304 relations: Ainslie Embree, Alltagsgeschichte, American urban history, Ancient Greek, Ancient history, Ancrene Wisse, Anglo-Norman language, Annales school, Annals, Annapolis, Maryland, Anthropology, Archaeology, Archival research, Aristotle, Arno J. Mayer, Arnold J. Toynbee, Art, Athens, Atlantic history, Augustine of Hippo, Author, Auxiliary sciences of history, Benedetto Croce, Bibliography, Bielefeld School, Big History, Boeotia, Bronze Age, Bruce Trigger, Business history, C. L. R. James, Calendar date, Calendar era, Causality, Century, Charles Harding Firth, China, Chinese historiography, Christopher Hill (historian), Chronicle, Church History (journal), City, Classics, Claudia Koonz, Collective memory, Communication, Comparative history, Computational history, Confessio Amantis, Contemporary history, ..., Continent, Counterfactual history, Country, Credibility, Cultural heritage, Cultural history, Culture, Dark Ages (historiography), Decade, Demographic history, Detlev Peukert, Digital history, Diplomatic history, Discipline (academia), Disfranchisement, Donald Creighton, E. H. Carr, E. P. Thompson, East Asia, Economic history, Economics, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Ephebos, Eric Hobsbawm, Ernst Nolte, Ethnic history, Eugene Genovese, Experience, Fantasy, Feminism, Fernand Braudel, François Furet, Francis Bacon, Friedrich Engels, Fritz Fischer, Frontier Thesis, G. M. Trevelyan, Gender, Gender history, Gender studies, Geography, Geography of Egypt, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Mosse, George Santayana, Georges Lefebvre, Gerda Lerner, Gerhard Ritter, Gertrude Himmelfarb, Gisela Bock, Google Books, Great man theory, Greek historiography, Halicarnassus, Han dynasty, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Henry Ashby Turner, Heraclitus, Herbert Aptheker, Herbert Butterfield, Herodotus, Historian, Historic recurrence, Historical criticism, Historical materialism, Historical method, Historical negationism, Historiography, Historiography in the Soviet Union, Historiography of Alexander the Great, Historiography of Argentina, Historiography of Canada, Historiography of early Islam, Historiography of Germany, Historiography of Japan, Historiography of science, Historiography of Scotland, Historiography of Switzerland, Historiography of the British Empire, Historiography of the causes of World War I, Historiography of the Cold War, Historiography of the Crusades, Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Historiography of the French Revolution, Historiography of the United Kingdom, Historiography of the United States, Historiography of World War II, History of Africa, History of Animals, History of Antarctica, History of art, History of Asia, History of Australia, History of Central America, History of childhood, History of East Asia, History of education, History of Eurasia, History of Europe, History of India, History of mathematics, History of mentalities, History of New Zealand, History of North America, History of Religions (journal), History of science, History of sociology, History of South America, History of Southeast Asia, History of the Americas, History of the book, History of the Caribbean, History of the family, History of the Middle East, History of the Pacific Islands, History of the Peloponnesian War, History of the world, History Workshop Journal, Homeric Hymns, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Human taxonomy, Humanities, Ian Kershaw, Ibn Khaldun, Iconography, Imagination, Indigenous Australians, Integrity, Intellectual history, Internationalization and localization, Internet History Sourcebooks Project, Iron Age, Isaac Deutscher, J. C. D. Clark, Jack Goody, Joan Wallach Scott, John Gower, John Lukacs, Judgment (law), Karl Dietrich Bracher, Karl Marx, Keith Windschuttle, King Arthur, Labor history (discipline), Languages of Europe, Lawrence Stone, Legend, Leopold von Ranke, List of historians, List of history journals, Lucien Febvre, Lynn Hunt, Marc Bloch, Maritime history, Martin Broszat, Marxist historiography, Marxist philosophy, Mary Beth Norton, Māori people, Memory, Meta, Middle Ages, Middle English, Military history, Modern history, Muqaddimah, Nanking Massacre, Narrative, Natalie Zemon Davis, Natural history, Naval history, Nazi Germany, Nonconformist, Nouvelle histoire, Old English, Old French, Old Irish, Old Welsh, Oppression, Oral tradition, Oswald Spengler, Palaeography, Palgrave Macmillan, People's history, Periodization, Peter Gay, Philosophy, Philosophy of history, Poetry, Political history, Popular history, Populism, Postmodernism, Poverty, Pre-Columbian era, Prehistory, Primary source, Princeton University Press, Propaganda, Pseudohistory, Pseudoscience, Psychohistory, Public history, Radiocarbon dating, Reason, Records of the Grand Historian, Renaissance, Richard J. Evans, Richard Pipes, Robert Conquest, Robert Fogel, Rodney Hilton, Roland Mousnier, Roman historiography, Rural history, Sacred history, Science, Scientific method, Secularity, Sheila Rowbotham, Sima Qian, Social history, Social science, Spring and Autumn Annals, State (polity), Stone Age, Storytelling, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subaltern Studies, Superstition, Synthetic language, Systemic bias, Textual criticism, The Catholic Historical Review, The Other Press, Theory, Thomas Frederick Tout, Thucydides, Timothy Mason, Twenty-Four Histories, Umbrella term, University of Oxford, Urban history, W. W. Norton & Company, Western Christianity, Western Europe, Western philosophy, Western world, Whig history, Women's history, World history, World view, Yale University Press. Expand index (254 more) » « Shrink index
Ainslie Thomas Embree (January 1, 1921 – June 6, 2017) was an American Indologist and historian.
Alltagsgeschichte is a form of microhistory that was particularly prevalent amongst German historians during the 1980s.
American urban history is the study of cities of the United States.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Ancrene Wisse (also known as the Ancrene Riwle or Guide for Anchoresses) is an anonymous monastic rule (or manual) for female anchorites ("anchoresses") written in the early 13th century.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
The Annales school is a group of historians associated with a style of historiography developed by French historians in the 20th century to stress long-term social history.
Annals (annāles, from annus, "year") are a concise historical record in which events are arranged chronologically, year by year, although the term is also used loosely for any historical record.
Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Archival research is a type of primary research which involves seeking out and extracting evidence from original archival records.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arno Joseph Mayer (born June 19, 1926) is a Luxembourg-born American historian who specializes in modern Europe, diplomatic history, and the Holocaust, and is currently Dayton-Stockton Professor of History, Emeritus, at Princeton University.
Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Atlantic history is a specialty field in history that studies of the Atlantic World in the early modern period.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is thus also a writer.
Auxiliary (or ancillary) sciences of history are scholarly disciplines which help evaluate and use historical sources and are seen as auxiliary for historical research.
Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.
Bibliography (from Greek βιβλίον biblion, "book" and -γραφία -graphia, "writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek -λογία, -logia).
The Bielefeld School is a group of German historians based originally at Bielefeld University who promote social history and political history using quantification and the methods of political science and sociology.
Big History is an academic discipline which examines history from the Big Bang to the present.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bruce Graham Trigger, (June 18, 1937 – December 1, 2006) was a Canadian archaeologist, anthropologist, and ethnohistorian.
Business history deals with the history of business organizations, methods, government regulation, labor relations, and impact on society.
Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901 – 31 May 1989), who sometimes wrote under the pen-name J. R. Johnson, was an Afro-Trinidadian historian, journalist and socialist.
A calendar date is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system.
A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is a period of 100 years.
Sir Charles Harding Firth, FBA (16 March 1857 – 19 February 1936) was a British historian.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.
John Edward Christopher Hill (6 February 1912 – 23 February 2003) was an English Marxist historian and academic, specialising in 17th-century English history.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture is a quarterly academic journal.
A city is a large human settlement.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Claudia Ann Koonz (born 1940) is an American historian of Nazi Germany.
Collective memory is the shared pool of knowledge and information in the memories of two or more members of a social group.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
Comparative history is the comparison of different societies which existed during the same time period or shared similar cultural conditions.
Computational history (not to be confused with computation history) is a multidisciplinary field that studies history through machine learning and other data-driven, computational approaches.
Confessio Amantis ("The Lover's Confession") is a 33,000-line Middle English poem by John Gower, which uses the confession made by an ageing lover to the chaplain of Venus as a frame story for a collection of shorter narrative poems.
Contemporary history, in English-language historiography, is a subset of modern history which describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Counterfactual history, also sometimes referred to as virtual history, is a form of historiography that attempts to answer "what if" questions known as counterfactuals.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
Credibility comprises the objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
A decade is a period of 10 years.
Demographic history is the reconstructed record of human population in the past.
Detlev Peukert (September 20, 1950 in Gütersloh – May 17, 1990 in Hamburg) was a German historian, noted for his studies of the relationship between what he called the "spirit of science" and the Holocaust and in social history and the Weimar Republic.
Digital history is the use of digital media to further historical analysis, presentation, and research.
Diplomatic history deals with the history of international relations between states.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or through practices, prevention of a person exercising the right to vote.
Donald Grant Creighton, (July 15, 1902 – December 19, 1979) was a noted Canadian historian whose major works include The Commercial Empire of the St-Lawrence: 1760-1850 (first published in 1937) a detailed study on the growth of the English merchant class in relation to the St Lawrence River in Canada.
Edward Hallett "Ted" Carr (28 June 1892 – 3 November 1982) was an English historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography.
Edward Palmer Thompson (3 February 1924 – 28 August 1993), usually cited as E. P.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Elizabeth Ann Fox-Genovese (May 28, 1941 – January 2, 2007) was an American historian best known for her works on women and society in the Antebellum South.
Emmanuel Bernard Le Roy Ladurie (born 19 July 1929) is a French historian whose work is mainly focused upon Languedoc in the Ancien Régime, particularly the history of the peasantry.
Ephebos (ἔφηβος) (often in the plural epheboi), also anglicised as ephebe (plural: ephebes) or archaically ephebus (plural: ephebi), is a Greek term for a male adolescent, or for a social status reserved for that age, in Antiquity.
Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm (9 June 1917 – 1 October 2012) was a British historian of the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism and nationalism.
Ernst Nolte (11 January 1923 – 18 August 2016) was a German historian and philosopher.
Ethnic history is a branch of social history that studies ethnic groups and immigrants.
Eugene Dominic Genovese (May 19, 1930 – September 26, 2012) was an American historian of the American South and American slavery.
Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often without any locations, events, or people referencing the real world.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.
François Furet (27 March 1927, Paris – 12 July 1997, Figeac) was a French historian, and president of the Saint-Simon Foundation, well known for his books on the French Revolution.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Fritz Fischer (5 March 1908 – 1 December 1999) was a German historian best known for his analysis of the causes of World War I. In the early 1960s Fischer advanced the controversial thesis that responsibility for the outbreak of the war rested solely on Imperial Germany.
The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 that American democracy was formed by the American frontier.
George Macaulay Trevelyan, (16 February 1876 – 21 July 1962), was a British historian and academic.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Gender history is a sub-field of history and gender studies, which looks at the past from the perspective of gender.
Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
The geography of Egypt relates to two regions: North Africa and Southwest Asia.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Lachmann Mosse (September 20, 1918 – January 22, 1999) was an emigre from Nazi Germany first to Great Britain and then to the United States who taught history as a professor at the University of Iowa, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and the Hebrew University.
Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
Georges Lefebvre (6 August 1874 – 28 August 1959) was a French historian, best known for his work on the French Revolution and peasant life.
Gerda Hedwig Lerner (née Kronstein; April 30, 1920 – January 2, 2013) was an Austrian-born American historian and author.
Gerhard Georg Bernhard Ritter (6 April 1888, Bad Sooden-Allendorf – 1 July 1967, Freiburg) was a nationalist-conservative German historian, who served as a professor of history at the University of Freiburg from 1925 to 1956.
Gertrude Himmelfarb (born August 8, 1922), also known as Bea Kristol, is an American historian.
Gisela Bock (born 1942 in Karlsruhe, Germany) is a German historian.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
The great man theory is a 19th-century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of great men, or heroes; highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or political skill used their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact.
Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history.
Halicarnassus (Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός, Halikarnāssós or Ἀλικαρνασσός, Alikarnāssós, Halikarnas) was an ancient Greek city which stood on the site of modern Bodrum in Turkey.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hans-Ulrich Wehler (September 11, 1931 – July 5, 2014) was a German historian known for his role in promoting social history through the "Bielefeld School", and for his critical studies of 19th-century Germany.
Henry Ashby Turner, Jr. (April 4, 1932 – December 17, 2008) was an American historian of Germany who was a professor at Yale University for over forty years.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Herbert Aptheker (July 31, 1915 – March 17, 2003) was an American Marxist historian and political activist.
Sir Herbert Butterfield (7 October 1900 – 20 July 1979) was Regius Professor of History and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Historic recurrence is the repetition of similar events in history.
Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text".
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
Historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence, including the evidence of archaeology, to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past.
Historical negationism or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
Soviet historiography is the methodology of history studies by historians in the Soviet Union (USSR).
There are numerous surviving ancient Greek and Latin sources on Alexander the Great, king of Macedon, as well as some oriental texts.
The Historiography of Argentina is composed of the works of the authors that have written about the History of Argentina.
The historiography of Canada deals with the manner in which historians have depicted analyzed and debated the History of Canada.
The historiography of early Islam refers to the study of the early history of Islam during the 7th century, from Muhammad's first revelations in AD 610 until the disintegration of the Rashidun Caliphate in AD 661, and arguably throughout the 8th century and the duration of the Umayyad Caliphate, terminating in the incipient Islamic Golden Age around the beginning of the 9th century.
The historiography of Germany deals with the manner in which historians have depicted, analyzed and debated the History of Germany.
The historiography of Japan (日本史学史) is the study of methods and hypotheses formulated in the study and literature of the history of Japan.
The historiography of science is the study of the history and methodology of the sub-discipline of history, known as the history of science, including its disciplinary aspects and practices (methods, theories, schools) and to the study of its own historical development ("History of History of Science", i.e., the history of the discipline called History of Science).
The historiography of Scotland refers to the sources and critical methods used by scholars to come to an understanding of the history of Scotland.
The historiography of Switzerland is the study of the history of Switzerland.
The historiography of the British Empire refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and interpretations used by scholars to develop a history of Britain's empire.
Historians writing about the origins of World War I have differed over the relative emphasis they place upon the factors involved.
As soon as the term "Cold War" was popularized to refer to postwar tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, interpreting the course and origins of the conflict became a source of heated controversy among historians, political scientists and journalists.
The historiography of the crusades has been a controversial topic since at least the Protestant Reformation.
The causes and mechanisms of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
The historiography of the French Revolution stretches back over two hundred years, as commentators and historians have sought to answer questions regarding the origins of the Revolution, and its meaning and effects.
The Historiography of the United Kingdom includes the historical and archival research and writing on the history of the United Kingdom, Great Britain, England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.
The historiography of the United States refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and interpretations used by scholars to study the history of the United States.
The Historiography of World War II is the study of how historians portray the causes, conduct, and outcomes of World War II.
The history of Africa begins with the emergence of hominids, archaic humans and – around 5.6 to 7.5 million years ago.
History of Animals (Τῶν περὶ τὰ ζῷα ἱστοριῶν, Ton peri ta zoia historion, "Inquiries on Animals"; Historia Animālium "History of Animals") is one of the major texts on biology by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who had studied at Plato's Academy in Athens.
The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe.
The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes.
The history of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions such as, East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe.
The History of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies.
The history of Central America is the study of the region known as Central America.
The history of childhood has been a topic of interest in social history since the highly influential book Centuries of Childhood, published by French historian Philippe Ariès in 1960.
The History of East Asia covers the people inhabiting the eastern subregion of the Asian continent known as East Asia from prehistoric times to the present.
The systematic provision of learning techniques to most children, such as literacy, has been a development of the last 150 or 200 years, or even last 50 years in some countries.
The history of Eurasia is the collective history of a continental area with several distinct peripheral coastal regions: the Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe, linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe of Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
The history of mentalities is a calque of the French term histoire des mentalités, which might also be translated as "history of attitudes", "mindsets" or "world-views".
The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land.
History of North America encompasses the past developments of people populating the continent of North America.
History of Religions (HR) is the first academic journal devoted to the study of comparative religious history.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society.
The history of South America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent of South America.
The term Southeast Asia has been in use since World War II.
The prehistory of the Americas (North, South, and Central America, and the Caribbean) begins with people migrating to these areas from Asia during the height of an Ice Age.
The History of the Book is an academic discipline that studies the production, transmission, circulation and dissemination of text from antiquity to the present day.
The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the 15th century.
The history of the family is a branch of social history that concerns the sociocultural evolution of kinship groups from prehistoric to modern times.
Home to the Cradle of Civilization, the Middle East (usually interchangeable with the Near East) has seen many of the world's oldest cultures and civilizations.
History of the Pacific Islands covers the history of the islands in the Pacific Ocean.
The History of the Peloponnesian War (Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens).
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
The History Workshop Journal was launched in 1976 by Raphael Samuel and others involved in the History Workshop movement.
The Homeric Hymns are a collection of thirty-three anonymous ancient Greek hymns celebrating individual gods.
Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton, (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003), was a British historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany.
Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
Sir Ian Kershaw, FBA (born 29 April 1943) is an English historian and author whose work has chiefly focused on the social history of 20th-century Germany.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
Integrity is the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles, or moral uprightness.
Intellectual history refers to the historiography of ideas and thinkers.
In computing, internationalization and localization are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target locale.
The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University History Department and Center for Medieval Studies.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 – 19 August 1967) was a Polish writer, journalist and political activist who moved to the United Kingdom at the outbreak of World War II.
Jonathan Charles Douglas Clark (born 28 February 1951) is a British historian of both British and American history.
Sir John Rankine Goody, (27 July 1919 – 16 July 2015) was a British social anthropologist.
Joan Wallach Scott (born December 18, 1941), is an American historian of France with contributions in gender history and intellectual history.
John Gower (c. 1330 – October 1408) was an English poet, a contemporary of William Langland and the Pearl Poet, and a personal friend of Geoffrey Chaucer.
John Adalbert Lukacs (Hungarian: Lukács János Albert; born 31 January 1924) is a Hungarian-born American historian who has written more than thirty books, including Five Days in London, May 1940 and A New Republic.
In law, a judgment is a decision of a court regarding the rights and liabilities of parties in a legal action or proceeding.
Karl Dietrich Bracher (13 March 1922 – 19 September 2016) was a German political scientist and historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Keith Windschuttle (born 1942) is an Australian writer, historian, and former ABC board member.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
Labor history or labour history is a sub-discipline of social history which specialises on the history of the working classes and the labor movement.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Lawrence Stone (4 December 1919 – 16 June 1999) was an English historian of early modern Britain.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
Leopold von Ranke (21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.
This is a list of historians.
This list of history journals presents representative academic journals pertaining to the field of history and historiography.
Lucien Febvre (22 July 1878 – 11 September 1956) was a French historian best known for the role he played in establishing the Annales School of history.
Lynn Avery Hunt (born November 16, 1945) is the Eugen Weber Professor of Modern European History at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (6 July 1886 – 16 June 1944) was a French historian who cofounded the highly influential Annales School of French social history.
Maritime history is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea.
Martin Broszat (14 August 1926 – 14 October 1989) was a German historian specializing in modern German social history whose work has been described by The Encyclopedia of Historians as indispensable for any serious study of Nazi Germany.
Marxist historiography, or historical materialist historiography, is a school of historiography influenced by Marxism.
Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists.
Mary Beth Norton (born 1943) is an American historian, specializing in American colonial history and well known for her work on women's history and the Salem witch trials.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Meta (from the Greek preposition and prefix meta- (μετά-) meaning "after", or "beyond") is a prefix used in English to indicate a concept which is an abstraction behind another concept, used to complete or add to the latter.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing local and international relationships.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
The Muqaddimah, also known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (مقدّمة ابن خلدون) or Ibn Khaldun's Prolegomena (Προλεγόμενα), is a book written by the Arab historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 which records an early view of universal history.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
Natalie Zemon Davis, (born 8 November 1928) is a Canadian and American historian of the early modern period.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Naval history is the area of military history concerning war at sea and the subject is also a sub-discipline of the broad field of maritime history.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
The term new history from the French term nouvelle histoire, was coined by Jacques Le Goff and Pierre Nora, leaders of the third generation of the Annales School, in the 1970s.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.
Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system, media, and the military; denying people any meaningful human or civil rights; and terrorizing the populace through harsh, unjust punishment, and a hidden network of obsequious informants reporting to a vicious secret police force.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (29 May 1880 – 8 May 1936) was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics, science, and art.
Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
A people's history, or history from below, is a type of historical narrative which attempts to account for historical events from the perspective of common people rather than leaders.
Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of timeAdam Rabinowitz.
Peter Gay (born Peter Joachim Fröhlich; June 20, 1923 – May 12, 2015) was a German-American historian, educator and author.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders.
Popular history is a broad and somewhat ill-defined genre of historiography that takes a popular approach, aims at a wide readership, and usually emphasizes narrative, personality and vivid detail over scholarly analysis.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Pseudohistory is a form of pseudoscholarship that attempts to distort or misrepresent the historical record, often using methods resembling those used in legitimate historical research.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Psychohistory is the study of the psychological motivations of historical events.
Public history is a broad range of activities undertaken by people with some training in the discipline of history who are generally working outside of specialized academic settings.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.
Richard Edgar Pipes (Ryszard Pipes; July 11, 1923 – May 17, 2018) was a Polish American academic who specialized in Russian history, particularly with respect to the Soviet Union, who espoused a strong anti-communist point of view throughout his career.
George Robert Acworth Conquest, CMG, OBE, FBA, FAAAS, FRSL, FBIS (15 July 1917 – 3 August 2015) was an English-American historian, propagandist and poet.
Robert William Fogel (July 1, 1926 – June 11, 2013) was an American economic historian and scientist, and winner (with Douglass North) of the 1993 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Rodney Howard Hilton, FBA (17 November 1916 – 7 June 2002) was an English Marxist historian of the late medieval period and the transition from feudalism to capitalism.
Roland Émile Mousnier (Paris, September 7, 1907– February 8, 1993, Paris) was a French historian of the early modern period in France and of the comparative studies of different civilizations.
Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form.
Rural history is an interdisciplinary field of historical research which focuses on the history of rural societies.
Sacred history is the parts of the Torah narrative on the boundary of historicity, especially the Moses and Exodus stories which can be argued to have a remote historical nucleus without any positive evidence to the effect.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Sheila Rowbotham (born 1943) is a British socialist feminist theorist and writer.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history that looks at the lived experience of the past.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Subaltern Studies Group (SSG) or Subaltern Studies Collective is a group of South Asian scholars interested in the postcolonial and post-imperial societies which started at the University of Sussex in 1979-80.
Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.
In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.
Systemic bias, also called institutional bias, is the inherent tendency of a process to support particular outcomes.
Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books.
The Catholic Historical Review is the official organ of the American Catholic Historical Association.
The Other Press is the independent student newspaper of Douglas College, a multi-campus public college in British Columbia, Canada.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
Thomas Frederick Tout, (28 September 1855 – 23 October 1929) was a 19th- and 20th-century British historian of the medieval period.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
Timothy Wright Mason (2 March 1940 – 5 March 1990) was a British Marxist historian of Nazi Germany.
The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.
An umbrella term is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts belonging to a common category.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Urban history is a field of history that examines the historical nature of cities and towns, and the process of urbanization.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Whig history (or Whig historiography) is an approach to historiography that presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.
Women's history is the study of the role that women have played in history and the methods required to do so.
World history or global history (not to be confused with diplomatic, transnational or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
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