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Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
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Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, southwest from Mexico City.
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The United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic composed of 32 federal entities: 31 states and one "federal district" (Mexico City).
Agave americana, common names centuryplant, maguey, or American aloe, is a species of flowering plant in the family Agavaceae, originally native to Mexico, and the United States in Arizona and Texas.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
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Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (27 September 178319 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician.
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Alejandra Robles Suastegui, La Jornada: Alejandra Robles "Mi música también es pop".
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Alejandro Fernández Abarca (born 24 April 1971) is a Mexican singer.
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Alejandro González Iñárritu (credited since 2014 as Alejandro G. Iñárritu; born August 15, 1963) is a Mexican film director, producer, screenwriter, and former composer.
Alfonso Cuarón Orozco (born November 28, 1961) is a Mexican film director, screenwriter, producer and editor best known for his dramas A Little Princess (1995) and Y Tu Mamá También (2001), the fantasy film Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2004), and science fiction thrillers Children of Men (2006) and Gravity (2013).
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Alfonso Reyes Ochoa (17 May 1889 in Monterrey, Nuevo León – 27 December 1959 in Mexico City) was a Mexican writer, philosopher and diplomat.
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Alta California (Upper California) was created as a separate province in 1804 out of the northern part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain province of Las Californias.
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Alvarado (officially: Ilustre, Heroica y Generosa Ciudad y Puerto de Alvarado) is a city in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
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The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).
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Amores perros is a 2000 Mexican drama thriller film directed by Alejandro González Iñárritu and written by Guillermo Arriaga.
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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
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Ana Gabriela Guevara Espinoza (born March 4, 1977, in Nogales, Sonora) is a now-retired Mexican track and field athlete who specialized in the 400 meters.
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Andrés Manuel López Obrador (born November 13, 1953), also known as AMLO is a Mexican politician who held the position of Head of Government of the Federal District from 2000 to 2005, before resigning in July 2005 to contend the 2006 presidential election, representing the Coalition for the Good of All, a coalition led by the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) that includes the Convergence party and the Labor Party.
The Annual Review of Anthropology is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1972.
Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, is the non-profit publisher of a collection of 46 review series in specific disciplines in science and social science.
Antonio Félix "Tota" Carbajal Rodríguez (born June 7, 1929 in Mexico City) is a Mexican former football goalkeeper.
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Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (24 February 1794 – 21 June 1876), often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna and sometimes called "the Napoleon of the West", was a Mexican politician and general who greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government.
The title of Archduke (feminine: Archduchess) (German: Erzherzog, feminine form: Erzherzogin) was borne by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria and, later, by all members of that dynasty.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.
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Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the southwestern region of the United States.
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Asistencia Asesoría y Administración LLC (AAA) (Spanish for "Assistance, Consulting, and Administration") is a lucha libre professional wrestling promotion based in Mexico.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.
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Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury automobiles.
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The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804.
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Autonomy (Ancient Greek: αὐτονομία autonomia from αὐτόνομος autonomos from αὐτο- auto- "self" and νόμος nomos, "law", hence when combined understood to mean "one who gives oneself one's own law") is a concept found in moral, political, and bioethical philosophy.
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The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree native to Mexico and Central America, classified in the flowering plant family Lauraceae along with cinnamon, camphor and bay laurel.
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Axtel S.A.B. de C.V., known as Axtel, is a Mexican telecommunications company headquartered in San Pedro, near Monterrey.
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The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to 16th centuries.
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The Mexica Aztec Empire or the Triple Alliance (Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, ˈjéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥) began as an alliance of three Nahua "altepetl" city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan.
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Azteca, previously TV Azteca, is a Mexican multimedia conglomerate owned by Grupo Salinas.
General Álvaro Obregón Salido (February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924.
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Érik Isaac Morales Elvira (born September 1, 1976) is a retired Mexican professional boxer.
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Babel is a 2006 American-Mexican-French drama film directed by Alejandro González Iñárritu and written by Guillermo Arriaga, starring an ensemble cast.
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Bahía Concepción is one of the largest bays of Baja California.
Baja California, officially Free and Sovereign State of Baja California (Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California), is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California (El Territorio Norte de Baja California). It has an area of, or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, north of the 28th parallel, plus oceanic Guadalupe Island. The mainland portion of the state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. State of Arizona, and the Gulf of California (also known as the "Sea of Cortez"), and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California. The state has a population of 2,844,469 (2005 census), and estimated 3,165,776 (June 2009) much more than the sparsely populated Baja California Sur to the south, and similar to San Diego County, California on its north. Over 75% of the population lives in the capital city, Mexicali, in Ensenada, or in Tijuana. Other important cities include San Felipe, Rosarito and Tecate. The population of the state is composed of Mestizos, mostly immigrants from other parts of Mexico, and, as with most northern Mexican states, a large population of Mexicans of European ancestry, and also a large minority group of East Asian, Middle Eastern and indigenous descent. Additionally, there is a large immigrant population from the United States due to its proximity to San Diego and the cheaper cost of living compared to San Diego. There is also a significant population from Central America. Many immigrants moved to Baja California for a better quality of life and the number of higher paying jobs in comparison to the rest of Mexico and Latin America. Baja California is the twelfth largest state by area in Mexico. Its geography ranges from beaches to forests and deserts. The backbone of the state is the Sierra de Baja California, where the Picacho del Diablo, the highest point of the peninsula, is located. This mountain range effectively divides the weather patterns in the state. In the northwest, the weather is semi-dry and mediterranean. In the narrow center, the weather changes to be more humid due to altitude. It is in this area where a few valleys can be found, such as the Valle de Guadalupe, the major wine producing area in Mexico. To the east of the mountain range, the Sonoran Desert dominates the landscape. In the south, the weather becomes drier and gives way to the Vizcaino Desert. The state is also home to numerous islands off both of its shores. In fact, the westernmost point in Mexico, the Guadalupe Island, is part of Baja California. The Coronado, Todos Santos and Cedros Islands are also on the Pacific Shore. On the Gulf of California, the biggest island is the Angel de la Guarda, separated from the peninsula by the deep and narrow Canal de Ballenas.
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The Baja California Peninsula (Lower California Peninsula, Península de Baja California) is a peninsula in northwestern Mexico.
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The commercial balance or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period, measured in the currency of that economy.
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Banda is a brass-based form of traditional Mexican music.
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Barbacoa is a form of cooking meat that originated in the Caribbean with the Taíno people, from which the term “barbecue” derives.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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A beach is a landform along the coast of an ocean or sea, or the edge of a lake or river.
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Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (alternately Leguminosae) which are used for human or animal food.
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Belize is a country on the eastern coast of Central America.
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Benito Pablo Juárez García, (21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca who served as the president of Mexico for five terms: 1858–1861 as interim, then 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872 as constitutional president.
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A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.
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William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III; August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
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Bioprospecting is the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources.
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Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (Bavarian Motor Works), commonly known as BMW or BMW AG, is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916.
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Mexico shares international borders with three nations.
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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.
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Buddhism is a minority religion in Mexico, numbering 108,701 followers or 0.09% of the total Mexican population.
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Bullfighting (corrida de toros or toreo; tourada), also known as tauromachia or tauromachy (es_tauromaquia_001.ogg, tauromaquia; from ταυρομαχία "bull-fight"), is a traditional spectacle of Spain, Portugal, southern France and some Latin American countries (Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Peru), in which one or more bulls are fought in a bullring.
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The Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) reports to the Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights within the Department of State.
A burrito is a type of Mexican and Tex-Mex food, consisting of a wheat flour tortilla wrapped or folded into a cylindrical shape to completely enclose the filling (in contrast to a taco, which is generally formed by simply folding a tortilla in half around a filling, leaving the semicircular perimeter open).
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Club Deportivo Guadalajara (often simply known as Guadalajara, and popularly known as las Chivas, is a Mexican professional football club based in Guadalajara, Jalisco. Guadalajara plays in Liga MX with 11 First Division titles, 7 Campeón de Campeones, 1 InterLiga, 1 Copa Challenger, 4 Copa Oros de Occidente, and 2 Copa México. Guadalajara is one of the ten founding members of the Mexican First Division and, along with longstanding rivals Club América, they have never been relegated to the second-tier division. Guadalajara was the runner-up of the 2010 Copa Libertadores. Guadalajara is the only football club in Mexico to exclusively field Mexican players. The team has constantly emphasized home-grown (cantera) players and has been the launching pad of many internationally successful players, including Javier Hernández, Carlos Vela, Omar Bravo, and Carlos Salcido among others. The team's three colors (red, white, and blue) symbolize "Fraternity, Union, and Sports". The team mascot, as well as their nickname, is the goat or chiva. Chivas is one of Mexico's most successful and popular teams, and holds the Mexican league record for the longest winning streak at the beginning of a season, with 8 consecutive wins.
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A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, and early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality.
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The cabinet of Mexico is the Executive Cabinet (Gabinete Legal) and is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government.
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Cabo San Lucas (Cape Saint Luke), commonly called Cabo in American English, is a city at the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur.
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Cabrito is roast goat kid.
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Café Tacuba (stylized Café Tacvba) is a band from Ciudad Satélite, Mexico.
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Caifanes is a Spanish-language rock (Rock en Español) band from Mexico City formed in 1987.
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Calakmul (also Kalakmul and other less frequent variants) is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region.
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Campeche, officially Free and Sovereign State of Campeche (Estado Libre y Soberano de Campeche), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, that comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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Cancún is a city in southeastern Mexico, located on the northeast coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo.
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The Cannes Festival (French: Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries, from around the world.
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Mario Fortino Alfonso Moreno Reyes, known casually as Mario Moreno, and known professionally as Cantinflas (August 12, 1911 – April 20, 1993), was a Mexican comic film actor, producer, and screenwriter.
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The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean located in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
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Carlos Carrera (born August 18, 1962 in Mexico City) is a Mexican film director and screenwriter.
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Carlos Fuentes Macías (November 11, 1928 – May 15, 2012) was a Mexican novelist and essayist.
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Carlos Monsiváis Aceves (May 4, 1938 – June 19, 2010) was a Mexican writer, critic, political activist, and journalist.
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Carlos Salinas de Gortari (born 3 April 1948) is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994.
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Carlos Slim Helú (born January 28, 1940) is a Mexican business magnate, investor, and philanthropist.
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Carnitas, literally "little meats", is a dish of Mexican cuisine originating from the state of Michoacán.
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A Casta was a hierarchical system of race classification created by Spanish elites (españoles) in Hispanic America during the Spanish colonial period.
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The Caste War of Yucatán (1847–1901) began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán, Mexico against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region.
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The Censo General de Población y Vivienda (General Census of Population and Housing, or National Census of…) is the main national census for Mexico.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica or América del Centro) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast.
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A chalupa is a tostada platter in Mexican cuisine.
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The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico.
The Chamizal dispute was a border conflict over about on the U.S.-Mexico border between El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua.
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Chan Santa Cruz was the name of a shrine of the Maya Cruzob (or Cruzoob) religious movement, the town that grew up around it (now known as Felipe Carrillo Puerto) and, less formally, the late 19th-century indigenous Maya state, in what is now the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, of which it was the main center.
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Charro is a term referring to a traditional horseman from Mexico, originating in the central-western regions primarily in the states of Jalisco, Michoacan, Zacatecas, Durango, Chihuahua, Aguascalientes, and Guanajuato.
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Chayote (Sechium edule) is an edible plant belonging to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, along with melons, cucumbers and squash.
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Chiapas, officially Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
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Chichen Itza (Chichén Itzá, from Chi'ch'èen Ìitsha'; "at the mouth of the well of the Itza") was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.
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The Chichimeca War (1550–90) was a military conflict waged between Spanish colonizers and their Indian allies against a confederation of Chichimeca Indians.
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The Chicoasén Dam (officially known as Manuel Moreno Torres) is an embankment dam and hydroelectric power station on the Grijalva River near Chicoasén in Chiapas, Mexico.
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A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
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Chihuahua, officially Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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The city of Chihuahua is the state capital of the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
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Chilaquiles from the Nahuatl word chīlāquilitl is a traditional Mexican dish.
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Children of Men is a 2006 science fiction thriller film directed and co-written by Alfonso Cuarón.
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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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Chiles en nogada is a dish from Mexican cuisine.
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The chili pepper (also chile pepper or chilli pepper, from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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Chipilo is a small city in the state of Puebla, Mexico.
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Chipilo Venetian or Chipileño is a diaspora language currently spoken by the descendants of some five hundred 19th century Venetian immigrants to Mexico.
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A chipotle, or chilpotle, which comes from the Nahuatl word chilpoctli (meaning "smoked chili"), is a smoke-dried jalapeño.
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Cholula (Cholōllān) (Spanish), was an important city of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, dating back to at least the 2nd century BC, with settlement as a village going back at least some thousand years earlier.
The Christian Democrat Organization of America (ODCA, from Spanish: Organización Demócrata Cristiana de América) is an international organization made up of political parties that advocate the principles of Christian Democracy in their respective countries.
Chrysler, officially FCA US LLC, is an American automobile manufacturer headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan and owned by holding company Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, headquartered in London, U.K. Chrysler is one of the "Big Three" American automobile manufacturers.
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The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the ending of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events – most particularly the Mexican Revolution – and produced some movies that have only recently been rediscovered.
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Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a member of a state.
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Ciudad Juárez (Juarez City), known in the past as Paso del Norte (Pass of the North), and commonly referred to by locals as simply Juárez, is a city and seat of the municipality of Juárez in the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
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Closed list describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected.
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Club de Fútbol América S.A. de C.V., commonly referred to as Club América or América, is a professional football club based in Mexico City, Mexico.
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Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza (Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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Coahuila y Tejas (Coahuila and Texas) was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution.
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Cochinita pibil (also puerco pibil or cochinita con achiote) is a traditional Mexican slow-roasted pork dish from the Yucatán Península of Mayan origin.
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The Cocos Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America, named for Cocos Island, which rides upon it.
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The Comarca Lagunera is the 9th largest metropolitan area in Mexico, and is located between two states, Coahuila and Durango.
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Combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a birth control method that includes a combination of an estrogen (estradiol) and a progestogen (progestin).
The Comisión Federal de Electricidad (Federal Electricity Commission) is the state-owned electric utility of Mexico, widely known as CFE.
The National Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) is a permanent interdepartmental commission, created in 1992.
A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.
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The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF) is the continental governing body for association football in North America, Central America and the Caribbean.
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A -->congress --> is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, independent organizations (such as trade unions), or groups.
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The Congress of Chilpancingo (a.k.a. Congress of Anáhuac) (Congreso de Chilpancingo) was a meeting held in Chilpancingo, in what is the modern-day Mexican state of Guerrero, from September to November 1813.
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The Congress of the Union (formally Congreso General de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos; English: General Congress of the United Mexican States) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government.
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Conquistadors (from Portuguese or Spanish conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
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Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre co.ltd (CMLL;, "World Wrestling Council") is a lucha libre free-style professional wrestling promotion based in Mexico City while running cards in Guadalajara, Puebla and elsewhere in central and southern Mexico.
The Constitution of Mexico, formally the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States (Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is the current constitution of Mexico.
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The Constitutional Army (also known as the Constitutionalist Army) was the army that fought against Huerta's Federal Army, and later, against the Villistas and Zapatistas during the Mexican Revolution.
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A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
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A converso (convers,; "a convert", from Latin, "converted, turned around") and its feminine form conversa was a Jew or Muslim who converted to Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendents.
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Corn smut is a plant disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis that causes smut on maize and teosinte.
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Cornish people or Cornish (Kernowyon) are an ethnic group associated with Cornwall,: in the south west of Great Britain, administered as part of England, and a recognised national minority in the United Kingdom.
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The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry form, a ballad.
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Costa Rica (literally meaning, "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
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The Council of the Indies; officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies (Real y Supremo Consejo de Indias), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire for the Americas and Asia.
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A coup d'état (literally "blow of state"; plural: coups d'état, pronounced like the singular form), also known simply as a coup, or an overthrow, is the sudden and (usually) illegal seizure of a state, usually instigated by a small group of the existing government establishment to depose the established regime and replace it with a new ruling body.
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Cozumel (Kùutsmil, Island of the Swallows) is an island in the Caribbean Sea off the eastern coast of Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula, opposite Playa del Carmen, and close to the Yucatán Channel.
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Crataegus mexicana is a species of hawthorn known by the common names tejocote, manzanita, tejocotera and Mexican hawthorn.
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The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, etc.
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The Criollo (or "creole" people) were a social class in the caste system of the overseas colonies established by Spain in the 16th century, especially in Hispanic America, comprising the locally born people of confirmed Spanish ancestry.
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Cronos is a 1993 Mexican vampire horror film written and directed by Guillermo del Toro, starring veteran Argentinean actor Federico Luppi and American actor Ron Perlman.
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Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano (born May 1, 1934) is a prominent Mexican politician.
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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country in the Caribbean comprising the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos.
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The Cuban Revolution (1953–1959) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement and its allies against the U.S.-backed authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
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Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vine in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
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Cuitláhuac (c. 1476 – 1520) or Cuitláhuac (in Spanish orthography; Cuitlāhuac,, honorific form Cuitlahuatzin) was the 10th tlatoani (ruler) of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan for 80 days during the year Two Flint (1520).
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Culinary art, in which culinary means "related to cooking", is the art of the preparation, cooking and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals.
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The cultures of Spain are European cultures based on a variety of historical influences, primarily that of Ancient Rome, but also the pre-Roman Celtic and Iberian culture, and that of the Phoenicians and the Moors.
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Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.
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David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros, December 29, 1896, in Chihuahua - January 6, 1974, in Cuernavaca, Morelos) was a Mexican social realist painter, better known for his large murals in fresco.
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De facto is a Latin expression that means "in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact" (literally "from fact").
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A debt generally refers to something owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
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The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire (Acta de Independencia del Imperio Mexicano), is the document by which the Mexican Empire declared independence from the Spanish Empire.
With a population of 119,713,203 as of 2014, Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, the second-most populous country in Latin America after Portuguese-speaking Brazil, and the second in North America, after the United States; the third largest in the Americas after the two countries mentioned above.
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Deportivo Toluca Fútbol Club S.A. de C.V. is a professional Mexican football club.
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Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter and the husband of Frida Kahlo.
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DINA (Diesel Nacional, S.A. de C.V, in English National Diesel) is a Mexican automotive producer of heavy duty and specialty trucks, urban buses, armored military vehicles, and intercity buses.
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Dioscorea composita or barbasco is a species of yam in the genus Dioscorea, native to Mexico.
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Diosgenin, a steroid sapogenin, is the product of hydrolysis by acids, strong bases, or enzymes of saponins, extracted from the tubers of Dioscorea wild yam, such as the Kokoro.
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Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
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Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties.
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The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.
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Dolores del Río (born María de los Dolores Asúnsolo López-Negrete (August 3, 1905 – April 11, 1983), was a Mexican film, television and stage actress. She was a Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s, and one of the most important female figures of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s. Dolores del Río was the first major Latina cross-over star in Hollywood., and was considered by critics and film historians, one of the most beautiful faces that have emerged in the Hollywood cinema. With the passage of time, and even after her death, her physical characteristics and her lead role and influence as a Latin American female figure in the international cinema, have made her into an object of worship and veneration of the cultural, artistic and cinematographic circles of Mexico and other countries. After being discovered in Mexico by the filmmaker Edwin Carewe, Dolores began her film career in 1925. In the last years of the American silent cinema, Dolores came to be considered a sort of female version of Rudolph Valentino, a "female Latin Lover" She had roles in a series of successful silent films like What Price Glory? (1926), Resurrection (1927) and Ramona (1928). With the advent of sound, she acted films like Bird of Paradise (1932), Flying Down to Rio (1933), Madame Du Barry (1934) and Journey into Fear (1943). In the early 1940s, when her Hollywood career began to decline, del Río returned to Mexico and joined the Mexican film industry, which at that time was at its peak. When del Río returned to her native country, she became one of the most important promoters and stars of the called Golden Age of Mexican cinema. A series of films including Flor silvestre (1943), María Candelaria (1943), Las Abandonadas (1944), Bugambilia (1944) and La Malquerida (1949), are considered classic masterpieces and they helped boost Mexican cinema worldwide. Del Río remained in force in the cinema of her native country for the next three decades and only returned to Hollywood sporadically. Her long career also spanned theater and television.
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Dolores Hidalgo (Spanish) (in full, Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional (Dolores Hidalgo Cradle of National Independence) is the name of a city and the surrounding municipality in the north-central part of the Mexican state of Guanajuato. It is located at, at an elevation of about 1,980 meters (6,480 feet) above sea level. In the census of 2005 the city had a population of 54,843 people, while the municipality had 134,641 inhabitants. The city lies directly in the center of the municipality, which is 1,590 km² (613.9 sq mi) in area and includes numerous small outlying communities, the largest of which is Río Laja. Dolores Hidalgo was named a Pueblo Mágico (Magic Town) in 2002.
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Domestic violence (also domestic abuse, spousal abuse, intimate partner violence, battering or family violence) is a pattern of behavior which involves violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
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A drug cartel is any criminal organization developed with the primary purpose of promoting and controlling drug trafficking operations.
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Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango (Estado Libre y Soberano de Durango) (Tepehuan: Korian) (Nahuatl: Tepēhuahcān), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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Dysphania ambrosioides, formerly Chenopodium ambrosioides, known as wormseed, Jesuit's tea, Mexican-tea, paico, epazote, or herba sancti Mariæ, is a herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico.
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EasterTraditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, (Old English usually Ēastrun, -on, or -an; also Ēastru, -o; and Ēostre), also called Pasch (derived, through Pascha and Greek Πάσχα Paskha, from פסחא, cognate to פֶּסַח Pesaḥ)In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek word Pascha is used for the celebration; in English, the analogous word is Pasch.
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Eastern religions refers to religions originating in the Eastern world—India, China, Japan and Southeast Asia—and thus having dissimilarities with Western religions.
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Mexico’s economic history has been characterized since the colonial era by resource extraction, agriculture, and a relatively underdeveloped industrial sector.
The economy of Mexico is the 15th largest in the world in nominal terms and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity, according to the International Monetary Fund.
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An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.
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Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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The Escuela de Graduados en Administración y Dirección de Empresas —generally translated as Graduate School of Business Administration and Leadership but officially branded as EGADE Business School since 2010— is the graduate business school of the Monterrey Institute of Technology (ITESM); one of Latin America’s largest private universities.
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El Dorado (Spanish for "the golden one"), originally El Hombre Dorado (the golden man), El Indio Dorado (the golden Indian), or El Rey Dorado (the golden king), is the term used by Europeans to describe a tribal chief of the Muisca native people of Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and dived into Lake Guatavita.
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El Salvador (Pipil: Kūskatan), officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
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Electoral fraud or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election.
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Elena Poniatowska (born May 19, 1932) is a French-born Mexican journalist and author, specializing in works on social and political issues focused on those considered to be disenfranchised especially women and the poor.
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An emerging power or rising power is a term used as recognition of the rising, primarily economic, influence of a nation—or union of nations—which has steadily increased their presence in global affairs.
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Emiliano Zapata Salazar (8 August 1879 – 10 April 1919) was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the state of Morelos, and the inspiration of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo.
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Emilio "El Indio" Fernández (born Emilio Fernández Romo,; March 26, 1904 – August 6, 1986) was a Mexican film director, actor and screenwriter.
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The Emperor of Mexico (Spanish: Emperador de México) was the head of state and ruler of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century.
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An enchilada is a corn tortilla rolled around a filling and covered with a chili pepper sauce.
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The encomienda was a dependency relation system, that started in Spain during the Roman Empire, where the stronger people protected the weakest in exchange for a service.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Enrique Peña Nieto (born 20 July 1966) is the 57th President of Mexico.
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The Epi-Olmec culture was a cultural area in the central region of the present-day Mexican state of Veracruz, concentrated in the Papaloapan River basin, a culture that existed during the Late Formative period, from roughly 300 BCE to roughly 250 CE.
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Ernesto Ruffo Appel (June 25, 1952, San Diego, California, U.S.) is an American-born Mexican politician famous for being the first state governor not belonging to the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) since its formation in 1929.
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Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) is a Mexican economist and politician.
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The Estrada Doctrine is the name of Mexico's core foreign policy ideal from 1930 to the early 2000s.
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The ethnic groups in Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
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An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is the name applied to a given ethnic group.
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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Evangelicalism, Evangelical Christianity, or Evangelical Protestantism is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity, maintaining that the essence of the gospel consists in the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
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Execution by firing squad, sometimes called fusillading (from the French fusil, rifle), is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war.
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The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.
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The siege of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was a decisive event in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
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The Federal Commission of Telecommunications (Comisión Federal de Telecomunicaciones) (CoFeTel) was the regulator of telecommunications in Mexico, and was part of the Mexico's Secretariat of Communications and Transport (SCT).
The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857 (Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1857) was a liberal constitution drafted by 1857 Constituent Congress of Mexico during the presidency of Ignacio Comonfort.
The federal electoral districts (Spanish: distritos electorales federales) of Mexico are the 300 constituencies or electoral districts into which Mexico is divided for the purpose of federal elections.
The Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación, or TEPJF) is a venue within the judiciary of Mexico that specialises in electoral matters.
The federal government of Mexico is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states and one Federal District, and to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations.
Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.
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The Federal Police (Policía Federal, PF), formerly known as the Policía Federal Preventiva (Federal Preventive Police), is a Mexican police force under the authority of the Secretariat of the Interior.
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A federal republic is a federation of states with a democratic form of government.
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Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.
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Federico Heraclio Cantú Garza (March 3, 1907 – January 29, 1989) was a Mexican painter, engraver and sculptor.
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Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa GCB (born August 18, 1962) is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from December 1, 2006, to November 30, 2012.
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Fernando Platas (born March 16, 1973 in Mexico City) is a Mexican diver.
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Fernando Valenzuela Anguamea (born November 1, 1960) is a Mexican former Major League Baseball (MLB) pitcher.
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The International Basketball Federation, more commonly known as FIBA, FIBA World, or FIBA International, from its French name Fédération Internationale de Basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs international competition in basketball.
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The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
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The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico.
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The First Federal Republic of Mexico (Primera República Federal de México) was established on 4 October 1824, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide.
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Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
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Florida is a state in the southeast United States, bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida.
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The Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to as simply Ford) is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
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A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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Frances Esther Karttunen (born 1942), also known as Frances Ruley Karttunen, is an American academic linguist, historian and author.
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Francisco Ignacio Madero González (30 October 1873‒22 February 1913) was a Mexican statesman, writer, and revolutionary who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until his assassination in 1913.
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Frank Sherwood Rowland (June 28, 1927 – March 10, 2012) was an American Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine.
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Frederick Russell Burnham DSO (May 11, 1861 – September 1, 1947) was an American scout and world-traveling adventurer.
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The second French intervention in Mexico (Segunda intervención francesa en México), also known as the Maximilian Affair, Mexican Adventure, the War of the French Intervention, the Franco-Mexican War or the Second Franco-Mexican War, was an invasion of Mexico in late 1861 by the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by the United Kingdom and Spain.
Frida Kahlo de Rivera (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954), born Magdalena Carmen Frieda Kahlo y Calderón, was a Mexican painter who is best known for her self-portraits.
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The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.
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The Group of Seven + Five (G7+5), formally known as the Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) is an international group that consists of the leaders of the heads of government from the G7 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States), plus the heads of government of the five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa).
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The Gadsden Purchase (known as Venta de La Mesilla or Sale of La Mesilla, in Mexico) is a region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that was purchased by the United States in a treaty signed on December 30, 1853 by James Gadsden who was the American ambassador to Mexico at that time.
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General Motors Company, commonly known as GM, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, that designs, manufactures, markets and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts and sells financial services.
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Georgina "Geo" Meneses (born in Oaxaca City, Mexico on 22 March 1974) is a Mexican producer and singer of traditional music and world music genre.
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Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
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Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ ge "earth, land" and πολιτική politikē "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on international politics and international relations.
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George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.
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Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.
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The Golden Age of Mexican cinema (in Spanish: Época de oro del cine mexicano) is a period between 1936 and 1969 where the quality and economic success of the cinema of Mexico reached its peak.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment banking firm that engages in global investment banking, securities, investment management, and other financial services primarily with institutional clients.
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A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled.
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A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus Vitis.
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Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Mexico City Metropolitan Area (Área Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México), constituted by the Federal District—itself composed of 16 boroughs—and 41 adjacent municipalities of the states of Mexico and Hidalgo.
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Greater Toluca or the Metropolitan Area of Toluca is the conurbation formed by Toluca, as the core city, and 12 adjacent municipalities of the state of Mexico, namely Almoloya de Juárez, Calimaya, Chapultepec, Lerma, Metepec, Mexicaltzingo, Ocoyoacac, Otzolotepec, San Mateo Atenco, Xonacatlán and Zinacantepec.
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Grijalva River, formerly known as Tabasco River.
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The Grito de Dolores ("Cry of Dolores") was uttered from the small town of Dolores, near Guanajuato in Mexico, on September 15, 1810.
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The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP) plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44).
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Grupo Multimedios is a media company based out of Monterrey, Nuevo León in Northeastern Mexico, which has interests in television networks, radio, publishing and entertainment.
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Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
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The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (officially, in Spanish: Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara) is the most populous metropolitan area of the Mexican state of Jalisco and the second largest in the country after Greater Mexico City.
Guadalupe Island or Isla Guadalupe is a volcanic island located off the west coast of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula and some southwest of the city of Ensenada in Baja California state, in the Pacific Ocean.
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Guadalupe Victoria (29 September 1786 – 21 March 1843), born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States. During his term as President he established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom, the United States, the Federal Republic of Central America, and Gran Colombia. He also abolished slavery, founded the National Museum, promoted education, and ratified the border with the United States of America. As far as relations with the former colonial overlords of Mexico were concerned, he decreed a law to expel the Spaniards remaining in the country and defeated the last Spanish stronghold in the castle of San Juan de Ulúa. Victoria was the only president who completed his full term in more than 30 years of an independent Mexico. He died in 1843 at the age of 56 from epilepsy in the fortress of Perote, where he was receiving medical treatment. On 8 April of the same year, it was decreed that his name would be written in golden letters in the session hall of the Chamber of Deputies.
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Guanajuato, officially Free and Sovereign State of Guanajuato (Estado Libre y Soberano de Guanajuato), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, are the 32 Federal entities of Mexico.
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Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
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Guavas (singular guava) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.
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Guerrero, officially Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero (Estado Libre y Soberano de Guerrero), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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Guillermo Arriaga Jordán (born 13 March 1958) is a Mexican author, screenwriter, director and producer.
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Guillermo del Toro Gómez (born October 9, 1964) is a Mexican film director, screenwriter, producer, and novelist.
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The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez, Sea of Cortés or Vermilion Sea; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or Mar Bermejo or Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland.
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The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent.
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The habanero is a variety of chili pepper.
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Haplogroup C2 M217, previously known as C3, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
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In human genetics, Haplogroup D-M174 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
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In human genetics, Y Haplogroup E-M215, also referred to in the literature by other names such as E1b1b and E3b (see further discussion below), is a major Y-chromosome haplogroup.
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In human genetics, Haplogroup E-M96 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
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Haplogroup F, also known as F-M89 and, previously, as Haplogroup FT is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup.
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In human genetics, Haplogroup G (M201) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
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In human genetics, Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), also known as H-L901/M2939 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
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In human genetics, Haplogroup I-M170 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup IJK.
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Haplogroup J-P209 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
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Haplogroup K2, also known as M526, formerly known as K(xLT) and MNOPS, is a human Y-DNA Haplogroup.
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In molecular evolution, a haplogroup (from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes.
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Haplogroup P also known as P295/PF5866/S8 and K2b2 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in human genetics.
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Haplogroup Q-M242 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
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Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a common Y DNA haplogroup in many parts of Eurasia.
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Haplogroup R1b, also known as haplogroup R-M343, is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe, as well as some parts of Russia (the Bashkir minority), Central Asia (e.g. Turkmenistan) and Central Africa (e.g. Chad and Cameroon).
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Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is the third novel in the Harry Potter series, written by J. K. Rowling.
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.
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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
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A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
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Hermosillo, formerly called Pitic (as Santísima Trinidad del Pitic and Presidio del Pitic) is a city located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora.
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Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
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Hidalgo, officially Free and sovereign State of Hidalgo (Estado Libre y Soberano de Hidalgo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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The "Mexican National Anthem" (Himno Nacional Mexicano), also known as "Mexicans, at the cry of war" (Mexicanos, al grito de guerra), is the national anthem of the United Mexican States.
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The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia.
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A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
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The House of Habsburg, also called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most important royal houses of Europe.
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The Huastec or Téenek (contraction of Te' Inik, "people from here"; also known as Huaxtec, Wastek or Huastecos), are an indigenous people of Mexico, living in the La Huasteca region including the states of Hidalgo, Veracruz, San Luis Potosí and Tamaulipas concentrated along the route of the Pánuco River and along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
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Hugo Sánchez Márquez (born 11 July 1958) is a Mexican former professional footballer and manager.
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In the Aztec religion, Huitzilopochtli (wi:t͡siloːˈpoːt͡ʃt͡ɬi), is a Mesoamerican deity of war, sun, human sacrifice and the patron of the city of Tenochtitlan.
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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.
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Human sacrifice was a religious practice characteristic of pre-Columbian Aztec civilization, as well as of other Mesoamerican civilizations like the Maya and the Zapotec.
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA).
Ignacio José de Allende y Unzaga (January 21, 1769 – June 26, 1811), born Ignacio Allende y Unzaga, was a captain of the Spanish Army in Mexico who came to sympathize with the Mexican independence movement.
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Ignacio Manuel Altamirano Basilio (1834 – 13 February 1893) was a Mexican writer, journalist, teacher and politician.
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Illegal immigration in Mexico has been a problem, especially since the 1970s.
Immigration is the movement of people into a destination country to which they are not native or do not possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
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Improved sanitation is a way of categorizing certain types or levels of sanitation.
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In economics, income distribution is how a nation’s total GDP is distributed amongst its population.
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Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
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The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the United Mexican States.
Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age.
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The Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers (Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, or ISSSTE) is a federal government organization in Mexico that administers part of Mexico's health care and social security systems, and provides assistance in cases of disability, old age, risks in labor, and death (or IVCM, for invalidez, vejez, cesantia en edad avanzada, y muerte) to federal workers.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) is a Mexican political party that held power in the country for 71 years, first as the National Revolutionary Party, then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution.
The Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas (National Indigenous Languages Institute, better known by its acronym INALI) is a Mexican federal public agency, created 13 March 2003 by the enactment of the Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (General Law of Indigenous Peoples' Linguistic Rights) by the administration of President Vicente Fox Quesada.
The Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Spanish for National Polytechnic Institute) (IPN) is one of the largest public universities in Mexico with 171,581 students at the high school, undergraduate and postgraduate levels.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
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International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
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An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
International security, also called global security, refers to the amalgamation of measures taken by states and international organizations, such as the United Nations, European Union, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and others, to ensure mutual survival and safety.
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IPADE, (PanAmerican Institute for High Business Direction) is the business school of Universidad Panamericana, or Pan-American University, a private university in Mexico.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.
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Irreligion in Mexico refers to atheism, agnosticism, deism, religious skepticism, secular humanism, and secularism in Mexican society, which was a confessional state after independence from Imperial Spain.
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Holbox ("black hole" in Yucatec Maya) is an island in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, located on the north coast of the Yucatán Peninsula.
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Isla Mujeres (Spanish for "Island of the Women") is an island in the Caribbean Sea, about off the Yucatán Peninsula coast.
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There is very little information about the origins of Islam in Mexico, but most sources claim it arrived with either Lebanese or Syrian immigrants and some other Middle Easterners such as Egyptians, Iranians and Turks.
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The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico.
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Iztaccíhuatl (alternative spellings include Ixtaccíhuatl, or either variant spelled without the accent) (or, as spelled with the x), is a dormant volcanic mountain in Mexico located on the border between the State of Mexico and Puebla.
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The jalapeño is a medium-sized chili pepper pod type cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum.
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Jalisco, officially Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.
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The jarabe is one of the most traditional song forms of the mariachi genre.
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Jaramar Soto (born August 3, 1954 in Mexico City) is a leading traditional singer, songwriter and painter.
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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
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Jorge Alberto Negrete Moreno (30 November 1911 – 5 December 1953) is considered one of the most popular Mexican singers and actors of all time.
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José Clemente Orozco (November 23, 1883 – September 7, 1949) was a Mexican painter, who specialized in bold murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others.
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José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi (November 15, 1776 – June 21, 1827), Mexican writer and political journalist, best known as the author of El Periquillo Sarniento (1816), translated as The Mangy Parrot in English, reputed to be the first novel written in Latin America.
José Rómulo Sosa Ortiz (born February 17, 1948), known by his stage name José José, is a Mexican singer, musician and occasional actor.
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José María Teclo Morelos y Pavón (September 30, 1765, City of Valladolid, now Morelia, Michoacán – December 22, 1815, San Cristóbal Ecatepec, State of México) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811.
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José Vasconcelos Calderón (28 February 1882 – 30 June 1959) was a Mexican writer, philosopher and politician.
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María Josefa Crescencia Ortiz Téllez- Girón, popularly known as Doña Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez or La Corregidora (April 19, 1773 – March 2, 1829) was an insurgent and supporter of the Mexican War of Independence, which fought for independence against Spain, in the early 19th century.
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The Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of human genetics and genomics.
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Juan Aldama (January 3, 1774 in San Miguel el Grande, Guanajuato – June 26, 1811 in Chihuahua) was a Mexican revolutionary rebel soldier during the Mexican War of Independence in 1810.
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Juan de Grijalva (born around 1489 in Cuéllar, Crown of Castille - 21 January 1527 in Nicaragua) was a Spanish conquistador, and relation of Diego Velázquez.
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Alberto Aguilera Valadez (born January 7, 1950), better known by his stage name Juan Gabriel, is a Mexican singer, songwriter, recording artist, and performer.
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Juan O'Gorman (July 6, 1905 – January 17, 1982) was a Mexican painter and architect.
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Juan Ruiz de Alarcón (1581? - August 4, 1639) was a Novohispanic writer of the Golden Age who cultivated different variants of dramaturgy.
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Juan José Ruiz de Apodaca y Eliza Gastón de Iriarte López de Letona y Lasqueti, count of Venadito (3 February 1754, Cadiz, Spain—11 January 1835, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish naval officer and viceroy of New Spain from 20 September 1816 to 5 July 1821, during Mexico's War of Independence.
Juan Nepomuceno Carlos Pérez Rulfo Vizcaíno, best known as Juan Rulfo (16 May 1917 – 7 January 1986), was a Mexican writer, screenwriter and photographer.
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Sister (Sor) Juana Inés de la Cruz, O.S.H. (English: Joan Agnes of the Cross) (12 November 1651 – 17 April 1695), was a self-taught scholar and poet of the Baroque school, and Hieronymite nun of New Spain, known in her lifetime as "The Tenth Muse." Although she lived in a colonial era when Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, she is considered today both a Mexican writer and a contributor to the Spanish Golden Age.
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Judaism in Mexico began in 1519 with the arrival of “Marranos” or “Crypto-Jews,” those forcibly converted to Catholicism due to the Spanish Inquisition.
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The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
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Julieta Venegas Percevault (born November 24, 1970 in Long Beach, California), known professionally as Julieta Venegas, is a singer, songwriter, instrumentalist and producer, who sings pop-rock in Spanish.
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Julio César Chávez González (July 12, 1962) is a retired Mexican professional boxer.
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La Reforma was a period halfway through the 19th century in the history of Mexico that was characterized by liberal reforms designed to modernize Mexico and make it into a nation state.
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Lake Texcoco (Lago de Texcoco) was a natural lake formation within the Valley of Mexico.
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Several different languages are spoken in Mexico, with a large majority of the population fluent in Spanish while some indigenous Mexicans are monolingual in indigenous languages.
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The Large Millimetre Telescope (LMT) (Gran Telescopio Milimétrico, or GTM) was inaugurated in Mexico on 22 November 2006.
Latin America is a region of the Americas that comprises countries where Romance languages are predominant; primarily Spanish and Portuguese, but also French.
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The Latin American debt crisis was a financial crisis that originated in the early 1980s (and for some countries starting in the 1970s), often known as the "lost decade", when Latin American countries reached a point where their foreign debt exceeded their earning power and they were not able to repay it.
Latium (Lătĭŭm) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
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Lázaro Cárdenas del Río (May 21, 1895 – October 19, 1970) was a general in the Mexican Revolution and an able statesman who served as President of Mexico between 1934 and 1940.
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The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the inhabitants of the country of Lebanon and their ancestors.
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A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.
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Like Water for Chocolate is a 1992 film in the style of magical realism based on the popular novel, published in 1989 by first-time Mexican novelist Laura Esquivel.
Ana Lila Downs Sánchez, best known as Lila Downs (born September 9, 1968) is an American–Mexican singer-songwriter and actress.
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This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.
Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.
This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
List of countries by intentional homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants.
The United Mexican States, commonly known as Mexico, is a federation comprising thirty-one States and one Federal District, commonly known as Mexico City.
Mexico's National Parks (or Parques Nacionales in Spanish) are 67 federally recognized national parks that are protected natural areas administrated by the federal National Commission of Protected Natural Areas (CONANP).
This is a list of plants that have a culinary role as vegetables.
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This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Mexico.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
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Lorena Ochoa Reyes (Spanish;born 15 November 1981) is a Mexican professional golfer who played on the U.S.-based LPGA Tour from 2003 to 2010, and was the top-ranked female golfer in the world for over three years, from April 2007 to her retirement in May 2010.
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Los Olvidados (Spanish for "The Forgotten Ones"), known in the U.S. as The Young and the Damned, is a 1950 Mexican film directed by Luis Buñuel.
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The Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) is an American organization for female professional golfers.
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Lucía Leticia Méndez Pérez (born January 26, 1955) is a Mexican telenovela and film actress, top model and singer.
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Lucero Hogaza León (born August 29, 1969 in Mexico City, Mexico) known as Lucero, is a Mexican singer, songwriter, actress and television host.
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Lucha libre (meaning "free wrestling") is a term used in Mexico, and other Spanish-speaking countries, for a form of professional wrestling that has developed within those countries.
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Luis Buñuel Portolés (22 February 1900 – 29 July 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.
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Luis Echeverría Álvarez (born 17 January 1922) served as President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976.
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Luis Miguel Gallego Basteri (born April 19, 1970), known professionally as Luis Miguel, is a Mexican singer.
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Lynda Thomas (born Lynda Aguirre Thomas on December 21, 1981) is a retired Mexican Eurodance and alternative rock musician, singer and songwriter who first rose to fame in 1989; during the 1990s and the early 2000s she earned widespread recognition and commercial success in Ibero-America and Continental Europe; later in 2002, she suddenly left the music scene and public life altogether, right after finishing recording her new world beat-experimental rock album, it was supposed to be released worldwide in four different languages by the American label Interscope Geffen A&M Records, finally, the album was never released due to a legal resolution and her consequent retirement.
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Machaca is a traditionally dried meat, spiced beef or pork, which has been rehydrated and used in the popular local cuisine of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States and which is easily available from many ethnic groceries and supermarkets in these areas.
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Machismo ((from Spanish "macho", male)) is the sense of being manly, the concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride...
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Man at the Crossroads was a fresco by Diego Rivera in New York City's Rockefeller Center.
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Maná is a Mexican rock band from Guadalajara, Jalisco.
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The mango is a juicy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees, cultivated mostly for edible fruit.
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Manuel Gamio (1883–1960) was a Mexican anthropologist, archaeologist, sociologist, and a leader of the indigenismo movement.
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María Candelaria is a 1944 Mexican film directed by Emilio Fernández and starring Dolores del Río and Pedro Armendáriz.
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María de los Ángeles Félix Güereña ((8 April 1914 - 8 April 2002) was a Mexican film actress. She was considered one of the most important female figures of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema. She was also considered one of the most beautiful film actresses of her time, and one of the greatest erotic myths of the Spanish-language cinema. Along with Pedro Armendáriz and Dolores del Río, she was one of the most successful figures of the Latin American cinema in the 1940s and 1950s. She is known by the nicknames La Doña, a name derived from her character in the film Doña Bárbara (1943), and María Bonita, thanks to the anthem composed exclusively for her, as a wedding gift by her third husband, the Mexican composer Agustín Lara. She completed a film career that included 47 films made in Mexico, Spain, France, Italy and Argentina.
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Mariachi is a form of folk music from Mexico.
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Marianismo is an aspect of the female gender role in the machismo of Hispanic American folk culture.
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Mariano Azuela González (January 1, 1873 – March 1, 1952) was a Mexican author and physician, best known for his fictional stories of the Mexican Revolution of 1910.
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Mario José Molina-Pasquel Henríquez (born March 19, 1943) is a Mexican-born chemist and one of the most prominent precursors to the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.
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A marlin is a fish from the family Istiophoridae (includes about 10 species).
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According to the New Testament, Mary (Miriam: מרים; BC – AD), also known as Saint Mary or the Virgin Mary, was a Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth and the mother of Jesus.
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The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Mastretta Cars is a Mexican car maker and design studio established by industrial designer Daniel Mastretta in Mexico City in 1987.
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The MXT is an automobile produced by the Mexican car manufacturer Mastretta.
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The Maximato was a period in the historical and political development of Mexico ranging from 1928 to 1934.
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Maximilian (Spanish: Maximiliano; born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
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The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, noted for the Maya hieroglyphic script, the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems.
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The Maya people are a group of peoples of Mesoamerica, who are united by speaking the Mayan languages.
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The Mayan script, also known as Mayan glyphs or Mayan hieroglyphs, is the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, currently the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.
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Mayapan (Màayapáan in Modern Maya), (in Spanish Mayapán) is a Pre-Columbian Maya site a couple of kilometers south of the town of Telchaquillo in Municipality of Tecoh, approximately 40 km south-east of Mérida and 100 km west of Chichen Itza; in the state of Yucatán, Mexico.
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In many countries, a mayor (or, from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or town.
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The Mérida Initiative (also called Plan Mexico by critics, in reference to Plan Colombia) is a security cooperation agreement between the United States and the government of Mexico and the countries of Central America, with the declared aim of combating the threats of drug trafficking, transnational organized crime and money laundering.
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Mérida is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Yucatán as well as the largest city of the Yucatán Peninsula.
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The megadiverse countries are a group of countries that harbor the majority of the Earth's species and are therefore considered extremely biodiverse.
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Mendicant orders are religious orders which depend directly on charity for their livelihood.
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There are 100,000 Mennonites living in Mexico, including 32,167 baptized adult church members; about 90,000 are established in the state of Chihuahua and 6,500 in Durango.
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Menudo is a traditional Mexican soup (also known as pancita) made with beef stomach (tripe) in broth with a red chili pepper base.
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Mercedes-Benz is a German automobile manufacturer, a multinational division of the German manufacturer Daimler AG.
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Mesoamerica is a region and cultural area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
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Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-colombian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures.
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Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (3500–2000), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–200 CE), the Classic (200 CE–1000CE), and the Postclassic (1000 CE–1697 CE).
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Mesoamerican pyramids, pyramid-shaped structures, are an important part of ancient Mesoamerican architecture.
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Mesoamerica, along with Mesopotamia and China, are among the few known places in the world where writing has developed independently.
Mestizo (Peninsular Spanish:, Latin American Spanish) is a term traditionally used in Spain and Spanish America to mean a person of combined European and Amerindian descent, or someone who would have been deemed a Castizo (one European parent and one Mestizo parent) regardless if the person was born in Mexico or outside of Latin America.
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A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metropolitan region, metro area or just metro, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing: industry, infrastructure, and housing.
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The metropolitan area of León is the seventh most populated metropolitan area in Mexico, with nearly 1,609,717 inhabitants.
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The Metropolitan area of Puebla or Greater Puebla is the fourth largest agglomeration in Mexico with a population of 2.109 million.
In Aztec mythology, Metztli (also Meztli, Metzi) was a god or goddess of the moon, the night, and farmers.
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The Mexica (Nahuatl: Mēxihcah,; the singular is Mēxihcatl Nahuatl Dictionary. (1997). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from) or Mexicas — were an indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico, known today as the rulers of the Aztec empire.
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Mexicali (pronounced) is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California, seat of the Municipality of Mexicali, and 2nd largest city in Baja California after Tijuana.
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The Mexican Academy of Sciences (Academia Mexicana de Ciencias) is a non-profit organization comprising over 1800 distinguished Mexican scientists, attached to various institutions in the country, as well as a number of eminent foreign colleagues, including various Nobel Prize winners.
The Mexican Air Force (FAM) (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Mexicana) is the primary aerial warfare service branch of the Mexican Armed Forces.
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The Mexican Army (Ejército Mexicano) is the combined land and air branch and largest of the Mexican Armed Forces; it is also known as the National Defense Army.
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The Mexican barbasco trade was the trade of the diosgenin-rich yam species Dioscorea mexicana, Dioscorea floribunda and Dioscorea composita which emerged in Mexico in the 1950s as part of the Mexican steroid industry.
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''Chiles en nogada'', a popular dish from Mexico Mexican cuisine is primarily a fusion of indigenous Mesoamerican cooking with European, especially Spanish, elements added after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in the 16th century.
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The Mexican Drug War (also known as the Mexican War on Drugs) is an ongoing low-intensity asymmetric war between the Mexican Government and various drug trafficking syndicates. Since 2006, when intervention with the Mexican military began, the government's principal goal has been to put down the drug-related violence. Additionally, the Mexican government has claimed that their primary focus is on dismantling the powerful drug cartels, rather than on preventing drug trafficking, which is left to U.S. functionaries. Although Mexican drug cartels, or drug trafficking organizations, have existed for several decades, their influence has increased since the demise of the Colombian Cali and Medellín cartels in the 1990s. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market and in 2007 controlled 90% of the cocaine entering the United States.Vulliamy, Ed. Amexica: War Along the Borderline. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010. Print. Arrests of key cartel leaders, particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels, has led to increasing drug violence as cartels fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States. Analysts estimate that wholesale earnings from illicit drug sales range from $13.6 billion to $49.4 billion annually. By the end of Felipe Calderón's administration (2006–12), the official death toll of the Mexican Drug War was at least 60,000. Estimates set the death toll above 120,000 killed by 2013, not including 27,000 missing.
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Compañía Mexicana de Petróleo El Águila SA, (El Águila for short), called in English the Mexican Eagle Oil Company or Mexican Eagle Petroleum Corporation, was a Mexican oil company in the 20th century.
Mexican Empire may refer to.
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The Mexican general election of July 2, 2006, was one of the most hotly contested elections in Mexican history and as such, the results were controversial.
The Mexican Baseball League (Liga Mexicana de Beisbol) is a professional baseball league based in Mexico.
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The Mexican miracle refers to the country's inward-looking development strategy that produced sustained economic growth of 3 to 4 percent and modest 3 percent inflation annually from the 1940s until the 1970s.
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The Mexican Navy is one of the two independent Armed Forces of Mexico.
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The Mexican oil expropriation (expropiación petrolera) (also petroleum expropriation, petroleum nationalization, etc.) was the expropriation of all oil reserves, facilities, and foreign oil companies in Mexico on March 18, 1938.
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The Mexican peso (sign: $; code: MXN) is the currency of Mexico.
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The Mexican peso crisis (also known as the Tequila crisis or December mistake crisis) was a currency crisis sparked by the Mexican government's sudden devaluation of the peso against the U.S. dollar in December 1994, which became one of the first international financial crises ignited by capital flight.
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Mexican pop is a music genre produced in Mexico, particularly intended for teenagers and young adults.
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The Mexican Revolution (Revolución mexicana) was a major armed struggle ca.
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Mexican rock music, often referred to in Mexico as rock nacional ("national rock"), originated in the 1950s with covers of standards by Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley and The Everly Brothers, among others, bands such as Los Rockets, Los Twisters, Los Teen Tops, Los Rebeldes del Rock, Los Locos del Ritmo, Los Crazy Boys, Los Nómadas, and Javier Bátiz soon arose with original compositions, often in English.
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The Mexican Social Security Institute (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) is a governmental organization that assists public health, pensions and social security in Mexico operating under Secretaría de Salud (Secretariat of Health).
Mexican Spanish (español mexicano) is a set of varieties of the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico and in some parts of the United States and Canada, where there are communities of Hispanic origin influenced by North American Spanish-speaking media.
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The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain.
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War, the U.S.–Mexican War or the Invasion of Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States and the Centralist Republic of Mexico (which became the Second Federal Republic of Mexico during the war) from 1846 to 1848.
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Mexicans (Mexicanos) are the people of Mexico, a multiethnic country in North America, and those who identify with the Mexican cultural and/or national identity.
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Mexico first participated at the Olympic Games in 1900 and has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games since 1924.
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Mexico City (Ciudad de México, officially known as México, D. F., or simply D. F.) is the federal district (distrito federal), capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the union.
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Mexico City International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México, AICM); officially Aeropuerto Internacional Benito Juárez (Benito Juárez International Airport) is a commercial airport that serves Greater Mexico City.
The Mexico national baseball team is the baseball team which represents Mexico in international tournaments.
The Mexico national basketball team is the side that represents Mexico in men's international basketball competitions.
The Mexico–United States border is an international boundary running from Tijuana, Baja California, and Imperial Beach, California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east.
Michoacán, formally Michoacán de Ocampo, officially Free and Sovereign State of Michoacán de Ocampo (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower or a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
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Luis Miguel Gerónimo Barbosa Huerta (born 30 September 1959) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the PRD.
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Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado (December 12, 1934 – April 1, 2012) was a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as the 52nd President of Mexico from 1982 to 1988.
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Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor (8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo, was a Mexican Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
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The milanesa (in Italian "cotoletta alla milanese") is a dish common in Latin American countries where generic types of breaded meat fillet preparations are known as a milanesa.
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The military history of Mexico consists of several millennia of armed conflicts within what is now that nation's territory and includes activities of the Mexican military in peacekeeping and combat related affairs worldwide.
A militia generally is an army or other fighting force that is composed of non-professional fighters; citizens of a nation or subjects of a state or government that can be called upon to enter a combat situation, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of the fighting nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
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The Mixtec, or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca of Oaxaca and Puebla, as well as the state of Guerrero's Región Montañas, and Región Costa Chica, which covers parts of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla.
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The Mixtec languages belong to the Otomanguean language family of Mexico, and are closely related to the Trique and Cuicatec languages.
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Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – 29 June 1520), otherwise spelled as a number of variant spellings including Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma and referred to in full by early Nahuatl texts as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (Moctezuma the Young),moteːkʷˈsoːma ʃoːkoˈjoːtsin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.
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Mole (from Nahuatl mōlli, "sauce") is the generic name for a number of sauces originally used in Mexican cuisine, as well as for dishes based on these sauces.
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Molotov is a Mexican rock band formed in Mexico City in September 1995.
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The King of Spain (Rey de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (la Corona) and commonly referred to as the Monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España) or Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica), is a constitutional institution and a historic office of Spain.
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Monte Albán is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site in the Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán Municipality in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca (17.043° N, 96.767°W).
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Monterrey, is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León in the country of Mexico.
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The Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education (in Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, ITESM) commonly shortened as Monterrey Institute of Technology (Tecnológico de Monterrey) or Monterrey Tech (Tec de Monterrey) is one of the largest private, nonsectarian and coeducational multi-campus universities in Latin America with over 90,000 students at the high school, undergraduate, and postgraduate levels.
The Monterrey metropolitan area refers to the surrounding urban agglomeration of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.
The Moon rabbit in folklore is a rabbit that lives on the Moon, based on pareidolia that identifies the markings of the Moon as a rabbit.
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Municipalities (municipios in Spanish) are the second-level administrative division in Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the state (Spanish: estado).
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The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador.
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Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known informally as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by an estimated Nahua people, most of whom live in Central Mexico. All Nahuan languages are indigenous to Mesoamerica. Nahuatl has been spoken in Central Mexico since at least the 7th century AD. It was the language of the Aztecs who dominated what is now central Mexico during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history. During the centuries preceding the Spanish conquest of Mexico, the Aztec Empire had expanded to incorporate a large part of central Mexico, and its influence caused the variety of Nahuatl spoken by the residents of Tenochtitlan to become a prestige language in Mesoamerica. At the conquest, with the introduction of the Latin alphabet, Nahuatl also became a literary language, and many chronicles, grammars, works of poetry, administrative documents and codices were written in it during the 16th and 17th centuries. This early literary language based on the Tenochtitlan variety has been labeled Classical Nahuatl and is among the most studied and best-documented languages of the Americas. Today Nahuatl varietiesSee Mesoamerican languages#Language vs. Dialect for a discussion on the difference between "languages" and "dialects" in Mesoamerica. are spoken in scattered communities, mostly in rural areas throughout central Mexico and along the coastline. There are considerable differences among varieties, and some are mutually unintelligible. Huasteca Nahuatl, with over 1 million speakers, is the most-spoken variety. They have all been subject to varying degrees of influence from Spanish. No modern Nahuatl languages are identical to Classical Nahuatl, but those spoken in and around the Valley of Mexico are generally more closely related to it than those on the periphery. Under Mexico's Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas ("General Law on the Linguistic Rights of Indigenous Peoples") promulgated in 2003, Nahuatl and the other 63 indigenous languages of Mexico are recognized as lenguas nacionales ("national languages") in the regions where they are spoken, enjoying the same status as Spanish within their region.By the provisions of Article IV: Las lenguas indígenas...y el español son lenguas nacionales...y tienen la misma validez en su territorio, localización y contexto en que se hablen. ("The indigenous languages...and Spanish are national languages...and have the same validity in their territory, location and context in which they are spoken.") Nahuatl languages exhibit a complex morphology characterized by polysynthesis and agglutination. Through centuries of coexistence with the other indigenous Mesoamerican languages, Nahuatl has absorbed many influences, coming to form part of the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area. Many words from Nahuatl have been borrowed into Spanish, and since diffused into hundreds of other languages. Most of these loanwords denote things indigenous to central Mexico which the Spanish heard mentioned for the first time by their Nahuatl names. English words of Nahuatl origin include "avocado", "chayote", "chili", "chocolate", "atlatl", "coyote", "peyote", "axolotl" and "tomato".
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The name of Mexico entails the origin, history, and use of the name Mexico, which dates back to 14th century Mesoamerica.
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The National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional, PAN) was founded in 1939, and since the 1980s has been an important political party winning local, state, and national elections.
The National Autonomous University of Mexico Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México is a public research university in Mexico City, Mexico and is the largest university in Latin America.
The National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, CDI) is a decentralized agency of the Mexican Federal Public Administration.
The National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI by its name in Spanish, Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) is an autonomous agency of the Mexican Government dedicated to coordinate the National System of Statistical and Geographical Information of the country.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) which has some connection—de facto or de jure—with a people and perhaps by extension the territory they occupy.
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The National Palace (Palacio Nacional in Spanish) is the seat of the federal executive in Mexico.
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Natural History is a natural history magazine published in the United States.
Neoliberalism is a term whose usage and definition have changed over time.
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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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Nevado de Toluca (Spanish) is a large stratovolcano in central Mexico, located about west of Mexico City near the city of Toluca.
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New Mexico (Nuevo México; Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state located in the southwestern and western regions of the United States, admitted to the union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912.
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New Spain (Nueva España) was the colony comprising Spain's possessions in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama.
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The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
Nezahualcoyotl (Nezahualcoyōtl,, meaning "Coyote in fast" or "Coyote who Fasts") (April 28, 1402 – June 4, 1472) was a philosopher, warrior, architect, poet and ruler (tlatoani) of the city-state of Texcoco in pre-Columbian Mexico.
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, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Japan.
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The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
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Nonintervention or non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations, but still retain diplomacy, and avoid all wars not related to direct self-defense.
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Non revenue water (NRW) is water that has been produced and is “lost” before it reaches the customer.
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Nopal (from the Nahuatl word nohpalli for the pads of the plant) is a common name in Mexican Spanish for the plant, and the pads themselves, of the Opuntia cacti, in the subfamily Opuntioideae.
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Norteño (northern), also música norteña, is a genre of Mexican music related to polka and corridos.
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North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.
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The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, and parts of Iceland and the Azores.
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ɱ Nuevo León or New Leon, officially Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León (Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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Oaxaca (from Huaxyacac), officially Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
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Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet-diplomat and writer.
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The Diario Oficial de la Federación (DOF; translated variously as the Official Journal of the Federation or else as Official Gazette of the Federation), published daily by the government of Mexico, is the main official government publication in Mexico.
The olive or, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "european olive", (syn. Olea sylvestrishttp://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-355062) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in much of Africa, the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands, Mauritius and Réunion.
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The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.
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The OPANAL (which stands for el Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe) is an international organization which promotes nuclear disarmament.
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Opuntia is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae.
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An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string (violin, viola, cello and double bass), brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États Américains), or the OAS or OEA, is an inter-continental organization founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.
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The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either one or two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
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Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several families of Native American languages.
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The Otomi people (Spanish: Otomí) is an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting the central altiplano (Mexican Plateau) region of Mexico.
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Our Lady of Guadalupe (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe), also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgen de Guadalupe), is a title of the Virgin Mary associated with a celebrated pictorial image housed in the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in México City.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Mexico: The United Mexican States, commonly known as Mexico, is a federal constitutional republic located in North America.
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Pachyrhizus erosus, commonly known as jicama (Spanish jícama; from Nahuatl xīcamatl), Mexican yam bean, or Mexican turnip, is the name of a native Mexican vine, although the name most commonly refers to the plant's edible tuberous root.
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The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.
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The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean.
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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.
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The Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) is one of the most prominent cultural centers in Mexico City.
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Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
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The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
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Pan's Labyrinth, originally known in Spanish as El laberinto del fauno (The Labyrinth of the Faun), is a 2006 Spanish-Mexican dark fantasy film written and directed by Mexican Guillermo del Toro.
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The Panamerican University (Spanish Universidad Panamericana), commonly known as UP, is a private Catholic university located in Mexico City.
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Francisco (Pancho) Villa was named at birth José Doroteo Arango Arámbula (5 June 1878 – 20 July 1923); he became one of the best Mexican Revolutionary generals, and certainly its most famous.
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The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw (is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, and is one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, perhaps from southern Mexico and neighbouring Central America. It was first cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilizations. The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. Unusually for such large plants, the trees are dioecious. The tree is usually unbranched, unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria, but are much smaller and wax-like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into large fruit - long and in diameter. The fruit is a type of berry. It is ripe when it feels soft (as soft as a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome deciphered.
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Parallel voting describes a mixed voting system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other.
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Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon involving a stimulus (an image or a sound) wherein the mind perceives a familiar pattern where none actually exists.
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The Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD) is a social democratic political party in Mexico that champions democracy.
The Pastry War (Guerra de los pasteles, Guerre des Pâtisseries), also known as the First French intervention in Mexico or the First Franco–Mexican War (1838-1839), began in November 1838 with the naval blockade of some Mexican ports and the capture of the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa in Veracruz by French forces sent by King Louis-Philippe.
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Paul Jozef Crutzen (born December 3, 1933) is a Dutch, Nobel Prize-winning, atmospheric chemist.
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Paulina Susana Rubio Rue (born 17 June 1971) is a Mexican singer, actress, television music competition judge, hostess, model and businesswoman also known as Queen Of Latin Pop,http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/22/paulina-rubio-celia-cruz_n_4143362.htmlhttp://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/latin/6671058/premios-tu-mundo-winners-nicky-jam-daddy-yankeehttp://www.telemundo.com/entretenimiento/2014/03/21/famosos-con-estilos-y-carreras-similares?image.
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Peacekeeping refers to activities that tend to create conditions that favor lasting peace.
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Pedro Infante Cruz (18 November 1917 – 15 April 1957), better known as Pedro Infante, was a Mexican actor and singer.
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Petróleos Mexicanos (trademarked and better known as Pemex), which translates to Mexican Petroleums, is the Mexican state-owned petroleum company, created in 1938 by nationalized petroleum and the expropriation of all private, foreign, and domestic companies at that time.
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Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
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Phaseolus (bean, wild bean) is a genus in the family Fabaceae containing about 70 plant species, all native to the Americas, primarily Mexico.
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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.
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A photovoltaic system, also solar PV power system, or PV system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.
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The Pico de Orizaba or Citlaltépetl (from Nahuatl citlal(in).
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The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family.
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Piracy is typically an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea.
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The Plan of Ayutla was a plan aimed at removing Antonio López de Santa Anna as dictator of Mexico.
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The Plan of Iguala, also known as The Plan of the Three Guarantees ("Plan Trigarante"), was a revolutionary proclamation promulgated on 24 February 1821, in the final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain.
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Playa del Carmen is a city located along the Caribbean Sea in the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico.
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The Plaza México, situated in Mexico City, is the world's largest bullring.
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The plurality voting system is a single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers, or members of a legislative assembly based on single-member constituencies.
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Plutarco Elías Calles (September 25, 1877 – October 19, 1945) was a Mexican general and politician.
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The Federal Ministerial Police (in Spanish: Policía Federal Ministerial, PFM) is a Mexican federal agency tasked with fighting corruption and organized crime, through an executive order by President Vicente Fox Quesada.
Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society.
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The Politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the president of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system.
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Popocatépetl (Nahuatl: Popōcatepētl) is an active volcano, located in the states of Puebla, Mexico, and Morelos, in Central Mexico, and lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt.
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Population genetics is the study of the distribution and change in frequency of alleles within populations, and as such it sits firmly within the field of evolutionary biology.
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José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican soldier and politician, who served seven terms as President of Mexico; a total of three and a half decades from 1876 and 1911.
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A portmanteau (plural portmanteaus or portmanteaux) or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words, or their phones (sounds), and their meanings are combined into a new word.
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Pouteria sapota, mamey sapote, is a species of tree native to Middle America, naturally ranging from southern Mexico to southern Costa Rica, plus Cuba.
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Pozole (pozolli), which means "hominy"; variant spellings: pozolé, pozolli, or more commonly in the U.S. – posole) is a traditional pre-Columbian soup or stew from Mexico, which once had ritual significance. Pozole was mentioned in Fray Bernardino de Sahagún's "General History of the Things of New Spain" circa 1500. It is made from nixtamalized ''cacahuazintle'' maize, with meat, usually pork, chicken, turkey, pork rinds, chili peppers, and other seasonings and garnish such as cabbage, salsa and limes and/or lemons. After colonization by the Spaniards, the ingredients of pozole changed, but the staple maize remained. It is a typical dish in various states such as Sinaloa, Michoacán, Guerrero, Zacatecas, Jalisco, Morelos, State of Mexico and Distrito Federal. Pozole is served in Mexican restaurants worldwide.
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The pre-Columbian history of the territory now comprising contemporary Mexico is known through the work of archaeologists and epigraphers, and through the accounts of the conquistadors, clergymen, and indigenous chroniclers of the immediate post-conquest period.
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The President of the United Mexican States (Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is the head of state and government of Mexico.
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A presidential system is a system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
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Professional boxing, or prizefighting, emerged in the early twentieth century as boxing gradually attained legitimacy and became a regulated, sanctioned sport.
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Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.
The Protector Palm Pistol is a small.32 rimfire revolver designed to be concealed in the palm of the hand.
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Puebla, officially Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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The city of Puebla, formally Heróica Puebla de Zaragoza, is the seat of Puebla Municipality, the capital and largest city of the state of Puebla, and one of the five most important Spanish colonial cities in Mexico.
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Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally the "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico"), is a United States territory located in the northeastern Caribbean.
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Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.
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Querétaro, officially Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro (Estado Libre y Soberano de Querétaro), is one of 31 states that, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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Santiago de Querétaro is the capital and largest city of the state of Querétaro, located in central Mexico.
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A quesadilla is a wheat tortilla or a corn tortilla filled with a savoury mixture, and/or vegetables, cooked often on a griddle, then folded in half to form a half-moon shape.
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Quintana Roo, officially Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo (Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
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Segregation is separation of humans into racial groups in daily life.
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Ranchera, or canción ranchera is a genre of the traditional music of Mexico It dates before the years of the Mexican Revolution.
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The Real Academia Española (English: Royal Spanish Academy), generally abbreviated as RAE, is the official royal institution responsible for overseeing the Spanish language.
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Reform of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) encompasses five key issues: categories of membership, the question of the veto held by the five permanent members, regional representation, the size of an enlarged Council and its working methods, and the Security Council-General Assembly relationship.
The Reform War (Guerra de Reforma) in Mexico is one of the episodes of the long struggle between Liberal and Conservative forces that dominated the country’s history in the 19th century.
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In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
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Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.) Catholicism is the dominant religion in Mexico, with about 82.7% of the population as of 2010.
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Renato Leduc (November 16, 1897 – August 2, 1986) was a Mexican poet and journalist.
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The Repartimiento (Spanish, "distribution, partition, or division") was a colonial forced labor party imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines.
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Representative democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
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Reptiles are a group (Reptilia) of tetrapod animals comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.
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The Republic of Texas (Spanish: República de Texas) was an independent sovereign country in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846.
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The Republic of the Rio Grande (República del Río Grande) was an independent nation that insurgents against the Central Mexican Government sought to establish in northern Mexico.
The Republic of Yucatán (República de Yucatán) was a sovereign state during two periods of the nineteenth century.
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Republicanism is one possible ideology of governing a society or state as a republic.
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The Revillagigedo Islands (Islas Revillagigedo) or Revillagigedo Archipelago are a group of four volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean, known for their unique ecosystem.
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Ricardo “El Finito” López Nava (born July 25, 1966) is a retired Mexican professional boxer.
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The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).
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The Rio Group (Grupo do Rio; Grupo de Río) is an international organization of Latin American and some Caribbean states.
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The Riviera Maya is a tourism and resort district in Mexico.
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Rockefeller Center is a complex of 19 commercial buildings covering between 48th and 51st streets in New York City, United States.
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The Rocky Mountains, commonly known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
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The Catholic Church in Mexico is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope, his Curia in Rome and the national Mexican Episcopal Conference.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
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Rubén Olivares (born January 14, 1947) is a former Mexican boxer and current member of the Boxing Hall of Fame.
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Rufino Tamayo (August 25, 1899 – June 24, 1991) was a Mexican painter of Zapotec heritage, born in Oaxaca de Juárez, Mexico.
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Ruiz de Alarcón is a Spanish noble name.
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Salvador Sánchez Narváez (January 26, 1959 – August 12, 1982) was a Mexican boxer born in the town of Santiago Tianguistenco, Estado de México.
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San Cristóbal de las Casas (Spanish), also known by its native Tzotzil name, Jovel, is a town and municipality located in the Central Highlands region of the Mexican state of Chiapas.
San Felipe is a town on the bay of San Felipe in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez) in the Mexican state of Baja California, 190 km south of the United States border and within the municipality of Mexicali.
San Luis Potosí, officially Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí (Estado Libre y Soberano de San Luis Potosí, literally: St.), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is now a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
Santa Fe de Nuevo México (Santa Fe of New Mexico; shortened as Nuevo México or Nuevo Méjico, and translated as New Mexico) was a province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later a territory of independent Mexico.
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Sapote (from Nahuatl tzapotl) is a term for a soft, edible fruit.
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Satmex (Satélites Mexicanos) was a company set up in Mexico in the mid-1990s through 2014 that operated space communication satellites that provide services to the Americas.
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The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was the name of Mexico under the regime established from 1864 to 1867.
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The Secretariat of Communications and Transportation (Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes, "Secretariat or Ministry of Communications and Transport" SCT) of Mexico is the national federal entity that regulates commercial road traffic and broadcasting.
The Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Affairs (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores, SRE) is the government department responsible for Mexico's foreign affairs.
The Mexican Secretariat of the Interior (Secretaría de Gobernación, SEGOB, literally "Secretary of Governorship") is concerned with the country's internal affairs, the presentation of the president's bills to Congress, their publication and certain issues of national security.
A 'secular state' is a concept of secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
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SEGH-CFE 1 is a photovoltaic project immediately adjacent to the Comisión Federal de Electricidad power station in Puerto Libertad, Sonora in Mexico, approximately south of the United States border.
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The Senate of the Republic, (Senado de la República) constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union (Cámara de Senadores del H. Congreso de la Unión), is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress.
The serrano pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a type of chili pepper that originated in the mountainous regions of the Mexican states of Puebla and Hidalgo.
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The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
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The Sierra Madre Occidental is a mountain range in western Mexico.
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The Sierra Madre Oriental (Spanish) is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico.
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Las Siete Leyes (The Seven Laws) were a series of constitutional instruments that fundamentally altered the organizational structure of the young first Mexican Republic.
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Silvano Aureoles Conejo (born August 23, 1965 in Carácuaro, Michoacán) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) and the current governor of Michoacán.
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A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
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Arrachera redirects here Skirt steak is a cut of beef steak from the plate.
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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
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Snell Limited is a company that designs and develops solutions for the digital media market including applications for central operations, live production, post production, playout and media management.
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Social determinants of health in Mexico are factors that influence the status of health among certain populations in Mexico.
The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide association of political parties, most of which seek to establish democratic socialism.
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Soconusco is a region in the southwest corner of the state of Chiapas in Mexico along its border with Guatemala.
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Solar thermal energy (STE) is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy or electrical energy for use in industry, and in the residential and commercial sectors.
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The Solemn Act of Northern America's Declaration of Independence (Acta Solemne de la Declaración de Independencia de la América Septentrional) is the first Mexican legal historical document which established the separation of Mexico from Spanish rule.
The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California, and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California and Baja California Sur.
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South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
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South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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In international law, a sovereign state is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
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Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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Spaniards (españoles.) are a nation and ethnic group native to Spain that share a common Spanish culture and speak the Spanish language as a mother tongue.
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Spanish Colonial architecture represents Spanish colonial influence on New World and East Indies cities and towns, and it is still being seen in the architecture as well as in the city planning aspects of conserved present-day cities.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, as well as world history.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio español) was one of the largest empires in world history and one of the first of global extent.
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Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
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Spelling is the writing of a word or words with the necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order.
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Spring break is a vacational period in early spring at universities and schools in various countries in the world.
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The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
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The State of Mexico (Estado de México), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Mexico (Estado Libre y Soberano de México), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
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A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
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A student (also pupil) is a learner, or who attends an educational institution.
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A superpower is a state with a dominant position in international relations and is characterised by its unparalleled ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
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A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, instance court, judgment court, apex court, and highest court of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisions of a supreme court are not subject to further review by any other court. Supreme courts typically function primarily as appellate courts, hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial courts, or from intermediate-level appellate courts. However, not all highest courts are named as such. Civil law states do not tend to have singular highest courts. Additionally, the highest court in some jurisdictions is not named the "Supreme Court", for example, the High Court of Australia; this is because decisions by the High Court could formerly be appealed to the Privy Council. On the other hand, in some places the court named the "Supreme Court" is not in fact the highest court; examples include the New York Supreme Court, which is superseded by the New York Court of Appeals, the Supreme Courts of several Canadian provinces/territories and the former Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales. Some countries have multiple "supreme courts" whose respective jurisdictions have different geographical extents, or which are restricted to particular areas of law. In particular, countries with a federal system of government typically have both a federal supreme court (such as the Supreme Court of the United States), and supreme courts for each member state (such as the Supreme Court of Nevada), with the former having jurisdiction over the latter only to the extent that the federal constitution extends federal law over state law. Jurisdictions with a civil law system often have a hierarchy of administrative courts separate from the ordinary courts, headed by a supreme administrative court as it the case in the Netherlands. A number of jurisdictions also follow the "Austrian" model of a separate constitutional court (first developed in the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920). Within the British Empire, the highest court within a colony was often called the "Supreme Court", even though appeals could be made from that court to the United Kingdom's Privy Council (based in London). A number of Commonwealth jurisdictions retain this system, but many others have reconstituted their own highest court as a court of last resort, with the right of appeal to the Privy Council being abolished. In jurisdictions using a common law system, the doctrine of stare decisis applies, whereby the principles applied by the supreme court in its decisions are binding upon all lower courts; this is intended to apply a uniform interpretation and implementation of the law. In civil law jurisdictions the doctrine of stare decisis is not generally considered to apply, so the decisions of the supreme court are not necessarily binding beyond the immediate case before it; however, in practice the decisions of the supreme court usually provide a very strong precedent, or jurisprudence constante, for both itself and all lower courts.
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The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación (SCJN) is the supreme court of Mexico and the head of the judicial branch of the Mexican federal government. It consists of eleven judges, known as ministers, one of whom is designated the court's president. Judges of the SCJN are appointed for 15 years. They are confirmed by the Senate from a list proposed by the President of the Republic. From among their number, the ministers elect the President of the Court to serve a four-year period; a given minister may serve more than one term as president, but not in consecutive periods.
Susana Harp Iturribarria (born April 8, 1968) is a Mexican singer of traditional music.
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The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae.
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Syncretism is the combining of different, often contradictory beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
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As of 2015, there are a total of 1,031, UNESCO World Heritage Sites official sites.
A taco is a traditional Mexican dish composed of a corn or wheat tortilla folded or rolled around a filling.
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Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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A tamale (rendered into English from tamales, the plural of the tamal, from tamalli;Hoyer, Daniel and Snortum, Marty Tamales, p. 8. Gibbs Smith, 2008. ISBN 1-4236-0319-2) is a traditional Mesoamerican dish made of masa (a starchy dough, usually corn-based), which is steamed or boiled in a leaf wrapper.
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Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) (from تمر هندي, romanized tamar hindi, "Indian date") is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa.
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A telenovela) is a type of limited-run serial drama and popular on Europe, West Asian, Southeast Asian, Latin American, East Asian, South Asian, Arab World, Brazil, Portuguese and Spanish television networks. The word combines tele, short for televisión or televisão (Spanish and Portuguese words for television), and novela, a Spanish and Portuguese word for "novel". There are similar genres to the telenovela that use the novela format, but go by varying names including Teleserye (Philippines), Téléroman (Canada, specifically Quebec), or simply dramas (Asia from East Asia to the Arab World). Telenovelas are different from soap operas in that they rarely continue for more than a year. This makes them shorter than soap operas, but still much longer than serials. The telenovela combines drama with the 19th-century feuilleton, and naturally evolved from the Latin American radionovela, according to Blanca de Lizaur. The medium has been used frequently by authorities in various countries to transmit sociocultural messages, by incorporating them into storylines, which has decreased their credibility and audiences in the long run. Mexico was a pioneer in the 1970s and 80s using telenovelas to shape behavior, and particularly successful in introducing the idea of family planning. Recent telenovelas have evolved in the structure of their plots and in the themes that they address. Couples who kiss each other in the first minutes of the first episode sometimes stay together for many episodes before the scriptwriter splits them up. Moreover, previously taboo themes like urban violence, racism and homosexuality have been incorporated into telenovelas in more recent years. Many telenovelas share some stylistic and, to a certain extent, thematic similarities to the soap opera, a format popular in the English-speaking world; because of these similarities, the American colloquialism Spanish soap opera has come to describe the telenovela format (the telenovela format in and of itself has been attempted in the United States but, generally, to much less success than in Latin America). Telenovelas differ from soap operas primarily in their length; soap operas tend to have indefinite and continuing runs (with such programs only ending via cancellation by their network because of weak viewership) with intertwined storylines that can last in the most successful cases for decades, while telenovelas tell one self-contained story, typically within the span of a year or less. The end result is that the telenovela requires a faster-paced, more concise style of melodrama compared to the soap opera.
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Phone numbers in Mexico are made of ten digits with either two-digit area codes (for Mexico City, Monterrey, and Guadalajara and their respective metropolitan areas) or three-digit area codes for the rest of the country.
Grupo Televisa, S.A.B. is a Mexican multimedia mass media company, and the largest in Latin America as well as the first of the Spanish-speaking world.
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Telmex is a Mexican telecommunications company headquartered in Mexico City that provides telecommunications products and services in Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Brazil (Embratel), Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and other countries in Latin America.
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The Ten Tragic Days ("La Decena Trágica") was a series of events that took place in Mexico City between February 9 and February 19, 1913, during the Mexican Revolution.
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Not to be confused with Teotihuacan Mexico-Tenochtitlan (México-Tenochtitlan), commonly known as Tenochtitlan (tenoːt͡ʃˈtit͡ɬan) was an Aztec altepetl (city-state) located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico.
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Teotihuacan, also written Teotihuacán (Spanish), was an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
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The Tepehuán Revolt broke out in Mexico in 1616.
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Tequila (Spanish) is a regional specific name for a distilled beverage made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, northwest of Guadalajara, and in the highlands (Los Altos) of the north western Mexican state of Jalisco.
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A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more territorial entities or over the possession or control of land, usually between a new state and the occupying power.
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Mexico has experienced many changes in territorial organization during its history as an independent state.
A territory is a term for types of administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state.
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The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin.
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Texcoco is a city and municipality located in the State of Mexico, 25 km northeast of Mexico City.
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Ariadna Thalia Sodi Miranda (born August 26, 1971), known mononymously as Thalía, is a Mexican singer, published author, actress and entrepreneur, who has sung in various languages including Spanish, English, Portuguese, and Tagalog.
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Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
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The arts represent an outlet of expression, that is usually influenced by culture and which in turn helps to change culture.
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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church or, informally, the Mormon Church) is a Christian restorationist church that is considered by its followers to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Crime of Father Amaro, sometimes The Crime of Padre Amaro, (El crimen del padre Amaro) is a 2002 film directed by Carlos Carrera.
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The Exterminating Angel (El ángel exterminador), is the second Buñuel film of the Buñuel/Alatriste/Pinal film trilogy, written and directed by Luis Buñuel, starring Silvia Pinal, and produced by her then-husband Gustavo Alatriste.
The Huffington Post (sometimes abbreviated Huff Post or HuffPo) is a liberal-oriented American online news aggregator and blog, that has both localised and international editions founded by Arianna Huffington, Kenneth Lerer, Andrew Breitbart, and Jonah Peretti, featuring columnists.
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The Wall Street Journal is a business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
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The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
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The Tijuana metropolitan area, and in Spanish the Zona Metropolitana de Tijuana, is located on the Pacific Ocean in Mexico.
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Mexico uses four main time zones since February 2015.
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The Tlatelolco massacre, also known as the Night of Tlatelolco (from a book title by the Mexican writer Elena Poniatowska), was a killing of an estimated 30 to 300 students and civilians by military and police on October 2, 1968, in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in the Tlatelolco section of Mexico City.
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Tlaxcala (Spanish; (Tlaxcallān), officially Free and Sovereign State of Tlaxcala (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tlaxcala), is one of the 31 states which along with the Federal District make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 60 municipalities and its capital city is Tlaxcala. It is located in East-Central Mexico, in the altiplano region, with the eastern portion dominated by the Sierra Madre Oriental. It is bordered by the states of Puebla to the north, east and south, México to the west and Hidalgo to the northwest. It is the smallest state of the republic, accounting for only 0.2% of the country’s territory. The state is named after its capital, Tlaxcala, which was also the name of the pre-Hispanic city and culture. The Tlaxcalans allied themselves with the Spanish to defeat the Aztecs, with concessions from the Spanish that allowed the territory to remain mostly intact throughout 300 years of colonial period. After Mexican Independence, Tlaxcala was declared a federal territory, until 1857 when it was admitted as a state of the federation. Most of the state’s economy is based on agriculture, light industry and tourism. The tourist industry is rooted in Tlaxcala’s long history with major attractions being archeological sites such as Cacaxtla and colonial constructions in and around Tlaxcala city.
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Tlayuda, sometimes erroneously spelled clayuda, is a handmade dish in traditional Oaxacan cuisine, consisting of a large, thin, crunchy, partially fried or toasted tortilla covered with a spread of refried beans, asiento (unrefined pork lard), lettuce or cabbage, avocado, meat (usually shredded chicken, beef tenderloin or pork), Oaxaca cheese, and salsa.
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The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca 800–1000 CE).
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Toluca, officially called Toluca de Lerdo, is the state capital of State of Mexico as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca.
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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
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Torreón is a city and seat of Torreón Municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila.
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The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519.
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The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (Eje Volcánico Transversal), also known as the Transvolcanic Belt and locally as the Sierra Nevada (Snowy Mountain Range), is a volcanic belt that covers central-southern Mexico.
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report was first published in 2007 by the World Economic Forum.
The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence.
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The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially entitled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–48).
The Treaty of Tlatelolco is the conventional name given to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean.
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The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on the Earth at which the Sun may appear directly overhead at its culmination.
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A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
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Tulum (Yucatec: Tulu'um) is the site of a Pre-Columbian Maya walled city serving as a major port for Cobá.
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The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.
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The Tzeltal people are the largest indigenous group mostly located in the highlands or Los Altos region of the Mexican state of Chiapas.
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The Tzotzil are an indigenous Maya people of the central Chiapas highlands in southern Mexico.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).
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A unitary state is a state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the United States Government agency primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, US dollar or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its overseas territories.
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Uniting for Consensus (UfC) is a movement, nicknamed the Coffee Club, that developed in the 1990s in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council.
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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which grants academic degrees in various subjects and typically provides undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
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The University of Guadalajara (Spanish Universidad de Guadalajara) is a public higher education institution that has its headquarters in the city of Guadalajara.
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The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
USA Today is a national American daily middle-market newspaper published by the Gannett Company.
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The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State of Mexico.
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Vanilla is a flavor derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).
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Veal is the meat of young cows, in contrast to the beef from older cattle.
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Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people,Ethnologue.
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José Venustiano Carranza Garza (28 December 1859 – 21 May 1920) was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army, defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta (February 1913-July 1914) and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster.
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Veracruz,() formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, officially Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave), is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
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Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
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Verónica Castro Verónica Judith Sáenz Castro Alba (October 19, 1952) is a Mexican actress and entertainer.
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A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
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Vicente Fox Quesada (born 2 July, 1942) is a Mexican businessman who was President of Mexico from 1 December 2000, to 30 November 2006 under the National Action Party (PAN).
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Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña (August 10, 1782 – February 14, 1831) was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence.
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Vicente Samuel Saldívar García (May 3, 1943 in Mexico City – July 18, 1985) was a Mexican boxer in the Featherweight division and was a part of the 1960 Mexican Olympic team.
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A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, or city province (or state) in the name of and as representative of the monarch.
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José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (22 December 1850 – 13 January 1916) was a Mexican military officer and president of Mexico.
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Viridiana is a 1961 Mexican film directed by Luis Buñuel and produced by Mexican Gustavo Alatriste.
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A foreign national wishing to enter Mexico must obtain a visa unless he or she is a citizen of one of the 65 eligible visa exempt countries or one of the 3 Electronic Authorization System eligible countries.
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Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (p), alias Lenin (p) (– 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
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The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant fricative or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant fricative or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, including English.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
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Volkswagen (VW) is a German car manufacturer headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany.
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White people is a racial classification specifier, depending on context used for people of Caucasian ancestry.
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William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American jurist and statesman who served as both the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and later the 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930).
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The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.
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A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.
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Xcaret is a Maya civilization archaeological site located on the Caribbean coastline of the Yucatán Peninsula, in the modern-day state of Quintana Roo in Mexico.
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Xochicalco is a pre-Columbian archaeological site in Miacatlán Municipality in the western part of the Mexican state of Morelos.
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Y Tu Mamá También (And Your Mother Too) is a 2001 Mexican drama film directed by Alfonso Cuarón and co-written by Cuarón and his brother Carlos.
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Yucatán, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán (Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
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Yucatec Maya (Yukatek Maya in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala), called Màaya t'àan (lit. "Maya speech") by its speakers, is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula and northern Belize.
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Zacatecas, officially Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Zacatecas), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
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The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN), often referred to as the Zapatistas, is a revolutionary leftist political and militant group based in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico.
The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.
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The Zapotec languages are a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamerican languages that constitute a main branch of the Oto-Manguean language family and which is spoken by the Zapotec people from the southwestern-central highlands of Mexico.
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The Zapotecs (Zoogocho Zapotec: Didxažoŋ) are an indigenous people of Mexico.
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Zucchini or courgette is a summer squash which can reach nearly a meter in length, but which is usually harvested at half that size or less.
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.mx is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Mexico, which in 2009 was re-opened to new registrations by NIC México.
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The meridian 119° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 14th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 14 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 (Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos de 1824) was enacted on October 4 of 1824, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide.
The 1968 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1968), officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, in October 1968.
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The 1970 FIFA World Cup was the ninth FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for men's national teams.
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The 1980s Oil Glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s Energy Crisis.
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The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June 1986.
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The 2013 FIBA Americas Championship for Men was the qualifying tournament for FIBA Americas at the 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup in Spain.
The 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup was the 17th edition of the FIBA Basketball World Cup, the tournament previously known as the FIBA World Championship.
The 2015 FIBA Americas Championship for Men is the FIBA Americas qualifying tournament for the 2016 Summer Olympics Basketball Tournament in Brazil.
The 33rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 33 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The meridian 86° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, Central America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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Central Mexico, EUM, Estados Unidos Mexicanos, Estados Unidos de Mexico, Estados Unidos de México, Etymology of Mexico, ISO 3166-1:MX, MEXICO, Mehico, Meixcan, Mejico, Messico, Mexic, Mexican Federal Republic, Mexican Republic, Mexican Union, Mexican United States, Mexican coast, Mexican', Mexico (country), Mexicó, Mexiko, Mexique, Mexxico, Mountains of Mexico, Méjico, México, Old Mexico, Republic of Mexico, Sierra de la Estrella, The United Mexican States, The United State of Mexico, The United States of Mexicans, The United States of Mexico, United Mexican States, United State of Mexico, United States of Mexicans, United States of Mexico, United states of mexico, Untied Mexican States.