259 relations: A Brief History of Time, A priori and a posteriori, Abbreviation, Absolute (philosophy), Absolute idealism, Abstract and concrete, Abstraction (mathematics), Acronym, Ajiva, Albert Einstein, Alfred North Whitehead, Alternate history, Anthropology, Anti-realism, Aristotle, Aristotle's theory of universals, Asrava, Astronomy, Augmented reality, Bandha (Jainism), Baruch Spinoza, Being, Bell's theorem, Bertrand Russell, Brain in a vat, Category of being, Charles Hartshorne, Classical electromagnetism, Cognition, Colloquialism, Complementarity (physics), Computer science, Computer simulation, Conceptualism, Consciousness, Consensus reality, Constructivism (mathematics), Correspondence theory of truth, Cosmology, Counterfactual definiteness, Counterfactual history, Critique of Pure Reason, Cultural artifact, Cultural relativism, Culture, Cyberpunk, Cyberspace, David Lewis (philosopher), Declension, Derealization, ..., Dietrich von Hildebrand, Direct and indirect realism, Disposition, Dream, Dream argument, Edmund Husserl, Emmanuel Levinas, Empirical evidence, Empiricism, Energy, Epistemology, EPR paradox, Essence, Eternalism (philosophy of time), Eugene Wigner, Evil demon, Evolution, Existence, Existentialism, Fantasy, Fiction, Film, Finitism, First-person narrative, Formalism (philosophy of mathematics), Fundamental interaction, Future, Göttingen, General relativity, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Berkeley, Germany, God, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Greek language, Growing block universe, Heraclitus, Human brain, Human condition, Hyperreality, Hypothesis, Idealism, Ijon Tichy, Immanuel Kant, Infinity, Instrumentalism, Internet forum, Interpretations of quantum mechanics, Intuitionism, J. M. E. McTaggart, Jain philosophy, Jargon, Jīva (Jainism), Jean-Paul Sartre, Jiva, John Ellis (physicist), Karma in Jainism, Knowledge, Language, Law of excluded middle, Lifelike experience, List of unsolved problems in physics, Literary criticism, Logical positivism, Logical possibility, Loop quantum gravity, Loopholes in Bell test experiments, M-theory, Mad scientist, Many-worlds interpretation, Martin Heidegger, Massively multiplayer online role-playing game, Mathematical universe hypothesis, Matter, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Max Tegmark, Measurement, Measurement in quantum mechanics, Mental event, Metaphysics, Mind, Mind–body dualism, Mind–body problem, Mixed reality, Modal logic, Modal realism, Moksha (Jainism), Momentum, Monadology, Monism, Mountain range, Multiverse, Munich, Naïve realism, Nature (journal), Nervous system, New media, Niels Bohr, Nihilism, Nirjara, Nominalism, Northwestern University, Nothing, Novel, Object of the mind, Objectivity (philosophy), Observation, Omphalos hypothesis, Online chat, Ontological argument, Ontology, Oxford English Dictionary, Parmenides, Past, Paul Ricœur, Peter L. Berger, Phenomenalism, Phenomenology (philosophy), Phenomenon, Philosophical logic, Philosophical methodology, Philosophical presentism, Philosophical realism, Philosophy, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of perception, Philosophy of religion, Philosophy of science, Physical body, Physical constant, Physical law, Physicalism, Physics, Plato, Platonic realism, Platonism, Political movement, Possible world, Present, Principle of locality, Process philosophy, Property (philosophy), Psychology, Purdue University, Qualia, Quantity, Quantum entanglement, Quantum mechanics, Quantum superposition, Real life, Reality tunnel, Reality–virtuality continuum, Reductio ad absurdum, Relation (history of concept), Religion, René Descartes, Robert Anton Wilson, Rocky Mountains, Samvara, Schrödinger's cat, Science fiction, Scientific method, Scientific realism, Scientific theory, Second Life, Set theory, Simulated reality, Social constructionism, Social issue, Sociology, Sociology of knowledge, Space, Spirituality, Standard Model, Stanisław Lem, Stephen Hawking, String theory, Subjective idealism, Substance theory, The Social Construction of Reality, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The Unreality of Time, Theoretical physics, Theory, Theory of everything, Theory of relativity, Thomas Kuhn, Thomas Luckmann, Thought experiment, Time, Timothy Leary, Transpersonal psychology, Ultrafinitism, Universal (metaphysics), Universe, Unobservable, Virtual reality, Virtual world, Von Neumann–Wigner interpretation, Wave function collapse, Werner Heisenberg, Wigner's friend, William Gibson, William James, Wolfgang Pauli, World of Warcraft, World view, Zhuang Zhou. Expand index (209 more) » « Shrink index
A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology (the study of the universe) by British physicist Stephen Hawking.
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.
Absolute idealism is an ontologically monistic philosophy "chiefly associated with G. W. F. Hegel and Friedrich Schelling, both German idealist philosophers of the 19th century, Josiah Royce, an American philosopher, and others, but, in its essentials, the product of Hegel".
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.
Abstraction in mathematics is the process of extracting the underlying essence of a mathematical concept, removing any dependence on real world objects with which it might originally have been connected, and generalizing it so that it has wider applications or matching among other abstract descriptions of equivalent phenomena.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Ajiva (Sanskrit) is anything that has no soul or life, the polar opposite of "jīva" (soul).
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
Alternate history or alternative history (Commonwealth English), sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aristotle's theory of universals is a classic solution to the problem of universals.
Asrava (āsrava "influx") is one of the tattva or the fundamental reality of the world as per the Jain philosophy.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Augmented Reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment whose elements are "augmented" by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory, and olfactory.
Bandha (also karma-bandha) in Jainism, is the mutual intermingling of the soul and karmas (fine matter).
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Bell's theorem is a "no-go theorem" that draws an important distinction between quantum mechanics and the world as described by classical mechanics.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
In philosophy, the brain in a vat (alternately known as brain in a jar) is a scenario used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of human conceptions of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, consciousness and meaning.
In ontology, the different kinds or ways of being are called categories of being; or simply categories.
Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 – October 9, 2000) was an American philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics.
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
In physics, complementarity is both a theoretical and an experimental result of quantum mechanics, also referred to as principle of complementarity.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Conceptualism is a philosophical theory that explains universality of particulars as conceptualized frameworks situated within the thinking mind.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Consensus reality is that which is generally agreed to be reality, based on a consensus view.
In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or "construct") a mathematical object to prove that it exists.
The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
In quantum mechanics, counterfactual definiteness (CFD) is the ability to speak "meaningfully" of the definiteness of the results of measurements that have not been performed (i.e., the ability to assume the existence of objects, and properties of objects, even when they have not been measured).
Counterfactual history, also sometimes referred to as virtual history, is a form of historiography that attempts to answer "what if" questions known as counterfactuals.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
A cultural artifact, or cultural artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.
Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of lowlife and high tech" featuring advanced technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial intelligence and cybernetics, juxtaposed with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order.
Cyberspace is interconnected technology.
David Kellogg Lewis (September 28, 1941 – October 14, 2001) was an American philosopher.
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
Derealization (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.
Dietrich Richard Alfred von Hildebrand (12 October 1889 – 26 January 1977) was a German Roman Catholic philosopher and theologian.
The question of direct or naïve realism, as opposed to indirect or representational realism, arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate over the nature of conscious experience;Lehar, Steve.
A disposition is a quality of character, a habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in a specified way that may be learned.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence that the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore, any state that is dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it is in fact reality.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Emmanuel Levinas (12 January 1906 – 25 December 1995) was a French philosopher of Lithuanian Jewish ancestry who is known for his work related to Jewish philosophy, existentialism, ethics, phenomenology and ontology.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox or the EPR paradox of 1935 is a thought experiment in quantum mechanics with which Albert Einstein and his colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR) claimed to demonstrate that the wave function does not provide a complete description of physical reality, and hence that the Copenhagen interpretation is unsatisfactory; resolutions of the paradox have important implications for the interpretation of quantum mechanics.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
Eternalism is a philosophical approach to the ontological nature of time, which takes the view that all existence in time is equally real, as opposed to presentism or the growing block universe theory of time, in which at least the future is not the same as any other time.
Eugene Paul "E.
The evil demon, also known as malicious demon and evil genius, is a concept in Cartesian philosophy.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often without any locations, events, or people referencing the real world.
Fiction is any story or setting that is derived from imagination—in other words, not based strictly on history or fact.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
Finitism is a philosophy of mathematics that accepts the existence only of finite mathematical objects.
A first-person narrative is a mode of storytelling in which a narrator relays events from their own point of view using the first person It may be narrated by a first person protagonist (or other focal character), first person re-teller, first person witness, or first person peripheral (also called a peripheral narrator).
In foundations of mathematics, philosophy of mathematics, and philosophy of logic, formalism is a theory that holds that statements of mathematics and logic can be considered to be statements about the consequences of certain string manipulation rules.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
The future is what will happen in the time after the present.
Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
According to the growing block universe theory of time (or the growing block view), the past and present exist and the future does not exist.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality".
In semiotics and postmodernism, hyperreality is an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a simulation of reality, especially in technologically advanced postmodern societies.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Ijon Tichy (Polish pronunciation) is a fictional character who appears in several works of Stanisław Lem: initially in The Star Diaries, later in The Futurological Congress, Peace on Earth, Observation on the Spot, and Memoirs of a Space Traveller (more stories from The Star Diaries, issued in English translation as a separate volume).
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.
Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.
An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.
An interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain how concepts in quantum mechanics correspond to reality.
In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach where mathematics is considered to be purely the result of the constructive mental activity of humans rather than the discovery of fundamental principles claimed to exist in an objective reality.
John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart, FBA, commonly John McTaggart or J. M. E. McTaggart (3 September 1866 – 18 January 1925), was an idealist metaphysician.
Jain philosophy is the oldest Indian philosophy that separates body (matter) from the soul (consciousness) completely.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
The Jīva or Atman (आत्मन्) is a philosophical term used within Jainism to identify the soul.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva (जीव,, alternative spelling jiwa; जीव,, alternative spelling jeev) is a living being, or any entity imbued with a life force.
Jonathan Richard Ellis (born 1 July 1946) is a British theoretical physicist who is currently Clerk Maxwell Professor of Theoretical Physics at King's College London.
Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
In logic, the law of excluded middle (or the principle of excluded middle) states that for any proposition, either that proposition is true or its negation is true.
"Lifelike" is an adjective that relates to anything that simulates real life, in accordance with its laws.
Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Logically possible refers to a proposition which can be the logical consequence of another, based on the axioms of a given system of logic.
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.
In Bell test experiments, there may be problems of experimental design or set-up that affect the validity of the experimental findings.
M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory.
Mad scientist (also mad doctor or mad professor) is a caricature of a scientist who is described as "mad" or "insane" owing to a combination of unusual or unsettling personality traits and the unabashedly ambitious, taboo or hubristic nature of their experiments.
The many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are a combination of role-playing video games and massively multiplayer online games in which a very large number of players interact with one another within a virtual world.
In physics and cosmology, the mathematical universe hypothesis (MUH), also known as the ultimate ensemble theory, is a speculative "theory of everything" (TOE) proposed by the cosmologist Max Tegmark.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Max Erik Tegmark (born Max Shapiro 5 May 1967) is a Swedish-American physicist and cosmologist.
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.
The framework of quantum mechanics requires a careful definition of measurement.
A mental event is anything which happens within the mind or mind substitute of a conscious individual.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
The mind–body problem is a philosophical problem concerning the relationship between the human mind and body, although it can also concern animal minds, if any, and animal bodies.
Mixed reality (MR), sometimes referred to as hybrid reality, is the merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time.
Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.
Modal realism is the view propounded by David Kellogg Lewis that all possible worlds are real in the same way as is the actual world: they are "of a kind with this world of ours." It is based on the following tenets: possible worlds exist; possible worlds are not different in kind from the actual world; possible worlds are irreducible entities; the term actual in actual world is indexical, i.e. any subject can declare their world to be the actual one, much as they label the place they are "here" and the time they are "now".
Sanskrit or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
The Monadology (La Monadologie, 1714) is one of Gottfried Leibniz’s best known works representing his later philosophy.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
The multiverse (or meta-universe) is a hypothetical group of multiple separate universes including the universe in which humans live.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
In philosophy of mind, naïve realism, also known as direct realism or common sense realism, is the idea that the senses provide us with direct awareness of objects as they really are.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for re-distribution.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.
Nirjara is one of the seven fundamental principles, or Tattva in Jain philosophy, and refers to the shedding or removal of accumulated karmas from the atma (soul), essential for breaking free from samsara, the cycle of birth-death and rebirth, by achieving moksha, liberation.
In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
Nothing is a concept denoting the absence of something, and is associated with nothingness.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
An object of the mind is an object that exists in the imagination, but which, in the real world, can only be represented or modeled.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
The omphalos hypothesis is one attempt to reconcile the scientific evidence that the universe is billions of years old with the Genesis creation narrative, which implies that the Earth is only a few thousand years old.
Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time transmission of text messages from sender to receiver.
An ontological argument is a philosophical argument for the existence of God that uses ontology.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
The past is the set of all events that occurred before a given point in time.
Jean Paul Gustave Ricœur (27 February 1913 – 20 May 2005) was a French philosopher best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutics.
Peter Ludwig Berger (March 17, 1929 – June 27, 2017) was an Austrian-born American sociologist and Protestant theologian.
Phenomenalism is the view that physical objects cannot justifiably be said to exist in themselves, but only as perceptual phenomena or sensory stimuli (e.g. redness, hardness, softness, sweetness, etc.) situated in time and in space.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Philosophical logic refers to those areas of philosophy in which recognized methods of logic have traditionally been used to solve or advance the discussion of philosophical problems.
Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy.
Philosophical presentism is the view that neither the future nor the past exist.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
The philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledge of, the world.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
In physics, a physical body or physical object (or simply a body or object) is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be constrained by an identifiable boundary, and may move as a unit by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space.
A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time.
A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
In philosophy, physicalism is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects after the Greek philosopher Plato (c. 427–c. 347 BC), a student of Socrates.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group that operates together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international scope.
In philosophy and logic, the concept of a possible world is used to express modal claims.
The present (or here and now) is the time that is associated with the events perceived directly and in the first time, not as a recollection (perceived more than once) or a speculation (predicted, hypothesis, uncertain).
In physics, the principle of locality states that an object is only directly influenced by its immediate surroundings.
Process philosophy — also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism — identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.
In philosophy, mathematics, and logic, a property is a characteristic of an object; a red object is said to have the property of redness.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.
Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.
Real life is a phrase used originally in literature to distinguish between actual and fictional or idealized worlds, and in acting to distinguish between performers and the characters they portray.
Reality tunnel is a theory that, with a subconscious set of mental filters formed from beliefs and experiences, every individual interprets the same world differently, hence "Truth is in the eye of the beholder".
The virtuality continuum is a continuous scale ranging between the completely virtual, a virtuality, and the completely real, reality.
In logic, reductio ad absurdum ("reduction to absurdity"; also argumentum ad absurdum, "argument to absurdity") is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a statement by showing it inevitably leads to a ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion, or to prove one by showing that if it were not true, the result would be absurd or impossible.
The concept of relation as a term used in general philosophy has a long and complicated history.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Robert Anton Wilson (born Robert Edward Wilson; January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was an American author, novelist, essayist, editor, playwright, poet, futurist, and self-described agnostic mystic.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Samvara (saṃvara) is one of the tattva or the fundamental reality of the world as per the Jain philosophy.
Schrödinger's cat is a thought experiment, sometimes described as a paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scientific realism is the view that the universe described by science is real regardless of how it may be interpreted.
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.
Second Life is an online virtual world, developed and owned by the San Francisco-based firm Linden Lab and launched on June 23, 2003.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by quantum computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
Stanisław Herman Lem (12 or 13 September 1921 – 27 March 2006) was a Polish writer of science fiction, philosophy, and satire, and a trained physician.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
Subjective idealism, or empirical idealism, is the monistic metaphysical doctrine that only minds and mental contents exist.
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
The Social Construction of Reality is a 1966 book about the sociology of knowledge by the sociologists Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn.
"The Unreality of Time" is the best-known philosophical work of the Cambridge idealist J. M. E. McTaggart (1866–1925).
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
Thomas Luckmann (October 14, 1927 – May 10, 2016) was an American-Austrian sociologist of German and Slovene origin who taught mainly in Germany.
A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
Timothy Francis Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American psychologist and writer known for advocating the exploration of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled conditions.
Transpersonal psychology is a sub-field or "school" of psychology that integrates the spiritual and transcendent aspects of the human experience with the framework of modern psychology.
In the philosophy of mathematics, ultrafinitism, also known as ultraintuitionism, strict-finitism, actualism, and strong-finitism, is a form of finitism.
In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
An unobservable (also called impalpable) is an entity whose existence, nature, properties, qualities or relations are not directly observable by humans.
Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.
A virtual world is a computer-based simulated environment which may be populated by many users who can create a personal avatar, and simultaneously and independently explore the virtual world, participate in its activities and communicate with others.
The von Neumann–Wigner interpretation, also described as "consciousness causes collapse ", is an interpretation of quantum mechanics in which consciousness is postulated to be necessary for the completion of the process of quantum measurement.
In quantum mechanics, wave function collapse is said to occur when a wave function—initially in a superposition of several eigenstates—appears to reduce to a single eigenstate (by "observation").
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
Wigner's friend is a thought experiment proposed by the physicist Eugene Wigner; it is a variation of the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment in which, from the point of view of a human observer, a second observer is in a state of quantum superposition.
William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as cyberpunk.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.
World of Warcraft (WoW) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) released in 2004 by Blizzard Entertainment.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
Zhuang Zhou, often known as Zhuangzi ("Master Zhuang"), was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States period, a period corresponding to the summit of Chinese philosophy, the Hundred Schools of Thought.