310 relations: Académie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de Dijon, Action Française, Adam Smith, Age of Enlightenment, Alexander Pushkin, Alexis de Tocqueville, Allan Bloom, American Philosophical Society, Amiens, Amour de soi, Amour-propre, Anarchism, Anarcho-primitivism, Andrew Millar, Antoine-Jacques Roustan, Ape, Ariel Durant, Aristotle, Arthur Oncken Lovejoy, Arthur Schopenhauer, Atlantic slave trade, Atom, Austrian School, Autobiography, Émile Durkheim, Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, B. F. Skinner, Baron d'Holbach, Baruch Spinoza, Benjamin Constant, Book burning, Bourgeoisie, Bourgoin-Jallieu, Calais, Calvinism, Canton of Bern, Canton of Geneva, Canton of Neuchâtel, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Carole Pateman, Charles Maurras, Child development, Chimpanzee, Chiswick, Christian republic, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Christophe de Beaumont, Civil law notary, Civil religion, Civil society, ..., Classical period (music), Classical republicanism, Claude Joseph Dorat, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Common good, Compassion, Confessions (Rousseau), Considerations on the Government of Poland, Constitutional Project for Corsica, Conway Zirkle, Counter-Enlightenment, D'Holbach's Coterie, Daphnis and Chloe, David Garrick, David Gauthier, David Hume, Deism, Denis Diderot, Dialogues: Rousseau, Judge of Jean-Jacques, Dimitri Kitsikis, Direct democracy, Discourse on Inequality, Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, Division of labour, Domestication, Dover, Duke of Piney-Luxembourg, Dysuria, Eat the Rich, Economic inequality, Edmund Burke, Education, Edward Carpenter, Emile, or On Education, Encyclopédie, Epistolary novel, Ermenonville, Essay on the Origin of Languages, Farm (revenue leasing), Fear, Foundling hospital, François-Noël Babeuf, Françoise-Louise de Warens, France, Frédéric Bastiat, Frederick the Great, French Academy of Sciences, French Revolution, Friedrich Engels, Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, Friedrich Schiller, Friendship, Gabriel Bonnot de Mably, General will, Geneva, Genevan Consistory, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George III of the United Kingdom, George Kateb, George Keith, 10th Earl Marischal, Georges Hébert, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Germaine de Staël, Giacomo Leopardi, Gilbert LaFreniere, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Great Dane, Grenoble, Hannah Arendt, Henry David Thoreau, Hierarchy, Honoré d'Urfé, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Horace Walpole, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Hugo Grotius, Huguenots, Hypochondriasis, Immanuel Kant, Indifferentism, Interval (music), Irving Babbitt, Isaac Rousseau, Jacob Talmon, Jacob Vernes, Jacobin, Jacques Barzun, Jacques Derrida, Jacques-Louis David, James Boswell, James Fenimore Cooper, Jealousy, Jean François de Saint-Lambert, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Jean Starobinski, Jean-Baptiste Blanchard, Jean-François Marmontel, Jean-Paul C. Montagnier, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Jeffersonian democracy, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Calvin, John Dewey, John Dryden, John Locke, John Rawls, Jonathan Israel, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Julie, or the New Heloise, Julien Offray de La Mettrie, Justine (de Sade novel), Karl Marx, Knowledge, L'Astrée, La serva padrona, Le devin du village, Leo Strauss, Leo Tolstoy, Let them eat cake, Letter on the Blind, Letter to M. D'Alembert on Spectacles, Letters on the Elements of Botany, Lettre de cachet, Liberty, List of abolitionist forerunners, Literature, Louis Althusser, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, Louis François, Prince of Conti, Louis XV of France, Louis XVI of France, Louise d'Épinay, Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues, Ludwig van Beethoven, Lyon, Madame de Pompadour, Marc-Michel Rey, Maria Montessori, Marie Françoise Catherine de Beauvau-Craon, Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin, Mario Einaudi, Marquis de Sade, Mary Wollstonecraft, Materialism, Matthew Josephson, Maurice Cranston, Maurice Quentin de La Tour, Maximilien Robespierre, Ménage à trois, Môtiers, Michel de Montaigne, Militia, Modern philosophy, Modernity, Montesquieu, Music, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Natural and legal rights, Natural selection, New Humanism, New Jersey, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nicolas Malebranche, Noah Webster, Noble savage, Nuclear family, Numbered musical notation, Old Swiss Confederacy, Orangutan, Oratory of Jesus, Original sin, Othello, Panthéon, Parallel Lives, Paris, Pasquale Paoli, Patriarchy, Pedagogy, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Philosophes, Piedmont, Pierre Fatio, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Plato, Plutarch, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Political philosophy, Popular sovereignty, Positive liberty, Postpartum infections, Power (social and political), Pride, Primitivism, Private sphere, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Public opinion, Pygmalion (Rousseau), Querelle des Bouffons, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Reason, Reign of Terror, René de Girardin, René Descartes, Representative democracy, Revelation, Reveries of a Solitary Walker, Roger Masters, Romanticism, Rousseau Institute, Samuel von Pufendorf, Savoy, Schutterij, Self-esteem, Self-preservation, Sentimental novel, Sentimentality, Separate spheres, Seven Years' War, Simon & Schuster, Social contract, Social progress, Socinianism, Sophie d'Houdetot, Sovereignty, St. Peter's Island, State of nature, Stéphanie Félicité, comtesse de Genlis, Student-centred learning, Temperament ordinaire, Thérèse Levasseur, The Conquest of Granada, The Last of the Mohicans, The Social Contract, Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Total depravity, Totalitarianism, Transcendentalism, Trie-Château, Turin, Typography, Unitarianism, United States Constitution, United States Declaration of Independence, Vanity, Venice, Vincennes, Voltaire, Western philosophy, Will Durant, William Ellery Channing, William Godwin, William Wordsworth, Wootton, Staffordshire. 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The Académie de Dijon was founded by Hector-Bernard Pouffier, the most senior member of the Parlement de Bourgogne, in 1725.
Action française (AF; French Action) is a French right-wing political movement.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
Allan David Bloom (September 14, 1930 – October 7, 1992) was an American philosopher, classicist, and academician.
The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille.
Amour de soi (French, "love of self") is a concept in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau that refers to the kind of self-love that humans share with brute animals and predates the appearance of society.
Amour-propre (French, "self-love") is a concept in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau that esteem depends upon the opinion of others.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization.
Andrew Millar (17058 June 1768) was a Scottish publisher in the eighteenth century.
Antoine-Jacques Roustan (23 October 1734 – 15 June 1808) was a Genevan pastor and theologian, who engaged in an extensive correspondence with Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
Ariel Durant (10 May 1898 – 25 October 1981) was a Russian-born American researcher and writer and the coauthor of The Story of Civilization with her husband Will Durant.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Oncken Lovejoy (October 10, 1873 – December 30, 1962) was an American philosopher and intellectual historian, who founded the discipline known as the history of ideas with his book The Great Chain of Being (1936), on the topic of that name, which is regarded as 'probably the single most influential work in the history of ideas in the United States during the last half century'.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.
An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (30 September 1714 – 3 August 1780) was a French philosopher and epistemologist, who studied in such areas as psychology and the philosophy of the mind.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.
Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach, was a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and prominent figure in the French Enlightenment.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Henri-Benjamin Constant de Rebecque (25 October 1767 – 8 December 1830), or simply Benjamin Constant, was a Swiss-French political activist and writer on politics and religion.
Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials, usually carried out in a public context.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Bourgoin-Jallieu is a commune in the Isère department in the province of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in France.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The canton of Bern (Bern, canton de Berne) is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population.
The Republic and Canton of Geneva (République et canton de Genève; Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; Republik und Kanton Genf; Repubblica e Canton di Ginevra; Republica e chantun Genevra) is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France.
The Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel (la République et Canton de Neuchâtel) is a canton of French-speaking western Switzerland.
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (8 March 1714 – 14 December 1788), also formerly spelled Karl Philipp Emmanuel Bach, was a German Classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second (surviving) son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach.
Carole Pateman (born 11 December 1940) is a feminist and political theorist.
Charles-Marie-Photius Maurras (20 April 1868 – 16 November 1952) was a French author, politician, poet, and critic.
Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Chiswick is a district of west London, England.
A Christian republic is a governmental system that comprises both Christianity and republicanism.
Christoph Willibald (Ritter von) Gluck (born on 2 July, baptized 4 July 1714As there is only a documentary record with Gluck's date of baptism, 4 July. According to his widow, he was born on 3 July, but nobody in the 18th century paid attention to the birthdate until Napoleon introduced it. A birth date was only known if the parents kept a diary. The authenticity of the 1785 document (published in the Allgemeinen Wiener Musik-Zeitung vom 6. April 1844) is disputed, by Robl. (Robl 2015, pp. 141–147).--> – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.
Christophe de Beaumont du Repaire (1703–1781) was a French cleric who belonged to a cadet branch of the Les Adrets and Saint-Quentin branches of the illustrious Dauphin family of Beaumont.
Civil-law notaries, or Latin notaries, are agents of noncontentious private civil law who draft, take, and record instruments for private parties and are vested as public officers with the authentication power of the State.
Civil religion is a concept that originated in French political thought and became a major topic for American sociologists since its use by Robert Bellah in 1960.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.
Claude Joseph Dorat (31 December 1734 – 29 April 1780) was a French writer, also known as Le Chevalier Dorat.
Claude Lévi-Strauss (28 November 1908, Brussels – 30 October 2009, Paris) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theory of structuralism and structural anthropology.
In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also commonwealth, common weal or general welfare) refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service.
Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves.
The Confessions is an autobiographical book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Considerations on the Government of Poland — also simply The Government of Poland or, in the original French, Considérations sur le gouvernement de Pologne — is an essay by Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau concerning the design of a new constitution for the people of Poland (or more exactly, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth).
Constitutional Project for Corsica (Project de constitution pour la Corse) is the second of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's three works on political affairs--the first being The Social Contract, and the last being Considerations on the Government of Poland.
Conway Zirkle (October 28, 1895 – March 28, 1972), was an American botanist and historian of science.
The Counter-Enlightenment was a term that some 20th-century commentators have used to describe multiple strains of thought that arose in the late-18th and early-19th centuries in opposition to the 18th-century Enlightenment.
D'Holbach's Coterie (la coterie holbachique was the phrase coined by Jean-Jacques Rousseau) was a group of radical French Enlightenment thinkers who met regularly at the salon of the atheist philosophe Baron d'Holbach in the years approximately 1750–1780.
Daphnis and Chloe (Δάφνις καὶ Χλόη, Daphnis kai Chloē) is the only known work of the 2nd century AD Greek novelist and romancer Longus.
David Garrick (19 February 1717 – 20 January 1779) was an English actor, playwright, theatre manager and producer who influenced nearly all aspects of theatrical practice throughout the 18th century, and was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson.
David Gauthier (born 10 September 1932) is a Canadian-American philosopher best known for his neo-Hobbesian social contract (contractarian) theory of morality, as developed in his 1986 book Morals by Agreement.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Rousseau, Judge of Jean-Jacques (French: Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques) is a book written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Dimitri Kitsikis (Δημήτρης Κιτσίκης; born 2 June 1935) is a Greek Turkologist and Sinologist, Professor of International Relations and Geopolitics.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes), also commonly known as the "Second Discourse", is a work by philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences (1750), also known as Discourse on the Sciences and Arts (French: Discours sur les sciences et les arts) and commonly referred to as The First Discourse, is an essay by Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau which argued that the arts and sciences corrupt human morality.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
Duc de Piney (Duke of Piney) was a title in the Peerage of France.
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.
Eat the Rich is an abbreviation of a saying attributed to Jean-Jacques Rousseau: When the people shall have nothing more to eat, they will eat the rich. In contemporary culture it may refer to.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Edward Carpenter (29 August 1844 – 28 June 1929) was an English socialist poet, philosopher, anthologist, and early activist for rights for homosexuals.
Emile, or On Education or Émile, or Treatise on Education (Émile, ou De l’éducation) is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the "best and most important" of all his writings.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents.
Ermenonville is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.
Essay on the Origin of Languages (Essai sur l'origine des langues) is an essay by Jean-Jacques Rousseau published posthumously in 1781.
Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting (changing), by its assignment by legal contract to a third party, a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
A foundling hospital was originally an institution for the reception of foundlings, i.e., children who had been abandoned or exposed, and left for the public to find and save.
François-Noël Babeuf (23 November 1760 – 27 May 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a French political agitator and journalist of the French Revolutionary period.
Françoise-Louise de Warens, born Louise Éléonore de la Tour du Pil, also called Madame de Warens (31 March 1699 – 29 July 1762), was the benefactress and mistress of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Claude-Frédéric Bastiat (29 June 1801 – 24 December 1850) was a French economist and writer who was a prominent member of the French Liberal School.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm (26 December 172319 December 1807) was a German-born French-language journalist, art critic, diplomat and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.
Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people.
Gabriel Bonnot de Mably (Grenoble, 14 March 1709 – 2 April 1785 in Paris), sometimes known as Abbé de Mably, was a French philosopher, historian, and writer, who for a short time served in the diplomatic corps.
In political philosophy, the general will (volonté générale) is the will of the people as a whole.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
The Genevan Consistory (Consistoire de Genève) is a council of the Protestant Church of Geneva similar to a synod in other Reformed churches.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Kateb is William Nelson Cromwell Professor of Politics, Emeritus, at Princeton University.
George Keith, 10th Earl Marischal (1692/3?, probably at Inverugie Castle – 1778, Potsdam) was a Scottish and Prussian army officer and diplomat.
Georges Hébert (27 April 1875 – 2 August 1957) was a pioneering physical educator in the French military who developed a system of physical education and training known as "la méthode naturelle" ("Natural Method"), which combined the training of a wide variety of physical capacities with the training of courage and morality.
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste.
Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein (née Necker; 22 April 176614 July 1817), commonly known as Madame de Staël, was a French woman of letters of Swiss origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.
Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi (29 June 1798 – 14 June 1837) was an Italian philosopher, poet, essayist, and philologist.
Gilbert LaFreniere (born 1934 in New York) is an American ecological philosopher, active in the study of geology, ecology, and human impact upon nature.
Giovanni Battista Draghi (4 January 1710 – 16 or 17 March 1736), often referred to as Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, was an Italian composer, violinist and organist.
The Great Dane is a German breed of domestic dog known for its giant size.
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.
Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
Honoré d'Urfé, marquis de Valromey, comte de Châteauneuf (11 February 15681 June 1625) was a French novelist and miscellaneous writer.
Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Count of Mirabeau (9 March 17492 April 1791) was a leader of the early stages of the French Revolution.
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), also known as Horace Walpole, was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Hypochondriasis or hypochondria is a condition in which a person is excessively and unduly worried about having a serious illness.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Indifferentism, in the Roman Catholic faith, is the belief held by some that no one religion or philosophy is superior to another.
In music theory, an interval is the difference between two pitches.
Irving Babbitt (August 2, 1865 – July 15, 1933) was an American academic and literary critic, noted for his founding role in a movement that became known as the New Humanism, a significant influence on literary discussion and conservative thought in the period between 1910 and 1930.
Isaac Rousseau (1672, Geneva - 1747, Nyon) was a Genevan master-clockmaker.
Jacob Leib Talmon (Hebrew: יעקב טלמון; June 14, 1916 – June 16, 1980) was Professor of Modern History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Jacob VernesNot to be confused with Jacob Vernet, a prominent theologian in Geneva around the same time.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Jacques Martin Barzun (November 30, 1907October 25, 2012) was a French-American historian known for his studies of the history of ideas and cultural history.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.
James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (29 October 1740 – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.
James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century.
Jealousy is an emotion; the term generally refers to the thoughts or feelings of insecurity, fear, concern, and envy over relative lack of possessions, status or something of great personal value, particularly in reference to a comparator.
Jean François de Saint-Lambert (26 December 1716 – 9 February 1803) was a French poet, philosopher and military officer.
Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.
Jean Starobinski (born 17 November 1920 in Geneva, Switzerland) is a Swiss literary critic.
Jean-Baptiste Blanchard (12 October 1731, at Tourteron in the department of Ardennes – 15 June 1797) was a French Jesuit and educator, one of the contemporary opponents of Rosseau.
Jean-François Marmontel (11 July 1723 – 31 December 1799) was a French historian and writer, a member of the Encyclopédistes movement.
Jean-Paul C. Montagnier (born September 28, 1965 at Lyon) is a French musicologist.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jean-Philippe Rameau (–) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the 18th century.
Jeffersonian democracy, named after its advocate Thomas Jefferson, was one of two dominant political outlooks and movements in the United States from the 1790s to the 1820s.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (January 12, 1746 – February 17, 1827) was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.
Jonathan Irvine Israel (born 26 January 1946) is a British writer and academic specialising in Dutch history, the Age of Enlightenment and European Jews.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
Julie, or the New Heloise (Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse) is an epistolary novel by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, published in 1761 by Marc-Michel Rey in Amsterdam.
Julien Offray de La Mettrie (November 23, 1709 – November 11, 1751) was a French physician and philosopher, and one of the earliest of the French materialists of the Enlightenment.
Justine, or The Misfortunes of Virtue (French: Justine, ou Les Malheurs de la Vertu) is a 1791 novel by Donatien Alphonse François de Sade, better known as the Marquis de Sade.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
L'Astrée is a pastoral novel by Honoré d'Urfé, published between 1607 and 1627.
La serva padrona (The Servant Turned Mistress) is an opera buffa by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710 – 1736) to a libretto by Gennaro Antonio Federico, after the play by Jacopo Angello Nelli.
The Village Soothsayer (French: Le devin du village) is a one-act French opera (intermède) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who also wrote the libretto.
Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
"Let them eat cake" is the traditional translation of the French phrase "Qu'ils mangent de la brioche", supposedly spoken by "a great princess" upon learning that the peasants had no bread.
In Letter on the Blind for the Use of those who can see (French: Lettre sur les aveugles à l'usage de ceux qui voient), Denis Diderot takes on the question of visual perception, a subject that, at the time, experienced a resurgence of interest due to the success of medical procedures that allowed surgeons to operate on cataracts (demonstrated in 1747 by Jacques Daviel) and certain cases of blindness from birth.
Letter to M. D'Alembert on Spectacles (Lettre a M. D'Alembert sur les spectacles) is a 1758 essay written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau in opposition to an article published in the Encyclopédie by Jean d'Alembert, that proposed the establishment of a theatre in Geneva.
Letters on the Elements of Botany (Lettres Elementaires Sur La Botanique) is a work comprising a series of letters written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau on the subject of botany.
Lettres de cachet (lit. "letters of the sign/signet") were letters signed by the king of France, countersigned by one of his ministers, and closed with the royal seal, or cachet.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Thomas Clarkson (1760 – 1846), the pioneering abolitionist, prepared a "map" of the "streams" of "forerunners and coadjutors" of the abolitionist movement, which he published in his work, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament published in 1808.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.
Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just (25 August 176728 July 1794) was a military and political leader during the French Revolution.
Louis François de Bourbon, or Louis François I, Prince of Conti (13 August 1717 – 2 August 1776), was a French nobleman, who was the Prince of Conti from 1727 to his death, following his father, Louis Armand II de Bourbon.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Louise Florence Pétronille Tardieu d'Esclavelles d'Épinay (11 March 1726 – 17 April 1783), better known as Mme.
Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues (6 August 1715 – 28 May 1747) was a minor French writer, a moralist.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), commonly known as Madame de Pompadour, was a member of the French court and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to 1751, and remained influential as court favourite until her death.
Marc-Michel Rey (5 May 1720 – 8 June 1780) was an influential publisher in the United Provinces, who published many of the works of the French philosophes, including Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician and educator best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific pedagogy.
Marie Françoise Catherine de Beauvau-Craon, marquise de Boufflers (1711–1786), commonly known as Madame de Boufflers, was a French noblewoman.
Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin (26 June 1699 – 6 October 1777) was a French salon holder who has been referred to as one of the leading female figures in the French Enlightenment.
Mario Einaudi was a scholar of political theory and European comparative politics.
Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade (2 June 1740 – 2 December 1814), was a French nobleman, revolutionary politician, philosopher, and writer, famous for his libertine sexuality.
Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Matthew Josephson (February 15, 1899 – March 13, 1978) was an American journalist and author of works on nineteenth-century French literature and American political and business history of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Maurice William Cranston (8 May 1920 – 5 November 1993) was an English philosopher, professor and author.
Maurice Quentin de La Tour (5 September 1704 – 17 February 1788) was a French Rococo portraitist who worked primarily with pastels.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
A ménage à trois is a domestic arrangement in which three people have romantic or sexual relations with each other, typically occupying in the same household.
Môtiers was a municipality in the district of Val-de-Travers in the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland.
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
Nathaniel Hawthorne (né Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
New Humanism or neohumanism were terms applied to a theory of literary criticism, together with its consequences for culture and political thought, developed around 1900 by the American scholar Irving Babbitt, and the scholar and journalist Paul Elmer More.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Nicolas Malebranche, Oratory of Jesus (6 August 1638 – 13 October 1715), was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher.
Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author.
A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness.
A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).
The numbered musical notation, is a musical notation system widely used in music publications in China (not to be confused with the integer notation).
The Old Swiss Confederacy (Modern German: Alte Eidgenossenschaft; historically Eidgenossenschaft, after the Reformation also République des Suisses, Res publica Helvetiorum "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (cantons, German or) within the Holy Roman Empire.
The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.
The Congregation of the Oratory of Jesus and Mary Immaculate (Société de l'Oratoire de Jésus et de Marie Immaculée, Congregatio Oratorii Iesu et Mariæ), best known as the French Oratory, is a Roman Catholic Society of apostolic life of Catholic priests founded in 1611 in Paris, France, by Pierre de Bérulle (1575–1629), later a cardinal of the Catholic Church.
Original sin, also called "ancestral sin", is a Christian belief of the state of sin in which humanity exists since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
Othello (The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1603.
The Panthéon (pantheon, from Greek πάνθειον (ἱερόν) '(temple) to all the gods') is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France.
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, probably written at the beginning of the second century AD.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Filippo Antonio Pasquale di Paoli FRS (Pascal Paoli; 6 April 1725 – 5 February 1807) was a Corsican patriot and leader, the president of the Executive Council of the General Diet of the People of Corsica.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
The philosophes (French for "philosophers") were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
Pierre Fatio (7 November 1662 – 6 September 1707) was a politician from the Republic of Geneva.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
Positive liberty is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will, as opposed to negative liberty, which is freedom from external restraint on one's actions.
Postpartum infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Pride is an inwardly directed emotion that carries two antithetical meanings.
Primitivism is a mode of aesthetic idealization that either emulates or aspires to recreate "primitive" experience.
The private sphere is the complement or opposite to the public sphere.
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is a quarterly philosophy peer-reviewed journal published by the American Philosophical Society since 1838.
Public opinion consists of the desires, wants, and thinking of the majority of the people; it is the collective opinion of the people of a society or state on an issue or problem.
Pygmalion (Pygmalion) is the most influential dramatic work by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, other than his opera Le devin du village.
The ("Quarrel of the Comic Actors"), also known as the ("War of the Comic Actors") and the ("War of the Corners"), was the name given to a battle of rival musical philosophies which took place in Paris between 1752 and 1754.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
René Louis de Girardin (February 25, 1735 – 1808), Marquis of Vauvray, was Jean-Jacques Rousseau's last pupil.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Reveries of the Solitary Walker (French: Les Rêveries du promeneur solitaire) is an unfinished book by Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, written between 1776 and 1778.
Roger Davis Masters (born June 8, 1933) studied at Harvard (A.B. 1955, Summa cum Laude), served in the U.S. Army (1955-57) and completed his M.A. (1958) and Ph.D. (1961) at the University of Chicago.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rousseau Institute (also known as Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute or Academy of Geneva; Académie De Genève or Institut Jean-Jacques Rousseau) is a private school in Geneva, Switzerland.
Freiherr Samuel von Pufendorf (8 January 1632 – 13 October 1694) was a German jurist, political philosopher, economist and historian.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
Schutterij refers to a voluntary city guard or citizen militia in the medieval and early modern Netherlands, intended to protect the town or city from attack and act in case of revolt or fire.
Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.
Self-preservation is a behavior that ensures the survival of an organism.
The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th-century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment, sentimentalism, and sensibility.
Sentimentality originally indicated the reliance on feelings as a guide to truth, but current usage defines it as an appeal to shallow, uncomplicated emotions at the expense of reason.
Terms such as separate spheres and domestic–public dichotomy refer to a social phenomenon, within modern societies that feature, to some degree, an empirical separation between a domestic or private sphere and a public or social sphere.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social progress is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures.
Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini (Latin: Faustus Socinus), which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 16th and 17th centuries and embraced by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period.
Elisabeth Françoise Sophie Lalive de Bellegarde, Comtesse d'Houdetot (18 December 1730 – 28 January 1813) was a French noblewoman.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence.
Stéphanie Félicité du Crest de Saint-Aubin, Comtesse de Genlis (25 January 174631 December 1830), known as Madame de Genlis, was a French writer, harpist and educator,, Governess of the Children of France.
Student-centered learning, also known as learner-centered education, broadly encompasses methods of teaching that shift the focus of instruction from the teacher to the student.
The phrase temperament ordinaire (French tempérament ordinaire, meaning literally "ordinary temperament" or "usual temperament") is a term for musical intonation, particularly the tempered tuning of keyboard instruments.
Marie-Thérèse Levasseur (21 September 1721 - 17 July 1801; also known as Thérèse Le Vasseur and Thérèse Lavasseur) was the domestic partner of Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
The Conquest of Granada is a Restoration era stage play, a two-part tragedy written by John Dryden that was first acted in 1670 and 1671 and published in 1672.
The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (1826) is a historical novel by James Fenimore Cooper.
The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Rights (Du contrat social; ou Principes du droit politique) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).
The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, commonly known as Drury Lane, is a West End theatre and Grade I listed building in Covent Garden, London, England.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Total depravity (also called radical corruption or pervasive depravity) is a Christian theological doctrine derived from the Augustinian concept of original sin.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.
Trie-Château is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
Vanity is the excessive belief in one's own abilities or attractiveness to others.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vincennes is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
William James "Will" Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.
William Ellery Channing (April 7, 1780 – October 2, 1842) was the foremost Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early nineteenth century and, along with Andrews Norton (1786–1853), one of Unitarianism's leading theologians.
William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
Wootton is a village and civil parish in Staffordshire, England.
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