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Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
The Academy of San Carlos (Academia de San Carlos) is located at 22 Academia Street in just northeast of the main plaza of Mexico City.
Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, south of Mexico City.
Acolman de Nezahualcóyotl is a town and municipality located in the northern part of Mexico State, part of the Greater Mexico City area, just north of the city proper.
Actopan (Otomi: Ma’ñuts’i) s a city and one of the 84 municipalities of Hidalgo, in central-eastern Mexico.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afro-Mexicans (afromexicanos; negros; afrodescendientes.), also known as Black Mexicans are Mexicans who have both a predominant heritage from Sub-Saharan Africa and identify as such.
Agave americana, common names sentry plant, century plant, maguey or American aloe, is a species of flowering plant in the family Asparagaceae, native to Mexico, and the United States in New Mexico, Arizona and Texas.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Aguas frescas (Spanish for "cool waters", or literally "fresh waters") are light non-alcoholic beverages made from one or more fruits, cereals, flowers, or seeds blended with sugar and water.
Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (27 September 178319 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician.
Alameda Central is a public urban park in downtown Mexico City.
Alejandra Robles Suastegui, La Jornada: Alejandra Robles "Mi música también es pop".
Alejandro Fernández Abarca (born 24 April 1971) is a Mexican singer.
Alejandro González Iñárritu (credited since 2014 as Alejandro G. Iñárritu; born August 15, 1963) is a Mexican film director, producer, and screenwriter.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Alfonso Cuarón Orozco (born 28 November 1961) is a Mexican film director, screenwriter, producer, and editor.
Alfonso Reyes Ochoa (17 May 1889 in Monterrey, Nuevo León – 27 December 1959 in Mexico City) was a Mexican writer, philosopher and diplomat.
Alta California (Upper California), founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain, and, after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico.
American Mexicans (estadounidense-mexicanos) are Mexican citizens who are either born in, or descended from migrants from the United States and its territories.
Amores perros is a 2000 Mexican drama thriller film directed by Alejandro González Iñárritu and written by Guillermo Arriaga.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Ana Gabriela Guevara Espinoza (born March 4, 1977, in Nogales, Sonora) is a now-retired Mexican track and field athlete who specialized in the 400 meters.
Andrés Manuel del Río Fernández (10 November 1764 – 23 March 1849) was a Spanish–Mexican scientist and naturalist who discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801.
Andrés Manuel López Obrador (born 13 November 1953), often abbreviated as AMLO, is a Mexican politician.
The Angel of Independence, most commonly known by the shortened name El Ángel and officially known as Monumento a la Independencia ("Monument to Independence"), is a victory column on a roundabout on the major thoroughfare of Paseo de la Reforma in downtown Mexico City.
Aniceto de los Dolores Luis Gonzaga Ortega Villar (17 April 1825 – 17 November 1875) was a Mexican physician, composer, and pianist.
The Annual Review of Anthropology is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1972.
Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.
Antonio Rodolfo Oaxaca Quinn (April 21, 1915 – June 3, 2001), more commonly known as Anthony Quinn, was a Mexican-American actor, painter and writer.
Antonio Félix "Tota" Carbajal Rodríguez (born 7 June 1929 in Mexico City) is a Mexican former football goalkeeper.
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876),Callcott, Wilfred H., "Santa Anna, Antonio Lopez De,", accessed April 18, 2017 often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then for Mexican independence.
Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.
Arab Mexicans are Mexican citizens of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity, who identify themselves as Arab.
Many of Mexico's older architectural structures, including entire sections of Pre-Hispanic and colonial cities, have been designated World Heritage sites for their historical and artistic significance.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Arturo ('Jack') Warman Gryj (September 9, 1937–October 21, 2003) was a Mexican anthropologist, member of the cabinets of Carlos Salinas and Ernesto Zedillo, also an author of nine books, two of which have been translated to English.
Asian Mexicans (mexicanos asiáticos; asiomexicanos) are Mexicans of Asian descent.
Atole or Spanish, from Nahuatl ātōlli), also known as atol and atol de elote, is a traditional hot corn- and masa-based beverage of Mesoamerican origin. Chocolate atole is known as champurrado or atole. It is typically accompanied with tamales, and very popular during the Christmas holiday season (Las Posadas).
The attack on Veracruz was a 1683 raid against the port of Veracruz, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain (colonial Mexico).
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
The axolotl (from āxōlōtl) also known as a Mexican salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum) or a Mexican walking fish, is a neotenic salamander, closely related to the tiger salamander.
Axtel S.A.B. de C.V., known as Axtel, is a Mexican telecommunications company headquartered in San Pedro, near Monterrey.
Aztec codices (Mēxihcatl āmoxtli) are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Nahuas in pictorial and/or alphabetic form.
The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance (Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, ˈjéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥), began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: italic, italic, and italic.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Álvaro Obregón Salido (February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924.
Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.
Érik Isaac Morales Elvira (born September 1, 1976) is a Mexican former professional boxer who competed from 1993 to 2012.
Babel is a 2006 drama film directed by Alejandro González Iñárritu and written by Guillermo Arriaga, starring an ensemble cast.
Bahía Concepción is a bay on the Gulf of California, in southeastern Mulegé Municipality and the central-eastern part of the Baja California Peninsula, in Baja California Sur state, Mexico.
Baja CaliforniaSometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte (North Lower California) to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, the adjacent state that covers the southern half of the peninsula.
The Baja California Peninsula (Lower California Peninsula, Península de Baja California) is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
Banda is a term to designate a style of Mexican music and the musical ensemble in which wind instruments, mostly of brass and percussion, are performed.
Barbacoa is a form of cooking meat that originated in the Caribbean with the Taíno people, from which the term “barbecue” derives.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western history.
Benito Pablo Juárez García (21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and liberal politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Biblioteca Palafoxiana is a library in Puebla, Mexico.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bioprospecting is the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources.
Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance), commonly known simply as Birdman, is a 2014 American black comedy film directed by Alejandro G. Iñárritu.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
Boca del Río is a city and municipality located in the center of the Mexican state of Veracruz.
A bolillo or pan francés (meaning "French bread") is a type of savory bread traditionally made in Mexico but also made in Central America.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bonampak (known anciently as Ak'e or, in its immediate area as Usiij Witz, 'Vulture Hill') is an ancient Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Chiapas.
Mexico shares international borders with three nations.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Buddhism is a minority religion in Mexico, numbering 108,701 followers or 0.09% of the total Mexican population.
Bullfighting is a physical contest that involves humans and animals attempting to publicly subdue, immobilise, or kill a bull, usually according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations.
The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is an agency that reports to the Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights within the Department of State.
Club Deportivo Guadalajara; often simply known as Guadalajara, and most commonly known as Chivas, is a Mexican professional football club based in Guadalajara, Jalisco.
A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, and early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality.
The cabinet of Mexico is the Executive Cabinet (Gabinete Legal) and is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government.
Cabo San Lucas (Cape Saint Luke), commonly called Cabo in English, is a resort city at the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur.
Cacaxtla is an archaeological site located near the southern border of the Mexican state of Tlaxcala.
A cacique (feminine form: cacica) is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles.
Café Tacuba (stylized Café Tacvba) is a band from Ciudad Satélite, Mexico.
Caifanes is a Spanish-language rock en español band from Mexico City.
Cajeta is a confection of thickened syrup usually made of sweetened caramelised goat's milk.
Calabaza, also called West Indian pumpkin, is a winter squash typically grown in the West Indies and tropical America.
Calakmul (also Kalakmul and other less frequent variants) is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (Spanish for "Royal Road of the Interior Land") was a 2560 kilometer (1,600 mile) long trade route between Mexico City and San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico, from 1598 to 1882.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancún is a city in southeastern Mexico on the northeast coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo.
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
Mario Fortino Alfonso Moreno Reyes, known casually as Mario Moreno, and known professionally as Cantinflas (August 12, 1911 – April 20, 1993), was a Mexican comic film actor, producer, and screenwriter and an iconic figure in Mexico and Latin America.
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
The Caribbean Series (Spanish: Serie del Caribe), also called Caribbean World Series, is the highest tournament for professional baseball teams in Latin America, featuring the champions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela.
Carl Nebel (March 18, 1805 – June 4, 1855) was a German engineer, architect and draughtsman,Thieme-Becker, entry "Nebel, Carl" best known for his detailed paintings of the Mexican landscape and people during the battles of the Mexican–American War.
Carlos Carrera (born August 18, 1962 in Mexico City) is a Mexican film director and screenwriter.
Carlos Fuentes Macías (November 11, 1928 – May 15, 2012) was a Mexican novelist and essayist.
Carlos Monsiváis Aceves (May 4, 1938 – June 19, 2010) was a Mexican writer, critic, political activist, and journalist.
Carlos Salinas de Gortari (born 3 April 1948) is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994.
Carlos Slim Helú (born January 28, 1940) is a Mexican business magnate, engineer, investor and philanthropist.
Carlota of Mexico (7 June 1840 – 19 January 1927) was a Belgian princess who became Empress of Mexico by marriage to Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.
Casas Grandes (Spanish for Great Houses; also known as Paquimé) is a prehistoric archaeological site in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua.
A casta was a term to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of European whites (españoles), Amerinds (indios), and Africans (negros).
The Caste War of Yucatán (1847–1901) began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán, Mexico against the European-descended population, called Yucatecos.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Mexico is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope, his Curia in Rome and the national Mexican Episcopal Conference.
The Censo General de Población y Vivienda (General Census of Population and Housing, or National Census of…) is the main national census for Mexico.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico.
The Chamizal dispute was a border conflict over about on the Mexico–United States border between El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua.
Champurrado is a chocolate-based atole, a warm and thick Mexican drink, prepared with either masa de maíz (lime-treated-corn dough), masa harina (a dried version of this dough), or corn flour (simply very finely ground dried corn, especially local varieties grown for atole); panela; water or milk; and occasionally containing cinnamon, anise seed or vanilla.
San Juan Chamula is a municipio (municipality) and township in the Mexican state of Chiapas.
Chan Santa Cruz was the name of a shrine in Mexico of the Maya Cruzob (or Cruzoob) religious movement.
Chapultepec Zoo (Spanish: Zoológico de Chapultepec) is a zoo located in Chapultepec Park; it is one of four zoos near Mexico City, and the best known Mexican zoo.
Charanda is an alcoholic spirit derived from sugarcane, similar to rum.
The charreada or charrería is a competitive event similar to rodeo and was developed from animal husbandry practices used on the haciendas of old Mexico.
Chayote (Sechium edule) is an edible plant belonging to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, along with melons, cucumbers and squash.
Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that with Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
Chichen Itza, Chichén Itzá, often with the emphasis reversed in English to; from Chi'ch'èen Ìitsha' (Barrera Vásquez et al., 1980.) "at the mouth of the well of the Itza people" was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.
The Chichimeca War (1550–90) was a military conflict waged by Spain against the Chichimeca Confederation established in the lowlands of Mexico, called La Gran Chichimeca located in the West North-Central Mexican states.
The Chicoasén Dam (officially known as Manuel Moreno Torres) is an embankment dam and hydroelectric power station on the Grijalva River near Chicoasén in Chiapas, Mexico.
A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
The city of Chihuahua is the state capital of the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
Children of Men is a 2006 British-American dystopian thriller film directed and co-written by Alfonso Cuarón.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese calligraphy is a form of aesthetically pleasing writing (calligraphy), or, the artistic expression of human language in a tangible form.
Chinese immigration to Mexico began during the colonial era and has continued to the present day.
Chipilo is a small city in the state of Puebla, Mexico.
Chipilo Venetian, or Chipileño, is a diaspora language currently spoken by the descendants of some five hundred 19th century Venetian immigrants to Mexico.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
Cholula (Cholōllān) (Spanish) was an important city of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, dating back to at least the 2nd century BCE, with settlement as a village going back at least some thousand years earlier.
The Christian Democrat Organization of America (ODCA, from Spanish: Organización Demócrata Cristiana de América) is an international organization made up of political parties that advocate the principles of Christian Democracy in their respective countries.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for tax purposes.
The Científicos (Spanish: "scientists" or "those scientifically oriented") were a circle of technocratic advisors to President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz.
The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the ending of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events – most particularly the Mexican Revolution – and produced some movies that have only recently been rediscovered.
Ciudad Juárez (Juarez City) is the most populous city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
Closed list describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected.
Club de Fútbol América S.A. de C.V., commonly known as Club América, or simply as América, is a professional football club based in Mexico City, Mexico.
Cochinita pibil (also puerco pibil or cochinita con achiote) is a traditional Mexican slow-roasted pork dish from the Yucatán Peninsula.
The Cocos Plate is a young oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America, named for Cocos Island, which rides upon it.
There is a significant Colombian diaspora in Mexico.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
The Comisión Federal de Electricidad (Federal Electricity Commission) is the state-owned electric utility of Mexico, widely known as CFE.
The Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO; National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity) is a permanent inter-ministerial commission of the Federal Mexican government, created in 1992.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF,; typeset for branding purposes since 2018 as Concacaf) is the continental governing body for association football (soccer) in North America, which includes Central America and the Caribbean region.
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, organizations (such as trade unions, and political parties), or groups.
The Congress of Chilpancingo (Congreso de Chilpancingo), also known as the Congress of Anáhuac, was the first, independent congress that replaced the Assembly of Zitácuaro, formally declaring itself independent from the Spanish crown.
The Congress of the Union (Congreso de la Unión), formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States (Congreso General de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre Co., Ltd. (CMLL;, "World Wrestling Council") is a lucha libre professional wrestling promotion based in Mexico City.
The Constitution of Mexico, formally the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States (Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is the current constitution of Mexico.
The Constitutional Army (also known as the Constitutionalist Army) was the army that fought against the Federal Army, and later, against the Villistas and Zapatistas during the Mexican Revolution.
The Constitutional Assembly of Mexico City (Asamblea Constituyente de la Ciudad de México) is a body formed to create a new constitution for Mexico City in the wake of the 2016 political reforms that convert Mexico City into a federative entity comparable to the 31 states.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
A converso (feminine form conversa), "a convert", (from Latin, "converted, turned around") was a Jew who converted to Roman Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendants.
Corn smut is a plant disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis that causes smut on maize and teosinte.
The Cornish people or Cornish (Kernowyon) are an ethnic group native to, or associated with Cornwall: and a recognised national minority in the United Kingdom, which can trace its roots to the ancient Britons who inhabited southern and central Great Britain before the Roman conquest.
The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry that form a ballad.
The Costa Chica of Guerrero (Spanish for “small coast of Guerrero") is an area along the south coast of the state of Guerrero, Mexico, extending from just south of Acapulco to the Oaxaca border.
The Costa Region or Costa Chica lies on the Pacific coast of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, south of the more mountainous Sierra Sur inland from the coast.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
The Council of the Indies; officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies (Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire for the Americas and the Philippines.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Cozumel (Kùutsmil) is an island and municipality in the Caribbean Sea off the eastern coast of Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula, opposite Playa del Carmen, and close to the Yucatán Channel.
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.
Crataegus mexicana is a species of hawthorn known by the common names tejocote, manzanita, tejocotera and Mexican hawthorn.
The Criollo is a term which, in modern times, has diverse meanings, but is most commonly associated with Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial (and not necessarily Spanish) European immigrant origin.
Cristóbal de Villalpando (ca. 1649 – 20 August 1714) was a Spanish Baroque artist, arts administrator and captain of the guard.
Government forces publicly hanged Cristeros on main thoroughfares throughout Mexico, including in the Pacific states of Colima and Jalisco, where bodies would often remain hanging for extended lengths of time. The Cristero War or Cristero Rebellion (1926–29), also known as La Cristiada, was a widespread struggle in many central-western Mexican states against the secularist, anti-Catholic and anti-clerical policies of the Mexican government.
Cronos is a 1993 Mexican horror drama film written and directed by Guillermo del Toro, starring veteran Argentinean actor Federico Luppi and American actor Ron Perlman.
The Cry of Dolores (Grito de Dolores) is a historical event that happened in Mexico in the early morning of 16 September 1810.
Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano (born May 1, 1934) is a prominent Mexican politician.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
Cuernavaca (kʷawˈnaːwak "near the woods") is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico.
Cuitláhuac (c. 1476 – 1520) or Cuitláhuac (in Spanish orthography; Cuitlāhuac,, honorific form Cuitlahuatzin) was the 10th tlatoani (ruler) of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan for 80 days during the year Two Flint (1520).
Culinary arts, in which culinary means "related to cooking", are the arts of preparation, cooking and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The cultures of Spain are European cultures based on a variety of historical influences, primarily based on pre-Roman Celtic and Iberian culture.
Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.
Daniel Catán (April 3, 1949 – April 9, 2011) was a Mexican composer, writer and professor known particularly for his operas and his contribution of the Spanish language to the international repertory.
Daniel Thomas Egerton (1797–1842), was a British landscape painter, Egerton was one of the original members of the Society of British Artists, where he exhibited in the years 1824 to 1829, and in 1838 to 1840.
David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros, December 29, 1896, in Chihuahua – January 6, 1974, in Cuernavaca, Morelos) was a Mexican social realist painter, better known for his large murals in fresco.
The Day of the Dead (Día de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico, in particular the Central and South regions, and by people of Mexican ancestry living in other places, especially the United States.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire (Acta de Independencia del Imperio Mexicano), is the document by which the Mexican Empire declared independence from the Spanish Empire.
Deportivo Toluca Fútbol Club S.A. de C.V. is a Mexican football club.
The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (Pan-Hispanic Dictionary of Doubts) or DPD is an elaborate work undertaken by the Real Academia Española (RAE – Royal Spanish Academy) and the Association of Spanish Language Academies with the goal of resolving questions related to the proper use of the Spanish language.
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter.
DINA (Diesel Nacional, S.A. de C.V, in English National Diesel) is a Mexican automotive producer of heavy duty and specialty trucks, urban buses, armored military vehicles, and intercity buses.
Dioscorea composita, or barbasco, is a species of yam in the genus Dioscorea, native to Mexico.
Diosgenin, a phytosteroid sapogenin, is the product of hydrolysis by acids, strong bases, or enzymes of saponins, extracted from the tubers of Dioscorea wild yam, such as the Kokoro.
Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties.
--> The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.
Dolores del Río (born María de los Dolores Asúnsolo López-Negrete; 3 August 1904 – 11 April 1983) was a Mexican actress.
Dolores Hidalgo (Spanish) (in full, Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional (Dolores Hidalgo Cradle of National Independence) is the name of a city and the surrounding municipality in the north-central part of the Mexican state of Guanajuato. It is located at, at an elevation of about 1,980 meters (6,480 feet) above sea level. In the census of 2005 the city had a population of 54,843 people, while the municipality had 134,641 inhabitants. The city lies directly in the center of the municipality, which is 1,590 km² (613.9 sq mi) in area and includes numerous small outlying communities, the largest of which is Río Laja. Dolores Hidalgo was named a Pueblo Mágico (Magic Town) in 2002.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
A drug cartel is any criminal organization with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations.
Dysphania ambrosioides, formerly Chenopodium ambrosioides, known as wormseed, Jesuit's tea, Mexican-tea, payqu (paico), epazote, mastruz, or herba sanctæ Mariæ, is an annual or short-lived perennial herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Eastern religions are the religions originating in East, South and Southeast Asia and thus having dissimilarities with Western religions.
Mexico's economic history has been characterized since the colonial era by resource extraction, agriculture, and a relatively underdeveloped industrial sector.
The economy of Mexico is the 15th largest in the world in nominal terms and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity, according to the International Monetary Fund. Since the 1994 crisis, administrations have improved the country's macroeconomic fundamentals. Mexico was not significantly influenced by the 2002 South American crisis, and maintained positive, although low, rates of growth after a brief period of stagnation in 2001. However, Mexico was one of the Latin American nations most affected by the 2008 recession with its Gross Domestic Product contracting by more than 6% in that year. The Mexican economy has had an unprecedented macroeconomic stability, which has reduced inflation and interest rates to record lows and has increased per capita income. In spite of this, enormous gaps remain between the urban and the rural population, the northern and southern states, and the rich and the poor. Some of the unresolved issues include the upgrade of infrastructure, the modernization of the tax system and labor laws, and the reduction of income inequality. Tax revenues, all together 19.6 percent of GDP in 2013, are the lowest among the 34 OECD countries. The economy contains rapidly developing modern industrial and service sectors, with increasing private ownership. Recent administrations have expanded competition in ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution and airports, with the aim of upgrading infrastructure. As an export-oriented economy, more than 90% of Mexican trade is under free trade agreements (FTAs) with more than 40 countries, including the European Union, Japan, Israel, and much of Central and South America. The most influential FTA is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into effect in 1994, and was signed in 1992 by the governments of the United States, Canada and Mexico. In 2006, trade with Mexico's two northern partners accounted for almost 90% of its exports and 55% of its imports.. The World Factbook. CIA. Recently, the Congress of the Union approved important tax, pension and judicial reforms, and reform to the oil industry is currently being debated. Mexico had 15 companies in the Forbes Global 2000 list of the world's largest companies in 2016. Mexico's labor force is 52.8 million as of 2015. The OECD and WTO both rank Mexican workers as the hardest-working in the world in terms of the amount of hours worked yearly, although profitability per man-hour remains low.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Edible plants may refer to.
Agencia EFE, S.A. is a Spanish international news agency, the major multimedia news agency in Spanish language and the world's fourth largest wire service after the Associated Press, Reuters, and Agence France-Presse.
The Escuela de Graduados en Administración y Dirección de Empresas — generally translated as Graduate School of Business Administration and Leadership but officially branded as EGADE Business School since 2010 — is the graduate business school of the Monterrey Institute of Technology (ITESM): one of Latin America’s largest private universities and one of the most prestigious business universities in America.
El Mundo (The World), formally El Mundo del Siglo Veintiuno (The World of the Twenty-First Century) is the second largest printed daily newspaper in Spain.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
El Universal is a major Mexican newspaper.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Hélène Elizabeth Louise Amélie Paula Dolores Poniatowska (born May 19, 1932), known professionally as Elena Poniatowska, is a French-born Mexican journalist and author, specializing in works on social and political issues focused on those considered to be disenfranchised especially women and the poor.
An emerging power or rising power is a term used as recognition of the rising, primarily influence of a nation—or union of nations—which has steadily increased their presence in global affairs.
Emiliano Zapata Salazar (8 August 1879 – 10 April 1919) was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the state of Morelos, and the inspiration of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo.
Emilio "El Indio" Fernández (born Emilio Fernández Romo,; March 26, 1904 – August 6, 1986) was a Mexican film director, actor and screenwriter.
Emilio Uranga (1921 - October 31, 1988) was a Mexican philosopher.
Emmanuel Lubezki Morgenstern, A.S.C., A.M.C. (born 30 November, 1964) is a Mexican cinematographer.
The Emperor of Mexico (Spanish: Emperador de México) was the head of state and ruler of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century.
Encomienda was a labor system in Spain and its empire.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enrique Peña Nieto (born 20 July 1966), commonly referred to by his initials EPN, is a Mexican politician serving as the 57th President of Mexico, since 2012.
The Epi-Olmec culture was a cultural area in the central region of the present-day Mexican state of Veracruz.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Ernesto Javier Cordero Arroyo is a Mexican politician (born on May 9, 1968).
Ernesto Ruffo Appel (born June 25, 1952 in San Diego, California, U.S.) is an American-born Mexican politician famous for being the first state governor not belonging to the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) since its formation in 1989.
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León, GColIH (born 27 December 1951) is a Mexican economist and politician.
The Estrada Doctrine is the name of Mexico's core foreign policy ideal from 1930 to the early 2000s.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Eugenio Landesio (1810–1879) was an Italian painter and a pupil of the Hungarian landscape painter Károly Markó the Elder.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Excélsior is a daily newspaper in Mexico City.
Execution by firing squad, in the past sometimes called fusillading (from the French fusil, rifle), is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Frank Sherwood "Sherry" Rowland (June 28, 1927 – March 10, 2012) was an American Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine.
The Siege of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was a decisive event in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Félix Parra Hernández (17 November 1845 – 9 February 1919) was a Mexican painter who worked as instructor of ornament drawing at the Academy of San Carlos.
The Federal Commission of Telecommunications (Comisión Federal de Telecomunicaciones) (CoFeTel) was the regulator of telecommunications in Mexico, and was part of the Mexico's Secretariat of Communications and Transport (SCT).
The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857 (Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857) often called simply the Constitution of 1857 is the liberal constitution drafted by 1857 Constituent Congress of Mexico during the presidency of Ignacio Comonfort.
The federal electoral districts (Spanish: distritos electorales federales) of Mexico are the 300 constituencies or electoral districts into which Mexico is divided for the purpose of federal elections.
The Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación, or TEPJF) is a venue within the judiciary of Mexico that specialises in electoral matters.
The federal government of Mexico (alternately known as the Government of the Republic or Gobierno de la Republica) is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states, and to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations.
Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.
The Federal Ministerial Police (in Spanish: Policía Federal Ministerial, PFM) is a Mexican federal agency tasked with fighting corruption and organized crime, through an executive order by President Vicente Fox Quesada.
The Federal Police (Policía Federal, PF), formerly known as the Policía Federal Preventiva (Federal Preventive Police), is a Mexican police force under the authority of the Department for Home Affairs.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
Federico Heraclio Cantú Garza (March 3, 1907 – January 29, 1989) was a Mexican painter, engraver and sculptor.
Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa, GCB, R.E. (born 18 August 1962) is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from 1 December 2006, to 30 November 2012.
Felipe de Jesús Villanueva Gutiérrez (5 February 1862 - 28 May 1893) was a Mexican violinist, virtuoso pianist and composer.
Fernando Fabricio Platas Álvarez (born March 16, 1973 in Mexico City) is a Mexican diver.
Fernando Valenzuela Anguamea (born November 1, 1960) is a Mexican former Major League Baseball (MLB) pitcher who played seventeen seasons, from 1980 to 1997, for six teams, primarily the Los Angeles Dodgers.
The International Basketball Federation, more commonly known as FIBA, FIBA World, or FIBA International, from its French name Fédération internationale de basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs international competition in basketball.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
Filipino Mexicans are Mexican citizens who are descendants of Filipino ancestry.
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico.
The First Mexican Republic known also as the First Federal Republic (Primera República Federal) was a federated republic and nation-state officially designated the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos). "Independence transformed Mexico from Spain's largest and most prosperous colony to a sovereign nation suffering economic decline and political strife." The First Mexican Republic lasted from from 1824 to 1835, when conservatives under Antonio López de Santa Anna transformed it into a centralized state, the Centralist Republic of Mexico.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frances Esther Karttunen (born 1942), also known as Frances Ruley Karttunen, is an American academic linguist, historian and author.
Francisco Ignacio Madero González (30 October 1873 – 22 February 1913) was a Mexican revolutionary, writer and statesman who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until his assassination in 1913.
Francisco López Capillas (1614 - 1674) was a Mexican composer born in Mexico City.
Frank Lloyd Wright (born Frank Lincoln Wright, June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed.
Frederick Russell Burnham DSO (May 11, 1861 – September 1, 1947) was an American scout and world-traveling adventurer.
French Mexicans (Franco-Mexicains, franco-mexicanos or galo-mexicanos) are Mexican citizens of full or partial French ancestry.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón; July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican artist who painted many portraits, self-portraits, and works inspired by the nature and artifacts of Mexico.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
The Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) was an international group that consisted of the leaders of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia), plus the heads of government of the five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa).
Gabriela Ortiz (born 1964) is a Mexican music educator and composer.
The Gadsden Purchase (known in Mexico as Venta de La Mesilla, "Sale of La Mesilla") is a region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States purchased via a treaty signed on December 30, 1853, by James Gadsden, U.S. ambassador to Mexico at that time.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
Georgina "Geo" Meneses (born in Oaxaca City, Mexico on 22 March 1974) is a Mexican producer and singer of traditional music and world music genre.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
German Mexicans (German: Deutschmexikaner or Deutsch-Mexikanisch, Spanish: germano-mexicano or alemán-mexicano) are Mexican citizens of German descent or origin.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gilbert Roland (born Luis Antonio Dámaso de Alonso, December 11, 1905 – May 15, 1994) was a Mexican-born American film and television actor whose career spanned seven decades from the 1920s until the 1980s.
The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
The global silver trade between the Americas and Europe from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries was a spillover of the Columbian Exchange which had a profound effect on the world economy.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Gloria Trevi (born Gloria de los Ángeles Treviño Ruiz on February 15, 1968) is a Mexican singer and songwriter.
The Golden Age of Mexican cinema (in Spanish Época de Oro del Cine Mexicano) is a period in the history of the Cinema of Mexico between 1933 and 1964 when the Mexican film industry reached high levels of production, quality and economic success of its films, besides having gained recognition internationally.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Gravity is a 2013 science fiction thriller film directed, co-written, co-edited, and produced by Alfonso Cuarón.
Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Valley of Mexico Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México), constituted by Mexico City itself composed of 16 Municipalities—and 41 adjacent municipalities of the states of Mexico and Hidalgo.
Grijalva River, formerly known as Tabasco River.
The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44) (all figures in millions of US dollars).
Grupo Imagen is a Mexican media conglomerate, part of Grupo Empresarial Ángeles.
Grupo Multimedios is a media company based out of Monterrey, Nuevo León in Northeastern Mexico, which has interests in television networks, radio, publishing and entertainment.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
Guadalupe Island or Isla Guadalupe is a volcanic island located off the west coast of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula and some southwest of the city of Ensenada in the state of Baja California, in the Pacific Ocean.
Guadalupe Victoria (29 September 1786 – 21 March 1843), born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States. As President he established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom, the United States, the Federal Republic of Central America, and Gran Colombia. He also abolished slavery, founded the National Museum, promoted education, and ratified the border with the United States of America. He decreed the expulsion of the Spaniards remaining in the country and defeated the last Spanish stronghold in the castle of San Juan de Ulúa. Victoria was the only president who completed his full term in more than 30 years of an independent Mexico. He died in 1843 at the age of 56 from epilepsy in the fortress of Perote, where he was receiving medical treatment. On 8 April of the same year, it was decreed that his name would be written in golden letters in the session hall of the Chamber of Deputies.
Guanajuato, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guanajuato (Estado Libre y Soberano de Guanajuato), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, are the 32 Federal entities of Mexico.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
There is a large Guatemalan diaspora in Mexico.
Guavas (singular guava) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.
Guillermo Arriaga Jordán (born 13 March 1958) is a Mexican author, screenwriter, director and producer.
Guillermo del Toro Gómez (born October 9, 1964) is a Mexican filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, author and former special effects makeup artist.
The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez, Sea of Cortés or Vermilion Sea; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or Mar Bermejo or Golfo de California) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The habanero is rated as a hot variety of chili pepper.
An hacienda (or; or), in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa.
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is a fantasy novel written by British author J. K. Rowling and the third in the Harry Potter series.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
José Hermenegildo de la Luz Bustos Hernández (13 April 1832, Purísima del Rincón - 28 June 1907, Purísima del Rincón) was a Mexican painter; known mostly for portraits, although he also created religious paintings and still-lifes.
Hermosillo, formerly called Pitic (as Santísima Trinidad del Pitic and Presidio del Pitic), is a city located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Hidalgo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Hidalgo (Estado Libre y Soberano de Hidalgo), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The "Mexican National Anthem" (Himno Nacional Mexicano), also known as "Mexicans, at the cry of war" (Mexicanos, al grito de guerra), is the national anthem of the United Mexican States.
Hispanoamérica is a ward (barrio) of Madrid belonging to the district of Chamartín.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia.
The history of the Jews in Mexico can be said to have begun in 1519 with the arrival of Conversos, often called Marranos or “Crypto-Jews,” referring to those Jews forcibly converted to Catholicism and that then became subject to the Spanish Inquisition.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, a World Heritage Site, is one of the oldest and largest hospital complexes in the Americas.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of the First Printing Press in the Americas (Casa de la Primera Imprenta de América) at the corner of Moneda and Licenciado Primo Verdad streets in Mexico City was the home of the first printing press/print shop in the New World.
The Wasteko (Huasteco) language is a Mayan language of Mexico, spoken by the Huastecos living in rural areas of San Luis Potosí and northern Veracruz.
The Huastec or Téenek (contraction of Te' Inik, "people from here"; also known as Huaxtec, Wastek or Huastecos), are an indigenous people of Mexico, living in the La Huasteca region including the states of Hidalgo, Veracruz, San Luis Potosí and Tamaulipas concentrated along the route of the Pánuco River and along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
Huave (also spelled Wabe) is a language isolate spoken by the indigenous Huave people on the Pacific coast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca.
The huēhuētl is a percussion instrument from Mexico, used by the Aztecs and other cultures.
Huejotzingo (is a small city and municipality located just northwest of the city of Puebla, in central Mexico. The settlement’s history dates back to the pre-Hispanic period, when it was a dominion, with its capital a short distance from where the modern settlement is today. Modern Huejotzingo is located where a Franciscan monastery was founded in 1525, and in 1529, the monks moved the indigenous population of Huejotzingo to live around the monastery. Today, Huejotzingo is known for the production of alcoholic apple cider and fruit preserves, as well as its annual carnival. This carnival is distinct as it centers on the re-enactment of several historical and legendary events related to the area. The largest of these is related to the Battle of Puebla, with about 2,000 residents representing French and Mexican forces that engage in mock battles over four days.
Hugo Sánchez Márquez (born 11 July 1958) is a retired Mexican professional footballer and manager, who played as a forward.
In the Aztec religion, Huitzilopochtli (wiːt͡siloːˈpoːt͡ʃt͡ɬi) is a Mesoamerican deity of war, sun, human sacrifice and the patron of the city of Tenochtitlan.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human sacrifice was common to many parts of Mesoamerica.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
An idiophone is any musical instrument that creates sound primarily by the instrument as a whole vibrating—without the use of strings or membranes.
Ignacio José de Allende y Unzaga (January 21, 1769 – June 26, 1811), born Ignacio Allende y Unzaga, was a captain of the Spanish Army in Mexico who came to sympathize with the Mexican independence movement.
Ignacio Manuel Altamirano Basilio (1834 – 13 February 1893) was a Mexican radical liberal writer, journalist, teacher and politician.
Iguala, known officially as Iguala de la Independencia, is a historic city located from the state capital of Chilpancingo, in the Mexican state of Guerrero in southwestern Mexico.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
Imagen Televisión is a national broadcast television network in Mexico, owned by Grupo Imagen.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Improved sanitation is a term used to categorize types or levels of sanitation for monitoring purposes.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
The following is an alphabetical Mexico-related index of topics related to the United Mexican States.
Indigenismo is a political ideology in several Latin American countries emphasizing the relation between the nation state and indigenous nations and indigenous minorities.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Indigenous peoples of Mexico (pueblos indígenas de México), Native Mexicans (nativos mexicanos), or Mexican Native Americans (Mexicanos nativo americanos), are those who are part of communities that trace their roots back to populations and communities that existed in what is now Mexico prior to the arrival of Europeans.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
The Mexican Civil Service Social Security and Services Institute (Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, or ISSSTE) is a federal government organization in Mexico that administers part of Mexico's health care and social security systems, and provides assistance in cases of disability, old age, risks in labor, and death (or IVCM, for invalidez, vejez, cesantía en edad avanzada, y muerte) to federal workers.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) is a Mexican political party founded in 1929 that held power uninterruptedly in the country for 71 years from 1929 to 2000, first as the National Revolutionary Party (Partido Nacional Revolucionario, PNR), then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Mexicana, PRM), and finally renaming itself as the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1946.
The Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH, National Institute of Anthropology and History) is a Mexican federal government bureau established in 1939 to guarantee the research, preservation, protection, and promotion of the prehistoric, archaeological, anthropological, historical, and paleontological heritage of Mexico.
The Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas (National Indigenous Languages Institute, better known by its acronym INALI) is a Mexican federal public agency, created 13 March 2003 by the enactment of the Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (General Law of Indigenous Peoples' Linguistic Rights) by the administration of President Vicente Fox Quesada.
IPADE (PanAmerican Institute for High Business Management) is the business school of Universidad Panamericana, or Pan-American University, a private university in Mexico.
The Instituto Politécnico Nacional (National Polytechnic Institute), abbreviated IPN, is one of the largest public universities in Mexico with 171,581 students at the high school, undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces that are considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
International security, also called global security, refers to the amalgamation of measures taken by states and international organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union, and others, to ensure mutual survival and safety.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Irreligion in Mexico refers to atheism, deism, religious skepticism, secularism, and secular humanism in Mexican society, which was a confessional state after independence from Imperial Spain.
Holbox ("black hole" in Yucatec Maya) is an island in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, located on the north coast of the Yucatán Peninsula.
Isla Mujeres (Spanish for "Women Island") is an island in the Caribbean Sea, about off the Yucatán Peninsula coast.
Islam is a minority religion in Mexico.
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ixmiquilpan (Otomi: Ntsʼu̱tkʼani) is a city and one of the 84 municipalities of Hidalgo, in central-eastern Mexico.
Iztaccíhuatl (alternative spellings include Ixtaccíhuatl, or either variant spelled without the accent) (or, as spelled with the x), is a dormant volcanic mountain in Mexico located on the border between the State of Mexico and Puebla.
Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 – August 11, 1956) was an American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
The jalapeño is a medium-sized chili pepper pod type cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum.
Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jaramar Soto is a Mexican traditional singer, songwriter and painter.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Joaquín Quirico Marcelino Clausell Traconis (June 16, 1866 – d. November 28, 1935) was a Mexican lawyer and political activist, who was predominantly known for his Impressionist paintings of Mexican land and seascapes.
Jorge Carlos Ramírez Marín (born August 14, 1961) is a Mexican politician from the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), who since September 2015, serves as Federal Deputy to the LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress.
Jorge Alberto Negrete Moreno (30 November 1911 – 5 December 1953) was a Mexican singer and actor.
José Clemente Orozco (November 23, 1883 – September 7, 1949) was a Mexican painter, who specialized in political murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others.
José Gaos (26 December 1900 in Gijón, Spain – 10 June 1969 in Mexico City) was a Spanish philosopher who obtained political asylum in Mexico during the Spanish Civil War and became one of the most important Mexican philosophers of the 20th century.
José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi (November 15, 1776 – June 21, 1827), Mexican writer and political journalist, best known as the author of El Periquillo Sarniento (1816), translated as The Mangy Parrot in English, reputed to be the first novel written in Latin America.
José Luis Cuevas (February 26, 1934 – July 3, 2017) was a Mexican artist and was one of the first to challenge the then dominant Mexican muralism movement as a prominent member of the Generación de la Ruptura (Breakaway Generation).
José María Teclo Morelos Pérez y Pavón (September 30, 1765, City of Valladolid, now Morelia, Michoacán – December 22, 1815, San Cristóbal Ecatepec, State of México) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811.
José María Tranquilino Francisco de Jesús Velasco Gómez Obregón, generally known as José María Velasco, (Temascalcingo, 6 July 1840Mexico City, 26 August 1912) was a 19th-century Mexican polymath, most famous as a painter who made Mexican geography a symbol of national identity through his paintings.
José Salomé Pina (1830 – 1909) was a Mexican painter.
José Vasconcelos Calderón (28 February 1882 – 30 June 1959) has been called the "cultural caudillo" of the Mexican Revolution.
José Villagrán García (22 September 1901 – 10 June 1982) was a Mexican architect.
José Yves Limantour y Márquez (26 December 1854 – 26 August 1935) was a Mexican financier who served as Secretary of the Finance of Mexico from 1893 until the fall of the Porfirio Díaz regime in 1911.
María Josefa Crescencia Ortiz Téllez- Girón, popularly known as Doña Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez or La Corregidora (April 19, 1773 – March 2, 1829) was an insurgent and supporter of the Mexican War of Independence, which fought for independence against Spain, in the early 19th century.
Juan Aldama (January 3, 1774 in San Miguel el Grande, Guanajuato – June 26, 1811 in Chihuahua) was a Mexican revolutionary rebel soldier during the Mexican War of Independence in 1810.
Juan Correa (1646–1716) was a Mexican painter.
Juan de Grijalva (born around 1489 in Cuéllar, Crown of Castille - 21 January 1527 in Nicaragua) was a Spanish conquistador, and relation of Diego Velázquez.
Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, also known as Juan Diegotzil (1474–1548), a native of Mexico, is the first Roman Catholic indigenous saint from the Americas.
Alberto Aguilera Valadez (January 7, 1950 – August 28, 2016), better known by his stage name Juan Gabriel, was a Mexican singer, songwriter and actor.
Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla (ca. 15901664) was a Spanish composer in what is modern Mexico.
Juan O'Gorman (July 6, 1905 – January 17, 1982) was a Mexican painter and architect.
Juan Ruiz de Alarcón (c. 1581 - 4 August 1639) was a New Spain-born Spanish writer of the Golden Age who cultivated different variants of dramaturgy.
Juan José Ruiz de Apodaca y Eliza Gastón de Iriarte López de Letona y Lasqueti, count of Venadito (3 February 1754, Cadiz, Spain – 11 January 1835, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish naval officer and viceroy of New Spain from 20 September 1816 to 5 July 1821, during Mexico's War of Independence.
Juan Nepomuceno Carlos Pérez Rulfo Vizcaíno, best known as Juan Rulfo (16 May 1917 – 7 January 1986), was a Mexican writer, screenwriter and photographer.
Juan Soriano (August 18, 1920 – February 10, 2006) was a Mexican artist known for his paintings, sculptures and theater work.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, O.S.H. (English: Sister Joan Agnes of the Cross; 12 November 1648 – 17 April 1695), was a self-taught scholar and student of scientific thought, philosopher, composer, and poet of the Baroque school, and Hieronymite nun of New Spain, known in her lifetime as "The Tenth Muse", "The Phoenix of America", or the "Mexican Phoenix".
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Julián Carrillo Trujillo (January 28, 1875 – September 9, 1965) was a Mexican composer,Camp, Roderic Ai (1995).
Julieta Venegas Percevault (born November 24, 1970 in Long Beach, California) is an American-born Mexican singer, songwriter, instrumentalist and producer who sings pop-rock in Spanish.
Julio César Chávez González (born July 12, 1962), also known as Julio César Chávez Sr., is a Mexican former professional boxer who competed from 1980 to 2005.
Julio Estrada Velasco (born 10 April 1943) is a composer, theoretician, historian, pedagogue, and interpreter.
Julio Ruelas (June 21, 1870 - September 16, 1907) was a Mexican graphic artist, painter, draughtsman and printmaker.
Junta, pronounced as "hee-yun-nta", is a Spanish, Greek and Portuguese term for a civil deliberative or administrative council.
María Cristina Estela Marcela Jurado García (16 January 1924 – 5 July 2002), better known as Katy Jurado, was a Mexican film, stage, and television actress.
The Iglesia del Dios Vivo, Columna y Apoyo de la Verdad, La Luz del Mundo, (English: "Church of the Living God, Column and Ground of the Truth, The Light of the World")or simply La Luz del Mundois a Christian denomination with international headquarters in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.
Published in 1925, La raza cósmica (The Cosmic Race) is an essay written by Mexican philosopher, secretary of education, and 1929 presidential candidate José Vasconcelos to express the ideology of a future "fifth race" in the Americas; an agglomeration of all the races in the world with no respect to color or number to erect a new civilization: Universópolis.
La Reforma or the Liberal Reform was initiated in Mexico following the ousting of centralist president Antonio López de Santa Anna by a group of liberals under the 1854 Plan de Ayutla.
Lake Texcoco (Lago de Texcoco) was a natural lake within the "Anahuac" or Valley of Mexico.
Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including.
Many different languages are spoken in Mexico.
The Large Millimetre Telescope (LMT) (Gran Telescopio Milimétrico, or GTM) is the world's largest single-aperture telescope in its frequency range, built for observing radio waves in the wave lengths from approximately 0.85 to 4 mm.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Latin American debt crisis (Crisis de la deuda latinoamericana) was a financial crisis that originated in the early 1980s (and for some countries starting in the 1970s), often known as the "lost decade", when Latin American countries reached a point where their foreign debt exceeded their earning power and they were not able to repay it.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
The Law of Spain is the legislation in force in the Kingdom of Spain, which is understood to mean Spanish territory, Spanish waters, consulates and embassies, and ships flying the Spanish flag in international waters.
Lázaro Cárdenas del Río (May 21, 1895 – October 19, 1970) was a general in the Constitutionalist Army during the Mexican Revolution and a statesman who served as President of Mexico between 1934 and 1940.
Lebanese Mexicans refers to Mexican citizens of Lebanese origin.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leonora Carrington OBE (6 April 191725 May 2011) was an English-born Mexican artist, surrealist painter, and novelist.
Leopoldo Zea Aguilar (June 30, 1912 in Mexico City – June 8, 2004) was a Mexican philosopher.
Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (En: General Law of Indigenous Peoples' Linguistic Rights) was published in the Mexican Official Journal of the Federation on 13 March 2003 during the term of Mexican President Vicente Fox Quesada.
Like Water for Chocolate (Spanish: Como Agua Para Chocolate) is a 1992 Mexican film in the style of magical realism based on the popular novel, published in 1989 by first-time Mexican novelist Laura Esquivel.
Ana Lila Downs Sánchez (born September 9, 1968) is a Mexican-American singer-songwriter and actress.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
The United Mexican States, commonly known as Mexico, is a federation comprising thirty-two States.
This is a list of Italian cheeses.
Mexico is one of the most dangerous countries in the world for journalists and among the ones with the highest levels of unsolved crimes against the press.
Mexico is a federal republic consisting of 31 states and Mexico City.
Mexico recognizes 67 federally protected natural areas as national parks (Parques Nacionales), which are administered by the National Commission of Protected Natural Areas (CONANP), a branch of the federal Secretariat of the Environment and Natural Resources.
The states of Mexico are first-level administrative territorial entities of the country of Mexico, which officially is named United Mexican States.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
Lorena Ochoa Reyes (Spanish; born 15 November 1981) is a Mexican professional golfer who played on the U.S.-based LPGA Tour from 2003 to 2010.
Los Olvidados (Spanish for "The Forgotten Ones"), known in the U.S. as The Young and the Damned, is a 1950 Mexican film directed by Luis Buñuel.
The Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) is an American organization for female professional golfers.
Lucía Leticia Méndez Pérez (born January 26, 1955) is a Mexican born telenovela and film actress, top model and singer.
Lucha libre (meaning "freestyle wrestling" or literally translated as "free fight") is the term used in Mexico for professional wrestling.
Antonio Peña Promotions, S.A de CV d/b/a Lucha Libre AAA Worldwide, or simply AAA (an abbreviation of its original name Asistencia Asesoría y Administración, Spanish for "Assistance, Assessment, and Administration") is a Mexican Lucha Libre (professional wrestling) promotion based in Mexico City, Mexico.
Luis Ramiro Barragán Morfín (March 9, 1902 – November 22, 1988) was a Mexican architect and engineer.
Luis Buñuel Portolés (22 February 1900 – 29 July 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.
Luis Echeverría Álvarez, OMRI GCB OJ (Hon.) (born 17 January 1922) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as the 50th President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976.
Luis Miguel Gallego Basteri (born April 19, 1970) is a Mexican singer and icon in Latin America, often referred to as El Sol de México (The Sun of Mexico).
María Guadalupe Villalobos Vélez, known professionally as Lupe Vélez (July 18, 1908 – December 14, 1944), was a Mexican-born stage and screen actress, comedian, singer, dancer, and vedette.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Man at the Crossroads (1933) was a fresco by Diego Rivera in New York City's Rockefeller Center.
Maná (Spanish: "manna") is a Mexican Rock band from Guadalajara, Jalisco.
The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila; Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships which for two and a half centuries linked the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain.
Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 and lasted until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it.
Manuel de Zumaya or Manuel de Sumaya (c. 1678 – 1755) was perhaps the most famous Mexican composer of the colonial period of New Spain.
Manuel Gamio (1883–1960) was a Mexican anthropologist, archaeologist, sociologist, and a leader of the indigenismo movement.
Manuel del Refugio González Flores, commonly known as Manuel González, (18 June 1833, Tamaulipas – 8 May 1893) was a Mexican military general and liberal politician who served as the 31st President of Mexico from 1880 to 1884.
Manuel Tolsá (Enguera, Valencia, Spain, May 4, 1757 – Mexico City, December 24, 1816) was a prolific Neoclassical architect and sculptor in Spain and Mexico.
María Candelaria is a 1943 Mexican romantic tragedy film directed by Emilio Fernández and starring Dolores del Río and Pedro Armendáriz.
María del Rosario Espinoza (born November 27, 1987) is a Mexican taekwondo practitioner.
María de los Ángeles Félix Güereña ((8 April 1914 – 8 April 2002) was a Mexican film actress and singer. Along with Pedro Armendáriz and Dolores del Río, she was one of the most successful figures of Latin American cinema in the 1940s and 1950s. She was known as La Doña, a name derived from her character in the film Doña Bárbara (1943), and María Bonita, thanks to the anthem composed exclusively for her, as a wedding gift by her second husband, the Mexican composer Agustín Lara. She completed a film career that included 47 films made in Mexico, Spain, France, Italy and Argentina.
A margarita is a cocktail consisting of tequila, orange liqueur, and lime juice often served with salt on the rim of the glass.
Mariachi is a musical expression that dates back to at least 18th century in Western Mexico.
A Marian apparition is a reported supernatural appearance by the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Mariano Azuela González (January 1, 1873 – March 1, 1952) was a Mexican author and physician, best known for his fictional stories of the Mexican Revolution of 1910.
Mario José Molina-Pasquel Henríquez (born March 19, 1943) is a Mexican chemist reputed for his pivotal role in the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.
A marlin is a fish from the family Istiophoridae, which includes about 10 species.
Marranos were Jews living in the Iberian Peninsula who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity during the Middle Ages yet continued to practice Judaism in secret.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mastretta Cars is a Mexican car maker and design studio established by industrial designer Daniel Mastretta in Mexico City in 1987.
The MXT is an automobile produced by the Mexican car manufacturer Mastretta.
The Matrícula de Tributos (English: Tribute roll) is a 16th-century central Mexican manuscript on amatl paper, listing the tribute paid by the various tributaries of the Aztec empire.
The Maximato was a period in the historical and political development of Mexico from 1928 to 1934.
Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.
Mayapan (Màayapáan in Modern Maya), (in Spanish Mayapán) is a Pre-Columbian Maya site a couple of kilometers south of the town of Telchaquillo in Municipality of Tecoh, approximately 40 km south-east of Mérida and 100 km west of Chichen Itza; in the state of Yucatán, Mexico.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
The Mérida Initiative (also called Plan Mexico by critics, in reference to Plan Colombia) is a security cooperation agreement among the United States, the government of Mexico, and the countries of Central America, with the declared aim of combating the threats of drug trafficking, transnational organized crime, and money laundering.
Mérida is the capital of Yucatan, a state in Mexico.
The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.
Melesio Morales (sometimes spelled Melisio Morales) (December 4, 1838 – May 12, 1908) was a Mexican composer.
A membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane.
Mendicant orders are, primarily, certain Christian religious orders that have adopted a lifestyle of poverty, traveling, and living in urban areas for purposes of preaching, evangelism, and ministry, especially to the poor.
There are 100,000 Mennonites (Menonitas; Mennoniten) living in Mexico, including 32,167 baptized adult church members; about 90,000 are established in the state of Chihuahua and 6,500 in Durango.
Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures.
The Mesoamerican ballgame was a sport with ritual associations played since 1400 BCSee Hill, Blake and Clark (1998); Schuster (1998).
Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (before 2600 BCE), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–250 CE), the Classic (250–900CE), and the Postclassic (900–1521 CE), Colonial (1521–1821), and Postcolonial (1821–present).
The traditions of indigenous Mesoamerican literature extend back to the oldest-attested forms of early writing in the Mesoamerican region, which date from around the mid-1st millennium BCE.
Mesoamerican pyramids or pyramid-shaped structures form a prominent part of ancient Mesoamerican architecture.
Mesoamerica, along with Mesopotamia and China, is among the three known places in the world where writing has developed independently.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
In Mexico, the term Mestizo (lit. mixed) is used to refer to an ethnic group that can be defined by different criteria, namely a cultural criterion (the language spoken) or a more strict biological criterion.
A metate or metlatl (or mealing stone) is a type or variety of quern, a ground stone tool used for processing grain and seeds.
The metropolitan areas of Mexico have been traditionally defined as the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city.
In Aztec mythology, Metztli (Meztli, Metzi) was a god or goddess of the moon, the night, and farmers.
The Mexica (Nahuatl: Mēxihcah,; the singular is Mēxihcatl Nahuatl Dictionary. (1990). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from) or Mexicas were a Nahuatl-speaking indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico, known today as the rulers of the Aztec Empire.
Mexicali is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California and seat of the Municipality of Mexicali.
The Mexican Academy of Sciences (Academia Mexicana de Ciencias) is a non-profit organization comprising over 1800 distinguished Mexican scientists, attached to various institutions in the country, as well as a number of eminent foreign colleagues, including various Nobel Prize winners.
The Mexican Air Force (FAM; Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Mexicana) is the primary aerial warfare service branch of the Mexican Armed Forces.
The Mexican Army (Ejército Mexicano) is the combined land and air branch and is the largest of the Mexican Armed Forces; it is also known as the National Defense Army.
Mexican art consists of various visual arts that developed over the geographical area now known as Mexico.
The Mexican barbasco trade was the trade of the diosgenin-rich yam species Dioscorea mexicana, Dioscorea floribunda and Dioscorea composita which emerged in Mexico in the 1950s as part of the Mexican steroid industry.
Mexican breads and other baked goods are the result of centuries of experimentation and the blending of influence from various European baking traditions.
Mexican cuisine began about 9,000 years ago, when agricultural communities such as the Maya formed, domesticating maize, creating the standard process of corn nixtamalization, and establishing their foodways.
The Mexican Drug War (also known as the Mexican War on Drugs) is an ongoing, low-intensity asymmetric war between the Mexican Government and various drug trafficking syndicates.
Compañía Mexicana de Petróleo El Águila SA, (El Águila for short), called in English the Mexican Eagle Oil Company or Mexican Eagle Petroleum Corporation, was a Mexican oil company in the 20th century.
Mexican Empire may refer to.
The Mexican general election of July 2, 2006, was one of the most hotly contested elections in Mexican history and as such, the results were controversial.
The Mexican Baseball League (or LMB) is a professional baseball league based in Mexico.
The term Mexican miracle is used in common speech, but not by economists, to refer to the country's inward-looking development strategy that produced sustained economic growth of 3 to 4 percent and modest 3 percent inflation annually from the 1940s until the 1970s.
Mexican muralism was the promotion of mural painting starting in the 1920s, generally with social and political messages as part of efforts to reunify the country under the post Mexican Revolution government.
Nationality in Mexico is defined by multiple laws, including the 30th article of the Constitution of Mexico and other laws.
The Mexican Navy is one of the two independent armed forces of Mexico.
The Mexican oil expropriation (expropiación petrolera) was the nationalization of all petroleum reserves, facilities, and foreign oil companies in Mexico on March 18, 1938.
The Mexican peso (sign: $; code: MXN) is the currency of Mexico.
The Mexican peso crisis was a currency crisis sparked by the Mexican government's sudden devaluation of the peso against the U.S. dollar in December 1994, which became one of the first international financial crises ignited by capital flight.
Mexican pop is a music genre produced in Mexico, particularly intended for teenagers and young adults.
The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) was a major armed struggle,, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government.
The Mexican Social Security Institute (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) is a governmental organization that assists public health, pensions and social security in Mexico operating under Secretaría de Salud (Secretariat of Health).
Mexican street food, called antojitos (literally "little cravings"), is prepared by street vendors and at small traditional markets in Mexico.
The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain.
Mexican wine and wine making began with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, when they brought vines from Europe to modern day Mexico, the oldest wine-growing region in the Americas.
The Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi), also known as the lobo, is a subspecies of gray wolf once native to southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico, western Texas and northern Mexico.
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.
Mexicans (mexicanos) are the people of the United Mexican States, a multiethnic country in North America.
European Mexicans are Mexican citizens of complete or predominant European descent.
Mexico first participated at the Olympic Games in 1900 and has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games since 1924.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Mexico City International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México, AICM); officially Aeropuerto Internacional Benito Juárez (Benito Juárez International Airport) is an international airport that serves Greater Mexico City.
The Mexico National Baseball Team is the baseball team which represents Mexico in international tournaments.
The Mexico national basketball team (Selección de baloncesto de México) participates in men's international basketball competitions.
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.
Mezcal (or mescal) is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from any type of agave.
Michoacán, formally Michoacán de Ocampo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Michoacán de Ocampo (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
Miguel Mateo Maldonado y Cabrera (1695–1768) was a painter from the Viceroyalty of New Spain, in today's Mexico.
Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado (December 12, 1934 – April 1, 2012) was a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as the 52nd President of Mexico from 1982 to 1988.
Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor (8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo, was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
The military history of Mexico consists of several millennia of armed conflicts within what is now that nation's territory and includes activities of the Mexican military in peacekeeping and combat related affairs worldwide.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
In visual arts, music, and other mediums, minimalism is an art movement that began in post–World War II Western art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s.
The Mixtecs, or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca of Oaxaca and Puebla as well as the state of Guerrero's Región Montañas, and Región Costa Chica, which covers parts of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla. The Mixtec region and the Mixtec peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the upper class and generally richer; the Low Mixtecs or "mixteco bajo" were generally poorer. In recent times, an economic reversal or equalizing has been seen. The third group is Coastal Mixtecs "mixteco de la costa" whose language is closely related to that of the Low Mixtecs; they currently inhabit the Pacific slope of Oaxaca and Guerrero. The Mixtec languages form a major branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other and with the Zapotec kingdoms. The major Mixtec polity was Tututepec which rose to prominence in the 11th century under the leadership of Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, the only Mixtec king who ever united the Highland and Lowland polities into a single state. Like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million. Today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States.
The Mixtec, languages belong to the Otomanguean language family of Mexico, and are closely related to the Trique and Cuicatec languages.
Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – 29 June 1520), variant spellings include Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, and referred to in full by early Nahuatl texts as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (Moctezuma the Young),moteːkʷˈsoːma ʃoːkoˈjoːtsin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.
A molcajete (Mexican Spanish, from Nahuatl molcaxitl) is a stone tool, the traditional Mexican version of the mortar and pestle, similar to the South American batan, used for grinding various food product.
Mole (from Nahuatl mōlli, "sauce") is a traditional sauce originally used in Mexican cuisine, as well as for dishes based on these sauces.
Molotov is a Mexican rock and comedy rap band formed in Mexico City in September 1995.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Monte Albán is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site in the Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán Municipality in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca (17.043° N, 96.767°W).
Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico.
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) (in Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education), also known as Tecnológico de Monterrey or simply as Tec, is a private, nonsectarian and coeducational multi-campus university based in Monterrey, Mexico.
The Monument to the Revolution (Monumento a la Revolución) is a landmark and monument commemorating the Mexican Revolution.
The moon rabbit in folklore is a rabbit that lives on the Moon, based on pareidolia that identifies the markings of the Moon as a rabbit.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Municipalities (municipios in Spanish) are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the state (Spanish: estado).
The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
The name of México has several hypotheses that entail the origin, history, and use of the name México, which dates back to 14th century Mesoamerica.
The National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional, PAN), founded in 1939, is one of the three main political parties in Mexico.
The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, - literal translation: Autonomous National University of Mexico, UNAM) is a public research university in Mexico.
The National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, CDI) is a decentralized agency of the Mexican Federal Public Administration.
The National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy is a Mexican organization coordinated by the Ministry of Social Development.
The National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI by its name in Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) is an autonomous agency of the Mexican Government dedicated to coordinate the National System of Statistical and Geographical Information of the country.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
The National Palace (Palacio Nacional) is the seat of the federal executive in Mexico.
Natural History is a natural history magazine published in the United States.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nevado de Toluca (Spanish) is a large stratovolcano in central Mexico, located about west of Mexico City near the city of Toluca.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
New Spanish Baroque refers to Baroque art in the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
Nezahualcoyotl (Nezahualcoyōtl), meaning "Coyote in fast" or "Coyote who fasts") (April 28, 1402 – June 4, 1472) was a philosopher, warrior, architect, poet and ruler (tlatoani) of the city-state of Texcoco in pre-Columbian era Mexico. Unlike other high-profile Mexican figures from the century preceding Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Nezahualcoyotl was not Mexica; his people were the Acolhua, another Nahuan people settled in the eastern part of the Valley of Mexico, settling on the eastern side of Lake Texcoco. He is best remembered for his poetry, but according to accounts by his descendants and biographers, Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl and Juan Bautista Pomar, he had an experience of an "Unknown, Unknowable Lord of Everywhere" to whom he built an entirely empty temple in which no blood sacrifices of any kind were allowed — not even those of animals. However, he allowed human sacrifices to continue in his other temples.
, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama.
Nixtamalization typically refers to a process for the preparation of maize (corn), or other grain, in which the corn is soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution, usually limewater (but sometimes wood ash lye) washed, and then hulled.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
Non-interventionism or non-intervention is a foreign policy that holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations but still retain diplomacy and avoid all wars unless related to direct self-defense.
Non revenue water (NRW) is water that has been produced and is "lost" before it reaches the customer.
Nopal (from the Nahuatl word nohpalli for the pads of the plant) is a common name in Mexican Spanish for Opuntia cacti (commonly referred to in English as prickly pear), as well as for its pads.
Norteño (northern), also called música norteña, is a genre of Mexican music related to polka and corridos.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
The North American Leaders' Summit (NALS), sometimes called the Three Amigos Summit in the popular press, is the trilateral annual summit between the Prime Minister of Canada, the President of Mexico, and the President of the United States.
The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, extreme northeastern Asia, and parts of Iceland and the Azores.
Nuevo León, or New Leon, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León (Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Diario Oficial de la Federación (DOF; translated variously as the Official Journal of the Federation or else as Official Gazette of the Federation), published daily by the government of Mexico, is the main official government publication in Mexico.
The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.
The OPANAL (which stands for el Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe) is an international organization which promotes a aggression compact and nuclear disarmament in much of the Americas.
Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
Orizaba (Spanish) is a city and municipality in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.
Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas.
The Otomi (Otomí) are an indigenous people of Mexico inhabiting the central Mexican Plateau (Altiplano) region.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Our Lady of Guadalupe (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe), also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgen de Guadalupe), is a Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with a venerated image enshrined within the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Mexico: The United Mexican States, commonly known as Mexico, is a federal constitutional republic located in North America.
Pachyrhizus erosus, commonly known as jicama (or; Spanish jícama; from Nahuatl xīcamatl), Mexican yam bean, or Mexican turnip, is the name of a native Mexican vine, although the name most commonly refers to the plant's edible tuberous root.
The Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by — Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
The Palace of Cortés (Spanish: Palacio de Cortés) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, built in 1526, is the oldest conserved colonial-era civil structure in the continental Americas.
The Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) is a prominent cultural center in Mexico City.
The Palacio de Correos de Mexico (Postal Palace of Mexico City) also known as the "Correo Mayor" (Main Post Office) is located in the historic center of Mexico City, on the Eje Central (Lazaro Cardenas) near the Palacio de Bellas Artes.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
Pan's Labyrinth (lit) is a 2006 dark fantasy drama film written and directed by Guillermo del Toro.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Panamerican University (Spanish Universidad Panamericana), commonly known as UP, is a private Catholic university founded in Mexico City.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa (born José Doroteo Arango Arámbula; 5 June 1878 – 20 July 1923) was a Mexican Revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution.
Panda (later stylized as Pxndx) is a Mexican Rock band formed in Monterrey, Nuevo León in 1996 as part of the musical movement known as Avanzada Regia.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Parallel voting describes a mixed electoral system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other.
Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon in which the mind responds to a stimulus, usually an image or a sound, by perceiving a familiar pattern where none exists.
Partenope is an opera in three acts by Manuel de Zumaya.
The Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD, Partido de la Revolución Democrática) is a social democratic political party that is one of the three major political parties in Mexico, the others being the Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) and the National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional, PAN).
A paste is a small pastry produced in the state of Hidalgo in central Mexico and in the surrounding area.
The Pastry War (Guerra de los pasteles, Guerre des Pâtisseries), also known as the First French intervention in Mexico or the First Franco-Mexican War (1838–1839), began in November 1838 with the naval blockade of some Mexican ports and the capture of the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa in Veracruz by French forces sent by King Louis-Philippe.
Paul Jozef Crutzen (born 3 December 1933) is a Dutch, Nobel Prize-winning, atmospheric chemist.
Paulina Susana Rubio-Dosamantes (born 17 June 1971) is a Mexican singer, actress, television music competition judge, hostess, model and businesswoman.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
Pedro Infante Cruz (18 November 1917 – 15 April 1957), better known as Pedro Infante, was a Mexican actor and singer.
Petróleos Mexicanos, which translates to Mexican Petroleum, but is trademarked and better known as Pemex, is the Mexican state-owned petroleum company, created in 1938 by nationalization or expropriation of all private, foreign, and domestic oil companies at that time.
PEN American Center (PEN), founded in 1922 and based in New York City, works to advance literature, defend free expression, and foster international literary fellowship.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Performance is completion of a task with application of knowledge, skills and abilities.
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices or bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression.
Phaseolus (bean, wild bean) is a genus in the family Fabaceae containing about 70 plant species, all native to the Americas, primarily Mesoamerica.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A photovoltaic system, also PV system or solar power system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.
Pico de Orizaba, also known as Citlaltépetl (from Nahuatl citlal(in).
Piper, the pepper plants or pepper vines (a term used for certain Clematis in older times), are an economically and ecologically important genus in the family Piperaceae.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
The Plan of Ayutla was the 1854 written plan aimed at removing conservative, centralist President Antonio López de Santa Anna from control of Mexico during the Second Federal Republic of Mexico period.
The Plan of Iguala, also known as The Plan of the Three Guarantees ("Plan Trigarante"), was a revolutionary proclamation promulgated on 24 February 1821, in the final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain.
Playa del Carmen is a city located along the Caribbean Sea in the municipality of Solidaridad, in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico.
The Plaza de Toros México, situated in Mexico City, is the world's largest bullring.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
Plutarco Elías Calles (September 25, 1877 – October 19, 1945) was a Mexican Freemason, general and politician.
Polenta is a dish of boiled cornmeal that was historically made from other grains.
The Politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system.
Popocatépetl (Nahuatl: Popōcatepētl) is an active stratovolcano, located in the states of Puebla, Mexico, and Morelos, in Central Mexico, and lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt.
The population figures for indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus have proven difficult to establish.
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of three and a half decades, from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Pouteria sapota, mamey sapote, is a species of tree native to Cuba and Central America, naturally ranging from southern Cuba to southern Costa Rica, plus Mexico.
Pozole (pozolli, pozole), which means "hominy", is a traditional soup or stew from Mexico.
The pre-Columbian history of the territory now comprising contemporary Mexico is known through the work of archaeologists and epigraphers, and through the accounts of the conquistadors, clergymen, and indigenous chroniclers of the immediate post-conquest period.
The President of Mexico (Presidente de México), officially known as the President of the United Mexican States (Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the head of state and government of Mexico.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
A presidio (from the Spanish, presidio, meaning "jail" or "fortification") is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence.
Professional boxing, or prizefighting, is a regulated, sanctioned boxing.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
The Protector Palm Pistol is a small.32 rimfire revolver designed to be concealed in the palm of the hand.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Public property is property that is dedicated to public use and is a subset of state property.
Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Puebla (Spanish: Puebla de Zaragoza), formally Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza and also known as Puebla de los Ángeles, is the seat of Puebla Municipality, the capital and largest city of the state of Puebla, and one of the five most important Spanish colonial cities in Mexico.
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680—also known as Popé's Rebellion—was an uprising of most of the indigenous Pueblo people against the Spanish colonizers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, present day New Mexico.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Mexico has a freight railway system owned by the national government and operated by various entities under concessions (charters) granted by the national government.
Jose Ramón Gil Samaniego (February 6, 1899 – October 30, 1968), best known as Ramón Novarro, was a Mexican film, stage and television actor who began his career in silent films in 1917 and eventually became a leading man and one of the top box office attractions of the 1920s and early 1930s.
Ranchera, or canción ranchera is a genre of the traditional music of Mexico.
Reform of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) encompasses five key issues: categories of membership, the question of the veto held by the five permanent members, regional representation, the size of an enlarged Council and its working methods, and the Security Council-General Assembly relationship.
The War of the Reform (Guerra de Reforma) in Mexico, during the Second Federal Republic of Mexico, was the three-year civil war (1857 - 1860) between liberals who had taken power in 1855 under the Plan of Ayutla, and conservatives resisting the legitimacy of the government and its radical restructuring of Mexican laws, known as La Reforma.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Catholic Christianity is the dominant religion in Mexico, representing about 82.7% of the total population as of 2010.
Renato Leduc (November 16, 1897 – August 2, 1986) was a Mexican poet and journalist.
The Repartimiento (Spanish, "distribution, partition, or division") was a colonial forced labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Texas (República de Tejas) was an independent sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846.
The Republic of the Rio Grande (República del Río Grande) was an independent nation that insurgents against the Central Mexican Republic sought to establish in northern Mexico.
The Republic of Yucatán (República de Yucatán) was a sovereign state during two periods of the nineteenth century.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
The Revillagigedo Islands (Islas Revillagigedo) or Revillagigedo Archipelago are a group of four volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean, known for their unique ecosystem.
Ricardo “El Finito” López Nava (born July 25, 1966) is a retired undefeated Mexican professional boxer.
Ricardo Gonzalo Pedro Montalbán y Merino, KSG (November 25, 1920 – January 14, 2009) was a Mexican actor.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
The Rio Group (G-Rio) is a permanent association of political consultation of Latin America and Caribbean countries, created in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on December 18, 1986, with the purpose of creating a better political relationship among the countries.
The Riviera Maya is a tourism and resort district in Mexico.
Mexican rock music, often referred to in Mexico as rock nacional ("national rock"), originated in the 1950s.
Rockefeller Center is a large complex consisting of 19 commercial buildings covering between 48th and 51st Streets, facing Fifth Avenue, in New York City.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Roger Bartra Murià (born Mexico City, November 7, 1942) is a Mexican sociologist and anthropologist, recognized as one of the most important contemporary social scientists of Latin America.
Rompope is an eggnog-like drink made with eggs, milk, and vanilla flavouring.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico (in Real y Pontificia Universidad de México) was founded on 21 September 1551 by Royal Decree signed by Charles I of Spain, in Valladolid, Spain.
The royal fifth (quinto real or quinto del rey in Spanish and Portuguese) is an old royal tax that reserves to the monarch 20% of all precious metals and other commodities (including slaves) acquired by his subjects as war loot, found as treasure or extracted by mining.
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
Rubén Olivares Avila (born January 14, 1947) is a former Mexican boxer and current member of the Boxing Hall of Fame.
Rufino del Carmen Arellanes Tamayo (August 25, 1899 – June 24, 1991) was a Mexican painter of Zapotec heritage, born in Oaxaca de Juárez, Mexico.
The Sack of Campeche was a 1663 raid by pirates led by Christopher Myngs and Edward Mansvelt which became a model for later coastal pirate raids of the buccaneering era.
Salma Hayek Pinault (born Hayek Jiménez; September 2, 1966), is a Mexican and American film actress, producer, and former model.
Salvador Sánchez Narváez (January 26, 1959 – August 12, 1982) was a Mexican boxer born in the town of Santiago Tianguistenco, Estado de México.
Samuel Ramos Magaña, Ph.D. (1897 – June 20, 1959), was a Mexican philosopher and writer.
San Cristóbal de las Casas (Spanish), also known by its native Tzotzil name, Jovel, is a town and municipality located in the Central Highlands region of the Mexican state of Chiapas.
San Felipe is a town on the bay of San Felipe in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez) in the Mexican state of Baja California, 190 km south of the United States border and within the municipality of Mexicali.
Zinacantepec is a town and municipality located just west of the city of Toluca in Mexico State, Mexico.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
Santa Fe de Nuevo México (Santa Fe of New Mexico; shortened as Nuevo México or Nuevo Méjico, and translated as New Mexico) was a province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later a territory of independent Mexico.
Nuestra Señora de la Santa Muerte (Spanish for Our Lady of Holy Death), often shortened to Santa Muerte, is a female deity or folk saint in Mexican and Mexican-American folk Catholicism.
Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants.
Sapote (from Nahuatl tzapotl) is a term for a soft, edible fruit.
Satmex (Satélites Mexicanos) was a company set up in Mexico in the mid-1990s through 2014 that operated space communication satellites that provide services to the Americas.
Sebastián (born Enrique Carbajal González on November 15, 1947) is a Mexican sculptor best known for his monumental works of steel and/or concrete in both Mexico and abroad.
The Second French Intervention in Mexico (Sp.: Segunda intervención francesa en México, 1861–67) was an invasion of Mexico, launched in late 1861, by the Second French Empire (1852–70).
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) or Second Mexican Empire (Segundo Imperio Mexicano) was the name of Mexico under a limited hereditary monarchy declared by the Assembly of Notables on July 10, 1863, during the Second French intervention in Mexico.
The Secretariat of Communications and Transportation (Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes, "Secretariat or Ministry of Communications and Transport", SCT) of Mexico is the national federal entity that regulates commercial road traffic and broadcasting.
The Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Affairs (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores, SRE, lit: Secretariat of Foreign Relations) is the government department responsible for Mexico's foreign affairs.
The Mexican Secretariat of the Interior (Secretaría de Gobernación, SEGOB, literally "Secretary of Governorship") is concerned with the country's internal affairs, the presentation of the president's bills to Congress, their publication and certain issues of national security.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
SEGH-CFE 1 is a photovoltaic project immediately adjacent to the Comisión Federal de Electricidad power station in Puerto Libertad, Sonora in Mexico, approximately south of the United States border.
The Senate of the Republic, (Senado de la República) constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union (Cámara de Senadores del H. Congreso de la Unión), is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
The Sierra Madre del Sur is a mountain range in southern Mexico, extending from southern Michoacán east through Guerrero, to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in eastern Oaxaca.
The Sierra Madre Occidental is a major mountain range system of the North American Cordillera, that runs northwest–southeast through Northwestern and Western Mexico, and along the Gulf of California.
The Sierra Madre Oriental (Spanish) is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico.
Las Siete Leyes (or Seven Laws were a series of constitutional changes that fundamentally altered the organizational structure of Mexico, ending the first federal period and creating a unitary republic, the Central Republic. Formalized under President Antonio López de Santa Anna on 15 December 1835, they were enacted in 1836. They were intended to centralize and strengthen the national government. The aim of the previous constitution was to create a political system that would emulate the success of the United States, but after a decade of political turmoil, economic stagnation, and threats and actual foreign invasion, conservatives concluded that a better path for Mexico was centralized power. The Siete Leyes were revised in 1843, making them more workable, but also placing power entirely in the hands of Santa Anna. In 1846, the 1824 Constitution was restored and the second federal period began.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Sinaloa, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Snell Limited, branded as Snell Advanced Media or SAM, is a company that designs and develops solutions for the media production market including applications for central operations, live production, post production, playout and media management.
Social determinants of health in Mexico are factors that influence the status of health among certain populations in Mexico.
The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide association of political parties, which seek to establish democratic socialism.
Soconusco is a region in the southwest corner of the state of Chiapas in Mexico along its border with Guatemala.
Sofía Cancino de Cuevas (July 29, 1897 – December 16, 1982) was a Mexican composer, pianist, opera promoter, singer, and her country's first woman symphonic conductor.
Solar thermal energy (STE) is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors.
The Solemn Act of Northern America's Declaration of Independence (Acta Solemne de la Declaración de Independencia de la América Septentrional) is the first Mexican legal historical document which established the separation of Mexico from Spanish rule.
Sonora, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sonora (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora), is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States.
The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California, and Baja California Sur.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish Mexicans are citizens or residents of Mexico who identify as Spanish as a result of nationality or ancestry.
Spanish Colonial architecture represents Spanish colonial influence on New World and East Indies' cities and towns, and it is still being seen in the architecture as well as in the city planning aspects of conserved present-day cities.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by regional cuisines and the particular historical processes that shaped culture and society in those territories.
The Spanish East Indies (Spanish: Indias orientales españolas; Filipino: Silangang Indiyas ng Espanya) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spanish West Indies or the Spanish Antilles (also known as "Las Antillas Occidentales" or simply "Las Antillas Españolas" in Spanish) was the former name of the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean.
Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Spring break is a vacation period in early Spring at universities and schools which started during the 1930s in the United States and is observed in some other mainly Western countries.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The State of Mexico (Estado de México) is one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
The Stations of the Cross or the Way of the Cross, also known as the Way of Sorrows or the Via Crucis, refers to a series of images depicting Jesus Christ on the day of his crucifixion and accompanying prayers.
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación (SCJN) is the supreme court of Mexico and the head of the judicial branch of the Mexican federal government. It consists of eleven judges, known as ministers, one of whom is designated the court's president. Judges of the SCJN are appointed for 15 years. They are confirmed by the Senate from a list proposed by the President of the Republic. From among their number, the ministers elect the President of the Court to serve a four-year period; a given minister may serve more than one term as president, but not in consecutive periods.
Susana Harp Iturribarria (born April 8, 1968) is a Mexican singer of traditional music.
The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Tabasco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tabasco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tabasco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
A taco is a traditional Mexican dish consisting of a corn or wheat tortilla folded or rolled around a filling.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
A tamale (tamal, tamalli) is a traditional Mesoamerican dish made of masa or dough (starchy, and usually corn-based), which is steamed in a corn husk or banana leaf.
The Tarascan state was a state in pre-Columbian Mexico, roughly covering the geographic area of the present-day Mexican state of Michoacán, parts of Jalisco, and Guanajuato.
Tecamachalco Municipality is a municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.
Tehuantepecer, or Tehuano wind, is a violent mountain-gap wind traveling through Chivela Pass, most common between October and February, with a summer minimum in July.
The Tejano (Derived from "Tejas", the Hasinais indian name for "Texas", meaning "friends" or "allies") are residents of the state of Texas who are culturally descended from the original Spanish-speaking settlers of Texas and northern Mexico. They may be variously of Criollo Spanish or Mexican American origin. Historically, the Spanish term Tejano has been used to identify various groups of people. During the Spanish colonial era, the term was primarily applied to Spanish settlers of the region now known as the state of Texas (first it was part of New Spain and after 1821 it was part of Mexico). After settlers entered from the United States and gained the independence of the Republic of Texas, the term was applied to mostly Spanish-speaking Texans, Hispanicized Germans, and other Spanish-speaking residents. In practice, many members of traditionally Tejano communities often have varying degrees of fluency in Spanish with some having virtually no Spanish proficiency though still considered culturally part of the community. Since the early 20th century, Tejano has been more broadly used to identify a Texan Mexican American. It is also a term used to identify natives, as opposed to newcomers, in the areas settled. Latino people of Texas identify as Tejano if their families were living there before the area was controlled by Anglo Americans.
Tejuíno (pronounced as te-HUI-no) is a cold beverage made from fermented corn and popularly consumed in the Mexican state of Jalisco.
A telenovela is a type of limited-run television serial drama or soap opera produced primarily in Latin America.
Phone numbers in Mexico consist of ten digits with either two-digit area codes (for Mexico City, Monterrey, and Guadalajara and their respective metropolitan areas) or three-digit area codes for the rest of the country.
Grupo Televisa, S.A.B. is a Mexican multimedia mass media company and the largest in Hispanic America and the Spanish-speaking world.
Telmex is a Mexican telecommunications company headquartered in Mexico City that provides telecommunications products and services in Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Brazil (Embratel), Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and other countries in Latin America.
The Ten Tragic Days ("La Decena Trágica") was a series of events that took place in Mexico City between February 9 and February 19, 1913, during the Mexican Revolution.
Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.
Tenosique is a town located in Tenosique Municipality in the southeastern corner of the state of Tabasco, in Mexico.
Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
Tepache is a fermented beverage made from the peel and the rind of pineapples exclusively, and is sweetened either with piloncillo or brown sugar, seasoned with powdered cinnamon, and served cold.
The Tepehuán Revolt broke out in Mexico in 1616.
A teponaztli is a type of slit drum used in central Mexico by the Aztecs and related cultures.
Tequila is a regional distilled beverage and type of alcoholic drink made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, northwest of Guadalajara, and in the highlands (Los Altos) of the central western Mexican state of Jalisco.
Mexico has experienced many changes in territorial organization during its history as an independent state.
A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin.
Ariadna Thalía Sodi Miranda (born 26 August 1971), known mononymously as Thalía, is a Mexican singer, songwriter, and actress, who is one of the most successful and influential Mexican singers worldwide.
Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
The Chinese in Mexico, 1882–1940 is a 2010 book by Robert Chao Romero, published by the University of Arizona Press, about the history of Chinese immigration to Mexico.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Crime of Father Amaro, sometimes The Crime of Padre Amaro, (El crimen del padre Amaro) is a 2002 Mexican-Spanish film directed by Carlos Carrera.
The Labyrinth of Solitude (El laberinto de la soledad) is a book-length essay by Octavio Paz, first published in 1950.
The Revenant is a 2015 American semi-biographical epic western film directed by Alejandro G. Iñárritu.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Thomas Moran (February 12, 1837 – August 25, 1926) was an American painter and printmaker of the Hudson River School in New York whose work often featured the Rocky Mountains.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
Tijuana is the largest city in the Mexican state of Baja California and on the Baja California Peninsula, located at the center of the Tijuana and the international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan areas.
Mexico uses four main time zones since February 2015.
The Tlatelolco massacre was the killing of students and civilians by military and police on October 2, 1968, in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in the Tlatelolco section of Mexico City.
Tlaxcala (Spanish;; from Tlaxcallān), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tlaxcala (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tlaxcala), is one of the 31 states which along with the Federal District make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 900–1168 CE).
Toluca, officially called Toluca de Lerdo, is the state capital of the State of Mexico as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
The Totonac are an indigenous people of Mexico who reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo.
The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (Eje Volcánico Transversal), also known as the Transvolcanic Belt and locally as the Sierra Nevada (Snowy Mountain Range), is a volcanic belt that covers central-southern Mexico.
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report was first published in 2007 by the World Economic Forum.
The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).
The Treaty of Tlatelolco is the conventional name given to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
A truism is a claim that is so obvious or self-evident as to be hardly worth mentioning, except as a reminder or as a rhetorical or literary device, and is the opposite of falsism.
Tula is a Mesoamerican archeological site, which was an important regional center which reached its height as the capital of the Toltec Empire between the fall of Teotihuacan and the rise of Tenochtitlan.
Tulum (Yucatec: Tulu'um) is the site of a pre-Columbian Mayan walled city serving as a major port for Coba, in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
TV Azteca, S.A.B. de C.V. is a Mexican multimedia conglomerate owned by Grupo Salinas.
The Tzeltal are a Maya people of Mexico, who chiefly reside in the highlands of Chiapas.
The Tzotzil are an indigenous Maya people of the central Chiapas highlands in southern Mexico.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Uniting for Consensus (UfC) is a movement, nicknamed the Coffee Club, that developed in the 1990s in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Guadalajara (Universidad de Guadalajara) is a public higher education institution in the Mexican city of Guadalajara.
The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
The Valley of Mexico (Valle de México; Tepētzallāntli Mēxihco) is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with present-day Mexico City and the eastern half of the State of Mexico.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).
Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,Ethnologue.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Venustiano Carranza Garza (29 December 1859 – 21 May 1920) was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta (February 1913-July 1914) and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster.
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave,In isolation, Veracruz, de and Llave are pronounced, respectively,, and.
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
Verónica Castro (pronounced), full name Verónica Judith Sáenz Castro Alba (born 19 October 1952), is a Mexican actress and entertainer.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
Vicente Fox Quesada, (born 2 July 1942) is a Mexican businessman and politician who served as the 55th President of Mexico from December 1, 2000 to November 30, 2006.
Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña (August 10, 1782 – February 14, 1831) was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence.
Vicente Samuel Saldívar García (May 3, 1943 – July 18, 1985) was a Mexican boxer.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
Víctor Rasgado (born 1959) is a Mexican pianist and classical composer, whose works have been performed in Mexico, the United States, Italy and the Netherlands.
José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (22 December 1850 – 13 January 1916) was a Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico.
The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the decimal numeral system is based on ten).
Viridiana is a 1961 Spanish-Mexican film directed by Luis Buñuel and produced by Gustavo Alatriste.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
As of June 2018, there are a total of 1,080 World Heritage Sites located in 167 "States Parties" Of the 1,080 sites, 839 are cultural, 206 are natural and 35 are mixed properties.
The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the United Nations World Tourism Organization as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication, which is released three times throughout the year.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Xcaret (Spanish pronunciation: "ekskareh") is a Maya civilization archaeological site located on the Caribbean coastline of the Yucatán Peninsula, in the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico.
Xochicalco is a pre-Columbian archaeological site in Miacatlán Municipality in the western part of the Mexican state of Morelos.
Y Tu Mamá También (And Your Mother Too) is a 2001 Mexican drama film directed by Alfonso Cuarón and co-written by Cuarón and his brother Carlos.
Yucatán, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán (Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
Yucatec Maya (endonym: Maya; Yukatek Maya in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala), called Màaya t'àan (lit. "Maya speech") by its speakers, is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula and northern Belize.
Zacatecas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Zacatecas), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Zacatecas Cathedral (Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption of Zacatecas) is a Catholic church in Zacatecas City, Zacatecas, Mexico.
The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN), often referred to as the Zapatistas, is a left-wing revolutionary political and militant group based in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico.
The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.
The Zapotec languages are a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamerican languages that constitute a main branch of the Oto-Manguean language family and which is spoken by the Zapotec people from the southwestern-central highlands of Mexico.
The Zapotecs (Zoogocho Zapotec: Didxažoŋ) are an indigenous people of Mexico.
The zucchini (American English) or courgette (British English) is a summer squash which can reach nearly in length, but is usually harvested when still immature at about.
.mx is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Mexico, which in 2009 was re-opened to new registrations by NIC México.
The meridian 119° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 14th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 14 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 (Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1824) was enacted on October 4 of 1824, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide.
The 1968 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1968), officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, in October 1968.
The 1970 FIFA World Cup was the ninth FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for men's national teams.
The 1980s oil glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s energy crisis.
The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June 1986.
The 2013 FIBA Americas Championship for Men, later known as the FIBA AmeriCup, was the qualifying tournament for FIBA Americas, for the 2014 FIBA World Cup, in Spain.
The 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup was the 17th edition of the FIBA Basketball World Cup, the tournament previously known as the FIBA World Championship.
On September 26, 2014, 43 male students from the Ayotzinapa Rural Teachers' College were forcibly taken then disappeared in Iguala, Guerrero, Mexico.
The 2015 FIBA Americas Championship for Men, later known as the FIBA AmeriCup, was the FIBA Americas qualifying tournament for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, in Brazil.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 33rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 33 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 86° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, Central America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
E. U. M., E.U.M., EUM, Estados Unidos Mexicanos, Estados Unidos de Mexico, Estados Unidos de México, Etymology of Mexico, ISO 3166-1:MX, La nación de México, MEXICO, Mecsiko, Mehico, Mehiko, Meixcan, Mejico, Meksiko, Messico, Mexic, Mexican Federal Republic, Mexican Republic, Mexican Union, Mexican United States, Mexican coast, Mexican nation, Mexicco, Mexico (country), Mexicó, Mexiko, Mexiqo, Mexique, Mexxico, Mmeexxiiccoo, Méjico, México, Nación de méxico, Old Mexico, Republic of Mexico, Republica de méxico, Sierra de la Estrella, The United Mexican States, The United State of Mexico, The United States of Mexicans, The United States of Mexico, The mexico, The nation of mexico, United Mexican States, United State of Mexico, United States of Mexicans, United States of Mexico, United states of mexico, Untied Mexican States, Мексика.