388 relations: Acetyl group, Acid, ACTA2, ACTC1, ACTG1, ACTG2, Actin remodeling, Actin, alpha 1, Actin-binding protein, Actinin, Action potential, Active matter, Active site, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adenylyl cyclase, Albert Szent-Györgyi, Algae, Alkaloid, Allele, Alternation of generations, Alternative splicing, Amanita phalloides, Amino acid, Amoeba, Amyloidosis, Anastomosis, Animal, Antibiotic, Antibody, Aorta, Aortic aneurysm, Apoptosis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Archaea, Arginine, Arp2/3 complex, Aspartic acid, ATPase, Atrium (heart), Atrophy, Axon, Ångström, Bacteria, Base (chemistry), Beta barrel, Beta hairpin, Beta sheet, Beta-actin, Biochemistry, ..., Biofilm, Biomolecular structure, Biopolymer, Biopsy, Brain, Brownian motion, Brunó Ferenc Straub, Burkholderia pseudomallei, C-terminus, Cadherin, Calcium, Calcium in biology, Calmodulin, Calpain, Cancer, Candida albicans, CAP1, CapZ, Cardiac muscle, Catalysis, Catenin, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion, Cell cortex, Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell junction, Cell membrane, Cell migration, Cell nucleus, Cell polarity, Cell signaling, Cell wall, Central core disease, Central nervous system, Chaperone (protein), Chemical bond, Chemical substance, Chemotherapy, Chirality, Chloroplast, Chromosome, Chromosome 12, Cilium, Cirrhosis, Cisplatin, Coevolution, Cofilin, Congenital myopathy, Conserved sequence, Coronary artery disease, Covalent bond, Cryogenic electron microscopy, Crystal, Cysteine, Cytochalasin, Cytochalasin D, Cytokinesis, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, Degenerative disease, Denaturation (biochemistry), Dendrite, Deoxyribonuclease I, Developmental biology, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Dicotyledon, Dictyostelium, Dilated cardiomyopathy, Dimer (chemistry), Disease, Dissociation constant, DNA, DNA microarray, Domain (biology), Dominance (genetics), Dynamic instability, Dystonia, Ear, Electric charge, Electron affinity, Electron microscope, Embryogenesis, Embutido, Ena/Vasp homology proteins, Endocytosis, Energy, Enzyme, Enzyme kinetics, Eosinophilic, Epigenetics, Epithelium, Eukaryote, European rabbit, Evolution, Exon, Experiment, Extraction (chemistry), Face, Fibroblast, Filopodia, Fimbrin, Five prime untranslated region, Food technology, Formins, FtsZ, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, Gelsolin, Gene, Gene expression, Gene family, Genome, GLI1, Globular protein, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Golgi apparatus, GroEL, Hearing loss, Heart, Helix, Hemangiopericytoma, Hepatocyte, Hexokinase, Histidine, Histone, HIV, Homology (biology), Host (biology), Hsp70, Human, Hungary, Hydrolysis, Hyperplasia, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Immune system, Immunoprecipitation, In vitro, In vivo, Infection, Inositol phosphate, Intermediate filament, Intron, Ion, Isoelectric point, Jellyfish, Kidney, Lab-on-a-chip, Laboratory, Lamellipodium, Latrunculin, Listeria monocytogenes, Locus (genetics), Lysine, Magnesium, Mammal, MAPK/ERK pathway, Messenger RNA, Metabolism, Methylation, Microfilament, Microorganism, Microtubule, Mitosis, Model organism, Molar concentration, Molecular biology, Molecular mass, Molecular modelling, Molecular motor, Molecule, Monomer, Morphogenesis, Motility, Motor protein, Moyamoya disease, MreB, Multicellular organism, Muridae, Muscle, Muscle contraction, Mutation, Mycobacterium marinum, Myelin, MYO1C, Myocyte, Myofibril, Myopathy, Myosin, N-terminus, Nanometre, Nanotechnology, Nemaline myopathy, Nematode, Neocortex, Neoplasm, Nervous system, Neuron, Neutrophil, Non-covalent interactions, Noncompaction cardiomyopathy, Nuclear pore, Nucleation, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleophile, Nucleotide, Organ of Corti, Organelle, Oxygen, P53, Paracrystalline, Pathogen, Pathogenesis, Pathognomonicity, Peptide, PH, Phagocytosis, Phalloidin, Phallotoxin, Phenotype, Phenylalanine, Phosducin, Phosphate, Phospholipase D, Phylogenetics, Physiology, Plasmid, Platelet, Polymer, Prefoldin, Profilin, Programmed cell death, Prokaryote, Proline, Promoter (genetics), Protein, Protein Data Bank, Protein domain, Protein family, Protein folding, Protein isoform, Protein primary structure, Protein secondary structure, Protein structure, Protein subunit, Protein tertiary structure, Protein–protein interaction, Pseudogene, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PyMOL, Pyrococcus, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Receptor (biochemistry), Restrictive cardiomyopathy, Retinitis pigmentosa, Rhodamine, Ribbon diagram, Rickettsia, RNA polymerase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sarcolemma, Sarcomere, Sarcoplasmic reticulum, Scanning electron microscope, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Schwann cell, Scientific journal, Second, Second messenger system, Separation process, Shigella flexneri, Signal transduction, Skeletal muscle, Smooth muscle tissue, Sodium channel, Somatosensory system, Species, Spectrin, Spermatogenesis, Spindle apparatus, Sponge, Stenosis, Stereocilia, Stochastic, Stoichiometry, Strength of materials, Stress (biology), Stress fiber, Striated muscle tissue, Substrate (chemistry), Symptom, Synchrotron radiation, T-tubule, Tannic acid, Tentacle, Thalamus, Thermodynamics, Three prime untranslated region, Thymosin, Thyroid, Tissue (biology), Topology, Toxin, Transcription (biology), Transcriptome, Transfection, Translation (biology), Transmission electron microscopy, Tropomodulin, Tropomyosin, Troponin, Troponin C, Troponin I, Troponin T, Tryptophan, Tubulin, Unified atomic mass unit, University of Szeged, Vaccinia, Vasa vasorum, Vasculitis, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Villin, Vinculin, Virus, Western blot, Western world, William Dobinson Halliburton, Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein, World War II, X-ray crystallography, XPO1, XPO6, Xyloglucan, Yeast. 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In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Alpha-actin-2 also known as actin, aortic smooth muscle or alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, SMactin, alpha-SM-actin, ASMA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA2 gene located on 10q22-q24.
ACTC1 encodes cardiac muscle alpha actin.
Gamma-actin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTG1 gene.
Actin, gamma-enteric smooth muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTG2 gene.
Actin remodeling is the biochemical process that allows for the dynamic alterations of cellular organization.
Actin, alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene.
Actin-binding protein (also known as ABP) are proteins that bind to actin.
Actinin is a microfilament protein.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Active matter is composed of large numbers of active "agents", each of which consumes energy in order to move or to exert mechanical forces.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrápolt (nagyrápolti Szent-Györgyi Albert; September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.
Alternative splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins.
Amanita phalloides, commonly known as the death cap, is a deadly poisonous basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein, known as amyloid fibrils, builds up in tissue.
An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Arp2/3 complex is a seven-subunit protein complex that plays a major role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
A beta barrel is a beta-sheet that twists and coils to form a closed structure in which the first strand is hydrogen bonded to the last.
The beta hairpin (sometimes also called beta-ribbon or beta-beta unit) is a simple protein structural motif involving two beta strands that look like a hairpin.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
Beta-actin (human gene and protein symbol ACTB/ACTB) is one of six different actin isoforms which have been identified in humans.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brownian motion or pedesis (from πήδησις "leaping") is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the fast-moving molecules in the fluid.
Brunó Ferenc Straub (5 January 1914 in Nagyvárad, Austria-Hungary (now Oradea, Romania) – 15 February 1996) was a biochemist.
Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Cadherins (named for "calcium-dependent adhesion") are a type of cell adhesion molecule (CAM) that is important in the formation of adherens junctions to bind cells with each other.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
Calmodulin (CaM) (an abbreviation for calcium-modulated protein) is a multifunctional intermediate calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
A calpain is a protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases (proteolytic enzymes) expressed ubiquitously in mammals and many other organisms.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora.
Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAP1 gene.
In molecular biology CapZ, also known as CAPZ; CAZ1 and CAPPA1, is a protein composed of alpha and beta subunits.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Catenins are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface.
The cell cortex, also known as the actin cortex or actomyosin cortex, is a specialized layer of cytoplasmic protein on the inner face of the plasma membrane of the cell periphery.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
A cell junction (or intercellular bridge) is a type of structure that exists within the tissue of some multicellular organisms, such as animals.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell polarity refers to spatial differences in shape, structure, and function within a cell.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Central core disease (CCD), also known as central core myopathy, is an autosomal dominant congenital myopathy (inborn muscle disorder).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chromosome 12 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
ADF/cofilin is a family of actin-binding proteins which disassembles actin filaments.
Congenital myopathy is a very broad term for any muscle disorder present at birth.
In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Electron cryomicroscopy (CryoEM) is an electron microscopy (EM) technique where the sample is cooled to cryogenic temperatures.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Cytochalasins are fungal metabolites that have the ability to bind to actin filaments and block polymerization and the elongation of actin.
Cytochalasin D is a member of the class of mycotoxins known as cytochalasins.
Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Degenerative disease is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs, which will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Deoxyribonuclease I (usually called DNase I), is an endonuclease coded by the human gene DNASE1.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
Dictyostelium is a genus of single- and multi-celled eukaryotic, phagotrophic bacterivores.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition in which the heart becomes enlarged and cannot pump blood effectively.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Dynamic instability may refer to any of several scientific phenomena.
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Embutido (Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese), enchido (European Portuguese) or embotit (Catalan) is one of the many varieties of cured, dry sausages found in the cuisines of Iberia and the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies.
ENA/VASP Homology proteins or EVH proteins are a family of closely related proteins involved in cell motility in vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
Eosinophilic (Greek suffix -phil-, meaning loves eosin) refers to the staining of certain tissues, cells, or organelles after they have been washed with eosin, a dye.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) or coney is a species of rabbit native to southwestern Europe (including Spain, Portugal and Western France) and to northwest Africa (including Morocco and Algeria).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Extraction in chemistry is a separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix.
The face is a central body region of sense and is also very central in the expression of emotion among humans and among numerous other species.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Filopodia (also microspikes) are slender cytoplasmic projections that extend beyond the leading edge of lamellipodia in migrating cells.
Fimbrin also known as is plastin 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLS1 gene.
The 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) (also known as a leader sequence or leader RNA) is the region of an mRNA that is directly upstream from the initiation codon.
Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods.
Formins (formin homology proteins) are a group of proteins that are involved in the polymerization of actin and associate with the fast-growing end (barbed end) of actin filaments.
FtsZ is a protein encoded by the ftsZ gene that assembles into a ring at the future site of the septum of bacterial cell division.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gelsolin is an actin-binding protein that is a key regulator of actin filament assembly and disassembly.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A gene family is a set of several similar genes, formed by duplication of a single original gene, and generally with similar biochemical functions.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Zinc finger protein GLI1 also known as glioma-associated oncogene is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLI1 gene.
Globular proteins or spheroproteins are spherical ("globe-like") proteins and are one of the common protein types (the others being fibrous, disordered and membrane proteins).
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
GroEL belongs to the chaperonin family of molecular chaperones, and is found in a large number of bacteria.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
A hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a type of soft tissue sarcoma that originates in the pericytes in the walls of capillaries.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates hexoses (six-carbon sugars), forming hexose phosphate.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The 70 kilodalton heat shock proteins (Hsp70s or DnaK) are a family of conserved ubiquitously expressed heat shock proteins.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which a portion of the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunoprecipitation (IP) is the technique of precipitating a protein antigen out of solution using an antibody that specifically binds to that particular protein.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inositol phosphates are a group of mono- to polyphosphorylated inositols.
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of vertebrate animal species, and perhaps also in other animals, fungi, plants, and unicellular organisms.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The isoelectric point (pI, pH(I), IEP), is the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge or is electrically neutral in the statistical mean.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
A lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single integrated circuit (commonly called a "chip") of only millimeters to a few square centimeters to achieve automation and high-throughput screening.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
The lamellipodium (plural lamellipodia) (from Latin lamina, "thin sheet"; pod, "foot") is a cytoskeletal protein actin projection on the leading edge of the cell.
The latrunculins are a family of natural products and toxins produced by certain sponges, including genus Latrunculia and Negombata, whence the name is derived.
Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Microfilaments, also called actin filaments, are filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that form part of the cytoskeleton.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Molecular modelling encompasses all methods, theoretical and computational, used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules.
Molecular motors are biological molecular machines that are the essential agents of movement in living organisms.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
Motor proteins are a class of molecular motors that can move along the cytoplasm of animal cells.
Moyamoya disease is a disease in which certain arteries in the brain are constricted.
MreB is a protein found in bacteria that has been identified as a homologue of actin, as indicated by similarities in tertiary structure and conservation of active site peptide sequence.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
The Muridae, or murids, are the largest family of rodents and of mammals, containing over 700 species found naturally throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mycobacterium marinum (formerly M. balnei) is a free-living bacterium, which causes opportunistic infections in humans.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
Myosin-Ic is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYO1C gene.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.
Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly.
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
Nemaline myopathy (also called rod myopathy or nemaline rod myopathy) is a congenital, hereditary neuromuscular disorder with many symptoms that can occur such as muscle weakness, hypoventilation, swallowing dysfunction, and impaired speech ability.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
A non-covalent interaction differs from a covalent bond in that it does not involve the sharing of electrons, but rather involves more dispersed variations of electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule.
Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCC), also called spongiform cardiomyopathy, is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy that affects both children and adults.
Nuclear pore complexes are large protein complexes that span the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus.
Nucleation is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
The organ of Corti, or spiral organ, is the receptor organ for hearing and is located in the mammalian cochlea.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Paracrystalline materials are defined as having short- and medium-range ordering in their lattice (similar to the liquid crystal phases) but lacking crystal-like long-range ordering at least in one direction.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
Pathognomonic (rarely spelled pathognomic and sometimes misspelled as pathomnemonic) is a term, often used in medicine, that means characteristic for a particular disease.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Phalloidin belongs to a class of toxins called phallotoxins, which are found in the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides).
The phallotoxins consist of at least seven compounds, all of which are bicyclic heptapeptides (seven amino acids), isolated from the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides).
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phosducin, also known as PDC, is a human protein and gene.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phospholipase D (lipophosphodiesterase II, lecithinase D, choline phosphatase) (PLD) is an enzyme of the phospholipase superfamily.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Prefoldin is a family of proteins used in protein folding complexes.
Profilin is an actin-binding protein involved in the dynamic turnover and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton.
Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.
A protein family is a group of evolutionarily-related proteins.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein.
Protein secondary structure is the three dimensional form of local segments of proteins.
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
Protein tertiary structure is the three dimensional shape of a protein.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
PyMOL is computer software, a molecular visualization system created by Warren Lyford DeLano.
Pyrococcus is a genus of Thermococcaceaen archaean.
A real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR), also known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), is a laboratory technique of molecular biology based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a form of cardiomyopathy in which the walls of the heart are rigid (but not thickened).
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disorder of the eyes that causes loss of vision.
Rhodamine is a family of related chemical compounds, fluorone dyes.
Ribbon diagrams, also known as Richardson diagrams, are 3D schematic representations of protein structure and are one of the most common methods of protein depiction used today.
Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
The sarcolemma (sarco (from sarx) from Greek; flesh, and lemma from Greek; sheath) also called the myolemma, is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber cell.
A sarcomere (Greek sarx "flesh", meros "part") is the basic unit of striated muscle tissue.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology.
Schwann cells (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
A separation process is a method that converts a mixture or solution of chemical substances into two or more distinct product mixtures.
Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spectrin is a cytoskeletal protein that lines the intracellular side of the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
In cell biology, the spindle apparatus (or mitotic spindle) refers to the cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
Stereocilia (or stereovilli) are non-motile apical modifications of the cell, which are distinct from cilia and microvilli, but closely related to the latter.
The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Stress fibers are contractile actin bundles found in non-muscle cells.
Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue which does not.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
Transverse tubules (T-tubules) are extensions of the cell membrane that penetrate into the centre of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.
Tannic acid is a specific form of tannin, a type of polyphenol.
In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon.
Thymosins are small proteins present in many animal tissues.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells.
Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing naked or purified nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
Tropomodulin (TMOD) is a protein which binds and caps the minus end of actin (the "pointed" end), regulating the length of actin filaments in muscle and non-muscle cells.
Tropomyosin is a two-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons.
Troponin C is a part of the troponin complex.
Troponin I is a cardiac and skeletal muscle protein useful in the laboratory diagnosis of heart attack.
Troponin T is a part of the troponin complex expressed in skeletal and cardiac myocytes.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The University of Szeged (Szegedi Tudományegyetem) is a large research university in Hungary.
Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family.
The vasa vasorum is a network of small blood vessels that supply the walls of large blood vessels, such as elastic arteries (aorta) and large veins (venae cavae).
Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Villin is a 92.5 kDa tissue-specific actin-binding protein associated with the actin core bundle of the brush border.
In mammalian cells, vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques that is involved in linkage of integrin adhesion molecules to the actin cytoskeleton.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
William Dobinson Halliburton FRS (21 June 1860 Middlesex – 21 May 1931 Exeter) was a British physiologist, noted for being one of the founders of the science of biochemistry.
The Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is a 502-amino acid protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Exportin 1 (XPO1), also known as chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1), is an eukaryotic protein that mediates the nuclear export of proteins, rRNA, snRNA, and some mRNA.
Exportin-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XPO6 gene.
Xyloglucan is a hemicellulose that occurs in the primary cell wall of all vascular plants; however, all enzymes responsible for xyloglucan metabolism are found in Charophyceae algae.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.