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Eating disorder

Index Eating disorder

An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health. [1]

234 relations: Acceptance and commitment therapy, Acne, Addison's disease, Adrenal cortex, Adrenaline, Affection, Amenorrhea, American Family Physician, American Psychiatric Association, Amino acid, Amygdala, Anemia, Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Anorexia nervosa, Anxiety disorder, Art therapy, Atrial natriuretic peptide, Attachment disorder, Attention, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attentional bias, Autoantibody, Avoidant personality disorder, Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, Beck Depression Inventory, Behavior, Behaviour therapy, Binge eating, Binge eating disorder, Biochemistry, Biomedicine, Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Attitudes Test, Body dysmorphic disorder, Body image, Borderline personality disorder, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Bulimia nervosa, Burning mouth syndrome, Calcification, Causality, Cephalohematoma, Cerebral atrophy, Child abuse, Choking, Coeliac disease, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders, Cognitive emotional behavioral therapy, Cognitive remediation therapy, ..., Comorbidity, Complication (medicine), Constipation, Coronary artery disease, Cortical homunculus, Cortisol, Crohn's disease, Depression (mood), Depression and Anxiety, Developed country, Diabulimia, Diagnosis, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Dialectical behavior therapy, Diarrhea, DNA methylation, Dopamine, Dopaminergic, Drunkorexia, DSM-5, Dysautonomia, Eating Attitudes Test, Eating Disorder Examination Interview, Eating Disorder Inventory, Eating disorder not otherwise specified, Edema, Electrolyte, Emetophobia, Eosinophilic esophagitis, Epigenetics, Family therapy, Fetus, Food addiction, Food safety, Foster care, France, Frontal lobe, Frontal lobe disorder, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Gallbladder, Gastrointestinal disease, Genetic predisposition, Ghrelin, Gourmand syndrome, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Health, Hilde Bruch, Histrionic personality disorder, Homocysteine, Hormone, Human body weight, Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Hypokalemia, Hyponatremia, Hypoparathyroidism, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothyroidism, ICD-10, Immune system, Infant, Inflammatory bowel disease, Inpatient care, Insulin, Intellectual disability, Interpersonal psychotherapy, Intrauterine hypoxia, Irritable bowel syndrome, Ischemia, Journal of Women's Health, Lanugo, Leptin, Lesion, Lindsay Lohan, List of self-help organizations, Lyme disease, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Mary-Kate Olsen, Maudsley family therapy, Medical nutrition therapy, Mendelian inheritance, Mental disorder, Mental health, Miscarriage, Miss America, Muscle dysmorphia, Music therapy, Narcissistic personality disorder, National Institute of Mental Health, Neoplasm, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuropeptide, Neuropeptide Y, Neurosurgery, Neurosyphilis, Neurotoxicity, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicole Richie, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Norepinephrine, Obesity, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Obstetrics, Olanzapine, Orlistat, Orthorexia nervosa, Osteoporosis, Other specified feeding or eating disorder, Overeaters Anonymous, Pancreatitis, PANDAS, Panic attack, Parasympathetic nervous system, Parietal lobe, Parkinson's disease, Parotitis, Peer pressure, Pellagra, Peptic ulcer disease, Phagophobia, Pica (disorder), Polycystic ovary syndrome, Positron emission tomography, Postcentral gyrus, Prader–Willi syndrome, Pre-eclampsia, Precursor (chemistry), Prefrontal cortex, Prenatal development, Preterm birth, Pro-ana, Proopiomelanocortin, Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, Psychometrics, Psychosocial, Psychotherapy, Recreational therapy, Regurgitation (digestion), Relapse, Risk factor, Rumination syndrome, Scarlet fever, SCOFF questionnaire, Scurvy, Self-help, Serostatus, Serotonin, Sexual abuse, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Small for gestational age, Smoking and pregnancy, Social isolation, Somatic symptom disorder, Starvation, Stomach cancer, Streptococcal pharyngitis, Substance abuse, Suicide, Supertaster, Support group, Sympathetic nervous system, Symptom, Synergy, Telogen effluvium, Temporal lobe, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction, Tobacco smoking, Tooth, Tooth decay, Tourette syndrome, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxoplasmosis, Trait theory, Victoria Beckham, Vilayanur S. Ramachandran, Water retention (medicine), Wilder Penfield, William L. McKnight, Xeroderma, Zinc. Expand index (184 more) »

Acceptance and commitment therapy

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT, typically pronounced as the word "act") is a form of counseling and a branch of clinical behavior analysis.

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Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.

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Addison's disease

Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.

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Adrenal cortex

Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.

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Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Affection, attraction, infatuation, or fondness is a "disposition or state of mind or body" that is often associated with a feeling or type of love.

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Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.

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American Family Physician

American Family Physician is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

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American Psychiatric Association

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità

The Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità is a quarterly peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering biomedicine, the health sciences, and translational research.

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Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Art therapy

Art therapy (also known as arts therapy) is a creative method of expression used as a therapeutic technique.

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Atrial natriuretic peptide

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion.

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Attachment disorder

Attachment disorder is a broad term intended to describe disorders of mood, behavior, and social relationships arising from a failure to form normal attachments to primary care giving figures in early childhood.

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Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Attentional bias

Attentional bias is the tendency for people's perception to be affected by their recurring thoughts at the time.

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An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins.

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Avoidant personality disorder

Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is a Cluster C personality disorder.

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Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), previously known as selective eating disorder (SED), is a type of eating disorder, as well as feeding disorder, where the consumption of certain foods is limited based on the food's appearance, smell, taste, texture, brand, presentation, or a past negative experience with the food.

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Beck Depression Inventory

The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-1A, BDI-II), created by Aaron T. Beck, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used psychometric tests for measuring the severity of depression.

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Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Behaviour therapy

Behaviour therapy is a broad term referring to clinical psychotherapy that uses techniques derived from behaviourism.

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Binge eating

Binge eating is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating.

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Binge eating disorder

Binge eating disorder (BED) is an eating disorder characterized by frequent and recurrent binge eating episodes with associated negative psychological and social problems, but without subsequent purging episodes (e.g. vomiting).

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biomedicine (i.e. medical biology) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice.

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Body Attitudes Questionnaire

The Ben-Tovim Walker Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ) is a 44 item self-report questionnaire divided into six subscales that measures a woman's attitude towards their own body.

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Body Attitudes Test

The Body Attitudes Test (BAT) was developed by Probst et al. in 1995.

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Body dysmorphic disorder

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.

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Body image

Body image is a person's perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body.

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Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.

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Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.

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Burning mouth syndrome

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a burning sensation in the mouth with no underlying dental or medical cause.

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Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.

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Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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A cephalohaematoma (British English) or cephalohematoma (American English) is a hemorrhage of blood between the skull and the periosteum of any age human, including a newborn baby secondary to rupture of blood vessels crossing the periosteum.

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Cerebral atrophy

Cerebral atrophy is a common feature of many of the diseases that affect the brain.

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Child abuse

Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.

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Choking (also known as foreign body airway obstruction) is a life-threatening medical emergency characterized by the blockage of air passage into the lungs secondary to the inhalation or ingestion of food or another object.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders.

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Cognitive emotional behavioral therapy

Cognitive emotional behavioral therapy (CEBT) is an extended version of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at helping individuals to evaluate the basis of their emotional distress and thus reduce the need for associated dysfunctional coping behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors including binging, purging, restriction of food intake, and substance misuse).

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Cognitive remediation therapy

Cognitive remediation is designed to improve neurocognitive abilities such as attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility and planning, and executive functioning which leads to improved psychosocial functioning.

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In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

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Complication (medicine)

Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.

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Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Cortical homunculus

A cortical homunculus is a distorted representation of the human body, based on a neurological "map" of the areas and proportions of the human brain dedicated to processing motor functions, or sensory functions, for different parts of the body.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Depression and Anxiety

Depression and Anxiety is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Wiley-Blackwell It is an official journal of the Anxiety and Depression Association of America and covers research on depressive and anxiety disorders.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Diabulimia (a portmanteau of diabetes and bulimia) refers to an eating disorder in which people with type 1 diabetes deliberately give themselves less insulin than they need, or stop taking insulin altogether for the purpose of weight loss.

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Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Dialectical behavior therapy

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy designed to help people suffering from borderline personality disorder.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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DNA methylation

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.

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Drunkorexia is a colloquialism for self-imposed starvation or binge eating/purging combined with alcohol abuse.

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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

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Dysautonomia or autonomic dysfunction is a condition in which the autonomic nervous system (ANS) does not work properly.

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Eating Attitudes Test

The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT, EAT-26), created by David Garner, is a widely used self-report questionnaire 26-item standardized self-report measure of symptoms and concerns characteristic of eating disorders.

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Eating Disorder Examination Interview

The Eating Disorder Examination Interview (EDE) devised by Cooper & Fairburn (1987) is a semi-structured interview conducted by a clinician in the assessment of an eating disorder.

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Eating Disorder Inventory

The Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is a self-report questionnaire used to assess the presence of eating disorders, (a) Anorexia Nervosa both restricting and binge-eating/purging type; (b) Bulimia Nervosa; and (c) Eating disorder not otherwise specified including Binge Eating Disorder (BED).

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Eating disorder not otherwise specified

Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is no longer recognized in the most recent version of the DSM-IV. It has been replaced by Other specified feeding or eating disorder or OSFED.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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Emetophobia is a phobia that causes overwhelming, intense anxiety pertaining to vomiting.

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Eosinophilic esophagitis

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE, also spelled eosinophilic oesophagitis), also known as allergic oesophagitis, is an allergic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that involves eosinophils, a type of white blood cell.

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Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

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Family therapy

Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Food addiction

A food addiction or eating addiction is a behavioral addiction that is characterized by the compulsive consumption of palatable (e.g., high fat and high sugar) foods – the types of food which markedly activate the reward system in humans and other animals – despite adverse consequences.

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Food safety

Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.

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Foster care

Foster care is a system in which a minor has been placed into a ward, group home (residential child care community, treatment center,...), or private home of a state-certified caregiver, referred to as a "foster parent" or with a family member approved by the state.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Frontal lobe disorder

Frontal lobe disorder is an impairment of the frontal lobe that occurs due to disease or head trauma.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.

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Gastrointestinal disease

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

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Genetic predisposition

A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions.

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Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.

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Gourmand syndrome

Gourmand syndrome is a rare, benign condition that sometimes occurs in people who sustain injuries to the right frontal lobe.

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Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), also called the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), abbreviated HAM-D, is a multiple item questionnaire used to provide an indication of depression, and as a guide to evaluate recovery.

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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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Hilde Bruch

Hilde Bruch (March 11, 1904 December 15, 1984) was a German-born American psychoanalyst, known foremost for her work on eating disorders and obesity.

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Histrionic personality disorder

Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive attention-seeking emotions, usually beginning in early adulthood, including inappropriately seductive behavior and an excessive need for approval.

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Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic α-amino acid.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human body weight

Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.

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Hyperparathyroidism is an increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the blood.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.

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Hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands with underproduction of parathyroid hormone.

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Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

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ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.

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Inpatient care

Inpatient care is the care of patients whose condition requires admission to a hospital.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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Interpersonal psychotherapy

Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, attachment-focused psychotherapy that centers on resolving interpersonal problems and symptomatic recovery.

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Intrauterine hypoxia

Intrauterine hypoxia occurs when the fetus is deprived of an adequate supply of oxygen.

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Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.

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Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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Journal of Women's Health

The Journal of Women's Health is a monthly peer-reviewed healthcare journal focusing on women's health care, including advancements in diagnostic procedures, therapeutic protocols for the management of diseases, and research in gender-based biology that impacts patient care and treatment.

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Lanugo (from Latin lana "wool") is very thin, soft, usually unpigmented, downy hair that is sometimes found on the body of a fetal or new-born human.

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Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.

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A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.

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Lindsay Lohan

Lindsay Dee Lohan (born July 2, 1986) is an American actress, businesswoman, fashion designer and singer.

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List of self-help organizations

This is a list of self-help organizations.

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Lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Mary-Kate Olsen

Mary-Kate Olsen (born June 13, 1986) is an American fashion designer, businesswoman, author, and former actress and producer.

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Maudsley family therapy

Maudsley family therapy also known as family-based treatment or Maudsley approach, is a family therapy for the treatment of anorexia nervosa devised by Christopher Dare and colleagues at the Maudsley Hospital in London.

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Medical nutrition therapy

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a therapeutic approach to treating medical conditions and their associated symptoms via the use of a specifically tailored diet devised and monitored by a medical doctor physician or registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN).

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Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.

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Miss America

Miss America is a competition that is held annually and is open to women from the United States between the ages of 17 and 25.

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Muscle dysmorphia

Muscle dysmorphia is a subtype of the obsessive mental disorder body dysmorphic disorder, but is often also grouped with eating disorders.

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Music therapy

Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.

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Narcissistic personality disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.

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National Institute of Mental Health

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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Neuroendocrine cell

Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.

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Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.

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Neuropeptide Y

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

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Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

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Neurosyphilis is an infection of the brain or spinal cord caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum.

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Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.

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Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Nicole Richie

Nicole Camille Richie-Madden (born Nicole Camille Escovedo; September 21, 1981) is an American fashion designer, author, actress and television personality.

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Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder

Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a general pattern of concern with orderliness, perfectionism, excessive attention to details, mental and interpersonal control, and a need for control over one's environment, at the expense of flexibility, openness to experience, and efficiency.

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Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

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Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Orlistat is a drug designed to treat obesity.

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Orthorexia nervosa

Orthorexia nervosa (also known as orthorexia) is a proposed eating disorder characterized by an excessive preoccupation with eating healthy food.

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Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.

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Other specified feeding or eating disorder

Other specified feeding or eating disorder or OSFED is the DSM-5 category that replaces the category formerly called Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) in DSM-IV,American Psychiatric Association (2000).

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Overeaters Anonymous

Overeaters Anonymous (OA) is a twelve-step program for people with problems related to food including, but not limited to, compulsive overeaters, those with binge eating disorder, bulimics and anorexics.

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Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.

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Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a hypothesis that there exists a subset of children with rapid onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders and these symptoms are caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections.

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Panic attack

Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.

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Parasympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Parotitis is an inflammation of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands located on either side of the face, in humans.

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Peer pressure

Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual.

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Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3).

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Peptic ulcer disease

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.

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Phagophobia is a psychogenic dysphagia, a fear of swallowing.

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Pica (disorder)

Pica is a psychological disorder characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive, such as ice (pagophagia); hair (trichophagia); paper (xylophagia); drywall or paint; metal (metallophagia); stones (lithophagia) or soil (geophagia); glass (hyalophagia); or feces (coprophagia); and chalk.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Postcentral gyrus

The postcentral gyrus is a prominent gyrus in the lateral parietal lobe of the human brain.

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Prader–Willi syndrome

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder due to loss of function of specific genes.

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Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.

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Precursor (chemistry)

In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.

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Pro-ana refers to the promotion of behaviors related to the eating disorder anorexia nervosa.

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Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

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Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.

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The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.

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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Recreational therapy

According to the American Therapeutic Recreation Association (ATRA), recreational therapy or therapeutic recreation (TR) is a systematic process that utilizes recreation (leisure) and other interest activities as interventions to address the assessed needs of individuals with illnesses and/or disabling conditions, as a means to psychological and physical health, recovery and well-being.

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Regurgitation (digestion)

Regurgitation is the expulsion of material from the pharynx, or esophagus, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood.

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In medicine, relapse or recidivism is a recurrence of a past (typically medical) condition.

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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Rumination syndrome

Rumination syndrome, or Merycism, is an under-diagnosed chronic motility disorder characterized by effortless regurgitation of most meals following consumption, due to the involuntary contraction of the muscles around the abdomen.

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Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A ''streptococcus'' (group A strep) infection.

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SCOFF questionnaire

The SCOFF questionnaire utilizes an acronym in a simple five question test devised for use by non-professionals to assess the possible presence of an eating disorder.

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Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

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Self-help or self-improvement is a self-guided improvementAPA Dictionary of Physicology, 1st ed., Gary R. VandenBos, ed., Washington: American Psychological Association, 2007.

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Serostatus refers to the presence or absence of a serological marker in the blood.

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Sexual abuse

Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is usually undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another.

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Single-photon emission computed tomography

Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.

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Small for gestational age

Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns are those who are smaller in size than normal for the gestational age, most commonly defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.

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Smoking and pregnancy

Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco.

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Social isolation

Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society.

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Somatic symptom disorder

A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,(2013) " " dsm5.org.

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Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

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Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.

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Streptococcal pharyngitis

Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS).

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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A supertaster is a person who experiences the sense of taste with far greater intensity than average, with some studies showing an increased sensitivity to bitter tastes.

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Support group

In a support group, members provide each other with various types of help, usually nonprofessional and nonmaterial, for a particular shared, usually burdensome, characteristic.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.

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Telogen effluvium

Telogen effluvium is a scalp disorder characterized by the thinning or shedding of hair resulting from the early entry of hair in the telogen phase (the resting phase of the hair follicle).

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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD, TMJD) is an umbrella term covering pain and dysfunction of the muscles of mastication (the muscles that move the jaw) and the temporomandibular joints (the joints which connect the mandible to the skull).

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.

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Tooth decay

Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.

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Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.

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Toxoplasma gondii

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.

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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

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Trait theory

In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to the study of human personality.

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Victoria Beckham

Victoria Caroline Beckham (née Adams; born 17 April 1974) is an English businesswoman, fashion designer, model, and singer.

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Vilayanur S. Ramachandran

Vilayanur Subramanian Ramachandran (born 10 August 1951) is a neuroscientist known primarily for his work in the fields of behavioral neurology and visual psychophysics.

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Water retention (medicine)

The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.

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Wilder Penfield

Wilder Graves Penfield (January 26, 1891April 5, 1976) was an American-Canadian neurosurgeon.

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William L. McKnight

William L. McKnight (November 11, 1887 – March 4, 1978) was an American businessman and philanthropist who served his entire career in the 3M corporation, rising to chairman of the board from 1949 to 1966.

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Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eating_disorder

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