107 relations: Afrikaans, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Alternation (linguistics), Amstetten, Lower Austria, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek phonology, Attic Greek, Azerbaijani alphabet, Azerbaijani language, Basque alphabet, Basque language, Bavarian language, Brazilian Portuguese, Breton language, Cantonese, Cantonese phonology, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Chechen language, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chuvash language, Close central rounded vowel, Cornish alphabet, Cornish language, Cyrillic script, Danish language, Danish orthography, Danish phonology, Déjà vu, Diphthong, Distinctive feature, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, English language, English orthography, English phonology, Estonian language, Estonian orthography, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, Finnish phonology, Flemish, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Gascon language, ..., German language, German orthography, Hiberno-English, Hungarian language, Hungarian orthography, Hungarian phonology, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Ionic Greek, Jyutping, Koine Greek, Koine Greek phonology, Labialized palatal approximant, Language, Languedocien dialect, Lombard language, Modern Greek, Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Mongolian language, Near-close near-front rounded vowel, North Frisian language, North Germanic languages, Northern Catalan, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Occitan language, Occitan phonology, Orthography, Phonetic transcription, Piedmontese language, Pinyin, Portuguese language, Portuguese phonology, Provençal dialect, Romance languages, Romanization, Roundedness, Scots language, Scottish English, Scouse, Souletin dialect, South African English, Standard Chinese, Standard Chinese phonology, Standard German phonology, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Swedish phonology, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Turkish phonology, Vowel, West Frisian language, West Frisian phonology, Wu Chinese, X-SAMPA. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.
The modern Albanian alphabet is a Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters: Note: The vowels are shown in bold.
Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe, meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by five million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Greece, but also in other areas of Southeastern Europe in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and the Preševo Valley of Serbia.
In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a phoneme or morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
Amstetten is a town in Lower Austria.
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek phonology is the description of the reconstructed phonology or pronunciation of Ancient Greek.
Attic Greek is the main Greek dialect that was spoken in ancient Attica, which includes Athens.
The Azerbaijani alphabet of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a Latin alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, sometimes referred to as Azerbaijani Turkish or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people, who are concentrated mainly in the South Caucasus geographical region.
The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.
Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.
Bavarian (Bairisch; Austro-Bavarian: Boarisch), is a major group of Upper German varieties spoken in the southeast of the German language area, largely covered by Bavaria and Austria.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or Português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; Bretagne), France.
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.
The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province.
Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
The Chechen language (Нохчийн Мотт / Noxčiyn Mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in Chechnya and by Chechen people elsewhere.
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chuvash (Чӑвашла, Çăvaşla) is a Turkic language spoken in central Russia, primarily in the Chuvash Republic and adjacent areas.
The close central rounded vowel, or high central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Cornish alphabet is used for the Cornish language.
Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language historically spoken by the Cornish people.
The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia.
Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
Danish is a Scandinavian language related closely to Swedish and Norwegian, and more distantly to Icelandic and Faroese as well as to the other Germanic languages.
Déjà vu, from French, literally "already seen", is the phenomenon of having the strong sensation that an event or experience currently being experienced, has already been experienced in the past, whether it has actually happened or not.
A diphthong (Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.
In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch has a similar phonology or pronunciation to other West Germanic languages.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people in Estonia and tens of thousands in various migrant communities.
Estonian orthography is the system used for writing the Estonian language and is based on the Latin alphabet.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 28 letters.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in Häme Province in central south Finland.
Flemish or Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands, or Vlaams) is the Dutch language as spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, be it standard (as used in schools, government and the media) or informal (as used in daily speech, "")..
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
This article mainly discusses the phonological system of standard French based on the Parisian dialect.
Gascon is a dialect of Occitan.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language.
Hiberno‐English or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the Republic of Ireland as well as Northern Ireland.
Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent use of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic dialect group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects).
Jyutping, (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993.
Koine Greek (UK English, US English, or; in Merriam-Webster from Koine Greek ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος, "the common dialect"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic or Hellenistic Greek (Modern Greek Ελληνιστική Κοινή, "Hellenistic Koiné", in the sense of "Hellenistic supraregional language"), was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic and Roman antiquity.
The Greek language during the Koine Greek period, of about 300 BC to 300 AD, underwent pronunciation blending from almost identical to Classical Greek, while at the end it was closer to Modern Greek.
The labialized palatal approximant, also called the labial–palatal or labio-palatal approximant, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Languedocien (French name) or Lengadocian (native name) is an Occitan dialect spoken in rural parts of southern France such as Languedoc, Rouergue, Quercy, Agenais and Southern Périgord.
Lombard (lumbaart, or lengua lumbarda) is a member of the Cisalpine or Gallo-Italic group within the Romance languages.
Modern Greek (νέα ελληνικά or νεοελληνική γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
The Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet (Монгол Кирилл үсэг, Mongol kirill üseg or Кирилл цагаан толгой, Kirill tsagaan tolgoi) is the writing system used for the standard dialect of the Mongolian language in the modern state of Mongolia.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script:, Mongɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол хэл, Mongol khel) is the official language of Mongolia and largest-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The near-close near-front rounded vowel, or near-high near-front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 30,000 people in North Frisia.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Northern Catalan (català septentrional,, also known as rossellonès) is a Catalan dialect mostly spoken in Northern Catalonia, but also extending in the northeast part of Southern Catalonia in a transition zone with Central Catalan.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
This article describes the phonology of the Occitan language.
An orthography is a set of conventions for how to write a language.
Phonetic transcription (aka phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Piedmontese (piemontèis or lenga piemontèisa) is a Romance language spoken by over 1 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy.
Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and a pinyin without diacritic markers is often used in foreign publications to spell Chinese names familiar to non-Chinese and may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The Hanyu Pinyin system was developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone rather than for educational and computer input purposes. The word Hànyǔ means the spoken language of the Han people and pīnyīn literally means "spelled-out sounds".
New!!: Close front rounded vowel and Pinyin ·
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary considerably between dialects, in extreme cases leading to difficulties in intelligibility.
Provençal (Provençau or Prouvençau) is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence.
The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanization or latinization (or romanisation, latinisation: see spelling differences), in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.
New!!: Close front rounded vowel and Scouse ·
Souletin, or Zuberoan (Zuberera), is the Basque dialect spoken in Soule, France.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects spoken by South Africans.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin and Putonghua, sometimes simply referred to as "Mandarin", is a standard language that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the system used to write the Swedish language.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
The Turkish alphabet is an alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.
A notable feature of Turkish phonology is a system of vowel harmony that causes vowels in most words to be either front or back and either rounded or unrounded.
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.
New!!: Close front rounded vowel and Vowel ·
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the West Frisian language.
Wu (Suzhou Wu:, Shanghai Wu) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in Zhejiang province, the municipality of Shanghai, and southern Jiangsu province.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London.