226 relations: Affricate consonant, Agglutinative language, Alexander Argüelles, Alexander Vovin, Allium tuberosum, Alphabet, Altaic languages, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Areal feature, Bilabial consonant, Buddhism, Busan, Buyeo languages, Cairo, Cantonese, Chagang Province, Changbai Korean Autonomous County, China, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chungcheong Province, Classical Chinese, Classification of the Japonic languages, Cognate, Comrade, Convergent evolution, Copenhagen, Cuba, Cultural assimilation, Daegu, Daejeon, Defense Language Institute, Dialect, Dialect levelling, Dosirak, Dravidian languages, Dravido-Korean languages, English language, Exonym and endonym, Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, Extinct language, Faucalized voice, Featural writing system, Foreign Service Institute, Fortis and lenis, French language, Fricative consonant, ..., Gabo Reform, Gangwon Province, South Korea, Gaya confederacy, German language, Geumgwan Gaya, Glottal consonant, Glottis, Goryeo, Gugyeol, Guillemet, Gwangju, Gyeonggi dialect, Gyeonggi Province, Gyeongsang dialect, Gyeongsang Province, Hallasan, Hamgyŏng dialect, Hamgyong Province, Hangul, Hanja, Heo Hwang-ok, Heritage language learning, Hiragana, History of Korean, Honorific, Hunminjeongeum, Hwanghae Province, Hyangchal, Hypothesis, Idu script, Imperative mood, Incheon, Index of Korea-related articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Italian language, Japan, Japanese language, Japonic languages, Jeju Island, Jeju language, Jeju Province, Jeolla dialect, Jeolla Province, Jilin, Joseon, Juha Janhunen, K-pop, Kangwon Province (North Korea), Kanji, Khitan language, Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il, Kim Jong-un, King Sejong Institute, Konglish, Korea, Korea under Japanese rule, Korean Americans, Korean Braille, Korean count word, Korean Cultural Center, Korean dialects, Korean diaspora, Korean drama, Korean Empire, Korean grammar, Korean language and computers, Korean Language Proficiency Test, Korean mixed script, Korean numerals, Korean postpositions, Korean punctuation, Korean Sign Language, Korean speech levels, Korean War, Korean Wave, Koreanic languages, Koreans, Koryo-mar, Koryo-saram, Language family, Language isolate, Languages of East Asia, Languages of Europe, Liaoning, List of English words of Korean origin, Loanword, Mainland China, McCune–Reischauer, Mongolian language, Mongolic languages, Morphology (linguistics), Mutual intelligibility, Names of Korea, Nasal consonant, National Institute of Korean Language, National language, Near-open central vowel, Nivkh language, North Hamgyong Province, North Korea, North Korean standard language, North–South differences in the Korean language, Northern Ryukyuan languages, Obstruent, Official language, Old Korean, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (sound change), Paleosiberian languages, Paradigm, Pitch-accent language, Portuguese language, Post-Soviet states, Postalveolar consonant, Prehistoric Korea, Primorsky Krai, Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea, Pyongan dialect, Pyongan Province, Pyongyang, Rason, Regions of Korea, Revised Romanization of Korean, Romanization of Korean, Roy Andrew Miller, Russia, Ryanggang Province, Samguk yusa, Samuel Martin (linguist), Sejong Institute, Sejong the Great, Seoul, Sergei Starostin, Shanghainese, Sillan language, Sino-Korean vocabulary, Sino-Xenic pronunciations, SKATS, South Korea, South Korean standard language, Southern Ryukyuan languages, Spanish language, Sprachbund, Standard Chinese, Standard language, Stiff voice, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Swadesh list, Syntax, Taebaek Mountains, Tag question, Tamil language, Test of Proficiency in Korean, The Korea Times, Tsushima dialect, Tungusic languages, Turkic languages, Tuttle Publishing, Ulaanbaatar, Ulsan, United States, University of Cambridge, Unreleased stop, Velar consonant, Vowel harmony, William George Aston, Wonsu, Written Chinese, Yale romanization of Korean, Yalu River, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Yangban, Yeongdong (region), Yeongseo. Expand index (176 more) » « Shrink index
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Alexander Sabino Argüelles (often spelt Arguelles) is an American linguist notable for his work on Korean.
Alexander Vladimirovich Vovin (Александр Владимирович Вовин, born 1961 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian-American linguist and philologist, currently directeur d'études at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)) in Paris, France.
Allium tuberosum (garlic chives, Oriental garlic, Asian chives, Chinese chives, Chinese leek) is a species of onion native to southwestern parts of the Chinese province of Shanxi, and cultivated and naturalized elsewhere in Asia and around the world.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Busan, formerly known as Pusan and now officially is South Korea's second most-populous city after Seoul, with a population of over 3.5 million inhabitants.
The Buyeo languages, or Fuyu languages (Korean: 부여; Chinese: 扶餘, Fúyú), are a hypothetical language family that consists of ancient languages of the northern Korean Peninsula, southern Manchuria and possibly Japan.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Chagang Province (Chagangdo) is a province in North Korea; it is bordered by China to the north, Ryanggang and South Hamgyong to the east, South Pyongan to the south, and North Pyongan to the west.
Changbai Korean Autonomous County, or simply Changbai County, is a county in southern Jilin province, China, facing Hyesan, North Korea.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chungcheong (Chungcheong-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
The classification of the Japonic languages (Japanese and the Ryukyuan languages) is unclear.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
The term comrade is used to mean "friend", "mate", "colleague", or "ally", and derives from the Iberian Romance language term camarada, literally meaning "chamber mate", from Latin camera "chamber" or "room".
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
Daegu (대구, 大邱, literally 'large hill') formerly spelled Taegu and officially known as the Daegu Metropolitan City, is a city in South Korea, the fourth largest after Seoul, Busan, and Incheon, and the third largest metropolitan area in the nation with over 2.5 million residents.
Daejeon is South Korea's fifth-largest metropolis.
The Defense Language Institute (DLI) is a United States Department of Defense (DoD) educational and research institution consisting of two separate entities which provide linguistic and cultural instruction to the Department of Defense, other Federal Agencies and numerous customers around the world.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Dialect levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization.
Dosirak in South Korea or kwakpap in North Korea refers to a packed meal.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Dravido-Koreo-Japonic or Dravido-Koreanic is a disputed language family proposal which links the living or proto-Dravidian language to Korean and (in some versions) Japanese.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
The extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, also extIPA symbols for disordered speech or simply extIPA, are a set of letters and diacritics devised by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association to augment the International Phonetic Alphabet for the phonetic transcription of disordered speech.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
Faucalized voice, also called hollow voiceTucker, A. N., & Bryan, M. A. (1966).
In a featural writing system, the shapes of the symbols (such as letters) are not arbitrary but encode phonological features of the phonemes that they represent.
The Foreign Service Institute (FSI) is the United States federal government's primary training institution for employees of the U.S. foreign affairs community, preparing American diplomats as well as other professionals to advance U.S. foreign affairs interests overseas and in Washington.
In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
The Gabo Reform, also known as the Kabo Reform, describes a series of sweeping reforms suggested to the government of Korea beginning in 1894 and ending in 1896 during the reign of Gojong of Korea in response to the Donghak Peasant Revolution.
Gangwon-do is a province of South Korea, with its capital at Chuncheon.
Gaya was a Korean confederacy of territorial polities in the Nakdong River basin of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Geumgwan Gaya (43 - 532), also known as Bon-Gaya (본가야, 本伽倻, "original Gaya") or Garakguk (가락국, "Garak State"), was the ruling city-state of the Gaya confederacy during the Three Kingdoms Period in Korea.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
Gugyeol is a system for rendering texts written in Classical Chinese into understandable Korean.
Guillemets, or angle quotes, are a pair of punctuation marks in the form of sideways double chevrons (« and »), used instead of quotation marks in a number of languages.
Gwangju is the sixth largest city in South Korea.
The Gyeonggi dialect (경기 방언) or Seoul dialect (서울 사투리/서울말) of the Korean language is the prestige dialect of the language and the basis of the standardized form used in South Korea.
Gyeonggi-do (Hangul: 경기도) is the most populous province in South Korea.
The Gyeongsang dialects (also spelled Kyŏngsang), or Southeastern Korean, are dialects of the Korean language of the Yeongnam region, which includes both Gyeongsang provinces, North and South.
Gyeongsang (경상도, Gyeongsang-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon dynasty.
Hallasan is a shield volcano on Jeju Island of South Korea.
The Hamgyŏng dialects, or Northeastern Korean, is a dialect of the Korean language used in southern North Hamgyŏng, South Hamgyŏng, and Ryanggang Provinces of North Korea, as well as the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture of northeast China.
Hamgyong Province was one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters.
Heo Hwang-ok is a legendary queen mentioned in Samguk Yusa, a 13th-century Korean chronicle.
Heritage language learning or heritage language acquisition is the act of learning a heritage language from an ethnolinguistic group that traditionally speaks the language, or from those whose family historically spoke the language.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
The Korean language is attested from the early centuries of the Common Era in Chinese characters.
An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.
Hunminjeongeum (lit. The Correct/Proper Sounds for the Instruction of the People) is a document describing an entirely new and native script for the Korean language.
Hwanghae (Hwanghae-do) was one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon.
Hyangchal (literally vernacular letters, local letters or corresponded sound) is an archaic writing system of Korea and was used to transcribe the Korean language in hanja.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Idu (이두, hanja: 讀, meaning official's reading) is an archaic writing system that represents the Korean language using hanja.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
Incheon (formerly romanized as Inchŏn; literally "kind river"), officially the Incheon Metropolitan City (인천광역시), is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east.
This is a list of articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.
Jeju Island (Hangul: 제주도, Jejudo; previously Cheju-do) is the largest island off the coast of the Korean Peninsula, and the main island of Jeju Province of South Korea.
Jeju (Cheju) or (Jejueo) is a Koreanic language spoken in the Jeju Province of South Korea.
Jeju Province, officially Jeju Self-Governing Province, is one of the nine provinces of South Korea.
The Jeolla dialect of Korean (also known as Cholla), or Southwestern Korean, are spoken in the Honam region of South Korea, including the city of Gwangju.
Jeolla Province was a province in southwestern Korea, one of the historical Eight Provinces of Korea during the Kingdom of Joseon.
Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Juha Janhunen (born 12 February 1952 in Pori) is a Finnish linguist whose wide interests include Uralic and Mongolic languages.
K-pop (abbreviation of Korean pop) characterized by a wide variety of audiovisual elements.
Kangwon Province (Kangwŏndo) is a province of North Korea, with its capital at Wŏnsan.
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
Khitan or Kitan (in large script or in small, Khitai;, Qìdānyǔ), also known as Liao, is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people (4th to 13th century).
Kim Il-sung (or Kim Il Sung) (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the first leader of North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
Kim Jong-il (or Kim Jong Il) (16 February 1941 – 17 December 2011) was the second Supreme Leader of North Korea, from the death of his father Kim Il-sung, the first Supreme Leader of North Korea, in 1994 until his own death in 2011.
Kim Jong-un (born 8 January 1983) is a North Korean politician serving as leader of North Korea since 2011 and Leader of the Workers' Party of Korea since 2012.
Sejonghakdang is a brand name that the South Korean government launched in order to comprehensively provide Korean language learners and teachers with an integrated study and information service.
Konglish, more formally- Korean-style English is a style of English used by Korean speakers.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945.
Korean Americans (Hangul: 한국계 미국인, Hanja: 韓國系美國人, Hangukgye Migukin) are Americans of Korean heritage or descent, mostly from South Korea, and with a very small minority from North Korea, China, Japan and Post-Soviet states.
Korean Braille is the braille alphabet of the Korean language.
The Korean language uses special measure or counting words for specific objects and events.
Korean Cultural Centers (Korean: 한국문화원, Hanja: 韓國文化院) are non-profit institutions aligned with the Government of South Korea that aim to promote Korean culture and facilitate cultural exchanges.
A number of Korean dialects are spoken in the Korean Peninsula.
The Korean diaspora (South Korea: or; North Korea: or) consists of roughly seven million people, both descendants of early emigrants from the Korean Peninsula, as well as more recent emigres from Korea.
Korean dramas or K-dramas are television dramas in the Korean language, made in South Korea.
The Great Korean Empire was proclaimed in October 1897 by Emperor Gojong of the Joseon dynasty, under pressure after the Donghak Peasant Revolution of 1894 to 1895 and the Gabo Reforms that swept the country from 1894 to 1896.
This article is a description of the morphology, syntax, and semantics of Korean. For phonetics and phonology, see Korean phonology.
This article explains how the Korean language is input and output on computers.
The Korean Language Proficiency Test, or KLPT, tests people who are not native speakers of Korean on their grasp of the language.
Korean mixed script, known in Korean as hanja honyong (漢字混用, 한자 혼용), 'Chinese character mixed usage,' or gukhanmun honyong (國漢文混用, 국한문 혼용), 'national Sino-Korean mixed usage,' is a form of writing the Korean language that uses a mixture of the Korean alphabet or hangul (한글) and hanja (漢字, 한자), the Korean name for Chinese characters.
The Korean language has two regularly used sets of numerals, a native Korean system and Sino-Korean system.
Korean postpositions, or particles, are suffixes or short words in Korean grammar that immediately follow a noun or pronoun.
For the Korean language, South Korea mainly uses a combination of East Asian and European punctuation, while North Korea uses a little more of the East Asian punctuation style.
Korean Sign Language or KSL (Korean: 한국 수화 언어 韓國手話言語 Hanguk Suhwa Eoneo or 한국 수어 韓國手語 Hanguk Sueo) is the deaf sign language of South Korea.
There are seven verb paradigms or speech levels in Korean, and each level has its own unique set of verb endings which are used to indicate the level of formality of a situation.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Korean Wave (a neologism literally meaning "flow of Korea") is the increase in global popularity of South Korean culture since the 1990s.
The Koreanic languages are a language family consisting of the modern Korean language together with extinct ancient relatives closer to it than to any other proposed links.
Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.
Koryo-mal, Goryeomal, or Koryŏmal (고려말, Корё мар) is the dialect of the Korean language spoken by Koryo-saram, ethnic Koreans in the former Soviet Union.
Koryo-saram (Корё сарам; 고려사람) or Koryoin (고려인) is the name which ethnic Koreans in the post-Soviet states use to refer to themselves.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
This is a list of words of Korean origin which have entered into English usage.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
McCune–Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
There are various names of Korea in use today, derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The National Institute of Korean Language is a language regulator of the Korean language.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nivkh or Gilyak (self-designation: Нивхгу диф Nivkhgu dif) is a language spoken in Outer Manchuria, in the basin of the Amgun (a tributary of the Amur), along the lower reaches of the Amur itself, and on the northern half of Sakhalin.
North Hamgyong Province (Hamgyŏngbukdo) is the northernmost province of North Korea.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
North Korean standard language or Munhwaŏ is the North Korean standard version of Korean language.
The Korean language has changed between the two states due to the length of time that North and South Korea have been separated.
The Northern Ryukyuan languages are a group of languages spoken in the Amami Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture and the Okinawa Islands, Okinawa Prefecture of southwestern Japan.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Korean is the historical variety of the Korean language or Koreanic languages dating from the beginning of Three Kingdoms of Korea to the latter part of Later Silla, roughly from the fourth to tenth centuries CE.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Paleosiberian (or Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian (Paleo-Asiatic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, "ancient") are terms of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of linguistic isolates as well as a few small families of languages spoken in parts both of northeastern Siberia and of the Russian Far East.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Prehistoric Korea is the era of human existence in the Korean Peninsula for which written records do not exist.
Primorsky Krai (p; 프리모르스키 지방) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District.
Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea (or Samhan) refers to the proto-historical period in the Korean Peninsula, after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms.
The Pyong'an dialect, alternatively Northwestern Korean, is the Korean dialect of the northwestern Korean peninsula and neighboring parts of China.
Pyeong'an Province was one of Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon.
Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.
Rason (formerly Rajin-Sŏnbong) is a North Korean city and ice-free port in the Sea of Japan in the North Pacific Ocean on the northeast tip of North Korea.
Korea has traditionally been divided into a number of unofficial regions that reflect historical, geographical, and dialect boundaries within the peninsula.
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer system.
The romanization of Korean is a system for representing the Korean language using the Latin script.
Roy Andrew Miller (September 5, 1924 – August 22, 2014) was an American linguist notable for his advocacy of Korean and Japanese as members of the Altaic group of languages.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Ryanggang Province (Ryanggangdo; 량강도, Ryanggang-do) is a province in North Korea.
Samguk Yusa or Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms is a collection of legends, folktales and historical accounts relating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla), as well as to other periods and states before, during and after the Three Kingdoms period.
Samuel Elmo Martin (29 January 1924 – 28 November 2009) was a professor of Far Eastern Languages at Yale University and the author of many works on the Korean and Japanese languages.
Sejong Institute (Korean: 세종연구소, Hanja: 世宗硏究所) is a non-profit, private organization for public interest and a leading think tank in South Korea, conducting research on national security strategy, unification strategy, regional issues, and international political economy.
Sejong the Great (7 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of Joseon-dynasty Korea.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin (Cyrillic: Серге́й Анато́льевич Ста́ростин, March 24, 1953 – September 30, 2005) was a Russian historical linguist and philologist, perhaps best known for his reconstructions of hypothetical proto-languages, including his work on the controversial Altaic theory, the formulation of the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis, and the proposal of a Borean language of still earlier date.
The Sillan language, or Silla, was a Koreanic language spoken in the ancient kingdom of Silla (57 BCE – 935 CE), one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.
Sino-Korean vocabulary or Hanja-eo refers to Korean words of Chinese origin.
Sino-Xenic or Sinoxenic pronunciations are regular systems for reading Chinese characters in Japan, Korea and Vietnam, originating in medieval times and the source of large-scale borrowings of Chinese words into the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, none of which are genetically related to Chinese.
SKATS stands for Standard Korean Alphabet Transliteration System.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
South Korean standard language or Pyojun-eo (표준어) is the South Korean standard version of the Korean language.
The form one of two branches of the Ryukyuan languages.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
The term stiff voice describes the pronunciation of consonants or vowels with a glottal opening narrower, and the vocal folds stiffer, than occurs in modal voice.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
The Swadesh list is a classic compilation of basic concepts for the purposes of historical-comparative linguistics.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
The Taebaek Mountains are a mountain range that stretches across North Korea and South Korea.
A tag question (also known as tail question) is a grammatical structure in which a declarative or an imperative statement is turned into interrogative fragment (the "tag").
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Test of Proficiency in Korean (TOPIK) is a Korean language test offered six times annually (in Jan, Mar, Apr, Jul, Oct, Nov) to foreigners in Korea and twice annually (Apr, Oct) to people studying Korean in other countries.
The Korea Times is the oldest of three English-language newspapers published daily in South Korea.
Tsushima dialect (対馬方言) is a dialect of Japanese spoken on Tsushima Island of Nagasaki Prefecture.
The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus, Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and northeast China by Tungusic peoples.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Tuttle Publishing, originally the Charles E. Tuttle Company, is a book publishing company that includes Tuttle, Periplus Editions, and Journey Editions.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
Ulsan, officially the Ulsan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's seventh-largest metropolis with a population of over 1.1 million inhabitants.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
A stop with no audible release, also known as an unreleased stop or an applosive, is a stop consonant with no release burst: no audible indication of the end of its occlusion (hold).
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
William George Aston CMG (9 April 1841 – 22 November 1911) was a British diplomat, author and scholar-expert in the language and history of Japan and Korea.
Wonsu is a very high military rank of the armed forces of the Republic of Korea and of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.
The Yale romanization of Korean was developed by Samuel Elmo Martin and his colleagues at Yale University about half a decade after McCune–Reischauer.
The Yalu River, also called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China.
Yanbian (Chosŏn'gŭl: 연변, Yeonbyeon) is an autonomous prefecture in northeastern Jilin Province, China.
The Yangban (양반, 兩班), were part of the traditional ruling class or gentry of dynastic Korea during the Joseon Dynasty.
Yeongdong (literally "east of the passes") is the name of the region coinciding with eastern Gangwon Province in South Korea and eastern Kangwŏn Province in North Korea.
Yeongseo is the western, inland region of Gangwon Province, South Korea and Kangwon Province, North Korea.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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