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Index Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system. [1]

161 relations: Adam Smith, Alfred Binet, Algae fuel, Amato Lusitano, American Association of University Women, American Physiological Society, Anatomy, Ancient Greece, Andrew Huxley, Antiseptic, Applied physiology, Aristotle, August Krogh, Autoimmune disease, Bacteria, Bacterial conjugation, Barbara McClintock, Basic research, Behavior change (individual), Bell–Magendie law, Biochemistry, Biological organisation, Biological system, Biological warfare, Biology, Biomolecule, Biophysics, Bioterrorism, Botany, Branches of science, Carl Ferdinand Cori, Carol W. Greider, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Cell division, Cell growth, Cell physiology, Cell signaling, Cell theory, Cellular respiration, Charles Bell, Circadian rhythm, Circulatory system, Classical Greece, Claude Bernard, Comparative physiology, Cori cycle, Cybernetics, Cytoarchitecture, Defense physiology, ..., Developmental biology, Dormancy, Ecophysiology, Elizabeth Blackburn, Enzyme, Ernst Haeckel, Eukaryote, Evolutionary physiology, Exercise physiology, Fermentation in food processing, Fish physiology, Florence Buchanan, François Magendie, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Galen, George A. Bartholomew, George H. Hitchings, Germination, Gertrude B. Elion, Gerty Cori, Glucose, Glycogen, Gout, Gut flora, Health, Henri Milne-Edwards, Herpes simplex, Hippocrates, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Homeostasis, Horizontal gene transfer, Human body, Human microbiota, Hygiene, Ibn al-Nafis, Ida Henrietta Hyde, Infection, Insect physiology, Ivan Pavlov, Jack W. Szostak, James Black (pharmacologist), Jean Fernel, John Scott Haldane, Joseph Lister, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen, Lactic acid fermentation, Leukemia, Life, Linda B. Buck, Luc Montagnier, Luigi Galvani, Malaria, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Max Verworn, Mechanism (biology), Medulla oblongata, Metabolism, Metabolome, Michael Foster (physiologist), Michael Servetus, Microbes in human culture, Microbial metabolism, Milieu intérieur, Model organism, Molecular biology, Nastic movements, Neurophysiology, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Olfactory receptor, Olfactory system, Online Etymology Dictionary, Organ (anatomy), Outline of physiology, Pathogen, Pathology, Phosphate, Photomorphogenesis, Photoperiodism, Photosynthesis, Physiome, Phytochemistry, Plant ecology, Plant morphology, Plant nutrition, Plant physiology, Pulse, Realdo Colombo, Richard Axel, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Santorio Santorio, Sense of balance, Sewage treatment, Skeletal muscle, Soil microbiology, Spinal cord, Stoma, Systems biology, Taxon, Telomerase, Telomere, The Physiological Society, Theodor Schwann, Thermoscope, Transduction (genetics), Transformation (genetics), Tropism, Virus, Walter Bradford Cannon, William Harvey, Winifred Cullis. Expand index (111 more) »

Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Alfred Binet

Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911) was a French psychologist who invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet–Simon test.

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Algae fuel

Algae fuel, algal biofuel, or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils.

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Amato Lusitano

João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco, better known as Amato Lusitano and Amatus Lusitanus (1511–1568), was a notable Portuguese Jewish physician of the 16th century.

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American Association of University Women

The American Association of University Women (AAUW), officially founded in 1881, is a non-profit organization that advances equity for women and girls through advocacy, education, and research.

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American Physiological Society

The American Physiological Society was founded in 1887 with 28 members.

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Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Andrew Huxley

Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 191730 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.

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Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.

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Applied physiology

Applied Physiology is the study of biological systems and steps into practice.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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August Krogh

Schack August Steenberg Krogh (November 15, 1874 – September 13, 1949) was a Danish professor at the department of zoophysiology at the University of Copenhagen from 1916 to 1945.

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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacterial conjugation

Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.

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Barbara McClintock

Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

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Basic research

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.

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Behavior change (individual)

A behavioral change can be a temporary or permanent effect that is considered a change in an individual's behavior when compared to previous behavior.

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Bell–Magendie law

In anatomy and neurophysiology, this is the finding that the anterior spinal nerve roots contain only motor fibers and posterior roots only sensory fibers and that nerve impulses are conducted in only one direction in each case.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biological organisation

Biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and systems that define life using a reductionistic approach.

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Biological system

A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.

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Biological warfare

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.

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Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents.

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Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

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Branches of science

The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.

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Carl Ferdinand Cori

Carl Ferdinand Cori, ForMemRS (December 5, 1896 – October 20, 1984) was a Czech-American biochemist and pharmacologist born in Prague (then in Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic) who, together with his wife Gerty Cori and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, received a Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of how glycogen (animal starch) – a derivative of glucose – is broken down and resynthesized in the body, for use as a store and source of energy.

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Carol W. Greider

Carolyn Widney "Carol" Greider (born April 15, 1961) is an American molecular biologist.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell biology

Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell growth

The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).

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Cell physiology

In the context of human physiology, the term cell physiology often specifically applies to the physiology of membrane transport, neuron transmission, and (less frequently) muscle contraction.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Cell theory

In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Charles Bell

Sir Charles Bell (12 November 177428 April 1842) was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, physiologist, neurologist, artist, and philosophical theologian.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Classical Greece

Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.

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Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.

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Comparative physiology

Comparative physiology is a subdiscipline of physiology that studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms.

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Cori cycle

The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is metabolized back to lactate.

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Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.

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Cytoarchitecture (Greek κύτος.

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Defense physiology

Defense physiology is a term used to refer to the symphony of body function (physiology) changes which occur in response to a stress or threat.

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.

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Ecophysiology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.

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Elizabeth Blackburn

Elizabeth Helen Blackburn, (born 26 November 1948) is an Australian-American Nobel laureate who is currently the President of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Evolutionary physiology

Evolutionary physiology is the study of physiological evolution, which is to say, the manner in which the functional characteristics of individuals in a population of organisms have responded to selection across multiple generations during the history of the population.

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Exercise physiology

Exercise physiology is the physiology of physical exercise.

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Fermentation in food processing

Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.

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Fish physiology

Fish physiology is the scientific study of how the component parts of fish function together in the living fish.

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Florence Buchanan

Florence Buchanan (21 April 1867 — 13 March 1931) was a zoologist.

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François Magendie

François Magendie (6 October 1783 – 7 October 1855) was a French physiologist, considered a pioneer of experimental physiology.

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Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (born 30 July 1947) is a French virologist and Director of the Regulation of Retroviral Infections Division (Unité de Régulation des Infections Rétrovirales) and Professor at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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George A. Bartholomew

George Adelbert "Bart" Bartholomew (June 1, 1919 – October 2, 2006) was an American biologist.

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George H. Hitchings

George Herbert Hitchings (April 18, 1905 – February 27, 1998) was an American doctor who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Sir James Black and Gertrude Elion "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment," Hitchings specifically for his work on chemotherapy.

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Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.

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Gertrude B. Elion

Gertrude Belle Elion (January 23, 1918 – February 21, 1999) was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with George H. Hitchings and Sir James Black.

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Gerty Cori

Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz; August 15, 1896 – October 26, 1957) was a Jewish Czech-American biochemist who became the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.

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Gut flora

Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.

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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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Henri Milne-Edwards

Henri Milne-Edwards (23 October 1800 – 29 July 1885) was an eminent French zoologist.

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Herpes simplex

Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Human microbiota

The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.

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Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.

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Ibn al-Nafis

Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.

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Ida Henrietta Hyde

Ida Henrietta Hyde (September 8, 1857 – August 22, 1945) was an American physiologist known for developing a micro-electrode powerful enough to stimulate tissue chemically or electronically, yet small enough to inject or remove tissue from a cell.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Insect physiology

Insect physiology includes the physiology and biochemistry of insect organ systems.

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Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.

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Jack W. Szostak

Jack William Szostak (born November 9, 1952) is a Canadian American biologist of Polish British descent, Nobel Prize laureate, Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School, and Alexander Rich Distinguished Investigator at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

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James Black (pharmacologist)

Sir James Whyte Black (14 June 1924 – 22 March 2010) was a Scottish physician and pharmacologist.

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Jean Fernel

Jean François Fernel (in Latin, Fernelius) (1497 – 26 April 1558) was a French physician who introduced the term "physiology" to describe the study of the body's function.

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John Scott Haldane

John Scott Haldane (2 May 1860 – 14/15 March 1936) was a Scottish physiologist famous for intrepid self-experimentation which led to many important discoveries about the human body and the nature of gases.

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Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.

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Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

Knut Schmidt-Nielsen (September 24, 1915 – January 25, 2007) was a prominent figure in the field of comparative physiology and Professor of Physiology Emeritus at Duke University.

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Lactic acid fermentation

Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.

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Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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Linda B. Buck

Linda Brown Buck (born January 29, 1947) is an American biologist best known for her work on the olfactory system.

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Luc Montagnier

Luc Antoine Montagnier (born 18 August 1932) is a French virologist and joint recipient with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Luigi Galvani

Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Matthias Jakob Schleiden

Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.

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Max Verworn

Max Richard Constantin Verworn (4 November 1863 – 23 November 1921) was a German physiologist who was a native of Berlin.

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Mechanism (biology)

In the science of biology, a mechanism is a system of causally interacting parts and processes that produce one or more effects.

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Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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The metabolome refers to the complete set of small-molecule chemicals found within a biological sample.

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Michael Foster (physiologist)

Sir Michael Foster, KCB (8 March 1836 – 29 January 1907) was an English physiologist.

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Michael Servetus

Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.

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Microbes in human culture

Microbes (microorganisms) play many roles in the practical aspects of human culture, and sometimes appear in literature, music, film, and art.

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Microbial metabolism

Microbial metabolism is the means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and reproduce.

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Milieu intérieur

Milieu intérieur or interior milieu, from the French, milieu intérieur (the internal environment), is a phrase coined by Claude Bernard to refer to the extra-cellular fluid environment, more particularly the interstitial fluid, and its physiological capacity to ensure protective stability for the tissues and organs of multicellular organism.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Nastic movements

Nastic movements are non-directional responses to stimuli (e.g. temperature, humidity, light irradiance), and are usually associated with plants.

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Neurophysiology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Olfactory receptor

Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (i.e., compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell.

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Olfactory system

The olfactory system, or sense of smell, is the part of the sensory system used for smelling (olfaction).

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Outline of physiology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to physiology: Physiology – scientific study of the normal function in living systems.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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In developmental biology, photomorphogenesis is light-mediated development, where plant growth patterns respond to the light spectrum.

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Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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The physiome of an individual's or species' physiological state is the description of its functional behavior.

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Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.

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Plant ecology

Plant ecology is a subdiscipline of ecology which studies the distribution and abundance of plants, the effects of environmental factors upon the abundance of plants, and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms.

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Plant morphology

Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants.

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Plant nutrition

Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply.

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Plant physiology

Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.

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In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.

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Realdo Colombo

Realdo Colombo (c. 1515, Cremona – 1559, Rome) was an Italian professor of anatomy and a surgeon at the University of Padua between 1544 and 1559.

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Richard Axel

Richard Axel (born July 2, 1946) is a molecular biologist and University Professor in the Department of Neuroscience at Columbia University and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

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Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.

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Santorio Santorio

Santorio Santorio (29 March 1561 – 22 February 1636), also called Sanctorio Sanctorio, Santorio Santorii, Sanctorius of Padua, Sanctorio Sanctorius and various combinations of these names, was a Venetian physiologist, physician, and professor, who introduced the quantitative approach into medicine.

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Sense of balance

The sense of balance or equilibrioception is one of the physiological senses related to balance.

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Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

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Soil microbiology

Soil microbiology is the study of organisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.

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Systems biology

Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.

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A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

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The Physiological Society

The Physiological Society, founded in 1876, is a learned society for physiologists in the United Kingdom.

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Theodor Schwann

Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.

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A thermoscope is a device that shows changes in temperature.

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Transduction (genetics)

Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.

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Transformation (genetics)

In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).

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A tropism (from Greek τρόπος, tropos, "a turning") is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Walter Bradford Cannon

Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.

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William Harvey

William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.

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Winifred Cullis

Winifred Cullis (2 June 1875 – 13 November 1956) was a physician and academic, and the first woman to hold a professorial chair at a medical school.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiology

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