 1 FIA specification motor racing facility located in Austin, Texas, on the southeastern periphery of Austin city limits, in Central Texas.
Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas is based upon cultural regions, geography, and linguistics.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza (Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Coahuila y Tejas (Coahuila and Texas) was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
College athletics or college sports encompasses non-professional, collegiate and university-level competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance.
Pairs of schools, colleges and universities, especially when they are close to each other either geographically or in their areas of specialization, often establish a college rivalry with each other over the years.
Colombian Americans (Colomboamericanos), are Americans who trace their ancestry to Colombia.
In the United States, colonias are low-income unincorporated housing-areas located along the Mexico–United States border region that began to emerge with the advent of informal housing.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
The Colorado River is an long river in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Comanche (Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas and northern Chihuahua.
In computing, a comma-separated values (CSV) file is a delimited text file that uses a comma to separate values.
Commissioners' court, or in Arkansas a quorum court, is the governing body of county government in three US states: Arkansas, Texas and Missouri.
The Commonwealth Fund is a private U.S. foundation whose stated purpose is to "promote a high performing health care system that achieves better access, improved quality, and greater efficiency, particularly for society's most vulnerable and the elderly." It is active in a number of areas related to health care and health policy.
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km (10 miles) and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis.
The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states on the status of territories acquired during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).
The computer or information technology, or IT industry is the range of businesses involved in designing computer hardware and computer networking infrastructures, developing computer software, manufacturing computer components, and providing information technology (IT) services.
The Confederate States Constitution, formally the Constitution of the Confederate States of America, was the supreme law of the Confederate States, as adopted on March 11, 1861, and in effect from February 22, 1862, through the conclusion of the American Civil War.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
ConocoPhillips Company is an American multinational energy corporation with its headquarters located in the Energy Corridor district of Houston, Texas in the United States.
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.
In United States local government, a consolidated city-county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction.
The Constitution of the State of Texas is the document that describes the structure and function of the government of the U.S. state of Texas.
The Consultation served as the provisional government of Mexican Texas from November 1835 to March 1836 during the Texas Revolution.
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
Continental Airlines was a major United States airline founded in 1934 and eventually headquartered in Houston, Texas.
Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries.
Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
The Convention of 1832 was the first political gathering of colonists in Mexican Texas.
The Convention of 1833 (April 1–13, 1833), a political gathering of settlers in Mexican Texas, was a successor to the Convention of 1832, whose requests had not been addressed by the Mexican government.
The Convention of 1836 was the meeting of elected delegates in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas in March 1836.
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of local government in the United States and Ireland, the other being the mayor–council government form.
Country music, also known as country and western or simply country, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s.
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority.
---- The Coushatta (Koasati) are a Muskogean-speaking Native American people now living primarily in the U.S. states of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.
A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, and often performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks.
A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Cuban Americans (Cubanoamericanos) are Americans who trace their ancestry to Cuba.
Culberson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas.
The United States Senate consists of 100 members, two from each of the 50 states.
Czech Texans are residents of the state of Texas who are of Czech ancestry.
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
Dallas is an American prime time television soap opera that aired on CBS from April 2, 1978, to May 3, 1991.
Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is a transit agency in Downtown Dallas, Texas.
The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.
Dallas Love Field is a city-owned public airport 6 miles (10 km) northwest of downtown Dallas, Texas.
The Dallas Mavericks (often referred to as the Mavs) are an American professional basketball team based in Dallas, Texas.
The Dallas Museum of Art (DMA) is an art museum located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas, along Woodall Rodgers Freeway between St.
The Dallas Stars are a professional ice hockey team based in Dallas.
The Dallas Wings are a professional basketball team based in Arlington, Texas.
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is the primary international airport serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex area in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area, the official title designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget, encompasses 13 counties within the U.S. state of Texas.
Dan Goeb Patrick (born Dannie Scott Goeb; April 4, 1950) is an American radio talk show host and politician from Houston, Texas.
The Dawson massacre, also called the Dawson expedition, was an incident in which 36 Texian militiamen were killed by Mexican soldiers on September 17, 1842 near San Antonio de Bexar (now the U.S. city of San Antonio, Texas).
Deep Ellum is a neighborhood composed largely of arts and entertainment venues near downtown in East Dallas, Texas.
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States.
Del Rio International Airport is two miles northwest of Del Rio, in Val Verde County, Texas.
Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Electricity deregulation in Texas, approved by Texas Senate Bill 7 on January 1, 2002, calls for the creation of the Electric Utility Restructuring Legislative Oversight Committee to oversee implementation of the bill.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A diapir (French, from Greek diapeirein, to pierce through) is a type of geologic intrusion in which a more mobile and ductily deformable material is forced into brittle overlying rocks.
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.
Don't Mess with Texas was a slogan used on a campaign to reduce littering on Texas roadways by the Texas Department of Transportation, which supports a web page for the.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District (CBD) of Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city.
Downtown is the largest business district in Houston, Texas, located near the geographic center of the metropolitan area at the confluence of Interstate 10, Interstate 45, and Interstate 69.
Drought in the United States is similar to that of other portions of the globe.
The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon.
In economics, a duty is a kind of tax levied by a state.
East Texas is a distinct cultural, geographic and ecological area in the U.S. state of Texas.
The East Texas Oil Field is a large oil and gas field in east Texas.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Eastern Theater of the American Civil War consists of the major military and naval operations in the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina.
The economy of Texas is the second largest in the United States.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
The Edekiri languages are spoken in a band across Togo, Benin and Nigeria.
El Paso County is the westernmost county in the U.S. state of Texas.
El Paso International Airport is a public airport four miles (6 km) northeast of downtown El Paso, in El Paso County, Texas, United States.
El Paso (from Spanish, "the pass") is a city in and the seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
An empresario was a person who had been granted the right to settle on land in exchange for recruiting and taking responsibility for new settlers.
The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Envoy Air Inc. (formerly '''American Eagle Airlines''') is an air carrier headquartered in Irving, Texas, in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American democratic socialist political activist and trade unionist, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
Euless is a city in Tarrant County, Texas, United States, and a suburb of Dallas and Fort Worth.
European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).
Fair Park is a recreational and educational complex located in Dallas, Texas (United States).
In United States presidential elections, a faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who does not vote for the presidential or vice-presidential candidate for whom they had pledged to vote.
FC Dallas is an American professional soccer club based in the Dallas suburb of Frisco, Texas.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The FIA World Endurance Championship is an auto racing world championship organized by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).
A filibuster or freebooter, in the context of foreign policy, is someone who engages in an (at least nominally) unauthorized military expedition into a foreign country or territory to foment or support a revolution.
Filipino Americans (Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans of Filipino descent.
Fiscal conservatism (also economic conservatism or conservative economics) is a political-economic philosophy regarding fiscal policy and fiscal responsibility advocating low taxes, reduced government spending and minimal government debt.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
The flag of Texas is the official flag of the U.S. state of Texas.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
The Fort Worth Star-Telegram is a U.S. daily newspaper serving Fort Worth and the western half of the North Texas area known as the Metroplex.
Fort Worth is the 15th-largest city in the United States and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas.
Fortune is an American multinational business magazine headquartered in New York City, United States.
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.
The Franklin Mountains of Texas are a small range (23 miles long, wide) that extend from El Paso, Texas north into New Mexico.
French Americans (French: Franco-Américains) are citizens or nationals of the United States who identify themselves with having full or partial French or French Canadian heritage, ethnicity, and/or ancestral ties.
The French colonization of Texas began with the establishment of a fort in present-day southeastern Texas.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Galveston Island is a barrier island on the Texas Gulf Coast in the United States, about southeast of Houston.
Galveston is a coastal resort city on Galveston Island and Pelican Island in the U.S. state of Texas.
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.
Gary Earl Johnson (born January 1, 1953) is an American businessman, author and politician who served as the 29th Governor of New Mexico from 1995 to 2003 as a member of the Republican Party.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
The geography of Texas is diverse and large.
George Bush Intercontinental Airport is an international airport in Houston, Texas, United States, under class B airspace, serving the Greater Houston metropolitan area.
The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library of George H. W. Bush, the 41st President of the United States.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
The George W. Bush Presidential Center, which opened on April 25, 2013, is a complex that includes the 43rd President George W. Bush's presidential library and museum, the George W. Bush Policy Institute, and the offices of the George W. Bush Foundation.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
Globe Life Park in Arlington is a baseball park in Arlington, Texas, located between Dallas and Fort Worth.
The Goliad massacre was an event that occurred on March 27, 1836, during the Texas Revolution, followed the Battle of Goliad in which 425-445 prisoners of war from the Texian Army of the Republic of Texas were killed by the Mexican Army in the town of Goliad, Texas.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
Gordon Granger (November 6, 1821 – January 10, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War.
Grand Prairie is a city in Dallas County, Tarrant County, and Ellis County, Texas, in the United States.
Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier class of motorcycle racing events held on road circuits sanctioned by FIM.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
Austin–Round Rock is a five-county metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Texas, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget.
Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land is the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the United States, encompassing nine counties along the Gulf Coast in southeastern Texas.
San Antonio–New Braunfels is an eight-county metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Texas defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).
The Green Party of the United States (GPUS) is a green federation of political parties in the United States.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Gregory Wayne Abbott (born November 13, 1957) is an American lawyer and politician who serves as the 48th Governor of Texas since January 2015.
Gregg v. Georgia, Proffitt v. Florida, Jurek v. Texas, Woodson v. North Carolina, and Roberts v. Louisiana,, reaffirmed the United States Supreme Court's acceptance of the use of the death penalty in the United States, upholding, in particular, the death sentence imposed on Troy Leon Gregg.
Gross regional domestic product (GRDP) or gross domestic product of region (GDPR) is a subnational gross domestic product for measuring the size of that region's economy.
The Guadalupe Bass (Micropterus treculii) is a rare species of fish endemic to the U.S. state of Texas, where it also is the official state fish.
Guadalupe Peak, also known as Signal Peak, is the highest natural point in Texas, with an elevation of above sea level.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guatemalan Americans (guatemalo-americanos, norteamericanos de origen guatemalteco or estadounidenses de origen guatemalteco) are Americans of full or partial Guatemalan descent.
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.
The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Southern United States meets the Gulf of Mexico.
The Gulf Coastal Plain extends around the Gulf of Mexico in the Southern United States and eastern Mexico.
The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway is the portion of the Intracoastal Waterway located along the Gulf Coast of the United States.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Halliburton is an American multinational corporation.
The Hasinai Confederacy (Caddo: Hasíinay) was a large confederation of Caddo-speaking Native Americans located between the Sabine and Trinity rivers in eastern Texas.
The Heartland Flyer is a daily passenger train that follows a 206-mile (332 km) route from Oklahoma City, Oklahoma to Fort Worth, Texas. Amtrak serves as contractor, initially only for the State of Oklahoma, but now also for the State of Texas. The train's daily round-trip begins in Oklahoma City in the morning and reaches Fort Worth in the early afternoon, then makes an evening return to Oklahoma City. As of November 2014, the train is scheduled at 3 hours 58 minutes in each direction. The Heartland Flyer carried over 77,000 passengers in fiscal year 2016, a 4.2% decrease from FY2015. The train had a ticket revenue of $1,828,486, an increase of 1.8% from FY2015. Total revenue for the train, including state-level subsidies to Amtrak, was approximately $7.1 million.
Hidalgo County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas.
High school football is gridiron football played by high school teams in the United States and Canada.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
Highland Park Village is an upscale shopping plaza located at the southwest corner of Mockingbird Lane and Preston Road in Highland Park, Texas (USA) and was the first self-contained shopping center in America.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
The forests in the U.S. state of Texas have been an important resource since its earliest days and have played a major role in the state's history.
Hmong Americans are Americans of Hmong or Miao descent from China, Southeast Asia, most notably from Thailand, Vietnam and Laos.
Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens.
Homeschooling, also known as home education, is the education of children inside the home.
Honduran Americans (honduro-americano, norteamericano de origen hondureño or estadounidense de origen hondureño) are Americans of Honduran descent.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Hopwood v. Texas, 78 F.3d 932 (5th Cir. 1996), was the first successful legal challenge to a university's affirmative action policy in student admissions since Regents of the University of California v. Bakke.
The Houma are a historic Native American tribe located in Louisiana on the east side of the Red River of the South.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
The Houston Astros are an American professional baseball team based in Houston, Texas.
The Houston Ballet, operated by the Houston Ballet Foundation, is the fourth-largest professional ballet company in the United States, based in Houston, Texas.
Houston black soil extends over of the Texas blackland prairies and is the Texas state soil.
The Houston Cougars are the athletic teams representing the University of Houston.
Houston Dynamo is an American professional soccer club based in Houston, Texas.
Houston Grand Opera (HGO), located in Houston, Texas, was founded in 1955 by German-born impresario Walter Herbert and Houstonians Elva Lobit, Edward Bing, and Charles Cockrell.
The Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, also called RodeoHouston or abbreviated HLSR, is the largest livestock exhibitions and rodeo in the world.
The Houston Rockets are an American professional basketball team based in Houston, Texas.
The Houston Ship Channel, in Houston, Texas, is part of the Port of Houston, one of the US's busiest seaports.
The Houston Symphony is a Grammy Award winning orchestra based in Houston, Texas.
The Houston Texans are a professional American football team based in Houston, Texas.
The Houston Theater District, a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston, Texas, United States, is home to Houston's nine professional performing arts organizations, the Bayou Place entertainment complex, restaurants, movies, plazas, and parks.
Hudspeth County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas.
Hurricane Alicia was a small but powerful hurricane that caused major destruction within the southeastern parts of Texas in August of 1983.
Hurricane Audrey was one of the deadliest tropical cyclones in American history and the strongest June hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic basin.
Hurricane Beulah was the second tropical storm, second hurricane, and only major hurricane during the 1967 Atlantic hurricane season.
Hurricane Carla ranks as the most intense U.S. tropical cyclone landfall on the Hurricane Severity Index.
Hurricane Harvey is tied with Hurricane Katrina as the costliest tropical cyclone on record, inflicting $125 billion (2017 USD) in damage, primarily from catastrophic rainfall-triggered flooding in the Houston metropolitan area.
Hurricane Ike was a powerful tropical cyclone that swept through portions of the Greater Antilles and Northern America in September 2008, wreaking havoc on infrastructure and agriculture, particularly in Cuba and Texas.
Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge and levee failure.
Hurricane Rita was the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most intense tropical cyclone ever observed in the Gulf of Mexico.
Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Illegal immigration to the United States is the entry into the United States of foreign nationals in violation of United States immigration laws and also the remaining in the country of foreign nationals after their visa, or other authority to be in the country, has expired.
Income taxes in the United States are imposed by the federal, most state, and many local governments.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. state of Texas.
Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans whose ancestry belongs to any of the many ethnic groups of the Republic of India.
Indianola is a ghost town located on Matagorda Bay in Calhoun County, Texas, United States.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The IndyCar Series, currently known as the Verizon IndyCar Series for title sponsorship reasons, is the premier level of open-wheel racing in North America.
Interstate 10 (I-10) is the major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States.
Interstate 35 (abbreviated I-35 or IH-35) in Texas is a major north–south Interstate Highway running from Laredo near the United States-Mexico border to the Red River north of Gainesville where it crosses into Oklahoma.
Interstate 45 (I-45) is an interstate highway located entirely within the U.S. state of Texas.
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States.
The Intracoastal Waterway (ICW) is a inland waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States, running from Boston, Massachusetts, southward along the Atlantic Seaboard and around the southern tip of Florida, then following the Gulf Coast to Brownsville, Texas.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849) was an American politician who served as the 11th President of the United States (1845–1849).
James Alfred Pearce (December 14, 1805December 20, 1862) was an American politician.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
are Americans who are fully or partially of Japanese descent, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jill Ellen Stein (born May 14, 1950) is an American physician, activist, and politician.
John Cornyn III (born February 2, 1952) is an American politician and lawyer serving as the senior United States Senator from Texas since 2002.
John Richard Kasich Jr. (born May 13, 1952) is an American politician, author and former television news host serving as the 69th and current Governor of Ohio.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
José de Urrea (March 19, 1797 – August 1, 1849) was a Mexican general.
The structure of the Judiciary of Texas is laid out in Article 5 of the Texas Constitution and is further defined by statute, in particular the Texas Government Code and the Texas Probate Code.
Jumano language The Jumanos were a prominent indigenous tribe or several tribes, who inhabited a large area of western Texas, adjacent New Mexico, and northern Mexico, especially near the La Junta de los Rios region with its large settled Indian population.
Juneteenth, also known as Juneteenth Independence Day or Freedom Day, is an American holiday that commemorates the June 19, 1865, announcement of the abolition of slavery in the U.S. state of Texas, and more generally the emancipation of enslaved African-Americans throughout the former Confederacy of the southern United States.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
The is a geographical area of Honshu, the largest island of Japan.
The Karankawa (also known as Carancahuas, Carancahuases, Carancouas, Caranhouas, Caronkawa) were a Native American people concentrated in southern Texas along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is an American Republican political consultant and policy advisor.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Warren Kenneth Paxton Jr. (born December 23, 1962) is an American lawyer and politician who is the Attorney General of Texas since January 2015.
KFDA-TV, virtual and VHF digital channel 10, is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Amarillo, Texas, United States.
The Kickapoo people (Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi) are an Algonquian-speaking Native American and Indigenous Mexican tribe.
Killeen is a city in Bell County, Texas, United States.
The Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, hosts an art collection as well as traveling art exhibitions, educational programs and an extensive research library.
Kimberly-Clark Corporation is an American multinational personal care corporation that produces mostly paper-based consumer products.
Kingsville is a city in the southern region of the U.S. state of Texas.
Kiowa people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains.
Korean Americans (Hangul: 한국계 미국인, Hanja: 韓國系美國人, Hangukgye Migukin) are Americans of Korean heritage or descent, mostly from South Korea, and with a very small minority from North Korea, China, Japan and Post-Soviet states.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
The Kru languages belong to the Niger–Congo language family and are spoken by the Kru people from the southeast of Liberia to the east of Ivory Coast.
Claudia Alta "Lady Bird" Johnson (née Taylor; December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007) was an American socialite and the First Lady of the United States (1963–1969) as the wife of the 36th President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson.
Lakewood Church is a non-denominational charismatic Christian megachurch located in Houston, Texas, US.
Of the languages spoken in Texas none has been designated the official language.
Laredo is the county seat of Webb County, Texas, United States, on the north bank of the Rio Grande in South Texas, across from Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
The Late Jurassic is the third epoch of the Jurassic period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic strata.
Latino is a term often used in the United States to refer to people with cultural ties to Latin America, in contrast to Hispanic which is a demonym that includes Spaniards and other speakers of the Spanish language.
Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).
Huddie William Ledbetter (January 20, 1888 – December 6, 1949) was an American folk and blues musician notable for his strong vocals, virtuosity on the twelve-string guitar, and the folk standards he introduced.
A league is a unit of length.
League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry, 548 U.S. 399 (2006), is a Supreme Court of the United States case in which the Court ruled that only District 23 of the 2003 Texas redistricting violated the Voting Rights Act.
The Lenape, also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States.
Liberalism in the United States is a broad political philosophy centered on what many see as the unalienable rights of the individual.
The Libertarian Party (LP) is a libertarian political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism and shrinking the size and scope of government.
The Lieutenant Governor of Texas is the second-highest executive office in the government of Texas, a state in the U.S. It is the second most powerful post in Texas government because its occupant controls the work of the Texas Senate and controls the budgeting process as a leader of the Legislative Budget Board.
Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast tram is a form of urban rail transport using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
Lipan Apache are Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) Native Americans whose traditional territory included present-day Texas, New Mexico, Colorado and the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas prior to the 17th century.
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.
This is a list of the world's busiest seaports by cargo tonnage, the total mass of actual cargo transported through the port.
Washington, D.C. has been the federal capital city of the United States since 1819.
The following is a list of the most populous incorporated cities, towns, and unincorporated census-designated places (CDPs) in the U.S. state of Texas.
The U.S. state of Texas is divided into 254 counties, more than any other U.S. state.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
This list of countries by electric energy consumption is mostly based on The World Factbook.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This is a list of countries by incarceration rate.
This is a list of the 50 largest country subdivisions and dependent territories by area (including surface water) in square kilometres.
This is a list of first-level country subdivisions which have a nominal gross state product in excess of $100 billion.
The Governor of Texas is the chief executive of the U.S. State of Texas, the presiding officer over the executive branch of the Government of Texas, and the commander-in-chief of the Texas National Guard, the State's militia.
The following is a list of reservoirs and lakes in the U.S. state of Texas.
The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined 383 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the United States and seven for Puerto Rico.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
The following is a list of notable companies in the petroleum industry that are engaged in petroleum exploration and production.
This is a list of some of the regions in the United States.
This is a list of school districts in Texas, sorted alphabetically.
The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which officially is named United Mexican States.
The following is a complete list of 25 metropolitan areas in Texas, as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget.
The following is a list of symbols of the U.S. state of Texas.
This is a complete list of the states of the United States and its major territories ordered by total area, land area, and water area.
This is a list of U.S. states and territories sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP).
As of April 1, 2010, the date of the 2010 United States Census, the nine most populous U.S. states contain slightly more than half of the total population.
A state of the United States is one of the 50 constituent entities that shares its sovereignty with the federal government.
This is a list of U.S. states sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita.
The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places of the United States.
Llano Estacado, often translated as Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas.
Llano is a city in Llano County, Texas, in the United States.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests.
Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company is a major unit of Lockheed Martin with headquarters at Air Force Plant 4 in Fort Worth, Texas.
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters.
The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Louisiana French (français de la Louisiane, Louisiana Creole: françé la lwizyàn), also known as Cajun French (français cadien/français cadjin) is a variety of the French language spoken traditionally in colonial Lower Louisiana but as of today it is primarily used in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes, though substantial minorities exist in southeast Texas as well.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
Lupinus texensis, the Texas bluebonnet or Texas lupine is a species of lupine endemic to Texas.
The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, also known as the LBJ Presidential Library, is the presidential library and museum of Lyndon Baines Johnson, the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969).
The mainline Protestant churches (also called mainstream Protestant and sometimes oldline Protestant) are a group of Protestant denominations in the United States that contrast in history and practice with evangelical, fundamentalist, and charismatic Protestant denominations.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional soccer league sanctioned by U.S. Soccer that represents the sport's highest level in both the United States and Canada.
The major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada are the highest professional competitions of team sports in those countries.
In Mexico, a maquiladora or maquila is a manufacturing operation, where factories import certain material and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly, processing, or manufacturing and then export the assembled, processed and/or manufactured products, sometimes back to the raw materials' country of origin.
Marathon Oil Corporation is an American petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company headquartered in the Marathon Oil Tower in Houston, Texas.
The Margot and Bill Winspear Opera House is an opera house (one of four venues in the AT&T Performing Arts Center) located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas (USA).
Matagorda Bay is a large Gulf of Mexico estuary bay on the Texas coast, lying in Calhoun and Matagorda counties and located approximately northeast of Corpus Christi, east-southeast of San Antonio, south-southwest of Houston, and south-southeast of Austin.
Maternal healthcare in Texas refers to the provision of family planning services, abortion options, pregnancy-related services, and physical and mental well-being care for women during the prenatal and postpartum periods.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
The mayor–council government system is a system of organization of local government.
McAllen is the largest city in Hidalgo County, Texas, United States, and the twenty-second most populous city in Texas.
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
The melting pot is a monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture or vice versa, for a homogeneous society becoming more heterogeneous through the influx of foreign elements with different cultural background with a potential creation of disharmony with the previous culture.
Men's Health (MH), published by Rodale Inc. in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, United States, is the world's largest men's magazine brand, with 35 editions in 59 countries.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Mesoproterozoic Era is a geologic era that occurred from.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County (often referred to as METRO) is a major public transportation agency based in Houston, Texas, United States.
METRORail is the light rail system in Houston, Texas (USA).
Mexican Americans (mexicoamericanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.
The Mexican Cession is the region in the modern-day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
Mexican Texas is the historiographical name used to refer to the era of Texan history between 1821 and 1836, when it was part of Mexico.
The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain.
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.
Michael Richard Pence (born June 7, 1959) is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 48th and current Vice President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
The Mingo people are an Iroquoian-speaking group of Native Americans made up of peoples who migrated west to the Ohio Country in the mid-18th century, primarily Seneca and Cayuga.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar (August 16, 1798 – December 19, 1859), an attorney born in Georgia, became a Texas politician, poet, diplomat and soldier.
The Mississippi Embayment is a physiographic feature in the south-central United States, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally.
The Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railway is a former Class I railroad company in the United States, with its last headquarters in Dallas.
The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth (widely referred to as The Modern) is a museum of post-World War II art in Fort Worth, TX.
The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature.
The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae.
The Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series (often shortened to the Cup Series) is the top racing series of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR).
Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.
The Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center is a concert hall located in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas (USA).
Moses Austin (October 4, 1761 – June 10, 1821) was an American businessman and pioneer who played a large part in the development of the lead industry in the early United States.
The various cultures collectively termed Mound Builders were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious, ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes.
The Mountain Time Zone of North America keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when standard time is in effect, and by subtracting six hours during daylight saving time (UTC−6).
The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) (formerly I-A).
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of "two or more races".
The Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB) writes investor protection rules and other rules regulating broker-dealers and banks in the United States municipal securities market, including tax-exempt and taxable municipal bonds, municipal notes, and other securities issued by states, cities, and counties or their agencies to help finance public projects or for other public policy purposes.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Music of Austin, Texas: Austin's official motto is the "Live Music Capital of the World" because on any given night, one can find over one hundred venues showcasing a wide variety of free - live music performances.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Opened in 2003, the Nasher Sculpture Center is a museum in Dallas, Texas, that houses the Patsy and Raymond Nasher collection of modern and contemporary sculpture.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame is located in Fort Worth, Texas, US.
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Native Hawaiians (Hawaiian: kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli, and Hawaiʻi maoli) are the aboriginal Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
NCAA Division I (D-I) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the United States.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The New Great Migration is the demographic change from 1965 to the present, which is a reversal of the previous 35-year trend of black migration within the United States.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
A Nicaraguan American (nicaraguo-americano, norteamericano de origen nicaragüense or estadounidense de origen nicaragüense) is an American of Nicaraguan descent.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that usually operates late into the night.
The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), or the nine-banded, long-nosed armadillo, is a medium-sized mammal found in North, Central, and South America, making it the most widespread of the armadillos.
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB) was a U.S. Act of Congress that reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; it included Title I provisions applying to disadvantaged students.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Non-Hispanic whites or whites not of Hispanic or Latino origin (commonly referred to as Anglo-Americans)Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of Anglo in English: It is defined as a synonym for Anglo-American--Page 86 are European Americans who are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity, as defined by the United States Census Bureau.
Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988.
The northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is the only mockingbird commonly found in North America.
Northwest Austin Municipal Utility District No.
NRG Park (formerly Reliant Park and Astrodomain) is a complex in Houston, Texas, USA, named after the energy company NRG Energy.
The Nueces River is a river in the U.S. state of Texas, about long.
Nuevo León, or New Leon, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León (Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
The Ogallala Aquifer is a shallow water table aquifer surrounded by sand, silt, clay and gravel located beneath the Great Plains in the United States.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
The Old Three Hundred were the 297 grantees, made up of families and some partnerships of unmarried men, who purchased 307 parcels of land from Stephen Fuller Austin and established a colony that encompassed an area that ran from the Gulf of Mexico on the south, to near present-day Jones Creek, Brazoria county Texas, Brenham in Washington County, Texas, Navasota in Grimes County, and La Grange in Fayette County.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.
The Ordinance of Secession is the general name given to documents drafted and ratified in 1860 and 1861 by each of the thirteen southern states and the Territory of Arizona formally seceding from the United States of America.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
The Ouachita Mountains, simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Texas: Texas – second most populous and the second most extensive of the 50 states of the United States of America.
Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas are the peoples of the Pacific Islands.
Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans, or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians).
A spanking paddle is an implement used to strike a person on the buttocks.
The Paleogene (also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene Period Mya.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
The parallel 36°30′ north is a circle of latitude that is 36 and one-half degrees north of the equator of the Earth.
A passive margin is the transition between oceanic and continental lithosphere that is not an active plate margin.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is a species of hickory native to Mexico and the Southern United States.
The Pecos River is a river that originates in eastern New Mexico and flows into Texas, emptying into the Rio Grande.
Pecos is the largest city in and the county seat of Reeves County, Texas, United States.
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous or Late Carboniferous) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous Period.
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices or bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression.
The Permanent University Fund (PUF) is a sovereign wealth fund created by the State of Texas to fund public higher education within the state.
Perot Systems was an information technology services provider founded in 1988 by a group of investors led by Ross Perot and based in Plano, Texas, United States.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
The Piney Woods is a temperate coniferous forest terrestrial ecoregion in the Southern United States covering of East Texas, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and southeastern Oklahoma.
Plains Indians, Interior Plains Indians or Indigenous people of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native American tribes and First Nation band governments who have traditionally lived on the greater Interior Plains (i.e. the Great Plains and the Canadian Prairies) in North America.
Plano is a city in the U.S. state of Texas, located approximately twenty miles north of downtown Dallas.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
Polistes annularis (P. annularis) is a species of paper wasp which lives throughout the Caribbean and in parts of North America.
Polistes exclamans is a social wasp and is part of the family Vespidae of the order Hymenoptera.
For approximately 99 years, from after Reconstruction until the 1990s, the Democratic Party dominated Texas politics.
A poll tax is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Motiva refinery is an oil refinery located in Port Arthur, Texas.
The Port of Houston is one of world's largest ports and serves the metropolitan area of Houston, Texas.
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
The President of the Republic of Texas was the head of state when Texas was an independent republic from 1836 to 1846.
A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Psyche is a scientific journal of entomology which was established in 1874 by the Cambridge Entomological Club as a "journal for the publication of biological contributions upon Arthropoda from any competent person".
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
A Stateside Puerto Rican, also ambiguously Puerto Rican American (puertorriqueño-americano, puertorriqueño-estadounidense) is a term for residents in the United States who were born in or trace family ancestry to Puerto Rico.
The Querechos were a Native American people.
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group.
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity).
Rackspace Inc. is a managed cloud computing company based in Windcrest, Texas, USA, a suburb of San Antonio, Texas.
The Railroad Commission of Texas (RRC; also sometimes called the Texas Railroad Commission, TRC) is the state agency that regulates the oil and gas industry, gas utilities, pipeline safety, safety in the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry, and surface coal and uranium mining.
Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
The Red River Showdown, commonly called the Red River Rivalry, the Red River Classic, or the Red River Shootout, is an American college football rivalry game played annually at the Cotton Bowl stadium in Dallas, Texas, during the third weekend of the State Fair of Texas in October.
A regulatory agency (also regulatory authority, regulatory body or regulator) is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French explorer.
Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years.
The Republic of Texas (República de Tejas) was an independent sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The Republican Party of Texas (RPT) is one of the two major political parties in the U.S. State of Texas.
William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.
In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
The Rio Grande Valley is an area located in the southernmost tip of South Texas.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8, 1911August 16, 1938) was an American blues singer-songwriter and musician.
The Robin Hood plan was a media nickname given to legislation enacted by the U.S. state of Texas in 1993 to provide court-mandated equitable school financing for all school districts in the state, in response to the Texas Supreme Court's ruling in Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby.
Rockport is a city in Aransas County, Texas, United States.
Rodeo is a competitive sport that arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later Central America, South America, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is an American author, physician and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 22nd congressional district from 1976 to 1977 and again from 1979 to 1985, and for Texas's 14th congressional district from 1997 to 2013.
The Roscoe Wind Farm in Roscoe, Texas, owned and operated by E.ON Climate & Renewables is one of the world's largest capacity wind farms with 634 wind turbines and a total installed capacity of 781.5 MW.
Roscoe is a city near the intersection of Interstate 20 and US Highway 84 in Nolan County in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Runaway Scrape events took place mainly between September 1835 and April 1836, and were the evacuations by Texas residents fleeing the Mexican Army of Operations during the Texas Revolution, from the Battle of the Alamo through the decisive Battle of San Jacinto.
The Sabine River is a river, long,U.S. Geological Survey.
A sales tax is a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services.
A salient is an elongated protrusion of a geopolitical entity, such as a subnational entity or a sovereign state.
A salt dome is a type of structural dome formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir.
Salvadoran Americans (salvadoreño-americanos, norteamericanos de origen salvadoreño or estadounidenses de origen salvadoreño) are Americans of full or partial Salvadoran descent.
Sam Houston (March 2, 1793July 26, 1863) was an American soldier and politician.
Samoan Americans are Americans of Samoan origin, including those who emigrated from the Independent State of Samoa or American Samoa to the United States.
San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.
San Antonio International Airport is an international airport in San Antonio, Texas, that serves the Greater San Antonio metropolitan area.
The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas.
School corporal punishment refers to causing deliberate pain or discomfort in response to undesired behaviour by students in schools.
A school district is a special-purpose district that operates local public primary and secondary schools in various nations.
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
The Seal of the State of Texas was adopted through the 1845 Texas Constitution, and was based on the seal of the Republic of Texas, which dates from January 25, 1839.
The Texas Secretary of State is one of the six members of the executive department of the state of Texas, in the United States.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Self-defence (self-defense in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.
The Siege of Fort Texas marked the beginning of active campaigning by the armies of the United States and Mexico during the Mexican–American War.
The Siege of the Alamo (February 23 – March 6, 1836) describes the first thirteen days of the Battle of the Alamo.
The Sierra Madre Occidental is a major mountain range system of the North American Cordillera, that runs northwest–southeast through Northwestern and Western Mexico, and along the Gulf of California.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
The Silicon Prairie, a take on the Silicon Valley, can refer to one of several places in the United States: an area in Texas, one in a multi-state region loosely comprising parts of Nebraska, Iowa, Wisconsin, South Dakota, Kansas, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Missouri, one in Wyoming, and one in Illinois.
The lightning whelk, scientific name Sinistrofulgur perversum,J.
Six Flags, officially Six Flags Entertainment Corporation, is an amusement park corporation based in the United States, with properties in the US, Canada, and Mexico.
"Six flags over Texas" is the slogan used to describe the six nations that have had sovereignty over some or all of the current territory of the U.S. state of Texas: Spain (1519–1685; 1690–1821), France (1685–1690), Mexico (1821–1836), the Republic of Texas (1836–1845), the Confederate States of America (1861–1865), and the United States of America (1845–1861; 1865–present).
Sixth Street is a historic street and entertainment district in Austin, Texas located within the city's urban core in downtown Austin.
In the history of the United States, a slave state was a U.S. state in which the practice of slavery was legal, and a free state was one in which slavery was prohibited or being legally phased out.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The SMU Mustangs are the athletic teams that represent Southern Methodist University.
The SMU–TCU football rivalry is an American college football rivalry between the SMU Mustangs football team of Southern Methodist University (SMU) and TCU Horned Frogs football of Texas Christian University (TCU).
Social conservatism is the belief that society is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be upheld through duty, traditional values and established institutions.
In the United States education system, social studies is the integrated study of multiple fields of social science and the humanities, including history, geography, and political science.
The Socialist Party of Texas (SPTX) is a democratic socialist political party in the U.S. state of Texas.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
South by Southwest (abbreviated as SXSW and colloquially referred to as South By) is an annual conglomerate of film, interactive media, and music festivals and conferences that take place in mid-March in Austin, Texas, United States.
The South Central United States or South Central states is a region of the United States located in the south central part of the country.
The South Texas Medical Center (STMC) consists of of medical-related facilities on the northwest side of San Antonio, Texas, USA.
The Southeastern Conference (SEC) is an American college athletic conference whose member institutions are located primarily in the Southern part of the United States.
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.
The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a Christian denomination based in the United States.
Southern Methodist University (commonly referred to as SMU) is a private research university in metropolitan Dallas, with its main campus spanning portions of the town of Highland Park and the cities of University Park and Dallas.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
Southwest Airlines Co. is a major United States airline headquartered in Dallas, Texas, and the world’s largest low-cost carrier.
The Southwestern Exposition and Livestock Show, known commonly as the Fort Worth Stock Show and Rodeo is the oldest continuously running livestock show and rodeo.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
Southwestern University (also referred to as Southwestern or SU) is a private, four-year, not-for-profit undergraduate, liberal arts college located in Georgetown, Texas, United States.
Spanish Americans (españoles estadounidenses, hispanoestadounidenses, españoles americanos or hispanonorteamericanos) are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly from Spain.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish Missions in Texas comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans, Jesuits, and Franciscans to spread the Catholic doctrine among area Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier land.
Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1690 until 1821.
The Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the Texas House of Representatives.
A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country.
Spindletop is a salt dome oil field located in the southern portion of Beaumont, Texas in the United States.
Stafford Municipal School District (SMSD) is a school district based in Stafford, Texas, United States in Greater Houston.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
In the United States, each state has its own constitution.
The State Fair of Texas is an annual state fair held in Dallas at historic Fair Park.
The State Farm Lone Star Showdown was the official moniker for all varsity men's and women's athletics competitions between the University of Texas and Texas A&M University.
Most individual U.S. states collect a state income tax in addition to federal income tax.
The State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness, commonly referred to as its acronym STAAR, are a series of state-mandated standardized tests used in Texas public primary and secondary schools to assess a student's achievements and knowledge learned in the grade level.
Stephen Fuller Austin (November 3, 1793 – December 27, 1836) was an American empresario.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Sugar Land is a city in Fort Bend County, Texas, United States, within the southeast metropolitan area.
The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the Southeast and Southwest.
The Sun Belt Conference is a collegiate athletic conference that has been affiliated with the NCAA's Division I since 1976.
The Sunset Limited is an Amtrak passenger train that for most of its history has run between New Orleans and Los Angeles, over the nation's second transcontinental route.
The Supreme Court of Texas ("SCOTX") is the court of last resort for civil appeals (including juvenile delinquency which the law considers to be a civil matter and not criminal) in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tamaulipas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tamaulipas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
The Tax Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank, founded in 1937, that collects data and publishes research studies on U.S. tax policies at both the federal and state levels.
The TCU Horned Frogs are the athletic teams that represent Texas Christian University.
The Tea Party movement is an American conservative movement within the Republican Party.
Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz (born December 22, 1970) is an American politician and attorney serving as the junior United States Senator from Texas since 2013.
The Tejano (Derived from "Tejas", the Hasinais indian name for "Texas", meaning "friends" or "allies") are residents of the state of Texas who are culturally descended from the original Spanish-speaking settlers of Texas and northern Mexico. They may be variously of Criollo Spanish or Mexican American origin. Historically, the Spanish term Tejano has been used to identify various groups of people. During the Spanish colonial era, the term was primarily applied to Spanish settlers of the region now known as the state of Texas (first it was part of New Spain and after 1821 it was part of Mexico). After settlers entered from the United States and gained the independence of the Republic of Texas, the term was applied to mostly Spanish-speaking Texans, Hispanicized Germans, and other Spanish-speaking residents. In practice, many members of traditionally Tejano communities often have varying degrees of fluency in Spanish with some having virtually no Spanish proficiency though still considered culturally part of the community. Since the early 20th century, Tejano has been more broadly used to identify a Texan Mexican American. It is also a term used to identify natives, as opposed to newcomers, in the areas settled. Latino people of Texas identify as Tejano if their families were living there before the area was controlled by Anglo Americans.
Tejano music or Tex-Mex music (Texan-Mexican music) is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Mexican-American populations of Central and Southern Texas.
The Tejano Music Awards (TMA) is an accolade created by former arts teacher and musician Rudy Trevino in 1980.
Tenet Healthcare Corporation is a multinational investor-owned healthcare services company based in Dallas, Texas.
Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
A Texan is a person who originated from, or who lives in the state of Texas, in the United States.
Texan English is the array of American English spoken in Texas, primarily falling under the regional dialects of Southern and Midland U.S. English.
Texas A&M Aggies refers to the students, graduates, and sports teams of Texas A&M University.
Texas A&M University (Texas A&M or A&M) is a coeducational public research university in College Station, Texas, United States.
Texas A&M University Press (also known informally as TAMU Press) is a scholarly publishing house associated with Texas A&M University.
The Texas A&M University System is a state university system in Texas and is one of the state's six independent university systems.
The Texas Almanac is a biennially published reference work providing information for the general public on the history of the state and its people, government and politics, economics, natural resources, holidays, culture, education, recreation, the arts, and other topics.
The Texas Annexation was the 1845 incorporation of the Republic of Texas into the United States of America, which was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on December 29, 1845.
The Texas Archive War was an 1842 dispute over an attempted move of the Republic of Texas national archives from Austin to Houston and, more broadly, over then-president Sam Houston's efforts to make Houston the capital of Texas.
The Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) was the fourth Texas state standardized test previously used in grade 3-8 and grade 9-11 to assess students' attainment of reading, writing, math, science, and social studies skills required under Texas education standards.
Texas Biomedical Research Institute (Texas Biomed), located in San Antonio, Texas, is an independent, non-profit biomedical research institution, specializing in genetics and in virology and immunology.
The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals (CCA) is the court of last resort for all criminal matters in the State of Texas, United States.
The Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS) is a department of the government of the state of Texas.
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT, pronounced "tex-dot") is a government agency in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Texas Eagle is a 1,306-mile (2,102 km) passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the central and western United States.
The Texas Education Agency (TEA) is a branch of the state government of Texas in the United States responsible for public education.
The 2014 general election was held in the U.S. state of Texas on November 4, 2014.
The Texas Eleven were a group of Texas Senate Democrats who fled Texas for Albuquerque, New Mexico for 46 days in 2003 aimed at preventing the passage of controversial redistricting legislation that was intended to benefit Texas Republicans.
The Texas Emerging Technology Fund (often abbreviated as TETF or ETF) is a technology investment fund created by legislation in 2005 at the urging of Governor Rick Perry to provide Texas with an unparalleled advantage in the research, development, and commercialization of emerging technologies.
The Texas Enterprise Fund is a business incentive fund that was created by legislation in 2003.
Texas German (Texasdeutsch) is a German language dialect spoken by descendants of German immigrants who settled in Texas in the mid-19th century.
The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) is an agency of the U.S. state of Texas's government that oversees all public post-secondary education in the state.
The Texas Hill Country is a geographic region located in the Edwards Plateau at the crossroads of West Texas, Central Texas, and South Texas.
The Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) is one of about 14 North American species of spikey-bodied reptiles called horned lizards.
Texas House Bill 588, commonly referred to as the "Top 10% Rule", is a Texas law passed in 1997.
The Texas House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Texas Legislature.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
The Texas Interconnection is an alternating current (AC) power grid – a wide area synchronous grid – that covers most of the state of Texas.
The Legislature of the state of Texas is the state legislature of Texas.
The Texas Longhorn is a breed of cattle known for its characteristic horns, which can extend to over tip to tip for bulls, and tip to tip for steers and exceptional cows.
The Texas Longhorns are the athletic teams that represent The University of Texas at Austin.
The Texas Medical Center (TMC) is a medical district and neighborhood in south-central Houston, Texas, immediately south of the Museum District and west of Texas State Highway 288.
Texas Monthly is a monthly American magazine headquartered in Downtown Austin, Texas.
Texas Motor Speedway is a speedway located in the northernmost portion of the U.S. city of Fort Worth, Texas – the portion located in Denton County, Texas.
The Texas oil boom, sometimes called the gusher age, was a period of dramatic change and economic growth in the U.S. state of Texas during the early 20th century that began with the discovery of a large petroleum reserve near Beaumont, Texas.
The Texas Panhandle is a region of the U.S. state of Texas consisting of the northernmost 26 counties in the state.
The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin.
The Texas Rangers are an American professional baseball team based in Arlington, Texas, located in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.
The Texas Revolution (October 2, 1835 – April 21, 1836) was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos (Texas Mexicans) in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico.
The Texas Senate is the upper house of the Texas State Legislature.
The Texas State Bobcats are the sports teams that represent Texas State University.
Texas State Highway 130 (SH 130), also known as the Pickle Parkway, is a highway from Interstate 35 (I-35) in San Antonio along I-410 and I-10 to east of Seguin, then north as tollway from there to I-35 north of Georgetown.
The Texas State Historical Association (TSHA) is a non-profit educational organization, dedicated to documenting the history of Texas.
Texas State University is a public research university located in San Marcos, Texas, United States.
The Texas State University System (TSUS) was created in 1911 to oversee the state's normal schools.
The Texas Tech Red Raiders and Lady Raiders are the athletic teams that represent Texas Tech University.
Texas Tech University, often referred to as Texas Tech, Tech, or TTU, is a public research university in Lubbock, Texas.
The Texas Tech University System is a state university system in Texas consisting of four separate universities in the state of Texas, of which two are academic institutions: Angelo State University and Texas Tech University, and two are health institutions: Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, and Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso.
The Texas Triangle is one of eleven ''megaregions'' in the United States.
Texas District 27 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the coastal bend of Texas' Gulf Coast consisting of Corpus Christi and Victoria up to Bastrop County near Austin and Wharton County near Houston.
"Texas, Our Texas" is the official state song of Texas.
The Texas–Arlington Mavericks (abbreviated UT Arlington, UTA, and Mavs) are the athletic teams that represent the University of Texas at Arlington in Arlington, Texas.
The Texian Army, also known as the Army of Texas and the Army of the People, was a military organization consisting of volunteer and regular soldiers who fought against the Mexican army during the Texas Revolution.
Texians were residents of Mexican Texas and, later, the Republic of Texas.
Teyas were a Native American people living near Lubbock, Texas who first made contact with Europeans in 1541 when Francisco Vásquez de Coronado traveled to them.
Thai Americans ชาวอเมริกันเชื้อสายไทย (formerly referred to as Siamese Americans) are Americans who, or whose ancestors, came from Thailand.
The Dallas Morning News is a daily newspaper serving the Dallas–Fort Worth area of Texas, with an average of 271,900 daily subscribers.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, Ohio, United States.
The Texas Tribune is a nonprofit media organization in Texas.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Thornton Affair, also known as the Thornton Skirmish, Thornton's Defeat, or Rancho Carricitos was a battle in 1846 between the military forces of the United States and Mexico twenty miles west upriver from Zachary Taylor's camp along the Rio Grande.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
Timothy Michael Kaine (born February 26, 1958) is an American attorney and politician serving as the junior United States Senator from Virginia since 2013.
A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for passage.
Thomas Dale DeLay (born April 8, 1947) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Texas's 22nd congressional district from 1985 until 2006.
Tongan Americans are Americans who can trace their ancestry to Tonga, officially known as the Kingdom of Tonga.
The Tonkawa are a Native American tribe indigenous to present-day Oklahoma and Texas.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Tornado Alley is a colloquial term for the area of the United States (or by some definitions extending into Canada) where tornadoes are most frequent.
The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, also known as the Crow Collection of Asian Art, is a museum dedicated to the arts and cultures of China, Japan, India, and Southeast Asia, located in downtown Dallas, Texas (USA).
The Trans-Pecos, as originally defined in 1887 by the Texas geologist Robert T. Hill, is the portion of Texas that lies west of the Pecos River.
A transport hub (also transport interchange) is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or between transport modes.
The Treaties of Velasco were two documents signed at Velasco, Texas (now Surf side Beach, Texas) on May 14, 1836, between Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna of Mexico and the Republic of Texas, in the aftermath of the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Trinity Metro is a transit agency located in Fort Worth, Texas.
The Trinity Railway Express (or TRE) is a commuter rail line in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.
Trinity University is a private liberal arts college in San Antonio, Texas.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
Tropical Storm Allison was a tropical storm that devastated southeast Texas in June of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season.
Tropical Storm Allison was a tropical cyclone that produced severe flooding in the southern United States.
Tropical Storm Claudette caused significant flooding in eastern Texas and western Louisiana in July 1979.
Trust for America's Health (TFAH) is a Washington, D.C.-based health policy organization.
There are 13 U.S. cities with teams from four major sports, where "city" is defined as the entire metropolitan area, and "major professional sports leagues" as.
U.S. English is the umbrella name for two American political advocacy groups founded in 1983 by former United States Senator S.I. Hayakawa to advocate the adoption of English as the official language of the United States.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
United Airlines, Inc., commonly referred to as United, is a major United States airline headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
These are tables of congressional delegations from the State of Texas to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.
The 2014 United States elections were held on Tuesday, November 4, 2014, in the middle of Democratic President Barack Obama's second term.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The 2016 United States presidential election in Texas was won by Republican Donald Trump and his running mate Mike Pence by a 9% margin over Democrats Hillary Clinton and Tim Kaine, part of the November 8, 2016 General Election.
The United States presidential election of 1844 was the 15th quadrennial presidential election, held from November 1, to December 4, 1844.
The United States Presidential Election of 1860 was the nineteenth quadrennial presidential election to select the President and Vice President of the United States.
The United States presidential election of 1980 was the 49th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1984 was the 50th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1988 was the 51st quadrennial United States presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1992 was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1996 was the 53rd quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2004, the 55th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2012 was the 57th quadrennial American presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
The University Interscholastic League (UIL) is an organization that creates rules for and administers almost all athletic, music, and academic contests for public primary and secondary schools in the American state of Texas.
The University of Houston (UH) is a state research university and the flagship institution of the University of Houston System.
The University of Houston System is a state university system in Texas, comprising four separate and distinct universities.
The University of Mary Hardin–Baylor (UMHB) is a Christian co-educational institution of higher learning located in Belton, Texas, United States.
The University of North Texas (UNT) is a public research institution in Denton with programs in natural, formal, and social sciences, engineering, liberal arts, fine arts, performing arts, humanities, public policy, graduate professional education, and post-doc research.
The University of North Texas System is a public university system, headquartered in Downtown Dallas, in the former Titche-Goettinger Building.
The University of Oklahoma (OU) is a coeducational public research university in Norman, Oklahoma.
The University of Texas at Arlington (UTA or UT Arlington) is a public research university located in Arlington, Texas, midway between Dallas and Fort Worth.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD or UT Dallas) is a public research university in the University of Texas System.
The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is a public research university in El Paso, Texas, United States.
The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) is a state research university in San Antonio, Texas, United States.
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, d/b/a UT Health San Antonio is an institute of health science education and research located in the South Texas Medical Center, the medical district of the U.S. city of San Antonio, Texas.
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (colloquially MD Anderson) is one of the original three comprehensive cancer centers in the United States.
The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) is a component of the University of Texas System located in Galveston, Texas, United States, about southeast of Downtown Houston.
The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UT Southwestern) is a medical education and biomedical research institution in the United States.
The University of Texas System (UT System) encompasses 14 educational institutions in the U.S. state of Texas, of which eight are academic universities and six are health institutions.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
USS Texas (BB-35), the second ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the U.S. state of Texas, is a. The ship was launched on 18 May 1912 and commissioned on 12 March 1914.
Valero Energy Corporation is a Fortune 500 international manufacturer and marketer of transportation fuels, other petrochemical products, and power.
Van Horn is a town in and the seat of Culberson County, Texas, United States.
Vietnamese Americans (Người Mỹ gốc Việt) are Americans of Vietnamese descent.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Waco is a city in central Texas and is the county seat of McLennan County, Texas, United States.
Watkins Glen International, nicknamed "The Glen", is an automobile race track located in Watkins Glen, New York, at the southern tip of Seneca Lake.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
The WeatherTech SportsCar Championship is a sports car racing series based in the United States and Canada and organized by the International Motor Sports Association (IMSA).
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
West Texas is a loosely defined part of the U.S. state of Texas, generally encompassing the arid and semiarid lands west of a line drawn between the cities of Wichita Falls, Abilene, and Del Rio.
The Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set primarily in the later half of the 19th century in the American Old West, often centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse.
Western American English (also known as Western U.S. English or in the U.S., simply, Western) is a variety of American English that largely unites the entire western half of the United States as a single dialect region, including the states of California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming.
Western Refining, Inc., is a Texas-based Fortune 200 and Global 2000 crude oil refiner and marketer operating primarily in the Southwestern, North-Central and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
In the United States, a White Hispanic is an American citizen or resident who is racially white and of Hispanic descent.
White primaries were primary elections held in the Southern United States in which only white voters were permitted to participate.
Whole Foods Market Inc. is an American supermarket chain that specializes in selling organic foods products without artificial additive products for growing foods, colors, flavors, sweeteners, and hydrogenated fats.
The Wichita people are a confederation of Midwestern Native Americans.
A wildflower (or wild flower) is a flower that grows in the wild, meaning it was not intentionally seeded or planted.
The Will Rogers Memorial Center (WRMC) is an public entertainment, sports and livestock complex located in Fort Worth, Texas (USA).
William P. Hobby Airport is an international airport in Houston, Texas, from downtown Houston.
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity.
Wind power in Texas consists of many wind farms with a total installed nameplate capacity of 22,637 MW (Q3 2017) from over 40 different projects.
A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy.
The Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) is a women's professional basketball league in the United States.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A write-in candidate is a candidate in an election whose name does not appear on the ballot, but for whom voters may vote nonetheless by writing in the person's name.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Ysleta del Sur Pueblo (also Tigua Pueblo) is a Puebloan Native American tribal entity in the Ysleta section of El Paso, Texas.
Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
Zilker Metropolitan Park is a recreational area in south Austin, Texas at the juncture of Barton Creek and the Colorado River that comprises over of publicly owned land.
The meridian 100° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 103° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The One Hundred Fourteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
The 1886 Indianola Hurricane destroyed the town of Indianola, Texas and as such, had a significant impact on the history and economic development of Texas.
The Great Galveston Hurricane, known regionally as the Great Storm of 1900, was the deadliest natural disaster in United States history.
The 1915 Galveston hurricane was a deadly hurricane that struck Leeward Islands, Hispaniola, Cuba and Texas, in mid August of the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season.
The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11.4 percent over the 203,184,772 persons enumerated during the 1970 Census.
The 1980 United States Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on October 5, 1980 at the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Race Course in Watkins Glen, New York.
The 2003 Texas redistricting refers to a controversial mid-decade state plan that defined new Congressional districts.
The 2004 Christmas Eve United States winter storm was a rare weather event that took place in Louisiana and Texas in the United States on December 24, 2004, before the storm moved northeast to affect the coastal sections of the Mid-Atlantic states and New England in the succeeding few days.
The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census.
The 2014 American immigration crisis was a surge in unaccompanied children and women from the Northern Triangle of Central America (NTCA) seeking entrance to the United States in 2014.
The 32nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 32 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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