644 relations: Aaron T. Beck, Abductive reasoning, Abnormal psychology, Abraham Maslow, Adherence (medicine), Adolescence, Adoption study, Affect (psychology), African Americans, Age of Enlightenment, Ageing, Albert Bandura, Albert Ellis, Alexander Luria, Alexander Mitscherlich (psychologist), Alfred Adler, Alfred Binet, Alfred Kinsey, Allison Davis, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Journal of Psychiatry, American Psychoanalytic Association, American Psychological Association, American Psychologist, American Psychology–Law Society, Analysis of variance, Analytical psychology, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Animal testing on non-human primates, Animal testing on rodents, Anna Freud, Antipositivism, Antonio Damasio, Applied behavior analysis, Applied psychology, Archetypal psychology, Aristotle, Army Alpha, Army Beta, Army General Classification Test, Artificial intelligence, Association for Behavior Analysis International, Association for Psychological Science, Association of Black Psychologists, Attention, Attitude (psychology), Authenticity (philosophy), Authoritarian personality, Autogenic training, ..., Automaticity, Availability heuristic, Édouard Claparède, Ātman (Hinduism), B. F. Skinner, Behavior, Behavior modification, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Behavioral neuroscience, Behaviorism, Behaviour therapy, Behavioural genetics, Behavioural sciences, Belmont Report, Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute, Bernard Weiner, Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Biopsychosocial model, Black propaganda, Body dysmorphic disorder, Bodywork (alternative medicine), Bolsheviks, Brain, Brain damage, Brainwashing, British Raj, Brown v. Board of Education, Buck v. Bell, Buddhism, Cai Yuanpei, Carl Jung, Carl Linnaeus, Carl Rogers, Carl Wernicke, Case study, Causality, Central Intelligence Agency, Charles Sanders Peirce, Charles Scott Sherrington, Chemistry, Chimpanzee, Christian Wolff (philosopher), Clark L. Hull, Clark Wissler, Classical conditioning, Clinical neuropsychology, Clinical psychology, Clive Wearing, Cognition, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive bias, Cognitive map, Cognitive neuroscience, Cognitive psychology, Cognitive revolution, Cognitive science, Cognitivism (psychology), Collective unconscious, College Board, Communist Party of China, Community mental health service, Comparative psychology, Compulsory sterilization, Computational neuroscience, Computer science, Computer simulation, Conation, Conformity, Confounding, Confucius, Connectionism, Consciousness, Cordwainer Smith, Cornell University, Correlation and dependence, Counseling psychology, Crisis intervention, Critical theory, Croatia, Croatian Latin literature, Cross-sectional study, Crossover study, Culture, Cybernetics, Daniel Wegner, David Wechsler, Death, Death drive, Declaration of Helsinki, Deductive-nomological model, Delta wave, Dependent and independent variables, Depression (mood), Depth psychology, Derek Russell Davis, Descartes' Error, Determinism, Developmental psychology, Differential psychology, Discipline (academia), DNA, Donald O. Hebb, Donald Winnicott, Drapetomania, Dream interpretation, Drive reduction theory (learning theory), Drive theory, Drug, DSM-5, Dynamical system, Dysaesthesia aethiopica, E. O. Wilson, E. Tory Higgins, Earth science, East India Company, Eating, Eclecticism, Education, Educational psychology, Edward B. Titchener, Edward C. Tolman, Edward Thorndike, Edwin Ray Guthrie, Effect size, Ego psychology, Electroencephalography, Ellen Langer, Elton Mayo, Emil Kraepelin, Emotion, Empirical evidence, Empirical research, Epiphenomenon, Eric Kandel, Erich Fromm, Erik Erikson, Esperanto, Ethics, Ethnography, Ethology, Eugenics in the United States, Eugenics Record Office, Evolution, Evolutionary psychology, Existential therapy, Existentialism, Experiment, Experimental psychology, Explicit memory, Exploratory data analysis, Exposition Universelle (1889), Extraversion and introversion, Facilitated communication, Factor analysis, Family resilience, Family therapy, Feeble-minded, Feeling, Folk psychology, Ford Foundation, Forensic psychology, Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, Forty Studies That Changed Psychology, Francis Galton, Free association (psychology), Free love, Free will, Freedom, Frequentist probability, Freudian slip, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fritz Perls, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Functional neuroimaging, Functional psychology, Functional specialization (brain), Functionalism (philosophy of mind), Funding of science, G. Stanley Hall, Gene, Genetic screen, Genetics, Genome-wide association study, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Kelly (psychologist), Georgy Shchedrovitsky, Gestalt psychology, Gestalt therapy, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gratitude, Gratitude journal, Gregg Henriques, GRIM test, Grounded theory, Group dynamics, Gustav Fechner, Hans Berger, Hans Eysenck, Happiness, Harald Schultz-Hencke, Harcourt Assessment, Harry Harlow, Harvey A. Carr, Hawthorne effect, Health psychology, Henry H. Goddard, Henry Molaison, Hepatitis, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Hermann Göring, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hermeneutics, Higher education in the United States, Hinduism, Hippocrates, History of anthropology, History of China, History of India, History of Iran, Homeostasis, Horace Mann Bond, Huangdi Neijing, Hugo Münsterberg, Human behavior, Human migration, Human nature, Human sexuality, Human–computer interaction, Humanism, Humanistic psychology, Humanities, Humboldt University of Berlin, Hunger (motivational state), Huntington's disease, Hypnosis, Hypothesis, Id, ego and super-ego, Idiot, Illusion of control, Imbecile, Immanuel Kant, Imperial examination, Implicit memory, Implicit-association test, Independence (probability theory), Inductive reasoning, Industrial and organizational psychology, Information, Information Operations (United States), Information processing, Informed consent, Instinct, Institutional review board, Integrative psychotherapy, Intellectual disability, Intellectual giftedness, Intelligence, Intelligence quotient, International Association of Applied Psychology, International Union of Psychological Science, Internment, Interpersonal psychoanalysis, Interpersonal relationship, Interview, Introspection, Irving B. Weiner, Ivan Pavlov, Ivan Sechenov, Jaak Panksepp, Jacob Cohen (statistician), Jacques Lacan, James Madison University, James McKeen Cattell, Jane Goodall, Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Job satisfaction, Johann Friedrich Herbart, Johannes Heinrich Schultz, John B. Watson, John Bargh, John Bowlby, John D. Marks, John Dewey, Johns Hopkins University, Josef Breuer, Joseph E. LeDoux, Joseph Jastrow, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Jungian archetypes, Karen Horney, Karl Lashley, Karl Popper, Kenneth and Mamie Clark, Khrushchev Thaw, Kurt Koffka, Laboratory, Laboratory rat, Language, Language acquisition, Laozi, Lateralization of brain function, Latin, Learned helplessness, Learning, Legal psychology, Leipzig, Lesion, Lev Vygotsky, Lewis Terman, Libido, Lightner Witmer, Linear regression, Linguistics, List of cognitive biases, Little Albert experiment, Logistic regression, Logotherapy, Longitudinal study, Ludwig Binswanger, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Major depressive disorder, Mark Jarzombek, Mark Solms, Marko Marulić, Martin Heidegger, Martin Seligman, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematical logic, Mathematical model, Mathematical psychology, Matthias Göring, Max Wertheimer, Müller-Lyer illusion, Meaning (existential), Media psychology, Mediation (statistics), Medicine, Melanie Klein, Memory, Mental age, Mental disorder, Mental health, Mental health professional, Mental process, Mentalism (psychology), Meta-analysis, Microarray, Microsociology, Milgram experiment, Mind, Ministry of National Education (France), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Molecular genetics, Moral development, Morton Prince, Motivation, Multilevel model, Multivariate statistics, Myers–Briggs Type Indicator, Myth, Nancy McWilliams, Narendra Nath Sen Gupta, National Institutes of Health, National Research Act, Naturalistic observation, Nazi Germany, Neo-Freudianism, Neural network, Neural oscillation, Neurology, Neuropsychoanalysis, Neuropsychological test, Neuropsychology, Neuroscience, Neuroscience of free will, Neuroticism, Noam Chomsky, Null hypothesis, Nuremberg Code, Object relations theory, Observational study, Office of Strategic Services, Old age, Oliver Sacks, On the Soul, Operant conditioning, Operational definition, Otto Rank, Outline of space science, P-value, Pain, Parapsychology, Participant observation, Patriarchy, Paul Broca, Paul Flechsig, Pearson correlation coefficient, Pedology (study of children), Peking University, Perception, Person-centered therapy, Personality psychology, Perspectives on Psychological Science, Persuasion, Phenomenology (psychology), Philosophy, Philosophy of mind, Phineas Gage, Phobia, Phrenology, Physics, Physiognomy, Physiological psychology, Physiology, Pierre Bovet, Pierre Janet, Pioneer Fund, Placebo, Plato, Pleasure, Pleasure principle (psychology), Polygene, Population, Positive psychology, Positron emission tomography, Priming (psychology), Problem solving, Process-oriented psychology, Progressive education, Project Camelot, Project MKUltra, Propaganda, Prosocial behavior, Prussia, Prussian education system, Psyche (psychology), Psychiatrist, Psychiatry, Psychic, Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamic psychotherapy, Psychoeducation, Psychological adaptation, Psychological evaluation, Psychological Operations (United States), Psychological resilience, Psychological Science, Psychological testing, Psychological Types, Psychological warfare, Psychologist, Psychology, Psychometrics, Psychopathology, Psychopharmacology, Psychophysics, Psychotherapy, Psychoticism, Public health, Publication bias, Punishment, Qing dynasty, Qualitative psychological research, Quantitative psychological research, Quasi-experiment, Questionnaire, Race (human categorization), Race and intelligence, Radical behaviorism, Randomized controlled trial, Raymond Cattell, Reality principle, Reason, Rebirthing (breathwork), Reductionism, Reflex, Reinforcement, Relational psychoanalysis, Reliability (statistics), Reparenting, Repeated measures design, Repetition compulsion, Replication (statistics), Replication crisis, Repression (psychology), Rhesus macaque, Robert Yerkes, Rockefeller family, Rockefeller Foundation, Roger E. Kirk, Role, Rollo May, Ronald Fisher, Roy Baumeister, SAGE Publications, SAT, Søren Kierkegaard, School, School psychology, Science, Science (journal), ScienceDirect, Scientific management, Self-actualization, Self-concept, Sexology, Sick role, Sigmund Freud, Simon & Schuster, Smoking cessation, Social, Social behavior, Social class, Social cognition, Social learning theory, Social psychology, Social science, Social Science Research Council, Social structure, Social work, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, Sociobiology, Soul, Sport psychology, Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales, Stanley Milgram, Statistical hypothesis testing, Statistical significance, Stereotype, Steven Blankaart, Stimulus (psychology), Stochastic process, Stream of consciousness (psychology), Strong Interest Inventory, Structural equation modeling, Structuralism (psychology), Subconscious, Subject (philosophy), Subliminal stimuli, Suicide prevention, Survey methodology, Symbol, Teacher, Test validity, Thales of Miletus, Thalidomide, Théodore Simon, The Holocaust, The New York Times, The Principles of Psychology, The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Theosophical Society, Therapeutic relationship, Thomas Kuhn, Thought, Total institution, Trait theory, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Transference, Tree of knowledge system, Twin study, Unconscious mind, Unconsciousness, UNESCO, University of Buenos Aires, University of Calcutta, University of Tokyo, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Upanishads, Validity, Viktor Frankl, Walter Dill Scott, Wayne C. Booth, Weber–Fechner law, White supremacy, Whole genome sequencing, Wilhelm Wundt, Will (philosophy), Will to power, William James, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Wolfgang Köhler, Woodworth Personal Data Sheet, World War I, World War II, Yin and yang, Yoga, Zhejiang University, Zing-Yang Kuo, 16PF Questionnaire. Expand index (594 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron T. Beck
Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921) is an American psychiatrist who is professor emeritus in the department of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania.
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Abductive reasoning (also called abduction,For example: abductive inference, or retroduction) is a form of logical inference which starts with an observation or set of observations then seeks to find the simplest and most likely explanation.
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Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.
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Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.
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In medicine, compliance (also adherence, capacitance) describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice.
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AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
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Adoption studies are one of the classic tools of behavioral genetics.
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Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.
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African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
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Age of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
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Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
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Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925) is a psychologist who is the David Starr Jordan Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology at Stanford University.
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Albert Ellis (September 27, 1913 – July 24, 2007) was an American psychologist who in 1955 developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT).
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Alexander Romanovich Luria (p; 16 July 1902 – 14 August 1977) was a notable neuropsychologist, often credited as a father of modern neuropsychological assessment.
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Alexander Mitscherlich (psychologist)
Alexander Mitscherlich (September 20, 1908 in Munich – June 26, 1982 in Frankfurt am Main) was a German psychoanalyst.
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Alfred W. Adler(7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.
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Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911) was a French psychologist who invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet–Simon test.
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Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956) was an American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University, previously known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction.
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William Boyd Allison Davis (October 14, 1902 – November 21, 1983) was an American educator, anthropologist, writer, researcher, and scholar.
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American Association for the Advancement of Science
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
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American Journal of Psychiatry
The American Journal of Psychiatry is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of psychiatry and the official journal of the American Psychiatric Association.
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American Psychoanalytic Association
The American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA) is an association of psychoanalysts in the United States.
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American Psychological Association
The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.
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American Psychologist is the official peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Psychological Association.
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American Psychology–Law Society
The American Psychology–Law Society (AP–LS) is an academic society for legal and forensic psychologists, as well as general psychologists who are interested in the application of psychology to the law.
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Analysis of variance
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models and their associated estimation procedures (such as the "variation" among and between groups) used to analyze the differences among group means in a sample.
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Analytical psychology (sometimes analytic psychology), also called Jungian psychology, is a school of psychotherapy which originated in the ideas of Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist.
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Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
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Animal testing on non-human primates
Experiments involving non-human primates (NHPs) include toxicity testing for medical and non-medical substances; studies of infectious disease, such as HIV and hepatitis; neurological studies; behavior and cognition; reproduction; genetics; and xenotransplantation.
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Animal testing on rodents
Rodents are commonly used in animal testing, particularly mice and rats, but also guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils and others.
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Anna Freud (3 December 1895 – 9 October 1982) was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst.
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In social science, antipositivism (also interpretivism and negativism) proposes that the social realm cannot be studied with the scientific method of investigation applied to the natural world; investigation of the social realm requires a different epistemology.
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Antonio Damasio (António Damásio) is a Portuguese-American neuroscientist.
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Applied behavior analysis
Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance.
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Applied psychology is the use of psychological methods and findings of scientific psychology to solve practical problems of human and animal behavior and experience.
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Archetypal psychology was initiated as a distinct movement in the early 1970s by James Hillman, a psychologist who trained in analytical psychology and became the first Director of the Jung Institute in Zurich.
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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
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The Army Alpha is a group-administered test developed by Robert Yerkes and six others in order to evaluate the many U.S. military recruits during World War I.
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The Army Beta1917 is the non-verbal complement of the Army Alpha—a group-administered test that was developed by Robert Yerkes and six other committee members to evaluate some 1.5 million military recruits in the United States during World War I.
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Army General Classification Test
The Army General Classification Test (AGCT) has a long history that runs parallel with research and means for attempting the assessment of intelligence or other abilities.
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Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
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Association for Behavior Analysis International
The Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to contributing to the well being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.
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Association for Psychological Science
The Association for Psychological Science (APS), previously the American Psychological Society, is an international non-profit organization whose mission is to promote, protect, and advance the interests of scientifically oriented psychology in research, application, teaching, and the improvement of human welfare.
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Association of Black Psychologists
The Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi) is a professional association of African American psychologists founded in 1968 in San Francisco, with regional chapters throughout the United States.
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Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
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In psychology, attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person.
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Authenticity is a concept in psychology (in particular existential psychiatry) as well as existentialist philosophy and aesthetics (in regard to various arts and musical genres).
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Authoritarian personality is a state of mind or attitude characterized by belief in absolute obedience or submission to someone else’s authority, as well as the administration of that belief through the oppression of one's subordinates.
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Autogenic training is a desensitization-relaxation technique developed by the German psychiatrist Johannes Heinrich Schultz by which a psychophysiologically determined relaxation response is obtained.
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Automaticity is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit.
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The availability heuristic is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method or decision.
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Édouard Claparède (24 March 1873 – 29 September 1940) was a Swiss neurologist, child psychologist, and educator.
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Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
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B. F. Skinner
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.
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Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
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Behavior modification refers to behavior-change procedures that were employed during the 1970s and early 1980s.
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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Behavioral and Brain Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of Open Peer Commentary established in 1978 by Stevan Harnad and published by Cambridge University Press.
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Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
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Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
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Behaviour therapy is a broad term referring to clinical psychotherapy that uses techniques derived from behaviourism.
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Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.
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The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.
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The Belmont Report is a report created by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
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Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute
The Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute (later the Göring Institute) was founded in 1920 to further the science of psychoanalysis in Berlin.
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Bernard Weiner (born 1935) is an American social psychologist known for developing a form of attribution theory which explains the emotional and motivational entailments of academic success and failure.
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Beyond the Pleasure Principle
Beyond the Pleasure Principle (Jenseits des Lustprinzips) is a 1920 essay by Sigmund Freud that marks a major turning point in his theoretical approach.
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The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors (genetic, biochemical, etc), psychological factors (mood, personality, behavior, etc.), and social factors (cultural, familial, socioeconomic, medical, etc.).Santrock, J. W. (2007).
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Black propaganda is false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side.
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Body dysmorphic disorder
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.
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Bodywork (alternative medicine)
In alternative medicine, bodywork is any therapeutic or personal development technique that involves working with the human body in a form involving manipulative therapy, breath work, or energy medicine.
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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
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Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
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Brainwashing (also known as mind control, menticide, coercive persuasion, thought control, thought reform, and re-education) is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques.
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The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
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Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
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Buck v. Bell
Buck v. Bell,, is a decision of the United States Supreme Court, written by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., in which the Court ruled that a state statute permitting compulsory sterilization of the unfit, including the intellectually disabled, "for the protection and health of the state" did not violate the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
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Cai Yuanpei (11 January 1868 – 5 March 1940) was a Chinese educator, Esperantist, president of Peking University, and founder of the Academia Sinica.
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Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.
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Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
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Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach (or client-centered approach) to psychology.
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Carl (or Karl) Wernicke (15 May 1848 – 15 June 1905) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist.
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In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.
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Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
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Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
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Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
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Charles Scott Sherrington
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (27 November 1857 – 4 March 1952) was an English neurophysiologist, histologist, bacteriologist, and a pathologist, Nobel laureate and president of the Royal Society in the early 1920s.
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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
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The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
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Christian Wolff (philosopher)
Christian Wolff (less correctly Wolf,; also known as Wolfius; ennobled as Christian Freiherr von Wolff; 24 January 1679 – 9 April 1754) was a German philosopher.
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Clark L. Hull
Clark Leonard Hull (May 24, 1884 – May 10, 1952) was an American psychologist who sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior.
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Clark David Wissler (September 18, 1870 – August 25, 1947) was an American anthropologist.
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Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
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Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-field of psychology concerned with the applied science of brain-behaviour relationships.
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Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
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Clive Wearing (born 11 May 1938) is a British musicologist, conductor, tenor and keyboardist who has chronic anterograde and retrograde amnesia.
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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
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Cognitive behavioral therapy
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
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A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.
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A cognitive map (sometimes called a mental map or mental model) is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment.
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The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.
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Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
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The cognitive revolution was an intellectual movement that began in the 1950s as an interdisciplinary study of the mind and its processes, which became known collectively as cognitive science.
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Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
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In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s.
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Collective unconscious (kollektives Unbewusstes), a term coined by Carl Jung, refers to structures of the unconscious mind which are shared among beings of the same species.
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College Board is an American non-profit organization that was formed in December 1899 as the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) to expand access to higher education.
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Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
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Community mental health service
Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as community mental health teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum).
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Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.
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Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization.
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Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.
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Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
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Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
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Conation (from the Latin conatus) is any natural tendency, impulse, striving, or directed effort.
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Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms.
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In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.
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Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
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Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science, that hopes to represent mental phenomena using artificial neural networks.
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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
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Cordwainer Smith was the pen-name used by American author Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger (July 11, 1913 – August 6, 1966) for his science fiction works.
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Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
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Correlation and dependence
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
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Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health.
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Crisis intervention is an immediate and short-term psychological care aimed at assisting individuals in a crisis situation in order to restore equilibrium to their biopsychosocial functioning and to minimize the potential of long-term psychological trauma.
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Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
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Croatian Latin literature
Croatian Latin literature (or Croatian Latinism) is a term referring to literary works, written in the Latin language, which have evolved in present-day Croatia since the 9th century AD.
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In medical research and social science, a cross-sectional study (also known as a cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study) is a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time—that is, cross-sectional data.
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A crossover study, also referred to as a crossover trial, is a longitudinal study in which subjects receive a sequence of different treatments (or exposures).
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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
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Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
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Daniel Merton Wegner (June 28, 1948 – July 5, 2013) was an American social psychologist.
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David "Weshy" Wechsler (January 12, 1896 – May 2, 1981) was a Romanian-American psychologist.
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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
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In classical Freudian psychoanalytic theory, the death drive (Todestrieb) is the drive toward death and self-destruction.
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Declaration of Helsinki
The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association (WMA).
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The deductive-nomological model (DN model), also known as Hempel's model, the Hempel–Oppenheim model, the Popper–Hempel model, or the covering law model, is a formal view of scientifically answering questions asking, "Why...?".
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A delta wave is a high amplitude brain wave with a frequency of oscillation between 0.5–4 hertz.
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Dependent and independent variables
In mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences, the values of dependent variables depend on the values of independent variables.
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Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
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Historically, depth psychology (from the German term Tiefenpsychologie), was coined by Eugen Bleuler to refer to psychoanalytic approaches to therapy and research which take the unconscious into account.
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Derek Russell Davis
Derek Russell Davis FBPsS FRCPsych (20 April 1914 – 3 February 1993) was a British psychiatrist who served as the Norah Cooke-Hurle Professor of Mental Health at Bristol University from 1962 to 1979.
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Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain is a 1994 book by neurologist António Damásio, in part a treatment of the mind/body dualism question.
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Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
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Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
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Differential psychology studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior and the processes that underlie it.
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An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
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Donald O. Hebb
Donald Olding Hebb FRS (July 22, 1904 – August 20, 1985) was a Canadian psychologist who was influential in the area of neuropsychology, where he sought to understand how the function of neurons contributed to psychological processes such as learning.
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Donald Woods Winnicott (7 April 1896 – 25 January 1971) was an English paediatrician and psychoanalyst who was especially influential in the field of object relations theory.
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Drapetomania was a conjectural mental illness that, in 1851, American physician Samuel A. Cartwright hypothesized as the cause of enslaved Africans fleeing captivity.
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Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to dreams.
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Drive reduction theory (learning theory)
In learning theory, drive reduction theory is a type of motivational theory.
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In psychology, a drive theory or drive doctrine is a theory that attempts to define, analyze, or classify the psychological drives.
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A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
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In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.
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In psychiatry, dysaesthesia aethiopica was an alleged mental illness described by American physician Samuel A. Cartwright in 1851, which proposed a theory for the cause of laziness among slaves.
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E. O. Wilson
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
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E. Tory Higgins
Edward Tory Higgins (born March 12, 1946) is the Stanley Schachter Professor of Psychology, Professor of Business, and Director of the Motivation Science Center at Columbia University.
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Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
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East India Company
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
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Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.
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Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
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Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning.
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Edward B. Titchener
Edward Bradford Titchener (11 January 1867 – 3 August 1927) was a British psychologist who studied under Wilhelm Wundt for several years.
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Edward C. Tolman
Edward Chace Tolman (April 14, 1886 – November 19, 1959) was an American psychologist.
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Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 – August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University.
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Edwin Ray Guthrie
Edwin Ray Guthrie (January 9, 1886 in Lincoln, Nebraska – April 23, 1959 in Seattle, Washington) was a behavioral psychologist.
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In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude of a phenomenon.
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Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis rooted in Sigmund Freud's structural id-ego-superego model of the mind.
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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
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Ellen Jane Langer (born March 25, 1947) is a professor of psychology at Harvard University; in 1981, she became the first woman ever to be tenured in psychology at Harvard.
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George Elton Mayo (26 December 1880 – 7 September 1949) was an Australian born psychologist, industrial researcher, and organizational theorist.
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Emil Kraepelin (15 February 1856 – 7 October 1926) was a German psychiatrist.
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Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
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Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
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Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
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An epiphenomenon (plural: epiphenomena) is a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside or in parallel to a primary phenomenon.
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Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.
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Erich Seligmann Fromm (March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was a German-born American social psychologist, psychoanalyst, sociologist, humanistic philosopher, and democratic socialist.
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Erik Homberger Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings.
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Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
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Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
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Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
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Eugenics in the United States
Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.
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Eugenics Record Office
The Eugenics Record Office (ERO), located in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, United States, was a research institute that gathered biological and social information about the American population, serving as a center for eugenics and human heredity research from 1910 to 1939.
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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
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Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
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Existential psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy that, like the existential philosophy which underlies it, is founded upon the belief that human existence is best understood through an in-depth examination of our own experiences.
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Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
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Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it.
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Explicit memory (or declarative memory) is one of the two main types of long-term human memory.
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Exploratory data analysis
In statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often with visual methods.
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Exposition Universelle (1889)
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 6 May to 31 October 1889.
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Extraversion and introversion
The trait of extraversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories.
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Facilitated communication (FC), supported typing or hand over hand, is a discredited technique used by some caregivers and educators in an attempt to assist people with severe educational and communication disabilities.
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Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors.
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An important part of the heritage of family resilience is the concept of individual psychological resilience which originates from work with children focusing on what helped them become resilient in the face of adversity.
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Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.
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The term feeble-minded was used from the late nineteenth century in Europe, the United States and Australasia for disorders later referred to as illnesses or deficiencies of the mind.
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Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.
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In philosophy of mind and cognitive science, folk psychology, or commonsense psychology, is a human capacity to explain and predict the behavior and mental state of other people.
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The Ford Foundation is a New York-headquartered, globally oriented private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare.
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Forensic psychology is the intersection between psychology and the justice system.
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Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia
Fort Oglethorpe is a city predominantly in Catoosa County with some portions in Walker County in the U.S. state of Georgia.
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Forty Studies That Changed Psychology
Forty Studies That Changed Psychology: Explorations Into the History of Psychological Research is an academic textbook written by Roger R. Hock that is currently in its seventh edition.
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Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.
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Free association (psychology)
Free association is a technique used in psychoanalysis (and also in psychodynamic theory) which was originally devised by Sigmund Freud out of the hypnotic method of his mentor and colleague, Josef Breuer.
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Free love is a social movement that accepts all forms of love.
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Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
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Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint.
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Frequentist probability or frequentism is an interpretation of probability; it defines an event's probability as the limit of its relative frequency in a large number of trials.
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A Freudian slip, also called parapraxis, is an error in speech, memory, or physical action that is interpreted as occurring due to the interference of an unconscious subdued wish or internal train of thought.
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Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
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Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon Perls (July 8, 1893 – March 14, 1970), better known as Fritz Perls, was a noted German-born psychiatrist and psychotherapist.
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
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Functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions.
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Functional psychology or functionalism refers to a psychological philosophy that considers mental life and behaviour in terms of active adaptation to the person's environment.
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Functional specialization (brain)
Functional specialization suggests that different areas in the brain are specialized for different functions.
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Functionalism (philosophy of mind)
Functionalism is a view in the theory of the mind.
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Funding of science
Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both "hard" science and technology and social science.
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G. Stanley Hall
Granville Stanley Hall (February 1, 1846 – April 24, 1924) was a pioneering American psychologist and educator.
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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
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A genetic screen or mutagenesis screen is an experimental technique used to identify and select for individuals who possess a phenotype of interest in a mutagenized population.
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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
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Genome-wide association study
In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.
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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
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George Kelly (psychologist)
George Kelly (born George Alexander Kelly; April 28, 1905–March 6, 1967) was an American psychologist, therapist, educator and personality theorist.
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Georgy Petrovich Shchedrovitsky (Георгий Петрович Щедровицкий) (23 Feb 1929 - 3 Feb 1994) was a Russian Educationalist.
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Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (from Gestalt "shape, form") is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.
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Gestalt therapy is an existential/experiential form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist–client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation.
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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
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Appreciation Gratitude, thankfulness, thanksgiving, or gratefulness, from the Latin word gratus ‘pleasing, thankful’, is a feeling of appreciation felt by and/or similar positive response shown by the recipient of kindness, gifts, help, favors, or other types of generosity, towards the giver of such gifts.
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A gratitude journal is a diary of things for which one is grateful.
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Gregg Henriques, Ph.D., is an American psychologist.
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The granularity-related inconsistency of means (GRIM) test is a simple statistical test used to identify inconsistencies in the analysis of granular data sets.
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Grounded theory (GT) is a systematic methodology in the social sciences involving the construction of theory through methodic gathering and analysis of data.
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Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics).
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Gustav Theodor Fechner (19 April 1801 – 18 November 1887), was a German philosopher, physicist and experimental psychologist.
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Hans Berger (21 May 1873 – 1 June 1941) was a German psychiatrist.
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Hans Jürgen Eysenck, PhD, DSc (4 March 1916 – 4 September 1997) was a German-born English psychologist who spent his professional career in Great Britain.
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In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.
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Harald Julius Alfred Carl-Ludwig Schultz-Hencke (18 August 1892, Berlin – 23 May 1953, Berlin) was a German psychiatrist and psychotherapist.
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Harcourt Assessment was a company that published and distributed educational and psychological assessment tools and therapy resources and provided educational assessment and data management services for national, state, district and local assessments.
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Harry Frederick Harlow (October 31, 1905 – December 6, 1981) was an American psychologist best known for his maternal-separation, dependency needs, and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys, which manifested the importance of caregiving and companionship to social and cognitive development.
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Harvey A. Carr
Harvey A. Carr (April 30, 1873 – June 21, 1954), a founding father of functionalist psychology, was renowned for a methodical and thorough approach to his science.
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The Hawthorne effect (also referred to as the observer effect) is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.
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Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.
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Henry H. Goddard
Henry Herbert Goddard (August 14, 1866 – June 18, 1957) was a prominent American psychologist and eugenicist during the early 20th century.
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Henry Gustav Molaison (February 26, 1926 – December 2, 2008), known widely as H.M., was an American memory disorder patient who had a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to surgically resect the anterior two thirds of his hippocampi, parahippocampal cortices, entorhinal cortices, piriform cortices, and amygdalae in an attempt to cure his epilepsy.
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Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
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Hermann Ebbinghaus (January 24, 1850 – February 26, 1909) was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect.
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Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
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Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
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Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
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Higher education in the United States
Higher education in the United States is an optional final stage of formal learning following secondary education.
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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
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History of anthropology
History of anthropology in this article refers primarily to the 18th- and 19th-century precursors of modern anthropology.
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History of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
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History of India
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
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History of Iran
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
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Horace Mann Bond
Horace Mann Bond (November 8, 1904 – December 21, 1972) was an American historian, college administrator, social science researcher and the father of civil-rights leader Julian Bond.
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Huangdi Neijing, literally the Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor or Esoteric Scripture of the Yellow Emperor, is an ancient Chinese medical text that has been treated as the fundamental doctrinal source for Chinese medicine for more than two millennia.
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Hugo Münsterberg (June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.
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Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.
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Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
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Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
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Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
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Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.
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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
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Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.
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Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
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Humboldt University of Berlin
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.
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Hunger (motivational state)
Hunger and satiety are sensations.
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Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
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Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion.
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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
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Id, ego and super-ego
The id, ego, and super-ego are three distinct, yet interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche.
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Idiot was formerly a legal and psychiatric category of profound intellectual disability, where a person's mental age is two years or less, and he or she cannot guard himself or herself against common physical dangers.
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Illusion of control
The illusion of control is the tendency for people to overestimate their ability to control events; for example, it occurs when someone feels a sense of control over outcomes that they demonstrably do not influence.
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The term imbecile was once used by psychiatrists to denote a category of people with moderate to severe intellectual disability, as well as a type of criminal.
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Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
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The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
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Implicit memory is one of the two main types of long-term human memory.
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The implicit-association test (IAT) is a measure within social psychology designed to detect the strength of a person's automatic association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in memory.
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Independence (probability theory)
In probability theory, two events are independent, statistically independent, or stochastically independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of occurrence of the other.
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Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
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Industrial and organizational psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology (I/O psychology), which is also known as occupational psychology, organizational psychology, and work and organizational psychology, is an applied discipline within psychology.
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Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
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Information Operations (United States)
Information Operations is a category of direct and indirect support operations for the United States Military.
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Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
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Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.
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Instinct or innate behavior is the inherent inclination of a living organism towards a particular complex behavior.
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Institutional review board
An institutional review board (IRB), also known as an independent ethics committee (IEC), ethical review board (ERB), or research ethics board (REB), is a type of committee that applies research ethics by reviewing the methods proposed for research to ensure that they are ethical.
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Integrative psychotherapy is the integration of elements from different schools of psychotherapy in the treatment of a client.
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Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
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Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average.
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Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
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An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
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International Association of Applied Psychology
The International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP) was created in 1919 by Édouard Claparède under the name of International Association of Psychotechnics, that is Association Internationale de Psychotechnique and the secretary general was Jean-Maurice Lahy.
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International Union of Psychological Science
The International Union of Psychological Science, abbreviated IUPsyS or the Union, is the global umbrella organization for psychology.
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Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
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Interpersonal psychoanalysis is based on the theories of American psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan (1892–1949).
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An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.
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An interview is a conversation where questions are asked and answers are given.
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Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.
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Irving B. Weiner
Irving B. Weiner is an American psychologist and past president of Division 12 of the American Psychological Association.
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Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.
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Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov (Ива́н Миха́йлович Се́ченов;, Tyoply Stan (now Sechenovo) near Simbirsk, Russia –, Moscow), was a Russian physiologist, named by Ivan Pavlov as "The Father of Russian physiology".
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Jaak Panksepp (June 5, 1942 – April 18, 2017) was an Estonian neuroscientist and psychobiologist who coined the term "affective neuroscience", the name for the field that studies the neural mechanisms of emotion.
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Jacob Cohen (statistician)
Jacob Cohen (1923 – January 20, 1998) was a United States statistician and psychologist best known for his work on statistical power and effect size, which helped to lay foundations for current statistical meta-analysis and the methods of estimation statistics.
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Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".
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James Madison University
James Madison University (also known as JMU, Madison, or James Madison) is a public coeducational research university located in Harrisonburg, Virginia, United States.
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James McKeen Cattell
James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860 – January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States, teaching at the University of Pennsylvania, and long-time editor and publisher of scientific journals and publications, most notably the journal Science.
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Dame Jane Morris Goodall (born Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall, 3 April 1934), formerly Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall, is a British primatologist and anthropologist.
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Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.
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Jerome Seymour Bruner (October 1, 1915 – June 5, 2016) was an American psychologist who made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology.
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Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction is a measure of workers' contentedness with their job, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.
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Johann Friedrich Herbart
Johann Friedrich Herbart (4 May 1776 – 14 August 1841) was a German philosopher, psychologist and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline.
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Johannes Heinrich Schultz
Johannes Heinrich Schultz (June 20, 1884 – September 19, 1970) was a German psychiatrist and an independent psychotherapist.
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John B. Watson
John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.
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John A. Bargh (born 1955) is a social psychologist currently working at Yale University, where he has formed the Automaticity in Cognition, Motivation, and Evaluation (ACME) Laboratory.
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Edward John Mostyn Bowlby CBE, MA (Cantab), BChir, MD, MRCP, FRCP, FRCPsych, Hon ScD (26 February 1907 – 2 September 1990) was a British psychologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, notable for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work in attachment theory.
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John D. Marks
John D. Marks (born 1943) is the founder and former president of Search for Common Ground (SFCG), a non-profit organization based in Washington, DC that focuses on international conflict management programming.
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John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
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Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
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Josef Breuer (15 January 1842 – 20 June 1925) was a distinguished physician who made key discoveries in neurophysiology, and whose work in the 1880s with his patient Bertha Pappenheim, known as Anna O., developed the talking cure (cathartic method) and laid the foundation to psychoanalysis as developed by his protégé Sigmund Freud.
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Joseph E. LeDoux
Joseph E. LeDoux (born December 7, 1949) is an American neuroscientist whose research is primarily focused on the biological underpinnings of emotion and memory, especially brain mechanisms related to fear and anxiety.
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Joseph Jastrow (January 30, 1863 – January 8, 1944) was a Polish-born American psychologist, noted for inventions in experimental psychology, design of experiments, and psychophysics.
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Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
The Journal of Experimental Psychology: General is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association.
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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association that was established in 1965.
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In Jungian psychology, archetypes are highly developed elements of the collective unconscious.
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Karen Horney (16 September 1885 – 4 December 1952) was a German psychoanalyst who practiced in the United States during her later career.
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Karl Spencer Lashley (June 7, 1890 – August 7, 1958) was a psychologist and behaviorist remembered for his contributions to the study of learning and memory.
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Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
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Kenneth and Mamie Clark
Kenneth Bancroft Clark (July 14, 1914 – May 1, 2005) and Mamie Phipps Clark (April 18, 1917 – August 11, 1983) were African-American psychologists who as a married team conducted important research among children and were active in the Civil Rights Movement.
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The Khrushchev Thaw (or Khrushchev's Thaw; p or simply ottepel)William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, and millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations.
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Kurt Koffka (March 18, 1886 – November 22, 1941) was a German psychologist.
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A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
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A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) which is bred and kept for scientific research.
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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
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Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
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Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
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Lateralization of brain function
The lateralization of brain function is the tendency for some neural functions or cognitive processes to be specialized to one side of the brain or the other.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Learned helplessness is behavior typical of an animal and occurs where the subject endures repeatedly painful or otherwise aversive stimuli which it is unable to escape or avoid.
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Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
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Legal psychology involves empirical, psychological research of the law, legal institutions, and people who come into contact with the law.
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Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
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A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
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Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (p; – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of an unfinished theory of human cultural and bio-social development commonly referred to as cultural-historical psychology, a prominent advocate for a new theory of consciousness, the "psychology of superman", and leader of the Vygotsky Circle (also referred to as "Vygotsky-Luria Circle").
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Lewis Madison Terman (January 15, 1877 – December 21, 1956) was an American psychologist and author.
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Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
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Lightner Witmer (June 28, 1867 – July 19, 1956) was an American psychologist.
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In statistics, linear regression is a linear approach to modelling the relationship between a scalar response (or dependent variable) and one or more explanatory variables (or independent variables).
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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
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List of cognitive biases
Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.
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Little Albert experiment
The Little Albert experiment was a controlled experiment showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans.
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In statistics, the logistic model (or logit model) is a statistical model that is usually taken to apply to a binary dependent variable.
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Logotherapy was developed by neurologist and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl.
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A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data).
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Ludwig Binswanger (13 April 1881 – 5 February 1966) was a Swiss psychiatrist and pioneer in the field of existential psychology.
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Lysergic acid diethylamide
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
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Major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
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Mark Jarzombek (born 1954) is a United States-born architectural historian, author and critic.
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Mark Solms (born 17 July 1961, Lüderitz, Namibia) is a South African psychoanalyst and neuropsychologist.
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Marko Marulić (Marco Marulo; 18 August 1450 – 5 January 1524) was a Croatian national poet and Renaissance humanist, known as the Crown of the Croatian Medieval Age and the father of the Croatian Renaissance.
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Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
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Martin E. P. "Marty" Seligman (born August 12, 1942) is an American psychologist, educator, and author of self-help books.
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Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
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Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
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A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
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Mathematical psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior.
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Matthias Heinrich Göring (5 April 1879, Düsseldorf – 24/25 July 1945, Posen) was a German psychiatrist, born in Düsseldorf.
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Max Wertheimer (April 15, 1880 – October 12, 1943) was an Austro-Hungarian-born psychologist who was one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology, along with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler.
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The Müller-Lyer illusion is an optical illusion consisting of a stylized arrow.
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Meaning in existentialism is descriptive; therefore it is unlike typical, prescriptive conceptions of "the meaning of life".
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Media psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the interaction of human behavior and media and technology.
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In statistics, a mediation model is one that seeks to identify and explain the mechanism or process that underlies an observed relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable via the inclusion of a third hypothetical variable, known as a mediator variable (also a mediating variable, intermediary variable, or intervening variable).
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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
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Melanie Reizes Klein (30 March 1882 – 22 September 1960) was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst who devised novel therapeutic techniques for children that influenced child psychology and contemporary psychoanalysis.
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Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
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Mental age is a concept related to intelligence.
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A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
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Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
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Mental health professional
A mental health professional is a health care practitioner or community services provider who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders.
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Mental process or mental function are all the things that individuals can do with their minds.
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In psychology, mentalism is an umbrella term that refers to those branches of study that concentrate on perception and thought processes: for example, mental imagery, consciousness and cognition, as in cognitive psychology.
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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
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A microarray is a multiplex lab-on-a-chip.
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Microsociology is one of the main points (or focuses) of sociology, concerning the nature of everyday human social interactions and agency on a small scale: face to face.
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The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram.
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The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
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Ministry of National Education (France)
The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche), or simply "Ministry of National Education", as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations.
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a standardized psychometric test of adult personality and psychopathology.
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Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
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Moral Development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood.
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Morton Henry Prince (December 21, 1854 – August 31, 1929) was an American physician who specialized in neurology and abnormal psychology, and was a leading force in establishing psychology as a clinical and academic discipline.
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Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
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Multilevel models (also known as hierarchical linear models, nested data models, mixed models, random coefficient, random-effects models, random parameter models, or split-plot designs) are statistical models of parameters that vary at more than one level.
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Multivariate statistics is a subdivision of statistics encompassing the simultaneous observation and analysis of more than one outcome variable.
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Myers–Briggs Type Indicator
The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire with the purpose of indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions.
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Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in society, such as foundational tales.
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Nancy McWilliams, Ph.D., is a lecturer at the Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology at Rutgers University.
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Narendra Nath Sen Gupta
Narendra Nath Sen Gupta (23 December 1889 – 13 June 1944) was a Harvard-educated Indian psychologist, philosopher, and professor, who is generally recognized as the founder of modern psychology in India along with Indian Scientist Gunamudian David Boaz.
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National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
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National Research Act
The National Research Act was enacted by the 93rd United States Congress and signed into law by President Richard Nixon on July 12, 1974 after a series of congressional hearings on human-subjects research, directed by Senator Edward Kennedy.
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Naturalistic observation is, in contrast to analog observation, a research tool in which a subject is observed in its natural habitat without any manipulation by the observer.
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Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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The term "neo-Freudian" is sometimes loosely used to refer to those early followers of Freud who at some point accepted the basic tenets of Freud's theory of psychoanalysis but later dissented from it.
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The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of neurons.
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Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
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Neuropsychoanalysis (previously neuro-psychoanalysis) is a movement within neuroscience and psychoanalysis to combine the insights of both disciplines for a better understanding of mind and brain.
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Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway.
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Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
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Neuroscience of free will
Neuroscience of free will, a part of neurophilosophy, is the study of the interconnections between free will and neuroscience.
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Neuroticism is one of the Big Five higher-order personality traits in the study of psychology.
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Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
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In inferential statistics, the term "null hypothesis" is a general statement or default position that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena, or no association among groups.
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The Nuremberg Code (Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation set as a result of the subsequent Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War.
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Object relations theory
Object relations theory in psychoanalytic psychology is the process of developing a psyche in relation to others in the environment during childhood.
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In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints.
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Office of Strategic Services
The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
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Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.
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Oliver Wolf Sacks, (9 July 1933 – 30 August 2015) was a British neurologist, naturalist, historian of science, and author.
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On the Soul
On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς, Peri Psychēs; Latin De Anima) is a major treatise written by Aristotle c.350 B.C..
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Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
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An operational definition is the articulation of operationalization (or statement of procedures) used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc.
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Otto Rank (né Rosenfeld; April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychoanalyst, writer, and teacher.
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Outline of space science
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology.
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In statistical hypothesis testing, the p-value or probability value or asymptotic significance is the probability for a given statistical model that, when the null hypothesis is true, the statistical summary (such as the sample mean difference between two compared groups) would be the same as or of greater magnitude than the actual observed results.
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Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
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Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.
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Participant observation is one type of data collection method typically used in qualitative research.
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Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
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Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist.
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Paul Emil Flechsig (29 June 1847, Zwickau, Kingdom of Saxony – 22 July 1929, Leipzig) was a German neuroanatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist.
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Pearson correlation coefficient
In statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC, pronounced), also referred to as Pearson's r, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) or the bivariate correlation, is a measure of the linear correlation between two variables X and Y. It has a value between +1 and −1, where 1 is total positive linear correlation, 0 is no linear correlation, and −1 is total negative linear correlation.
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Pedology (study of children)
Pedology (paidology, paedology) is the study of children's behavior and development (as distinct from pedagogy, the art or science of teaching and pediatrics, the field of medicine relating to children).
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Peking University (abbreviated PKU or Beida; Chinese: 北京大学, pinyin: běi jīng dà xué) is a major Chinese research university located in Beijing and a member of the C9 League.
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Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
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Person-centered therapy, also known as person-centered psychotherapy, person-centered counseling, client-centered therapy and Rogerian psychotherapy, is a form of psychotherapy developed by psychologist Carl Rogers beginning in the 1940s and extending into the 1980s.
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Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals.
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Perspectives on Psychological Science
Perspectives on Psychological Science is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal of psychology.
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Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence.
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Phenomenology within psychology (phenomenological psychology) is the psychological study of subjective experience.
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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
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Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
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Phineas P. Gage (18231860) was an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his lifeeffects sufficiently profound (for a time at least) that friends saw him as "no longer Gage".
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A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.
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Phrenology is a pseudomedicine primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules.
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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature" and gnomon meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the assessment of character or personality from a person's outer appearance, especially the face often linked to racial and sexual stereotyping.
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Physiological psychology is a subdivision of behavioral neuroscience (biological psychology) that studies the neural mechanisms of perception and behavior through direct manipulation of the brains of nonhuman animal subjects in controlled experiments.
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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
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Pierre Bovet, born on June 5, 1878 in Grandchamp (commune of Boudry) and died in Boudry on December 2, 1965, was a Swiss psychologist and pedagogue.
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Pierre Marie Félix Janet (30 May 1859 – 24 February 1947) was a pioneering French psychologist, philosopher and psychotherapist in the field of dissociation and traumatic memory.
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Pioneer Fund is an American non-profit foundation established in 1937 "to advance the scientific study of heredity and human differences".
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A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
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Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.
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Pleasure principle (psychology)
In Freudian psychoanalysis, the pleasure principle (Lustprinzip) is the instinctive seeking of pleasure and avoiding of pain in order to satisfy biological and psychological needs.
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A "polygene” or "multiple gene inheritance" is a member of a group of non-epistatic genes that interact additively to influence a phenotypic trait.
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In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
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Positive psychology is "the scientific study of what makes life most worth living",Christopher Peterson (2008), or "the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global dimensions of life".
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Positron emission tomography
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
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Priming is a technique whereby exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention.
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Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.
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Process-oriented psychology, also called process work, is a depth psychology theory and set of techniques developed by Arnold Mindell and associated with transpersonal psychology,Collins, M. (2001).
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Progressive education is a pedagogical movement that began in the late nineteenth century; it has persisted in various forms to the present.
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Project Camelot was a counterinsurgency study begun by the United States Army in 1964.
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Project MKUltra, also called the CIA mind control program, is the code name given to a program of experiments on human subjects that were designed and undertaken by the United States Central Intelligence Agency—and which were, at times, illegal.
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Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
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Prosocial behavior, or "voluntary behavior intended to benefit another", is a social behavior that "benefit other people or society as a whole", "such as helping, sharing, donating, co-operating, and volunteering".
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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
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Prussian education system
The Prussian education system refers to the system of education established in Prussia as a result of educational reforms in the late 18th and early 19th century, which has had widespread influence since.
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In psychology, the psyche is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious.
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A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders.
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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
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A psychic is a person who claims to use extrasensory perception (ESP) to identify information hidden from the normal senses, particularly involving telepathy or clairvoyance, or who performs acts that are apparently inexplicable by natural laws.
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Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
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Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a form of depth psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension.
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Psychoeducation is an evidence-based therapeutic intervention for patients and their loved ones that provides information and support to better understand and cope with illness.
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A psychological adaptation is a functional, cognitive or behavioral trait that benefits an organism in its environment.
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Psychological evaluation is defined as a way of assessing an individual's behavior, personality, cognitive abilities, and several other domains.
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Psychological Operations (United States)
Psychological operations (PSYOP) are planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to audiences to influence their emotions, motives, and objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of governments, organizations, groups, and individuals.
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Psychological resilience is the ability to successfully cope with a crisis and to return to pre-crisis status quickly.
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Psychological Science, the flagship journal of the Association for Psychological Science (APS), is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by SAGE Publications.
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Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests, which are designed to be "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior".
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Psychological Types is Volume 6 in the Princeton / Bollingen edition of The Collected Works of C. G. Jung.
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Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.
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A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
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Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.
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Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment.
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Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.
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Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.
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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
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Psychoticism is one of the three traits used by the psychologist Hans Eysenck in his P–E–N model (psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism) model of personality.
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Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
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Publication bias is a type of bias that occurs in published academic research.
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A punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behaviour that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable.
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The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
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Qualitative psychological research
In psychology, qualitative research has come to be defined as research whose findings are not arrived at by statistical or other quantitative procedures.
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Quantitative psychological research
Quantitative psychological research is defined as psychological research which performs mathematical modeling and statistical estimation or statistical inference or a means for testing objective theories by examining the relationship between variables.
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A quasi-experiment is an empirical interventional study used to estimate the causal impact of an intervention on its target population without random assignment.
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A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions (or other types of prompts) for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
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Race (human categorization)
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
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Race and intelligence
The connection between race and intelligence has been a subject of debate in both popular science and academic research since the inception of IQ testing in the early 20th century.
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Radical behaviorism, or the conceptual analysis of behavior, was pioneered by B. F. Skinner and is his "philosophy of the science of behavior." It refers to the philosophy behind behavior analysis, and is to be distinguished from methodological behaviorism—which has an intense emphasis on observable behaviors—by its inclusion of thinking, feeling, and other private events in the analysis of human and animal psychology.
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Randomized controlled trial
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
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Raymond Bernard Cattell (20 March 1905 – 2 February 1998) was a British and American psychologist, known for his psychometric research into intrapersonal psychological structure.
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In Freudian psychology and psychoanalysis, the reality principle (Realitätsprinzip) is the ability of the mind to assess the reality of the external world, and to act upon it accordingly, as opposed to acting on the pleasure principle.
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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
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Rebirthing-breathwork is a type of breathwork invented by Leonard Orr.
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Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
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A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
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In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
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Relational psychoanalysis is a school of psychoanalysis in the United States that emphasizes the role of real and imagined relationships with others in mental disorder and psychotherapy.
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Reliability in statistics and psychometrics is the overall consistency of a measure.
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Reparenting is a form of psychotherapy in which the therapist actively assumes the role of a new or surrogate parental figure for the client, in order to treat psychological disturbances caused by defective, even abusive, parenting.
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Repeated measures design
Repeated measures design uses the same subjects with every branch of research, including the control.
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Repetition compulsion is a psychological phenomenon in which a person repeats a traumatic event or its circumstances over and over again.
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In engineering, science, and statistics, replication is the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated.
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The replication crisis (or replicability crisis or reproducibility crisis) is a methodological crisis in science in which scholars have found that the results of many scientific studies are difficult or impossible to replicate or reproduce on subsequent investigation, either by independent researchers or by the original researchers themselves.
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Repression is the psychological attempt to direct one's own desires and impulses toward pleasurable instincts by excluding them from one's consciousness and holding or subduing them in the unconscious.
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The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
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Robert Mearns Yerkes (May 26, 1876 – February 3, 1956) was an American psychologist, ethologist, eugenicist and primatologist best known for his work in intelligence testing and in the field of comparative psychology.
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The Rockefeller family is an American industrial, political, and banking family that owns one of the world's largest fortunes.
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The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
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Roger E. Kirk
Roger E. Kirk (born 1930) is a Professor of Psychology and Statistics at Baylor University.
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A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation.
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Rollo Reese May (April 21, 1909 – October 22, 1994) was an American existential psychologist and author of the influential book Love and Will (1969).
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Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.
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Roy F. Baumeister (born May 16, 1953) is a social psychologist who is known for his work on the self, social rejection, belongingness, sexuality and sex differences, self-control, self-esteem, self-defeating behaviors, motivation, aggression, consciousness, and free will.
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SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
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The SAT is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States.
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Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
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A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.
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School psychology is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents.
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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
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Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
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ScienceDirect is a website which provides subscription-based access to a large database of scientific and medical research.
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Scientific management is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows.
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Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways.
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One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of beliefs about oneself.
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Sexology is the scientific study of human sexuality, including human sexual interests, behaviors and functions.
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Sick role is a term used in medical sociology regarding sickness and the rights and obligations of the affected.
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Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
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Simon & Schuster
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
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Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
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Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.
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Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species.
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A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
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Social cognition is "a sub-topic of social psychology that focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations.
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Social learning theory
Social learning theory is a theory of learning and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others.
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Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
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Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
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Social Science Research Council
The Social Science Research Council (SSRC) is a U.S.-based independent nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing research in the social sciences and related disciplines.
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In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
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Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
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Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology
The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) is a professional organization that promotes the "science, practice, and teaching" of industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology.
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Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
Founded in 1936, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) is a group of 3000 scientists from psychology and related fields who share a common interest in research on the psychological aspects of important social and policy issues.
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Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
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In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
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Sport psychology is an interdisciplinary science that draws on knowledge from many related fields including biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology and psychology.
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Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales
The Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales (or more commonly the Stanford–Binet) is an individually administered intelligence test that was revised from the original Binet–Simon Scale by Lewis M. Terman, a psychologist at Stanford University.
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Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was an American social psychologist, best known for his controversial experiment on obedience conducted in the 1960s during his professorship at Yale.
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Statistical hypothesis testing
A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.
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In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.
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In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.
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Steven Blankaart (24 October 1650, Middelburg – 23 February 1704, Amsterdam) was a Dutch physician, iatrochemist, and entomologist, who worked on the same field as Jan Swammerdam.
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In psychology, a stimulus is any object or event that elicits a sensory or behavioral response in an organism.
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--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.
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Stream of consciousness (psychology)
Stream of consciousness refers to the flow of thoughts in the conscious mind.
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Strong Interest Inventory
The Strong Interest Inventory (SII) is an interest inventory used in career assessment.
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Structural equation modeling
Structural equation modeling (SEM) includes a diverse set of mathematical models, computer algorithms, and statistical methods that fit networks of constructs to data.
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Structuralism in psychology (also structural psychology) is a theory of consciousness developed by Wilhelm Wundt and his protégé Edward Bradford Titchener.
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In psychology, the word subconscious is the part of consciousness that is not currently in focal awareness.
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A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
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Subliminal stimuli (the prefix sup- literally "below, or less than", while the prefix sub- literally "up to"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception.
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Suicide prevention is an umbrella term used for the collective efforts of local citizen organizations, health professionals and related professionals to reduce the incidence of suicide.
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A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys.
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A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
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A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.
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Test validity is the extent to which a test (such as a chemical, physical, or scholastic test) accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.
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Thales of Miletus
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
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Thalidomide, sold under the brand name Immunoprin, among others, is an immunomodulatory drug and the prototype of the thalidomide class of drugs.
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Théodore Simon (10 July 1872 – 4 September 1961) was a French psychologist who worked with Alfred Binet to develop the Binet-Simon scale, one of the most widely used scales in the world for measuring intelligence.
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The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
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The New York Times
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
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The Principles of Psychology
The Principles of Psychology is an 1890 book about psychology by William James, an American philosopher and psychologist who trained to be a physician before going into psychology.
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The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
Psychopathology of Everyday Life (Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens) is a 1901 work by Sigmund Freud, based on Freud's researches into slips and parapraxes from 1897 onwards.
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The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy.
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The therapeutic relationship (also therapeutic alliance, the helping alliance, or the working alliance) refers to the relationship between a healthcare professional and a client (or patient).
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Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
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Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.
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A total institution is a place of work and residence where a great number of similarly situated people, cut off from the wider community for a considerable time, together lead an enclosed, formally administered round of life.
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In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to the study of human personality.
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small region of the brain via electromagnetic induction.
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Transference (Übertragung) is a theoretical phenomenon characterized by unconscious redirection of the feelings a person has about a second person to feelings the first person has about a third person.
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Tree of knowledge system
The tree of knowledge (ToK) system is a theoretical approach to the unification of psychology developed by Gregg Henriques, associate professor and director of the Combined-Integrated Doctoral Program in Clinical and School Psychology at James Madison University.
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Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.
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The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind which occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memories, interests, and motivations.
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Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
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University of Buenos Aires
The University of Buenos Aires (Universidad de Buenos Aires, UBA) is the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America.
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University of Calcutta
The University of Calcutta (informally known as Calcutta University or CU) is a public state university located in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), West Bengal, India established on 24 January 1857.
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University of Tokyo
, abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.
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University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
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The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
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In logic, an argument is valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false.
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Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor.
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Walter Dill Scott
Walter Dill Scott (May 1, 1869 – September 24, 1955) was one of the first applied psychologists.
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Wayne C. Booth
Wayne Clayson Booth (February 22, 1921 in American Fork, Utah, – October 10, 2005 in Chicago, Illinois) was an American literary critic.
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The Weber–Fechner law refers to two related laws in the field of psychophysics, known as Weber's law and Fechner's law.
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White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.
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Whole genome sequencing
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
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Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physician, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology.
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Will, generally, is that faculty of the mind which selects, at the moment of decision, the strongest desire from among the various desires present.
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Will to power
The will to power (der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.
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William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
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Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of "set-shifting", i.e. the ability to display flexibility in the face of changing schedules of reinforcement.
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Wolfgang Köhler (21 January 1887 – 11 June 1967) was a German psychologist and phenomenologist who, like Max Wertheimer, and Kurt Koffka, contributed to the creation of Gestalt psychology.
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Woodworth Personal Data Sheet
The Woodworth Personal Data Sheet, sometimes known as the Woodworth Psychoneurotic Inventory was a personality test, commonly cited as the first personality test, developed by Robert S. Woodworth during World War I for the United States Army.
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World War I
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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World War II
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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Yin and yang
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
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Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
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Zhejiang University (ZJU, also known as Che Kiang University), sometimes referred to as Zheda, is an elite C9 League university in China. It is also a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. Founded in 1897, Zhejiang University is one of China's oldest, most selective and most prestigious institutions of higher education. It is also a member of the Yangtze Delta Universities Alliance and the Association of Pacific Rim Universities. The university campus is located in the city of Hangzhou, approximately southwest of Shanghai. Zhejiang University Library's collection contains about 7 million volumes, making it one of China's largest academic libraries.
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Kuo Zing-yang (or Z. Y. Kuo;; 1898–1970), was a Chinese experimental and physiological psychologist.
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The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) is a self-report personality test developed over several decades of empirical research by Raymond B. Cattell, Maurice Tatsuoka and Herbert Eber.
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Applications of psychology, Criticism of psychology, Ethics of psychology, Human Psychology, Human psychology, Human trait, Phsycology, Physcology, Professional psychology, Pscychology, Psychecology, Psychogenics, Psychologic, Psychological, Psychological sciences, Psychological terms, Psychological theories, Psychological theory, Psychologically, Psychology/rewrite, Psycology, Pyhscology, WEIRD.