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Abae (Ἄβαι, Abai) is an ancient town in the northeastern corner of Phocis, in Greece.
Apollo Abaeus (Greek: Ἀβαῖος) was a toponymic epithet of the Greek god Apollo, derived from the town of Abae in Phocis, where the god had a rich temple renowned for its oracles, which were said to have been consulted by Croesus and Mardonius, among others.
Acacallis (Greek: Ἀκακαλλίς) in Greek mythology is the daughter of Minos, king of Crete, and Pasiphae.
Acantha (Greek: Ἀκάνθα, English translation: "thorny") is often claimed to be a minor character in Greek mythology whose metamorphosis was the origin of the Acanthus plant.
Acanthus is a genus of about 30 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae, native to tropical and warm temperate regions, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean Basin and Asia.
Acestor (Greek: Ἀκέστωρ) was the name of several figures in Classical mythology and history.
The Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί Akhaioí, "the Achaeans" or "of Achaea") constitute one of the collective names for the Greeks in Homer's Iliad (used 598 times) and Odyssey.
In Greek mythology, Achelous (Ancient Greek: Ἀχελώїoς, and later Ἀχελῷος Achelṓios) was originally the god of all water and the rivers of the world were viewed by many as his sinews.
In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.
Acraepheus (Ancient Greek: Ἀκραιφεύς) was, in Greek mythology, a son of Apollo to whom the foundation of the town of Acraephnium, a Boeotian town on the lake Copais, was ascribed.
Acraephia is a genus of bugs in the family Fulgoridae.
Actium (Greek: Ἄκτιον) was the name of an ancient town on a promontory of western Greece in northwestern Acarnania, at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf). Actium is chiefly famous as the name given to the nearby naval Battle of Actium, in which Octavian won a decisive victory over Mark Antony on September 2, 31 BC. Actium was situated on the southern side of the strait opposite the later city of Nicopolis built by Octavian. Since 2002 the peninsular of Actium has been linked with Preveza on the north shore of the Ambracian Gulf by the Aktio-Preveza Undersea Tunnel.
In Greek mythology, Admetus (Ancient Greek: Ἄδμητος Admetos, "untamed", "untameable") was a king of Pherae in Thessaly.
Adonis was the mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite in Greek mythology.
The adyton (innermost sanctuary, shrine, not to be entered) or adytum (Latin) was a restricted area within the cella of a Greek or Roman temple.
Aeacus (also spelled Eacus; Ancient Greek: Αἰακός) was a mythological king of the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf.
Aegisthus (Αἴγισθος; also transliterated as Aigisthos) is a figure in Greek mythology.
In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus).
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (also Aeolian, Lesbian or Lesbic dialect) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); Thessaly, in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.
The Aeolic order or Aeolian order was an early order of Classical architecture.
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
A canon in the sphere of visual arts and aesthetics, or an aesthetic canon, is a rule for proportions, so as to produce a harmoniously formed figure.
Aethusa (Gr. Αἵθουσα) was in Greek mythology a daughter of Poseidon and Alcyone, who was loved by Apollo, and bore to him Eleuther.
In Greek mythology, Agamemnon (Ἀγαμέμνων, Ἀgamémnōn) was the son of King Atreus and Queen Aerope of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra and the father of Iphigenia, Electra or Laodike (Λαοδίκη), Orestes and Chrysothemis.
Aganippe (Ancient Greek: Ἀγανίππη) was a name or epithet of several figures in Greek mythology.
The agora (ἀγορά agorá) was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states.
In Greek mythology Agreus or Argeus (Ancient Greek: Ἀγρεύς, Ἀργεύς) and his brother Nomios (Νόμιος) are two of the Pans, creatures multiplied from the god Pan.
Apollo Agyieus (translit) was an epithet of the Greek god Apollo describing him as the protector of the streets, public places, and the entrances to homes.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alcestis (Ἄλκηστις, Alkēstis) or Alceste, was a princess in Greek mythology, known for her love of her husband.
The Alcmaeonidae or Alcmaeonids (Ἀλκμαιωνίδαι) were a powerful noble family of ancient Athens, a branch of the Neleides who claimed descent from the mythological Alcmaeon, the great-grandson of Nestor.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Apollo Alexicacus (Ancient Greek: Ἀλεξίκακος), the "averter of evil", was an epithet given by the Ancient Greeks to several deities, such as Zeus, and Apollo, who was worshiped under this name by the Athenians, because he was believed to have stopped the plague which raged at Athens in the time of the Peloponnesian War.
In Greek mythology, the Aloadae or Aloads (Ἀλωάδαι Aloadai) were Otus (or Otos) (Ὦτος) and Ephialtes (Ἐφιάλτης), sons of Iphimedia, wife of Aloeus, by Poseidon, whom she induced to make her pregnant by going to the seashore and disporting herself in the surf or scooping seawater into her bosom.
In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ἀμαζόνες,, singular Ἀμαζών) were a tribe of women warriors related to Scythians and Sarmatians.
Ambracia (Ἀμβρακία, occasionally Ἀμπρακία, Ampracia), was a city of ancient Greece on the site of modern Arta.
In Greek mythology, Amphiaraus (Ancient Greek: Ἀμφιάραος Amphiaraos, "doubly cursed" or "twice Ares-like") was the king of Argos along with Adrastus and Iphis.
There are several characters named Amphion (derived from ἀμφί amphi "on both sides, in all directions, surrounding" as well as "around, about, near") in Greek mythology.
In Greek mythology, Amphissa (Ἄμφισσα) was a daughter of Macareus, a lover of Apollo and the eponym of the city Amphissa in Ozolian Locris.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Ancient Macedonian, the language of the ancient Macedonians, either a dialect of Ancient Greek or a separate language closely related to Greek, was spoken in the kingdom of Macedonia during the 1st millennium BC and belongs to the Indo-European language family.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andromache (Ἀνδρομάχη) is an Athenian tragedy by Euripides.
In ancient Greek religion and myth, the Anemoi (Greek: Ἄνεμοι, "Winds") were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction from which their respective winds came (see Classical compass winds), and were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions.
In Greek mythology, Angelos (Ἄγγελος) or Angelia (Ἀγγελία) was a daughter of Zeus and Hera who became known as a chthonic deity.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
In Greek mythology, Anius (Ἄνιος) was a king of Delos and priest of Apollo.
An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event.
Antoninus Liberalis (Ἀντωνῖνος Λιβεράλις) was an Ancient Greek grammarian who probably flourished between AD 100 and 300.
Apaliunas is the name of a god, attested in a Hittite language treaty as a protective deity of Wilusa.
The Apella (Ἀπέλλα) was the popular deliberative assembly in the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, corresponding to the ecclesia in most other Greek states.
Apellai (ἀπέλλαι), was a three-day family-festival of the Northwest Greeks similar with the Ionic Apaturia, which was dedicated to Apollo (Doric form:Ἀπέλλων).
The apellaia (ἀπελλαῖα) were the offerings made at the initiation of a young man (kouros) at a meeting of a family-group (φρατρία phratria) of the northwest Greeks.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Aplu was a Hurrian deity of the plague — bringing it, or, if propitiated, protecting from it — and resembles Apollo Smintheus, "mouse-Apollo" Aplu, it is suggested, comes from the Akkadian Aplu Enlil, meaning "the son of Enlil", a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apollo (originally Apollon musagète and variously known as Apollo musagetes, Apolo Musageta, and Apollo, Leader of the Muses) is a neoclassical ballet in two tableaux composed between 1927 and 1928 by Igor Stravinsky.
The Apollo archetype personifies the aspect of the personality that wants clear definitions, is drawn to master a skill, values order and harmony, and prefers to look at the surface, as opposed to beneath appearances.
The Apollo Belvedere or Apollo of the Belvedere—also called the Pythian Apollo—is a celebrated marble sculpture from Classical Antiquity.
An Apollo Citharoedus, or Apollo Citharede, is a statue or other image of Apollo with a cithara (lyre).
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
Apollo Sauroktonos (Apollo Lizard-killer) is the title of several 1st - 2nd century AD Roman marble copies of an original by the ancient Greek sculptor Praxiteles.
The Apollonian and Dionysian is a philosophical and literary concept, or dichotomy, loosely based on Apollo and Dionysus in Greek mythology.
Apollonis (Ἀπoλλωνίς), meaning "Daughter of Apollon", was one of the three younger Mousai Apollonides (Muses) in Greek mythology and daughters of Apollo who were worshipped in Delphi where the Temple of Apollo and the Oracle were located.
Apollonius of Rhodes (Ἀπολλώνιος Ῥόδιος Apollṓnios Rhódios; Apollonius Rhodius; fl. first half of 3rd century BCE), was an ancient Greek author, best known for the Argonautica, an epic poem about Jason and the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece.
Apotropaic magic (from Greek "to ward off" from "away" and "to turn") is a type of magic intended to turn away harm or evil influences, as in deflecting misfortune or averting the evil eye.
Arcadia (Αρκαδία, Arkadía) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Arcadocypriot, or southern Achaean, was an ancient Greek dialect spoken in Arcadia in the central Peloponnese and in Cyprus.
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.
Archegetes (Ἀρχηγέτης) is a Greek word that meant, effectively, "leader" or "founder".
Archilochus (Ἀρχίλοχος Arkhilokhos; c. 680c. 645 BC)While these have been the generally accepted dates since Felix Jacoby, "The Date of Archilochus," Classical Quarterly 35 (1941) 97–109, some scholars disagree; Robin Lane Fox, for instance, in Travelling Heroes: Greeks and Their Myths in the Epic Age of Homer (London: Allen Lane, 2008), p. 388, dates him c. 740–680 BC.
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
Ares (Ἄρης, Áres) is the Greek god of war.
A minor god in Greek mythology, attested mainly by Athenian writers, Aristaeus (Ἀρισταῖος Aristaios), was the culture hero credited with the discovery of many useful arts, including bee-keeping; he was the son of the huntress Cyrene and Apollo.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arnobius of Sicca (died c. 330) was an Early Christian apologist of Berber origin, during the reign of Diocletian (284–305).
An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called nock for engaging bowstring.
Arta (Άρτα) is a city in northwestern Greece, capital of the regional unit of Arta, which is part of Epirus region.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Asclepius (Ἀσκληπιός, Asklēpiós; Aesculapius) was a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Atargatis or Ataratheh (italic or italic) was the chief goddess of northern Syria in Classical antiquity.
Atepomarus in Celtic Gaul was a healing god.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
In Greek mythology, Atymnius (Ἀτύμνιος) may refer to.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
An aulos (αὐλός, plural αὐλοί, auloi) or tibia (Latin) was an ancient Greek wind instrument, depicted often in art and also attested by archaeology.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Baetylus (also Baetyl, Bethel, or Betyl, from Semitic bet el "house of god") is a word denoting sacred stones that were supposedly endowed with life.
Bassae (Bassae, Βάσσαι - Bassai, meaning "little vale in the rocks") is an archaeological site in Oichalia, a municipality in the northeastern part of Messenia, Greece.
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
Belenus (also Belenos, Belinus, Bel, Beli Mawr) is a sun god from Celtic Mythology and, in the third century, the patron deity of the Italian city of Aquileia.
Bellona was an ancient Roman goddess of war.
The Bibliotheca (Βιβλιοθήκη Bibliothēkē, "Library"), also known as the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, is a compendium of Greek myths and heroic legends, arranged in three books, generally dated to the first or second century AD.
The Boedromia (Βοηδρόμια) was an ancient Greek festival held at Athens on the 7th of Boedromion (summer) in the honor of Apollo Boedromios (the helper in distress).
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
In Greek mythology, Bolina (Βολίνα) or Boline (Βολίνη) was a nymph.
The Borghese Vase is a monumental bell-shaped krater sculpted in Athens from Pentelic marble in the second half of the 1st century BC as a garden ornament for the Roman market; it is now in the Louvre Museum.
In Greek mythology, Borysthenis (Βορυσθενίς) was one of the three Muses that were daughters of Apollo.
In Greek mythology, the name Branchus (Βράγχος) refers to the following characters, who may or may not be identical.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
Britomartis (Βριτόμαρτις) was a Greek goddess of mountains and hunting, who was primarily worshipped on the island of Crete.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Callimachus (Καλλίμαχος, Kallimakhos; 310/305–240 BC) was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya.
In Greek mythology, Calliope (Καλλιόπη, Kalliopē "beautiful-voiced") is the muse who presides over eloquence and epic poetry; so called from the ecstatic harmony of her voice.
Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.
Carneia (Κάρνεια, or Καρνεῖα Karneia, or Κάρνεα Karnea) was the name of one of the great national festivals of Sparta, held in honor of Apollo Carneus.
In Greek mythology, Carnus (also spelled Carneus and Carneius) (Κάρνος) was a seer from Acarnania.
Cassandra or Kassandra (Ancient Greek: Κασσάνδρα,, also Κασάνδρα), also known as Alexandra, was a daughter of King Priam and of Queen Hecuba of Troy in Greek mythology.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Castalia (Κασταλία), in Greek mythology, was a nymph whom Apollo transformed into a fountain at Delphi, at the base of Mount Parnassos, or at Mount Helicon.
The Castalian Spring, in the ravine between the Phaedriades at Delphi, is where all visitors to Delphi — the contestants in the Pythian Games, and especially pilgrims who came to consult the Delphic Oracle — stopped to wash themselves and quench their thirst; it is also here that the Pythia and the priests cleansed themselves before the oracle-giving process.
Celaenae (Celænæ) or Kelainai (Κελαιναί), was an ancient city of Phrygia and capital of the Persian satrapy of Greater Phrygia, near the source of the Maeander River in what is today west central Turkey (Dinar of Afyonkarahisar Province), and was situated on the great trade route to the East.
In Greek mythology, Celaeno (Κελαινώ Kelaino, lit. 'the dark one', also Celeno or Kelaino, sometimes Calaeno) referred to several different figures.
The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.
A centaur (Κένταυρος, Kéntauros), or occasionally hippocentaur, is a mythological creature with the upper body of a human and the lower body and legs of a horse.
In Greek mythology, Cephisso (or Kephiso (Κηφισώ)) was one of the three Muses that were daughters of Apollo.
Cephissus (Κηφισός, kephisos) is a river god of ancient Greece, associated with the river Cephissus in Attica, Greece.
Chariclo (or; graceful spinner) is either of two nymphs in Greek mythology.
In Greek mythology, a Charis (Χάρις) or Grace is one of three or more minor goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity, and fertility, together known as the Charites (Χάριτες) or Graces.
Charles Handy CBE (born 1932) is an Irish author/philosopher specialising in organisational behaviour and management.
Châtillon-sur-Seine is a commune of the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Chios (Χίος, Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast.
In Greek mythology, Chiron (also Cheiron or Kheiron; Χείρων "hand") was held to be the superlative centaur amongst his brethren, as he was called as the "wisest and justest of all the centaurs".
In Greek mythology, the name Chloris (Greek Χλωρίς Khlōris, from χλωρός khlōros, meaning "greenish-yellow", "pale green", "pale", "pallid", or "fresh") appears in a variety of contexts.
In Greek mythology, Chryseis (translit) was a Trojan woman, the daughter of Chryses.
In Greek mythology, Chryses (Χρύσης Khrúsēs) was a Trojan priest of Apollo at Chryse, near the city of Troy.
Chthonic (from translit, "in, under, or beneath the earth", from χθών italic "earth") literally means "subterranean", but the word in English describes deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in Ancient Greek religion.
The cicadas are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of insects in the order Hemiptera (true bugs).
Cicones, Ciconians, or Kikonians (Κίκονες, Kíkones) were a Homeric ThracianHerodotus, The Histories (Penguin Classics), edd.
In Greek mythology, Cinyras (Κινύρας – Kinyras) was a famous hero and king of Cyprus.
The cithara or kithara (translit, cithara) was an ancient Greek musical instrument in the lyre or lyra family.
Claros (Κλάρος, Klaros; Clarus) was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Clytemnestra (Κλυταιμνήστρα, Klytaimnḗstra) was the wife of Agamemnon and queen of Mycenae (or sometimes Argos) in ancient Greek legend.
In Greek mythology, the name Clytie (Κλυτίη, Ionic) or Clytia (Κλυτία, Attic and other dialects) may refer to.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
In Greek mythology, Coeus (Κοῖος, Koios, "query, questioning") was one of the Titans, the giant sons and daughters of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaia (Earth).
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
Colophon (Κολοφών) was an ancient city in Ionia.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Conflation happens when the identities of two or more individuals, concepts, or places, sharing some characteristics of one another, seem to be a single identity, and the differences appear to become lost.
The Constitution of the Athenians or the Athenian Constitution (Greek: Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία, Athenaion Politeia; Latin: Atheniensium Respublica) is a work by Aristotle or one of his students.
Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture.
There are several characters in Greek mythology by the name Coronis (Κορωνίς, -ίδος "crow" or "raven").
In Greek mythology, the name Coronus (Κόρωνος) may refer to.
Corvus is a widely distributed genus of medium-sized to large birds in the family Corvidae.
In Greek mythology, Corycia (Ancient Greek: Κωρύκια Korykia) or Corycis (Kôrukis), was a naiad who lived on Mount Parnassus in Phocis.
Cratylus (Κρατύλος, Kratylos) was an ancient Athenian philosopher from the mid-late 5th century BCE, known mostly through his portrayal in Plato's dialogue Cratylus.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
In Greek mythology, Creusa (Κρέουσα Kreousa "princess") may refer to the following figures.
In Greek mythology, Creusa (Ancient Greek: Κρέουσα Kreousa "princess") was the daughter of Erechtheus, King of Athens and his wife, Praxithea.
Croesus (Κροῖσος, Kroisos; 595 BC – c. 546 BC) was the king of Lydia who, according to Herodotus, reigned for 14 years: from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 546 BC (sometimes given as 547 BC).
In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.
Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.
A culture hero is a mythological hero specific to some group (cultural, ethnic, religious, etc.) who changes the world through invention or discovery.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cunomaglus ("Hound Lord") is the epithet of a Celtic god identified with Apollo.
In classical mythology, Cupid (Latin Cupīdō, meaning "desire") is the god of desire, erotic love, attraction and affection.
Cupressaceae is a conifer family, the cypress family, with worldwide distribution.
A cyclops (Κύκλωψ, Kyklōps; plural cyclopes; Κύκλωπες, Kyklōpes), in Greek mythology and later Roman mythology, is a member of a primordial race of giants, each with a single eye in the center of his forehead.
Mount Cynthus (Greek: Κύνθος, Kýnthos) is located on the isle of Delos, part of the Greek Cyclades.
In Greek mythology, Cyparissus or Kyparissos (Greek: Κυπάρισσος, "cypress") was a boy beloved by Apollo, or in some versions by other deities.
In Greek mythology, Cyrene or Kyrene (Κῡρήνη, "Sovereign Queen"), as recorded in Pindar's ninth Pythian ode, was the daughter of Hypseus, king of the Lapiths, although some myths state that her father was actually the river-god Peneus and she was a nymph rather than a mortal.
Cyrene (translit) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya.
In Greek mythology, Daedalion was a son of Hesperos, or Lucifer, and the brother of Ceyx.
In Greek mythology, Daedalus (Δαίδαλος Daidalos "cunningly wrought", perhaps related to δαιδάλλω "to work artfully"; Daedalus; Etruscan: Taitale) was a skillful craftsman and artist.
Daemon is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek daimon (δαίμων: "god", "godlike", "power", "fate"), which originally referred to a lesser deity or guiding spirit; the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of later Hellenistic religion and philosophy.
Daphne (Δάφνη, meaning "laurel") is a minor figure in Greek mythology known as a naiad—a type of female nymph associated with fountains, wells, springs, streams, brooks and other bodies of freshwater.
Daphnephoria was a festival held every ninth year at Thebes in Boeotia in honour of Apollo Ismenius or Galaxius.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
The Delia (Δήλια) were festivals and games celebrated in classical antiquity at the great celebratory gathering (panegyris) on the island of Delos.
The island of Delos (Δήλος; Attic: Δῆλος, Doric: Δᾶλος), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece.
Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of Pythia, the oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world.
In Greek mythology, Delphus or Delphos (Δέλφος) was the person from whom the town of Delphi was believed to have derived its name.
In Greek mythology, Delphyne (Δελφύνη) is the name given, by some accounts, to the monstrous serpent killed by Apollo at Delphi.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.
Diana (Classical Latin) was the goddess of the hunt, the moon, and nature in Roman mythology, associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849, originally published 1844 under a slightly different title) is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary.
Didyma (Δίδυμα) was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia.
Diomedes (Jones, Daniel; Roach, Peter, James Hartman and Jane Setter, eds. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. 17th edition. Cambridge UP, 2006. or) or Diomede (God-like cunning, advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, known for his participation in the Trojan War.
Dione (Διώνη, Diōnē) was an ancient Greek goddess, an oracular TitanessSmith, William.
The Dionysiaca (Διονυσιακά, Dionysiaká) is an ancient Greek epic poem and the principal work of Nonnus.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
The Dipylon (Δίπυλον, "Two-Gated") was the main gate in the city wall of Classical Athens.
The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors.
In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.
Dodona (Doric Greek: Δωδώνα, Dōdṓna, Ionic and Attic Greek: Δωδώνη, Dōdṓnē) in Epirus in northwestern Greece was the oldest Hellenic oracle, possibly dating to the second millennium BCE according to Herodotus.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
The Dorians (Δωριεῖς, Dōrieis, singular Δωριεύς, Dōrieus) were one of the four major ethnic groups among which the Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece considered themselves divided (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans, and Ionians).
Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.
Dreros (Δρῆρος), also (representing Modern Greek pronunciation) Driros, near Neapoli in the regional unit of Lasithi, Crete, is a post-Minoan archaeological site, 16 km northwest of Agios Nikolaos.
A dryad (Δρυάδες, sing.: Δρυάς) is a tree nymph or tree spirit in Greek mythology.
In Greek mythology, Dryope (Δρυόπη derived from δρῦς drys, "oak"; dryope "woodpecker") is the name attributed to several distinct figures.
The ecclesia or ekklesia (ἐκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eileithyia or Ilithyia (Εἰλείθυια;,Ἐλεύθυια (Eleuthyia) in Crete, also Ἐλευθία (Eleuthia) or Ἐλυσία (Elysia) in Laconia and Messene, and Ἐλευθώ (Eleuthō) in literature) was the Greek goddess of childbirth and midwifery.
El Djem (Tunisian Arabic: الجمّ; Latin Thysdrus) is a town in Mahdia Governorate, Tunisia, population 21,576 (2014 census).
There were several figures named Elatus or Élatos (Ἔλατος) in Greek mythology.
In Greek mythology, the name Eleuther (Ἑλευθήρ) may refer to.
An elf (plural: elves) is a type of human-shaped supernatural being in Germanic mythology and folklore.
Elfshot or elf-shot is a medical condition described in Anglo-Saxon medical texts, notably Wið færstice, and believed to be caused by invisible elves shooting invisible arrows at a person or animal, causing sudden shooting pains localised to a particular area of the body.
Elis or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient: Ἦλις Ēlis; Doric: Ἆλις Alis; Elean: Ϝαλις Walis, ethnonym: Ϝαλειοι) is an ancient district that corresponds to the modern Elis regional unit.
Emil Orgetorix Gustav Forrer (also Emilio O. Forrer;; 19 February 1894, Straßburg, Alsace-Lorraine – 10 January 1986, San Salvador) was a Swiss Assyriologist and pioneering Hittitologist.
Enlil, later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.
Enyo (Ancient Greek: Ἐνυώ) was a goddess of war in Classical Greek mythology.
Epimenides of Cnossos (Ἐπιμενίδης) was a semi-mythical 7th or 6th century BC Greek seer and philosopher-poet.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Eretria (Ερέτρια, Eretria, literally "city of the rowers") is a town in Euboea, Greece, facing the coast of Attica across the narrow South Euboean Gulf.
In Greek mythology, Erginus (Ἐργῖνος) was the name of the following figures.
In Greek mythology the Erinyes (sing. Erinys; Ἐρῑνύες, pl. of Ἐρῑνύς, Erinys), also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance; they were sometimes referred to as "infernal goddesses" (χθόνιαι θεαί).
In Greek mythology, the name Eriopis may refer to.
Eris (Ἔρις, "Strife") is the Greek goddess of strife and discord.
In Greek mythology, Ersa or Herse (Ἔρσα Érsa, Ἕρση Hérsē, literally "dew") is the goddess of dew and the daughter of Zeus and the Moon (Selene), sister of Pandia and half-sister to Endymion's 50 daughters.
In Greek mythology, the name Erymanthus (Ἑρύμανθος) may refer to.
Essarois is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
Etruscan mythology comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious practices of the Etruscan civilization, originating in the 7th century BC from the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture, with its influences in the mythology of ancient Greece and Phoenicia, and sharing similarities with concurrent Roman mythology.
Etymologicum Magnum (Ἐτυμολογικὸν Μέγα, Ἐtymologikὸn Mέga) (standard abbreviation EM, or Etym. M. in older literature) is the traditional title of a Greek lexical encyclopedia compiled at Constantinople by an unknown lexicographer around 1150 AD.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
In Greek mythology, Evadne (Εὐάδνη) was a name attributed to the following individuals.
Evocation is the act of calling upon or summoning a spirit, demon, god or other supernatural agent, in the Western mystery tradition.
Falerii Veteres, now Civita Castellana, was one of the chief cities of the duodecim populi of ancient Etruria.
A false etymology (popular etymology, etymythology, pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the last term is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word.
Flaying, also known colloquially as skinning, is a method of slow and painful execution in which skin is removed from the body.
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds.
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.
In Greek mythology, Gaia (or; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, "land" or "earth"), also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities.
Gaius Julius Hyginus (64 BC – AD 17) was a Latin author, a pupil of the famous Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor, and a freedman of Caesar Augustus.
Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Germanic mythology consists of the body of myths native to the Germanic peoples.
Gluttony (gula, derived from the Latin gluttire meaning "to gulp down or swallow") means over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or wealth items.
In ancient Greek philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the golden mean or golden middle way is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency.
Gortyn, Gortys or Gortyna (Γόρτυν, Γόρτυς, or Γόρτυνα) is a municipality and an archaeological site on the Mediterranean island of Crete, 45 km away from the modern capital Heraklion.
In the Celtic polytheism of classical antiquity, Grannus (also Granus, Mogounus, and Amarcolitanus) was a deity associated with spas, healing thermal and mineral springs, and the sun.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Greek Dark Age, also called Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time), is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and an eagle's talons as its front feet.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Hadrume(n)tum (sometimes called Adrametum or Adrametus) was a Phoenician colony that pre-dated Carthage and stood on the site of modern-day Sousse, Tunisia.
A hairstyle, hairdo, or haircut refers to the styling of hair, usually on the human scalp.
A halo (from Greek ἅλως, halōs; also known as a nimbus, aureole, glory, or gloriole) is a crown of light rays, circle or disk of light that surrounds a person in art.
Hamaxitus (Hamaxitos) was an ancient Greek city in the south-west of the Troad region of Anatolia which was considered to mark the boundary between the Troad and Aeolis.
Haute-Savoie (Savouè d’Amont or Hiôta-Savouè; Upper Savoy; Obersavoyen or Hochsavoyen; Alta Savoia) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-eastern France, bordering both Switzerland and Italy.
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Hebe (Ἥβη) in ancient Greek religion, is the goddess of youth (Roman equivalent: Juventas).
Hecate or Hekate (Ἑκάτη, Hekátē) is a goddess in ancient Greek religion and mythology, most often shown holding a pair of torches or a keyThe Running Maiden from Eleusis and the Early Classical Image of Hekate by Charles M. Edwards in the American Journal of Archaeology, Vol.
In ancient Greece, a hecatomb (or; ἑκατόμβη hekatómbē) was a sacrifice to the gods of 100 cattle (hekaton.
In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Hector (Ἕκτωρ Hektōr) was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War.
Hecuba (also Hecabe, Hécube; Ἑκάβη Hekábē) was a queen in Greek mythology, the wife of King Priam of Troy during the Trojan War, with whom she had 19 children.
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.
Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.
In the context of ancient Greek art, architecture, and culture, Hellenistic Greece corresponds to the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek heartlands by the Roman Republic.
Hemispheres is the sixth studio album by Canadian rock band Rush, released in October 1978 by Anthem Records.
Hephaestus (eight spellings; Ἥφαιστος Hēphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metallurgy, fire, and volcanoes.
Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
In Ancient Greek religion, Hestia (Ἑστία, "hearth" or "fireside") is a virgin goddess of the hearth, architecture, and the right ordering of domesticity, the family, the home, and the state.
Hesychius of Alexandria (Ἡσύχιος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς), a Greek grammarian who, probably in the 5th or 6th century AD, compiled the richest lexicon of unusual and obscure Greek words that has survived, probably by absorbing the works of earlier lexicographers.
''The Death of Hippolytus'', by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836–1912). In Greek mythology, Hippolytus (Ἱππόλυτος Hippolytos; "unleasher of horses") was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte.
Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey and in the Homeric Hymns.
The Homeric Hymns are a collection of thirty-three anonymous ancient Greek hymns celebrating individual gods.
In Greek mythology the Horae or Horai or Hours (Ὧραι, Hōrai,, "Seasons") were the goddesses of the seasons and the natural portions of time.
Hubris (from ancient Greek ὕβρις) describes a personality quality of extreme or foolish pride or dangerous overconfidence, often in combination with (or synonymous with) arrogance.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
Hyacinth or Hyacinthus (Ὑάκινθος Huákinthos) is a divine hero from Greek mythology.
Hyacinthus is a small genus of bulbous, fragrant flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae.
The death of Hyacinthus was celebrated at Amyclae by the second most important of Spartan festivals, the Hyacinthia (Ancient Greek Ὑακίνθια / Hyakínthia) in the Spartan month Hyacinthius in early summer.
Hymen (Ὑμήν), Hymenaios or Hymenaeus, in Hellenistic religion, is a god of marriage ceremonies, inspiring feasts and song.
In Greek mythology the Hyperboreans (Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι,; Hyperborei) were a mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind".
Hypsipyle (Ὑψιπύλη) was the Queen of Lemnos, daughter of Thoas and Myrina in Greek mythology.
Ialemus (Ιάλεμος) in Greek mythology was a similar personification to that of Linus, and hence also called a son of Apollo and Calliope, and the inventor of the song Ialemus, which was a kind of dirge, or at any rate a song of a very serious and mournful character, and is only mentioned as sung on most melancholy occasions.
In Greek mythology, Iamus was the son of Evadne, a daughter of Poseidon, sired by Apollo.
In Greek and Roman mythology, Iapyx (from Greek Ἰάπυξ, gen.: Ἰάπυγος), Iapux or Iapis was a favorite of Apollo.
Ictinus (Ἰκτῖνος, Iktinos) was an architect active in the mid 5th century BC.
In Greek mythology, Idas (/ee-das/; Ancient Greek: Ἴδας Ídas), was a Messenian prince.
An ideal is a principle or value that one actively pursues as a goal, usually in the context of ethics, and one's prioritization of ideals can serve to indicate the extent of one's dedication to each.
In Greek mythology, Idmon was an Argonaut seer.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
In Hittite mythology, Illuyanka was a serpentine dragon slain by Tarhunt, the Hittite incarnation of the Hurrian god of sky and storm.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indre is a department in central France named after the river Indre.
Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, standard abbreviation ILS, is a three-volume selection of Latin inscriptions edited by Hermann Dessau.
According to Greek mythology, Ion (Ἴων, Íon, gen.: Ἴωνος, Íonos, "going") was the illegitimate child of Creüsa, daughter of Erechtheus and wife of Xuthus.
Ion (Ἴων, Iōn) is an ancient Greek play by Euripides, thought to be written between 414 and 412 BC.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.
Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects).
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.
In Greek mythology, Iphigenia (Ἰφιγένεια, Iphigeneia) was a daughter of King Agamemnon and Queen Clytemnestra, and thus a princess of Mycenae.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
In Greek mythology, Ischys (Ancient Greek: Ἰσχύς) was the son of Elatus and Hippea, and also the lover of Coronis.
In Greek mythology, the name Ismenus (Ἰσμηνός) may refer to.
Sir James George Frazer (1 January 1854 – 7 May 1941) was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion.
John Tzetzes (Ἰωάννης Τζέτζης, Ioánnis Tzétzis; c. 1110, Constantinople – 1180, Constantinople) was a Byzantine poet and grammarian who is known to have lived at Constantinople in the 12th century.
Joseph Eddy Fontenrose (17 June 1903, Sutter Creek – 7 July 1986, Ashland, Oregon) was an American classical scholar.
Jublains is a commune in the Mayenne department in north-western France.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Károly (Carl, Karl) Kerényi (Kerényi Károly,; 19 January 1897 – 14 April 1973) was a Hungarian scholar in classical philology and one of the founders of modern studies of Greek mythology.
Kea (Κέα), also known as or Tzia (Τζια) and in antiquity Keos (Κέως, Ceos), is a Greek island in the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea.
Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
According to the Greek mythology, the Korybantes (Κορύβαντες, Korúvantes) were the armed and crested dancers who worshipped the Phrygian goddess Cybele with drumming and dancing.
A kouros (κοῦρος, plural kouroi) is the modern term given to free-standing ancient Greek sculptures that first appear in the Archaic period in Greece and represent nude male youths.
Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrus) is, according to Plutarch (Quaestiones Graecae 2.302a) the Lydian word for the double-bitted axe called in Greek a πέλεκυς (pélekus).
In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth (Greek: Λαβύρινθος labyrinthos) was an elaborate, confusing structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos.
A lacuna (lacunae or lacunas) is a gap in a manuscript, inscription, text, painting, or a musical work.
In Greek mythology, the name Laodocus (Greek: Λαόδοκος/Λαοδόκος) or Leodocus (Λεωδόκος) may refer to.
In Greek mythology, Lapithes (Λαπίθης) was a son of Apollo and Stilbe.
The Lapiths (Λαπίθαι) are a legendary people of Greek mythology, whose home was in Thessaly, in the valley of the Peneus and on the mountain Pelion.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
Latinus (Lătīnŭs; Λατῖνος) was a figure in both Greek and Roman mythology.
A laurel wreath is a symbol of victory and honor.
Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glabrous (smooth and hairless) leaves, in the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context.
Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
Leochares was a Greek sculptor from Athens, who lived in the 4th century BC.
Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
In Greek mythology, Leto (Λητώ Lētṓ; Λατώ, Lātṓ in Doric Greek) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe, the sister of Asteria.
Leucippus (Λεύκιππος, Leúkippos; fl. 5th cent. BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism—the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms.
In Greek mythology, the name Leuconoe (Λευκονόη) may refer to.
In Greek mythology, Leucothea (Λευκοθέα Leukothéa), "white goddess") was one of the aspects under which an ancient sea goddess was recognized, in this case as a transformed nymph. In the more familiar variant, Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, sister of Semele, and queen of Athamas, became a goddess after Hera drove her insane as a punishment for caring for the newborn Dionysus. She leapt into the sea with her son Melicertes in her arms, and out of pity, the Hellenes asserted, the Olympian gods turned them both into sea-gods, transforming Melicertes into Palaemon, the patron of the Isthmian games, and Ino into Leucothea. In the version sited at Rhodes, a much earlier mythic level is reflected in the genealogy: there, the woman who plunged into the sea and became Leucothea was Halia ("of the sea", a personification of the saltiness of the sea) whose parents were from the ancient generation, Thalassa and Pontus or Uranus. She was a local nymph and one of the aboriginal Telchines of the island. Halia became Poseidon's wife and bore him Rhodos and six sons; the sons were maddened by Aphrodite in retaliation for an impious affront, assaulted their sister and were confined beneath the Earth by Poseidon. Thus the Rhodians traced their mythic descent from Rhodos and the Sun god Helios. In the Odyssey (5.333 ff.), Leucothea makes a dramatic appearance as a gannet who tells the shipwrecked Odysseus to discard his cloak and raft and offers him a veil (κρήδεμνον, kredemnon) to wind round himself to save his life and reach land. Homer makes her the transfiguration of Ino. In Laconia, she has a sanctuary, where she answers people's questions about dreams. This is her form of the oracle.
Leviathan is a sea monster referenced in the Hebrew Bible in the Book of Job, Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, and the Book of Amos.
Libanius (Λιβάνιος, Libanios; c. 314 – 392 or 393) was a Greek teacher of rhetoric of the Sophist school.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
In Greek mythology, Linus (Λῖνος Linos "flax") may refer to the following personages.
The Celtic pantheon is known from a variety of sources such as written Celtic mythology, ancient places of worship, statues, engravings, religious objects, and place or personal names.
This is a list of deities and legendary figures found in the Etruscan mythology.
The following is a list of gods, goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion.
In mythology, a lunar deity is a god or goddess associated with, or symbolic of the moon.
This is an incomplete list of Mycenaean Greek deities and of the way their names, epithets, or titles are spelled and attested in Mycenaean Greek, written in the Linear B syllabary, along with some reconstructions and equivalent forms in later Greek.
A water deity is a deity in mythology associated with water or various bodies of water.
Litae (Λιταί meaning 'Prayers') are personifications in Greek mythology.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Locris (Greek, Modern: Λοκρίδα, Lokrida, Ancient: Λοκρίς, Lokris) was a region of ancient Greece, the homeland of the Locrians, made up of three distinct districts.
Lucian of Samosata (125 AD – after 180 AD) was a Hellenized Syrian satirist and rhetorician who is best known for his characteristic tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal.
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.
The Ludi Apollinares were solemn games (ludi) held annually by the ancient Romans in honor of the god Apollo.
Luwian sometimes known as Luvian or Luish is an ancient language, or group of languages, within the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Luwians were a group of Indo-European speaking people who lived in central, western, and southern Asia Minor as well as the northern part of western Levant in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
In Greek mythology, Lycaon (/laɪˈkeɪɒn/; Greek: Λυκάων) was a king of Arcadia, son of Pelasgus and Meliboea, who, in the most popular version of the myth, tested Zeus' omniscience by serving him the roasted flesh of Lycaon's own son Nyctimus, in order to see whether Zeus was truly all-knowing.
The Apollo Lyceus (Ἀπόλλων Λύκειος, Apollōn Lukeios) type, also known as Lycean Apollo, originating with Praxiteles and known from many full-size statue and figurine copies as well as from 1st century BCE Athenian coinage, is a statue type of Apollo showing the god resting on a support (a tree trunk or tripod), his right forearm touching the top of his head and his hair fixed in braids on the top of a head in a haircut typical of childhood.
Lycia (Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 Trm̃mis; Λυκία, Lykía; Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, and Burdur Province inland.
The name Lycomedes (Λυκομήδης) may refer to several characters in Greek mythology, of whom the most prominent was the king of Scyros during the Trojan War.
Lycophron (Λυκόφρων ὁ Χαλκιδεύς) was a Hellenistic Greek tragic poet, grammarian, and commentator on comedy, to whom the poem Alexandra is attributed (perhaps falsely).
In Greek mythology, Lycorus /lahy-ker-is/ or Lycoreus (Ancient Greek: Λυκωρεύς) may refer to the following personages.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Lydian is an extinct Indo-European language spoken in the region of Lydia, in western Anatolia (now in Turkey).
The lyre (λύρα, lýra) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later periods.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Maia (or; Μαῖα; Maia), in ancient Greek religion, is one of the Pleiades and the mother of Hermes.
Maine-et-Loire is a department of the Loire Valley in west-central France, in the Pays de la Loire region.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Manapa-Tarhunta letter (CTH 191; KUB 19.5 + KBo 19.79) is a Hittite letter discovered in the 1980s.
Manbij (منبج, Minbic) is a city in the northeast of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, 30 kilometers west of the Euphrates.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
There are several distinct figures in Greek mythology named Manto (Μαντώ), the most prominent being the daughter of Tiresias.
In ancient Celtic religion, Maponos or Maponus ("Great Son") is a god of youth known mainly in northern Britain but also in Gaul.
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
In Greek mythology, Marpessa (Márpēssa, "the robbed one") may refer to the following figures.
In Greek mythology, the satyr Marsyas (Μαρσύας) is a central figure in two stories involving music: in one, he picked up the double oboe (aulos) that had been abandoned by Athena and played it; in the other, he challenged Apollo to a contest of music and lost his hide and life.
Martin Persson Nilsson (Stoby, Kristianstad County, 12 July 1874 – Lund, 7 April 1967) was a Swedish philologist, mythographer, and a scholar of the Greek, Hellenistic and Roman religious systems.
Matricide is the act of killing one's mother.
Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy; he was the author of a set of commentaries on the works of Virgil.
Mauvières is a commune in the Indre department in central France.
Mdina (L-Imdina; 𐤌𐤋𐤉𐤈𐤄, Melitta, Μελίττη Melíttē, مدينة Madinah), also known by its titles Città Vecchia or Città Notabile, is a fortified city in the Northern Region of Malta, which served as the island's capital from antiquity to the medieval period.
The Megalai Ehoiai (Μεγάλαι Ἠοῖαι), or Great Ehoiai, is a fragmentary Greek epic poem that was popularly, though not universally, attributed to Hesiod during antiquity.
In Greek mythology, Melaina (Mélaina, feminine mélās "black, dark"; Melanḗ) was a Corycian nymph, or member of the prophetic Thriae, of the springs of Delphi in Phocis, who was loved by Apollo and bore him Delphos.
In Greek mythology, Melaneus was a son of Apollo.
In Greek mythology, Melia is the name of one (or two) of the Oceanid daughters of Oceanus and Tethys.
Melite or Melita (Μελίτη) was an ancient city located on the site of present-day Mdina and Rabat, Malta.
Metageitnia was an ancient Greek festival held at Athens during the month Metageitnion (summer) in the honor of Apollo.
The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Metis (Greek: Μῆτις - "wisdom," "skill," or "craft"), in ancient Greek religion, was a mythical Titaness belonging to the second generation of Titans.
Midas (Μίδας) is the name of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia.
Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.
Miletus (Ancient Greek: Μίλητος) was a character from Greek mythology.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
In Greek mythology, Minos (Μίνως, Minōs) was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes.
In Greek mythology, the Moirai or Moerae or (Μοῖραι, "apportioners"), often known in English as the Fates (Fata, -orum (n)), were the white-robed incarnations of destiny; their Roman equivalent was the Parcae (euphemistically the "sparing ones").
Mopsus (Μόψος, Mopsos) was the name of one of two famous seers in Greek mythology; his rival being Calchas.
The Moralia (Ἠθικά Ethika; loosely translated as "Morals" or "Matters relating to customs and mores") of the 1st-century Greek scholar Plutarch of Chaeronea is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches.
Moritasgus is a Celtic epithet for a healing god found in four inscriptions at Alesia.
Mount Kyllini or Mount Cyllene (Κυλλήνη,; sometimes Ζήρια), is a mountain on the Peloponnese in Greece famous for its association with the god Hermes.
Mount Olympus (Όλυμπος Olympos, for Modern Greek also transliterated Olimbos, or) is the highest mountain in Greece.
Mount Parnassus (Παρνασσός, Parnassos) is a mountain of limestone in central Greece that towers above Delphi, north of the Gulf of Corinth, and offers scenic views of the surrounding olive groves and countryside.
Mount Spil (Spil Dağı), the ancient Mount Sipylus (Σίπυλος) (elevation), is a mountain rich in legends and history in Manisa Province, Turkey, in what used to be the heartland of the Lydians and what is now Turkey's Aegean Region.
The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
Myron of Eleutherae (Μύρων), working c. 480 BC - 440 BC, was an Athenian sculptor from the mid-5th century BC.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Naucratis or Naukratis (Ναύκρατις, "Naval Victory"; Egyptian:Piemro) was a city of Ancient Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile river, and 45 mi (72 km) southeast of the open sea and Alexandria.
Naxos (Greek: Νάξος) is a Greek island and the largest of the Cyclades.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Neo-Attic or Atticizing is a sculptural style, beginning in Hellenistic sculpture and vase-painting of the 2nd century BCE and climaxing in Roman art of the 2nd century CE, copying, adapting or closely following the style shown in reliefs and statues of the Classical (5th–4th centuries BCE) and Archaic (6th century BCE) periods.
Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian: dGÌR-UNUG-GAL;; Aramaic ܢܹܪܓܵܐܠ; Nergel) was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim.
In Greek mythology, Niobe (Νιόβη) was a daughter of Tantalus and of either Dione, the most frequently cited, or of Eurythemista or Euryanassa, and the sister of Pelops and Broteas.
In Greek mythology, the Niobids were the children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe, slain by Apollo and Artemis because Niobe, born of the royal house of Phrygia, had boastfully compared the greater number of her own offspring with those of Leto, Apollo's and Artemis' mother: a classic example of hubris.
Nonnus of Panopolis (Νόννος ὁ Πανοπολίτης, Nónnos ho Panopolítēs) was a Greek epic poet of Hellenized Egypt of the Imperial Roman era.
Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Nudity, or nakedness, is the state of wearing no clothing.
A nymph (νύμφη, nýmphē) in Greek and Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform.
Ocyrhoe (Ὠκυρόη) or Ocyrrhoe (Ὠκυρρόη) refers to at least five characters in Greek mythology.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
In Greek mythology, Oecles (Οἰκλῆς) or Oecleus (Οἰκλεύς, Oἰkleús) was an Argive king, father of Amphiaraus, son of Mantius or Antiphates and grandson of Melampus.
In Greek mythology, Oileus or Oïleus (Ὀϊλεύς, Oī̈leús) was the king of Locris, and an Argonaut.
Olympia (Greek: Ὀλυμπία;; Olymbía), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times.
An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change.
An omphalos is a religious stone artifact, or baetylus.
On the Syrian Goddess (Περὶ τῆς Συρίης Θεοῦ) is the conventional Latin title of a Greek treatise of the second century AD, which describes religious cults practiced at the temple of Hierapolis Bambyce, now Manbij, in Syria.
In Greek mythology, Oncius (Ὅγκιος Onkios) or Oncus (Ὅγκος Onkos) was a son of Apollo and a ruler over Oncium (Onkeion), a region of Arcadia adjacent to Thelpusa, as well as eponym of a city Oncae.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
Orchamus was a king in Greek mythology.
The Oresteia (Ὀρέστεια) is a trilogy of Greek tragedies written by Aeschylus in the 5th century BC, concerning the murder of Agamemnon by Clytaemnestra, the murder of Clytaemnestra by Orestes, the trial of Orestes, the end of the curse on the House of Atreus and pacification of the Erinyes.
In Greek mythology, Orestes (Ὀρέστης) was the son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon.
Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviours that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization".
Oropos (Ωρωπός), or (referring to the ancient town) Oropus, is a small town and a municipality in East Attica, Greece.
Orpheus (Ὀρφεύς, classical pronunciation) is a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Ortygia (Ortigia; Ὀρτυγία) is a small island which is the historical centre of the city of Syracuse, Sicily.
In Greek mythology, Othreis was a nymph who consorted with both Zeus and Apollo and became by them mother of Meliteus and Phager respectively.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
A paean is a song or lyric poem expressing triumph or thanksgiving.
In Greek mythology, Paean (Παιάν), Paeëon or Paieon (Παιήων), or Paeon or Paion (Παιών) was the physician of the gods.
Palaephatus (Παλαίφατος) was the original author of a rationalizing text on Greek mythology, the work of paradoxography On Incredible Tales (Περὶ ἀπίστων (ἱστοριῶν); Peri apiston (historion); Incredibilia), which survives in a (probably corrupt) Byzantine edition.
The Palatine Hill (Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Palatino) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city.
Pallini (Παλλήνη) is a suburban town in Greater Athens Area and a municipality in East Attica, Greece.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pan (Πάν, Pan) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs.
In Greek mythology, the goddess Pandia or Pandeia (Πανδία, Πανδεία, meaning "all brightness") was a daughter of Zeus and the goddess Selene, the Greek personification of the moon.
Paris (Πάρις), also known as Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος, Aléxandros), the son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy, appears in a number of Greek legends.
In Greek mythology, the name Parthenos (Παρθένος) means "virgin".
In Greek mythology, Pasiphaë (Πασιφάη Pasipháē, "wide-shining" derived from pas "all, for all, of all" and phaos "light") was a queen of Crete.
Patara (Lycian: 𐊓𐊗𐊗𐊀𐊕𐊀 Pttara, Πάταρα), later renamed Arsinoe (Greek: Ἀρσινόη), was a flourishing maritime and commercial city on the south-west coast of Lycia on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey near the modern small town of Gelemiş, in Antalya Province.
Paul Kretschmer (2 May 1866 – 9 March 1956) was a German linguist who studied the earliest history and interrelations of the Indo-European languages and showed how they were influenced by non-Indo-European languages, such as Etruscan.
Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
Paximadia (Παξιμάδια, "rusks") are two small uninhabited islands in the gulf of Mesara located approximately south of Agia Galini in Rethymno regional unit.
Pelias (Πελίας) was king of Iolcus in Greek mythology.
Pella (Πέλλα, Pélla) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, Greece, best known as the historical capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and birthplace of Alexander the Great.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour.
In Greek mythology, Peneus (Πηνειός) was a Thessalian river god, one of the three thousand Rivers (Potamoi), a child of Oceanus and Tethys.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
In Hellenistic Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle (from Greek περίστυλος) is a continuous porch formed by a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard.
In Greek mythology, Persephone (Περσεφόνη), also called Kore ("the maiden"), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and is the queen of the underworld.
In Greek mythology, Perseus (Περσεύς) is the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty, who, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, was the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles.
Phaistos (Φαιστός,; Ancient Greek: Φαιστός), also transliterated as Phaestos, Festos and Latin Phaestus, currently refers to a Bronze Age archaeological site at modern Phaistos, a municipality in south central Crete.
In Greek mythology, Phemonoe (Φημονόη) was a Greek poet of the ante-Homeric period.
Pherae is the English transliteration of two towns in Ancient Greece.
In Greek mythology, Philammon (Ancient Greek: Φιλάμμων) was the son of Chione and Apollo.
Philostratus or Lucius Flavius Philostratus (Φλάβιος Φιλόστρατος; c. 170/172 – 247/250), called "the Athenian", was a Greek sophist of the Roman imperial period.
Philostratus of Lemnos (Φιλόστρατος ὁ Λήμνιος; c. 190 – c. 230 AD), also known as Philostratus the Elder to distinguish him from Philostratus the Younger who was also from Lemnos, was a Greek sophist of the Roman imperial period.
Philostratus the Younger (Φιλόστρατος ὁ Νεώτερος; fl. 3rd century AD), also known as Philostratus of Lemnos, was a Greek sophist of the Roman imperial period.
Phlegyas (Φλεγύας), son of Ares and Chryse or Dotis, was king of the Lapiths in Greek mythology.
Phocis (Φωκίδα,, Φωκίς) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Phocis was an ancient region in the central part of Ancient Greece, which included Delphi.
In ancient Greek religion, Phoebe (Greek: Φοίβη Phoibe, associated with Phoebos or "shining") was one of the first generation of Titans, who were one set of sons and daughters of Uranus and Gaia.
Phoebus (also known as Apollo) is one of the Olympian deities in Greek and Roman mythology.
In Greek mythology, Phorbas (Φόρβας, gen. Φόρβαντος) or Phorbaceus may refer to.
Photios I (Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), also spelled PhotiusFr.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
The pilum (plural pila) was a javelin commonly used by the Roman army in ancient times.
Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus; c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
The Piraeus Apollo is an archaic-style bronze dating from the 6th century BC, possibly from the years 530–520 BC, exhibited now at the Archaeological Museum of Piraeus (Athens).
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
A plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Pneuma (πνεῦμα) is an ancient Greek word for "breath", and in a religious context for "spirit" or "soul".
Polykleitos was an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the 5th century BCE.
In Greek mythology, Polypoetes (Πολυποίτης, Polupoitēs) was a name attributed to the following individuals.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Pope Clement I (Clemens Romanus; Greek: Κλήμης Ῥώμης; died 99), also known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as Bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 to his death in 99.
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Praxiteles (Greek: Πραξιτέλης) of Athens, the son of Cephisodotus the Elder, was the most renowned of the Attic sculptors of the 4th century BC.
The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric ancient Greece before the settlement of Proto-Hellenic speakers in the area.
In Greek mythology, Priam (Πρίαμος, Príamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War and youngest son of Laomedon.
In Greek mythology Proclia or Proclea (Πρόκλεια, Prókleia) is the daughter of Laomedon, king of Troy, or Clytius, son of Laomedon (and in the latter case sister of Caletor).
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.
Psamathe (Ancient Greek: Ψάμαθη, from ψάμαθος "sand of the sea-shore"), sometimes given only as the daughter of Crotopus, was daughter of King Crotopus of Argos, who became the lover of the god Apollo.
Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the actual, but unknown, authors of a number of pseudepigrapha (falsely attributed works) attributed to Plutarch but now known to have not been written by him.
Pteron (Gr. πτερον – pteron — wing) is an architectural term used by Pliny the Elder for the peristyle of the tomb of Mausolus, which was raised on a lofty podium, and so differed from an ordinary peristyle raised only on a stylobate, as in Greek temples, or on a low podium, as in Roman temples.
Pyanopsia (Πυανόψια) or Pyanepsia (Πυανέψια) was an ancient Greek festival in honor of Apollo, held at Athens on the 7th of the month Pyanepsion (October/November).
Pylos ((Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Greece Ministry of Interior It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2. Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
The Pythia (Πῡθίᾱ) was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who also served as the oracle, commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi.
The Pythian Games (Πύθια; also Delphic Games) were one of the four Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece.
In Greek mythology, Python (Πύθων; gen. Πύθωνος) was the serpent, sometimes represented as a medieval-style dragon, living at the centre of the earth, believed by the ancient Greeks to be at Delphi.
A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus.
The Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, commonly called the Pauly–Wissowa or simply RE, is a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.
In Greek mythology, Rhadamanthus or Rhadamanthys (Ῥαδάμανθυς) was a wise king of Crete.
Rhea (Ῥέα) is a character in Greek mythology, the Titaness daughter of the earth goddess Gaia and the sky god Uranus as well as sister and wife to Cronus.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
In Greek mythology, Rhoeo (Ῥοιώ, Ῥoiṓ) was a daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis, sister to Parthenos and Molpadia or Hemithea.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Robert Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985), also known as Robert von Ranke Graves, was an English poet, historical novelist, critic, and classicist.
Robert Stephen Paul Beekes (2 September 1937 – 21 September 2017) was Emeritus Professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University and the author of many monographs on the Proto-Indo-European language.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
Ancient Roman temples were among the most important buildings in Roman culture, and some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete state.
A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire.
(Sanskrit: रुद्र) is a Rigvedic deity, associated with wind or storm and the hunt.
Rush was a Canadian rock band comprising Geddy Lee (bass, vocals, keyboards), Alex Lifeson (guitars) and Neil Peart (drums, percussion, lyrics).
The Sacred Gate (Ἱερὰ Πύλη, Hiera Pyle) was a gate in the city wall of Classical Athens, in the modern neighbourhood of Kerameikos.
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
A sacrificial tripod is a three-legged piece of religious furniture used for offerings or other ritual procedures.
Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
Sarpedon (Σαρπηδών, Sarpēdṓn) was a common name in ancient Greece and in the Roman Empire.
In Greek mythology, a satyr (σάτυρος satyros) is the member of a troop of ithyphallic male companions of Dionysus; they usually have horse-like ears and tails, as well as permanent, exaggerated erections.
Scholia (singular scholium or scholion, from σχόλιον, "comment, interpretation") are grammatical, critical, or explanatory comments, either original or extracted from pre-existing commentaries, which are inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author, as glosses.
In Greek mythology, Scylla (Σκύλλα,, Skylla) was a monster that lived on one side of a narrow channel of water, opposite her counterpart Charybdis.
Sea monsters are beings from folklore believed to dwell in the sea and often imagined to be of immense size.
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
The Secular Games (Ludi saeculares, originally Ludi Terentini) was a Roman religious celebration, involving sacrifices and theatrical performances, held in ancient Rome for three days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum and the beginning of the next.
Segesta (Egesta; Siggésta) was one of the major cities of the Elymian people, one of the three indigenous peoples of Sicily.
In Greek mythology, Selene ("Moon") is the goddess of the moon.
Selinunte (Σελινοῦς, Selinous; Selinūs) was an ancient Greek city on the south-western coast of Sicily in Italy.
Semele (Σεμέλη Semelē), in Greek mythology, is a daughter of the Boeotian hero Cadmus and Harmonia, and the mother of Dionysus by Zeus in one of his many origin myths.
A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
The sibyls were women that the ancient Greeks believed were oracles.
The Sibylline Oracles (Oracula Sibyllina; sometimes called the pseudo-Sibylline Oracles) are a collection of oracular utterances written in Greek hexameters ascribed to the Sibyls, prophetesses who uttered divine revelations in a frenzied state.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sicyon (Σικυών; gen.: Σικυῶνος) was an ancient Greek city state situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea on the territory of the present-day regional unit of Corinthia.
In Greek Mythology, Sinope (Greek: Σινώπη) was one of the daughters of Asopus and thought to be an eponym of the city Sinope on the Black Sea.
The Siphnian Treasury was a building at the Ancient Greek cult centre of Delphi, erected to host the offerings of the polis, or city-state, of Siphnos.
Sol was the solar deity in ancient Roman religion.
A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
Solid earth refers to "the earth beneath our feet" or terra firma, the planet's solid surface and its interior.
Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
Soranus was a Sabine god adopted into ancient Roman religion.
Sousse or Soussa (سوسة, Berber: Susa) is a city in Tunisia, capital of the Sousse Governorate.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
Stephen of Byzantium, also known as Stephanus Byzantinus (Greek: Στέφανος Βυζάντιος; fl. 6th century AD), was the author of an important geographical dictionary entitled Ethnica (Ἐθνικά).
Stilbe (Στίλβη) in Greek mythology was a nymph, daughter of the river god Peneus and the Naiad Creusa.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
In classical Greek architecture, a stylobate (στυλοβάτης) is the top step of the crepidoma, the stepped platform upon which colonnades of temple columns are placed (it is the floor of the temple).
The Suda or Souda (Soûda; Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας).
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.
Swans are birds of the family Anatidae within the genus Cygnus.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
In Greek mythology, Syrus was the son of Sinope (daughter of Asopus and Merope) and Apollo; the syrians are named after him.
In Greek mythology, Tartarus (Τάρταρος Tartaros) is the deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked and as the prison for the Titans.
Tegyra (Τεγύρα), also: Tegyrae (Τεγύραι - Tegyrai) was the site of an oracle of Apollo in ancient Greece.
Temple C at Selinus, Trapani (Sicily), is a Greek temple in the doric style.
Temple of Apollo can refer to.
The Temple of Apollo (Tempju t'Apollo) was a Roman temple in the city of Melite, in modern Mdina, Malta.
The Temple of Apollo Palatinus (Palatine Apollo) was a temple on the Palatine Hill of ancient Rome, which was first dedicated by Augustus to his patron god Apollo.
The Temple of Apollo Sosianus (previously known as the Apollinar and the temple of Apollo Medicus) is a Roman temple dedicated to Apollo in the Campus Martius, next to the Theatre of Marcellus and the Porticus Octaviae, in Rome, Italy.
Tenea (Τενέα) is an ancient city and a former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, Greece.
In Greek mythology, Tenes or Tennes (Τέννης) was the eponymous hero of the island of Tenedos.
Thaleia is a genus of very small ectoparasitic sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks or micromollusks in the Eulimidae family.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
Thalia (Θάλεια, Θαλία; "the joyous, the flourishing", from θάλλειν, thállein; "to flourish, to be verdant"), also spelled Thaleia, was the goddess who presided over comedy and idyllic poetry.
In Greek mythology, Thanatos (Θάνατος, pronounced in "Death", from θνῄσκω thnēskō "to die, be dying") was the personification of death.
Thargelia (Greek Θαργήλια) was one of the chief Athenian festivals in honour of the Delian Apollo and Artemis, held on their birthdays, the 6th and 7th of the month Thargelion (about May 6 and May 7).
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Themis (Ancient Greek: Θέμις) is an ancient Greek Titaness.
The Theogony (Θεογονία, Theogonía,, i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the gods") is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 700 BC.
A theophoric name (from Greek: θεόφορος, theophoros, literally "bearing or carrying a god") embeds the name of a god, both invoking and displaying the protection of that deity.
Thermos (also known as Thermon or Thermum; Θέρμος) was an ancient Greek sanctuary, which served as the regular meeting place of the Aetolian League.
In Greek mythology, the name Thero (Θηρώ "feral, beastly") may refer to.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
In Greek mythology, Thyia (Θυία Thuia derived from the verb θύω "to sacrifice") was a female figure associated with cults of several major gods.
The Times of Malta is an English-language daily newspaper in Malta.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy (Τιτανομαχία Titanomakhia, "Titan battle") was a ten-year series of battles fought in Thessaly, consisting of most of the Titans (an older generation of gods, based on Mount Othrys) fighting against the Olympians (the younger generations, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus) and their allies.
Tityos or Tityus (Τιτυός) was a giant from Greek mythology.
Tmolus (Τμῶλος, Tmōlos) was a King of Lydia and husband to Omphale.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.
The Troada or Troad (Anglicized; or; Τρωάδα, Troáda), or Troas (Τρωάς, Troás), is the historical name of the Biga Peninsula (modern Turkish: Biga Yarımadası) in the northwestern part of Anatolia, Turkey.
Troilus (or; Troïlos; Troilus) is a legendary character associated with the story of the Trojan War.
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.
Trophonius (Τροφώνιος, Trophōnios) was a Greek hero or daimon or god—it was never certain which one—with a rich mythological tradition and an oracular cult at Lebadaea in Boeotia.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
The Tuscan order is in effect a simplified Doric order, with un-fluted columns and a simpler entablature with no triglyphs or guttae.
relief (1st century BCendash1st century AD) depicting the twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre), from the Walters Art Museum.Walters Art Museum, http://art.thewalters.org/detail/38764 accession number 23.40. In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.
Typhon (Τυφῶν, Tuphōn), also Typhoeus (Τυφωεύς, Tuphōeus), Typhaon (Τυφάων, Tuphaōn) or Typhos (Τυφώς, Tuphōs), was a monstrous serpentine giant and the most deadly creature in Greek mythology.
The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.
Urania (Οὐρανία, Ourania; meaning "heavenly" or "of heaven") was, in Greek mythology, the muse of astronomy.
Uranus (Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
The so-called Vatican Mythographers (Mythographi Vaticani) are the anonymous authors of three Latin mythographical texts found together in a single medieval manuscript, Vatican Reg.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Veii (also Veius, Veio) was an important ancient Etruscan city situated on the southern limits of Etruria and only north-northwest of Rome, Italy.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
The Via Labicana was an ancient road of Italy, leading east-southeast from Rome.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Virotutis is a Celtic epithet of the god Apollo.
Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.
A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.
Walter Burkert (born 2 February 1931, Neuendettelsau; died 11 March 2015, Zurich) was a German scholar of Greek mythology and cult.
Western Greece Region (Περιφέρεια Δυτικής Ελλάδας) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece.
Sir William Smith (20 May 1813 – 7 October 1893) was an English lexicographer.
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.
Wilusa, (𒌷𒃾𒇻𒊭) or Wilusiya, was a major city of the late Bronze Age in western Anatolia.
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
In Greek mythology, Xuthus (Ξοῦθος Xouthos) was a king of Peloponnesus and founder (through his sons) of the Achaean and Ionian nations.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
In Greek mythology, the name Zeuxippus (Ancient Greek: Ζεύξιππος) may refer to.
1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
Acraephiaeus, Acraephiaeus Apollo, Acraephius, Acraephius Apollo, Acrephieus, Acrephius, Actiacus, Actiacus Apollo, Aegletes, Aigletes, Apellon, Apellōn, Aphetor Apollo, Aphetorius Apollo, ApollO, Apolllo, Apollo (god), Apollo (mythology), Apollo Acesius, Apollo Acestor, Apollo Actiacus, Apollo Aegletes, Apollo Agyieus, Apollo Apotropaeus, Apollo Articenens, Apollo Averruncus, Apollo Clarius, Apollo Coelispex, Apollo Culicarius, Apollo Cynthius, Apollo Cynthogenes, Apollo Delius, Apollo Delphinios, Apollo Delphinius, Apollo Didymaeus, Apollo Epicurius, Apollo Galaxius, Apollo Genetor, Apollo Hecebolus, Apollo Helius, Apollo Iatromantis, Apollo Iatrus, Apollo Ismenius, Apollo Leschenorios, Apollo Leschenorius, Apollo Loxias, Apollo Lycegenes, Apollo Lyceios, Apollo Lycoctonus, Apollo Medicus, Apollo Nomius, Apollo Nymphegetes, Apollo Paean, Apollo Parnopius, Apollo Patroüs, Apollo Phanaeus, Apollo Phoebos, Apollo Phoebus, Apollo Pythius, Apollo Roman God, Apollo Sosianus, Apollo in popular culture, Apollon Delphinios, Apotropaeus, Appolyn, Apóllon, Apóllōn, Archigetes, Argyrotoxus Apollo, Birth of Hermes, Culicarius, Cult of Apollo, Cynthius, Cynthogenes, Delian Apollo, Delius Apollo, Delphinios, Delphinius, Didymaeus, Didymeus, Hecaërgus Apollo, Helius Apollo, Loxian Apollo, Loxias, Lukeios, Lycegenes, Lycoctonus, Manticus Apollo, Musagetes, Parnopius, Phanaeus (epithet), Phaneus, Phevos, Phivos, Phoebos Apollo, Phoebus, Phoibos, Phoibos Apollo, Phoibus, Phévos, Phœbus, Pythian Apollo, Pythius Apollo, Smintheus, Thyraeus, Απόλλων.