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B612 Foundation

Index B612 Foundation

The B612 Foundation is a private nonprofit foundation headquartered in Mill Valley, California, United States, dedicated to planetary defense against asteroids and other near-Earth object (NEO) impacts. [1]

407 relations: Academic Press, Advanced Concepts Team, Aerospace engineering, AIDA (mission), Air & Space/Smithsonian, Albert Einstein, Alexander Singer, American Astronautical Society, American Astronomical Society, American City Business Journals, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, American Museum of Natural History, Ames Research Center, Amor asteroid, Anatoly Perminov, Andrew Chaikin, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Apollo 8, Apollo 9, Apollo Lunar Module, Arizona, ArXiv, Association of Space Explorers, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Asteroid impact avoidance, Asteroid mining, Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System, Astronaut, Astronomer Royal, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Atmospheric physics, Aviation Week & Space Technology, B612 Foundation, Bad Astronomy, Ball Aerospace & Technologies, BBC News, Binary asteroid, Board of directors, Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, Bolide, Bonnier Group, Boulder, Colorado, Brian May, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, California Academy of Sciences, California Energy Commission, Calvin College, Cambridge University Press, ..., Cambridge, Massachusetts, Canadarm, Carl Sagan, Carl Sagan Award for Public Appreciation of Science, Carolyn S. 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Love, Star Trek, Stardust (spacecraft), Statistical mechanics, Stewart Brand, Stirling cycle, STS-59, Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, Sudan, Sun Microsystems, System integration, Systems architecture, Telesto (moon), Tempel 1, The Atlantic, The Christian Science Monitor, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Little Prince, The New York Times, The Spaceguard Foundation, Theodore von Karman Medal, Thermographic camera, Thomas David Jones, Tiburon, California, Tim O'Reilly, TNT equivalent, Torino scale, Transponder, Tsunami, Tucson, Arizona, Tunguska event, U.S. Venture Partners, United Nations, United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, United States Air Force Academy, United States Congress, United States congressional hearing, United States Geological Survey, United States House Science Subcommittee on Space, Universe Today, University of Amsterdam, University of Arizona, University of California, Berkeley, University of Colorado, University of Florida, University of Hawaii, University of Maryland, College Park, University of Michigan, University of Toledo, University of Western Ontario, USA Today, Utrecht University, Vanderbilt University, Venezuela, Venus, Villanova University, Voyager program, Wake Shield Facility, Wavelength, White House, Whole Earth Catalog, William Anders, William Randolph Lovelace II, Wired (magazine), Xerox, Xerox Star, Yarkovsky effect, (10302) 1989 ML, 1490 Ch'ing-yang event, 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2003 SM84, 2008 TC3, 46610 Bésixdouze, 501(c) organization, 501(c)(3) organization, 5145 Pholus, 6141 Durda, 65803 Didymos, 7553 Buie, 99942 Apophis. 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Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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Advanced Concepts Team

The Advanced Concepts Team is a group of scientists, researchers and young graduates that perform multidisciplinary research within the European Space Agency.

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Aerospace engineering

Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.

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AIDA (mission)

The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a proposed pair of space probes which would study and demonstrate the kinetic effects of crashing an impactor spacecraft into an asteroid moon.

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Air & Space/Smithsonian

Air & Space/Smithsonian magazine is a bimonthly magazine put out by the National Air and Space Museum.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Alexander Singer

Alexander Singer (born 18 April 1928, in New York City, New York) is an American director.

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American Astronautical Society

Formed in 1954, the American Astronautical Society (AAS) is an independent scientific and technical group in the United States dedicated to the advancement of space science and space exploration.

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American Astronomical Society

The American Astronomical Society (AAS, sometimes spoken as "double-A-S") is an American society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC.

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American City Business Journals

"." Houston Business Journal.

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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is a professional society for the field of aerospace engineering.

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American Museum of Natural History

The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world.

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Ames Research Center

Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.

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Amor asteroid

The Amor asteroids are a group of near-Earth asteroids named after the asteroid 1221 Amor.

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Anatoly Perminov

Anatoly Nikolayevich Perminov (Анатолий Николаевич Перминов; born 16 June 1945 in the Kirov Oblast, Soviet Union) is a Russian rocket scientist and a mechanical engineer.

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Andrew Chaikin

Andrew L. Chaikin (born June 24, 1956) is an American author, speaker and science journalist.

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Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint-Exupéry (29 June 1900 – 31 July 1944) was a French writer, poet, aristocrat, journalist, and pioneering aviator.

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Apollo 8

Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.

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Apollo 9

Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the United States Apollo space program and the first flight of the Command/Service Module (CSM) with the Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "lem").

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Apollo Lunar Module

The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.

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Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.

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arXiv (pronounced "archive") is a repository of electronic preprints (known as e-prints) approved for publication after moderation, that consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online.

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Association of Space Explorers

The Association of Space Explorers is a non-profit organization with a membership composed of people who have completed at least one Earth orbit in space (above, as defined by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. It was founded in 1985, and its current membership stands at over 400 from 47 different countries. The organization provides a forum for the promotion of space exploration, as well as space science and engineering and environmental awareness.

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Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

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Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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Asteroid impact avoidance

Asteroid impact avoidance comprises a number of methods by which near-Earth objects (NEO) could be diverted, preventing destructive impact events.

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Asteroid mining

Asteroid mining is the exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.

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Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System

The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS; Observatory codes T05 and T08) is an astronomical survey and robotic, early-warning system for detecting smaller near-Earth objects a few weeks to days before they impact Earth.

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An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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Astronomer Royal

Astronomer Royal is a senior post in the Royal Households of the United Kingdom.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

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Atmospheric physics

Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere.

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Aviation Week & Space Technology

Aviation Week & Space Technology, often abbreviated Aviation Week or AW&ST, is the flagship magazine of the Aviation Week Network.

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B612 Foundation

The B612 Foundation is a private nonprofit foundation headquartered in Mill Valley, California, United States, dedicated to planetary defense against asteroids and other near-Earth object (NEO) impacts.

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Bad Astronomy

Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax" is a non-fiction book by the American astronomer Phil Plait, also known as "the Bad Astronomer".

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Ball Aerospace & Technologies

Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (commonly Ball Aerospace) is an American manufacturer of spacecraft, components, and instruments for national defense, civil space and commercial space applications.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Binary asteroid

A binary asteroid is a system of two asteroids orbiting their common barycenter.

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Board of directors

A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.

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Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy

The United States National Academy of Sciences' Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) is a board of the United States National Academy of Sciences.

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A bolide (French via Latin from the Greek βολίς bolís, "missile") is an extremely bright meteor, especially one that explodes in the atmosphere.

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Bonnier Group

Bonnier AB (also the Bonnier Group) is a privately held Swedish media group of 175 companies operating in 15 countries.

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Boulder, Colorado

Boulder is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado.

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Brian May

Brian Harold May, (born 19 July 1947) is an English musician, singer, songwriter, astrophysicist, and photographer.

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Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society

Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (BAAS; Bull. Am. Astron. Soc.) is the journal of record for the American Astronomical Society established in 1969.

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California Academy of Sciences

The California Academy of Sciences is a research institute and natural history museum in San Francisco, California, that is among the largest museums of natural history in the world, housing over 26 million specimens.

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California Energy Commission

The California Energy Commission, formally the Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, is California’s primary energy policy and planning agency.

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Calvin College

Calvin College is a liberal arts college located in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.

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The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), also known as Canadarm (Canadarm 1), is a series of robotic arms that were used on the Space Shuttle orbiters to deploy, maneuver and capture payloads.

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Carl Sagan

Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.

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Carl Sagan Award for Public Appreciation of Science

The Carl Sagan Award for Public Understanding of Science is an award presented by the Council of Scientific Society Presidents (CSSP) to individuals who have become “concurrently accomplished as researchers and/or educators, and as widely recognized magnifiers of the public's understanding of science.” The award was first presented in 1993 to astronomer, Carl Sagan (1934–1996), who is also the award's namesake.

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Carolyn S. Shoemaker

Carolyn Jean Spellmann Shoemaker (born June 24, 1929) is an American astronomer and is a co-discoverer of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9.

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The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.

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Catalina Sky Survey

Catalina Sky Survey (CSS; obs. code: 703) is an astronomical survey to discover comets and asteroids.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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Chelyabinsk meteor

The Chelyabinsk meteor was a superbolide caused by an approximately 20-metre near-Earth asteroid that entered Earth's atmosphere over Russia on 15 February 2013 at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC), with a speed of 19.16 ± 0.15 kilometres per second (60,000–69,000 km/h or 40,000–42,900 mph).

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Chelyabinsk Oblast

Chelyabinsk Oblast (Челя́бинская о́бласть, Chelyabinskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia in the Ural Mountains region, on the border of Europe and Asia.

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Chief executive officer

Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.

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Chief operating officer

The chief operating officer (COO), also called the chief operations officer, is one of the highest-ranking executive positions in an organization, comprising part of the "C-Suite".

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Chief technology officer

A Chief Technology Officer (CTO), sometimes known as a Chief Technical Officer, is an executive-level position in a company or other entity whose occupation is focused on scientific and technological issues within an organization.

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In Greek mythology, Chiron (also Cheiron or Kheiron; Χείρων "hand") was held to be the superlative centaur amongst his brethren, as he was called as the "wisest and justest of all the centaurs".

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Chris Stewart (politician)

Christopher Douglas Stewart (born July 15, 1960) is an American author, businessman, and politician known for his bestsellers Seven Miracles That Saved America and The Miracle of Freedom: Seven Tipping Points That Saved the World.

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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Columbia Accident Investigation Board

The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was convened by NASA to investigate the destruction of the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' during STS-107 upon atmospheric re-entry on February 1, 2003.

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A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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Commercial pilot license

A commercial pilot license (CPL), is a type of pilot licence that permits the holder to act as a pilot of an aircraft and be paid for his/her work.

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Committee on Space Research

The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) was established by the International Council for Science (ICSU) in 1958.

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Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is an international organization that will be established upon the entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, a Convention that outlaws nuclear test explosions.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Controlled-access highway

A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.

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Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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A coronagraph is a telescopic attachment designed to block out the direct light from a star so that nearby objects – which otherwise would be hidden in the star's bright glare – can be resolved.

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Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement

The Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) is the instrument designed to correct Hubble Space Telescope's spherical aberration for light focused at the FOC, FOS and GHRS instruments.

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Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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Costa Rica

Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

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The Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration (CPSX) is an academic unit operating at the University of Western Ontario (UWO).

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A Cryocooler is a substration cooler, usually of table-top size.

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Daily Star

The Daily Star may refer to the following newspapers.

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The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.

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David Brin

Glen David Brin (born October 6, 1950) is an American scientist and author of science fiction.

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David Liddle

David Liddle is co-founder of Interval Research Corporation, consulting professor of computer science at Stanford University, and credited with heading development of the groundbreaking Xerox Star computer system.

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David Morrison (astrophysicist)

David Morrison (born 26 June 1940) is an American astronomer, a senior scientist at the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California.

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De la Vaulx Medal

The De la Vaulx Medal is an aviation award presented by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), the international aviation standard setting and record-keeping body.

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Deep Ecliptic Survey

The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) is a project to find Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), using the facilities of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO).

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Deep Impact (spacecraft)

Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 18:47 UTC on January 12, 2005.

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Deep Space Industries

Deep Space Industries, or DSI, is an American privately-held company operating in the space technology and space exploration sectors.

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Design review (U.S. government)

In the United States military integrated acquisition lifecycle the Technical section has multiple acquisition "Technical Reviews".

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Destiny (ISS module)

The Destiny module, also known as the US Lab, is the primary operating facility for U.S. research payloads aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

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A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a relatively short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.

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Discover (magazine)

Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.

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Discovery Channel

Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television channel that is the flagship television property of Discovery Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav.

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A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

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Don Quijote (spacecraft)

Don Quijote is a past space probe concept that has been studied by the European Space Agency, and which would investigate the effects of crashing a spacecraft into an asteroid.

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Dumitru Prunariu

Dumitru-Dorin Prunariu (born 27 September 1952) is a Romanian cosmonaut.

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Dutch people

The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth & Sky

Earth & Sky, also known as EarthSky (the still-active website), was a daily radio series that presented information about science and nature.

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Earth Day

Earth Day is an annual event celebrated on April 22.

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Ed Lu

Edward Tsang "Ed" Lu (born July 1, 1963) is an American physicist and former NASA astronaut.

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Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

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Emmy Award

An Emmy Award, or simply Emmy, is an American award that recognizes excellence in the television industry, and is the equivalent of an Academy Award (for film), the Tony Award (for theater), and the Grammy Award (for music).

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An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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Falcon 9

Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicles, named for its use of nine Merlin first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.

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False color

False color (or false colour) refers to a group of color rendering methods used to display images in color which were recorded in the visible or non-visible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Fédération Aéronautique Internationale

The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.

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A fellow is a member of a group (or fellowship) that work together in pursuing mutual knowledge or practice.

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Financial Post

The Financial Post was an English Canadian business newspaper, which published from 1907 to 1998.

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Flagstaff, Arizona

Flagstaff is a city in and the county seat of Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States.

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Flight dynamics (spacecraft)

Spacecraft flight dynamics is the science of space vehicle performance, stability, and control.

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Flightglobal is an online news and information website which covers the aviation and aerospace industries.

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Freeman Dyson

Freeman John Dyson (born 15 December 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician.

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Front Range Community College

Front Range Community College (FRCC) is a community college in Colorado.

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G. Scott Hubbard


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The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) is an orbiting ultraviolet space telescope launched on April 28, 2003, and operated until early 2012.

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Galileo (spacecraft)

Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.

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Georgy Beregovoy

Georgy Timofeyevich Beregovoy (Гео́ргий Тимофе́евич Берегово́й, Гео́ргій Тимофі́йович Берегови́й; April 15, 1921 – June 30, 1995) was a Soviet cosmonaut who commanded the space mission Soyuz 3 in 1968.

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Giotto (spacecraft)

Giotto was a European robotic spacecraft mission from the European Space Agency.

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Gizmodo is a design, technology, science and science fiction website that also features articles on politics.

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Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph

The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS or HRS) was an ultraviolet spectrograph installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during its original construction, and it was launched into space as part of that space telescope aboard the Space Shuttle on April 24, 1990 (STS-31).

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Goddard Space Flight Center

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Grand Rapids, Michigan

Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan, and the largest city in West Michigan.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Gravity tractor

A gravity tractor is a theoretical spacecraft that would deflect another object in space, typically a potentially hazardous asteroid that might impact Earth, without physically contacting it, using only its gravitational field to transmit the required impulse.

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Gregg Easterbrook

Gregg Edmund Easterbrook (born March 3, 1953) is an American writer and a contributing editor of both The New Republic and The Atlantic Monthly.

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Halley's Comet

Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.

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Harold Reitsema

Harold James Reitsema (born January 19, 1948) is an American astronomer who was part of the teams that discovered Larissa, the fifth of Neptune's known moons, and Telesto, Saturn's thirteenth moon.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

The Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a research institute which carries out a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, earth and space sciences, and science education.

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Headquarters of the United Nations

The United Nations is headquartered in New York City, in a complex designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and built by the architectural firm Harrison & Abramovitz.

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Health threat from cosmic rays

The health threat from cosmic rays is the danger posed by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles to astronauts on interplanetary missions or any missions that venture through the Van-Allen Belts or outside the Earth's magnetosphere.

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Heliocentric orbit

A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an orbit around the barycenter of the Solar System, which is usually located within or very near the surface of the Sun.

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Helioseismology, a term coined by Douglas Gough, is the study of the structure and dynamics of the Sun through its oscillations.

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Hero of the Soviet Union

The title Hero of the Soviet Union (translit) was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.

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In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.

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High Altitude Observatory

The High Altitude Observatory (HAO) conducts research and provides support and facilities for the solar-terrestrial research community in the areas of solar and heliospheric physics, and the effects of solar variability on the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere.

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HighBeam Research

HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.

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Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaiokinai.

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Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.

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HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.

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Hydra (moon)

Hydra is the outermost known moon of Pluto.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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Icarus (journal)

Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.

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Impact event

An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.

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Infrared astronomy

Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that studies astronomical objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation.

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Infrared detector

An infrared detector is a detector that reacts to infrared (IR) radiation.

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Infrared telescope

An infrared telescope is a telescope that uses infrared light to detect celestial bodies.

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Infrasound, sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, is sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz or cycles per second, the "normal" limit of human hearing.

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Inquisitr is a news and media website privately owned and relaunched after a change of ownership in May 2011.

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Institute for Advanced Study

The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld.

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Institute for Astronomy

The Institute for Astronomy (IfA) is a research unit within the University of Hawaii system, led by Robert McLaren as Acting Director.

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Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).

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International Academy of Astronautics

The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is a non-governmental organisation of experts committed to expanding the frontiers of space.

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International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.

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International Business Times

The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Interval Research Corporation

Interval Research Corporation was founded in 1992 by Paul Allen and David Liddle.

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Ion-beam shepherd

An ion-beam shepherd (IBS) is a concept in which the orbit and/or attitude of a spacecraft or a generic orbiting body is modified by having a beam of quasi-neutral plasma impinging against its surface to create a force and/or a torque on the target.

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Iron meteorite

Iron meteorites are meteorites that consist overwhelmingly of an iron–nickel alloy known as meteoric iron that usually consists of two mineral phases: kamacite and taenite.

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Irwin I. Shapiro

Irwin Ira Shapiro (born October 10, 1929 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist and Timken University Professor at Harvard University.

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Janus (moon)

Janus is an inner satellite of Saturn.

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Jerry Brown

Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American politician, author and lawyer serving as the 39th and current Governor of California since 2011, previously holding the position from 1975 to 1983, making him the state's longest-serving Governor.

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Jerry Zucker

Jerry G. Zucker (born March 11, 1950) is an American film producer, director, and writer known for his role in directing comedy spoof films such as Airplane! and Top Secret!, and the Best Picture-nominated supernatural drama film Ghost.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.

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JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute in the United States.

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Johnson Space Center

The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.

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Journal of Geophysical Research

The Journal of Geophysical Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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Julian Nott (balloonist)

Julian Nott is a British balloonist who now lives in Santa Barbara, California, USA.

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Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Kepler (spacecraft)

Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.

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Kuiper belt

The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.

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Larissa (moon)

Larissa (Greek: Λάρισσα), also known as Neptune VII, is the fifth-closest inner satellite of Neptune.

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Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

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Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile

The Lightweight Exo-atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) is a lightweight miniaturized kinetic kill vehicle designed to destroy incoming ballistic missiles both inside or outside the Earth's atmosphere.

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Liquid Robotics

Liquid Robotics is an American marine robotics corporation that designs, manufactures and sells the Wave Glider, a wave and solar powered unmanned surface vehicle (USV).

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List of Apollo astronauts

Thirty-two astronauts were assigned to fly in the Apollo manned lunar landing program.

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List of impact craters on Earth

This list of impact craters on Earth contains a selection of the 190 confirmed craters given in the Earth Impact Database.

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List of meteor air bursts

Many explosions have been recorded in Earth's atmosphere that are likely caused by the air burst that results from a meteor exploding as it hits the thicker part of the atmosphere.

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List of minor planets: 13001–14000

#fefefe | 13712 || || August 23, 1998 || Višnjan Observatory || Višnjan Obs.

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List of minor planets: 17001–18000

#d6d6d6 | 17602 Dr.

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Little Boy

"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.

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Lockheed F-104 Starfighter

The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter is a single-engine, supersonic interceptor aircraft which later became widely used as an attack aircraft.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Louisiana State University

The Louisiana State University (officially Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, commonly referred to as LSU) is a public coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

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Lowell Observatory

Lowell Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States.

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Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

The Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC), jointly sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), brings together international specialists in petrology, geochemistry, geophysics, geology, and astronomy to present the latest results of research in planetary science.

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Lunar Prospector

Lunar Prospector was the third mission selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program.

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Mach number

In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.

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Marc William Buie

Marc William Buie (born 1958) is an American astronomer and prolific discoverer of minor planets, who used to be at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, and also the Sentinel Space Telescope Mission Scientist for the B612 Foundation, which is dedicated to protecting Earth from asteroid impact events.

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Marin County, California

Marin County is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.

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Mars Exploration Program

The Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is a long-term effort to explore the planet Mars, funded and led by NASA.

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Mars Pathfinder

Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997.

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Mars rover

A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival.

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Martin Rees

Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: (born 23 June 1942) is a British cosmologist and astrophysicist.

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Mass driver

A mass driver or electromagnetic catapult is a proposed method of non-rocket spacelaunch which would use a linear motor to accelerate and catapult payloads up to high speeds.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet

The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine, supersonic, all-weather, carrier-capable, multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft (hence the F/A designation).

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Mesa (Spanish and Portuguese for table) is the American English term for tableland, an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs.

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Messenger (stylized as MESSENGER, whose backronym is "MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging", and which is a reference to the messenger of the same name from Roman mythology) was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015.

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Metaphor Computer Systems

Metaphor Computer Systems (1982–1994) was a Xerox PARC spin-off that created an advanced workstation, database gateway, a unique graphical office interface, and software applications that communicate.

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Meteor Crater

Meteor Crater is a meteorite impact crater approximately east of Flagstaff and west of Winslow in the northern Arizona desert of the United States.

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A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.

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A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Miami Herald

The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by the McClatchy Company and headquartered in Doral, Florida, a city in western Miami-Dade County and the Miami metropolitan area, several miles west of downtown Miami.

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Michael A'Hearn

Michael Francis A'Hearn (November 17, 1940 – May 29, 2017) was an American astronomer and astronomy professor at the University of Maryland College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences.

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Mill Valley, California

Mill Valley is a city in Marin County, California, United States, located about north of San Francisco via the Golden Gate Bridge.

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Minor planet

A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.

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Minor Planet Center

The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.

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Minor-planet moon

A minor-planet moon is an astronomical object that orbits a minor planet as its natural satellite.

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Mission specialist

Mission specialist (MS) was a position held by certain NASA astronauts.

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In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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Mountain View, California

Mountain View is a city located in Santa Clara County, California, United States, named for its views of the Santa Cruz Mountains.

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Museum of Flight

The Museum of Flight is a private non-profit air and space museum in the northwest United States.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Astrobiology Institute

The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established in 1998 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) "to develop the field of astrobiology and provide a scientific framework for flight missions." The NAI is a virtual, distributed organization that integrates astrobiology research and training programs in concert with the national and international science communities.

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NASA Astronaut Corps

The NASA Astronaut Corps is a unit of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members for U.S. and international space missions.

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NASA Astronaut Group 3

Astronaut Group 3 was the third group of astronauts selected by NASA.

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NASA Deep Space Network

The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions.

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NASA Distinguished Service Medal

The NASA Distinguished Service Medal is the highest award which may be bestowed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States.

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NASA Exceptional Public Service Medal

NASA's Exceptional Public Service Medal is a United States government awarded to any non-Government individual or to an individual who was not a Government employee during the period in which the service was performed for sustained performance that embodies multiple contributions on NASA projects, programs, or initiatives.

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NASA Exceptional Service Medal

The NASA Exceptional Service Medal is an award granted to U.S. government employees for significant sustained performance characterized by unusual initiative or creative ability that clearly demonstrates substantial improvement in engineering, aeronautics, space flight, administration, support, or space-related endeavors which contribute to NASA programs.

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NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal

The NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal is awarded to US government employees only for notably outstanding leadership which affects technical or administrative programs of NASA.

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

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National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences

The National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (NATAS) was created in 1955 to advance the arts and sciences of television.

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National Astronomical Observatory (Mexico)

The National Astronomical Observatory (Spanish: El Observatorio Astronómico Nacional—OAN), the national observatory complex of Mexico, in Baja California state.

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National Geographic

National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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National Science and Technology Council

The National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in the US by Executive Order 12881 on November 23, 1993.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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NBC News

NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.

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NBC Nightly News

NBC Nightly News (titled as NBC Nightly News with Lester Holt for its weeknight broadcasts since June 22, 2015) is the flagship daily evening television news program for NBC News, the news division of the NBC television network in the United States.

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Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite

The Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat) is a Canadian microsatellite using a 15-cm aperture f/5.88 Maksutov telescope (similar to that on the MOST spacecraft), with 3-axis stabilisation giving a pointing stability of ~2 arcseconds in a ~100 second exposure.

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NEAR Shoemaker

The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.

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Near-Earth object

A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth.

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Neil deGrasse Tyson

Neil deGrasse Tyson (born October 5, 1958) is an American astrophysicist, author, and science communicator.

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New Horizons

New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.

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New Mexico State University

New Mexico State University (NMSU or NM State) is a public, land-grant, research university in Las Cruces, New Mexico, United States, and the flagship campus of NMSU System.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Next-Generation Bomber

The Next-Generation Bomber (NGB; unofficially called 2018 Bomber) was a program to develop a new medium bomber for the United States Air Force.

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Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Nix (moon)

Nix is a natural satellite of Pluto.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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Nonprofit organization

A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.

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National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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Nubian Desert

The Nubian Desert (صحراء النوبة, Şaḩrā’ an Nūbyah) is in the eastern region of the Sahara Desert, spanning approximately 400,000 km² of northeastern Sudan and northern Eritrea, between the Nile and the Red Sea.

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Nuclear electric rocket

In a Nuclear Electric Rocket (also known as nuclear electric propulsion and space nuclear fission electric power systems), nuclear thermal energy is changed into electrical energy that is used to power one of the electrical propulsion technologies.

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Nuclear explosive

A nuclear explosive is an explosive device that derives its energy from nuclear reactions.

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Orbital resonance

In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.

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Order of Lenin

The Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930.

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Outline of space technology

Space technology is technology developed by space science or the aerospace industry for use in spaceflight, satellites, or space exploration.

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Pacific Sun (newspaper)

The Pacific Sun is a free weekly newspaper published in Marin County, just north of San Francisco in the San Francisco Bay Area.

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Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Petit-Prince (moon)

(45) Eugenia I Petit-Prince is the larger, outer moon of asteroid 45 Eugenia.

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Philip Lader

Philip Lader (born March 17, 1946), the former U.S. Ambassador to the UK, was chairman of WPP plc (including Ogilvy & Mather, J. Walter Thompson, Young & Rubicam, Burson-Marsteller, Hill & Knowlton and 110 other companies, with 205,000 employees in 112 countries).

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

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Piet Hut

Piet Hut (born September 26, 1952) is a Dutch-American astrophysicist, who divides his time between research in computer simulations of dense stellar systems and broadly interdisciplinary collaborations, ranging from other fields in natural science to computer science, cognitive psychology and philosophy.

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Planetary Resources

Planetary Resources, Inc., formerly known as Arkyd Astronautics, is an American company that was formed on 1 January 2009,ARKYD Astronautics Founded http://www.planetaryresources.com/2009/01/draft-arkyd-astronautics-founded/ and reorganized and renamed in 2012.

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Planetary science

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.

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Planetary Science Institute

The Planetary Science Institute (PSI) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit research institute based in Tucson, Arizona, focusing on planetary science.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Plasma propulsion engine

A plasma propulsion engine is a type of electric propulsion that generates thrust from a quasi-neutral plasma.

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Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

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Podkamennaya Tunguska River

The Podkamennaya Tunguska (Подкаменная Тунгуска, literally Tunguska under the stones, also Middle Tunguska or Stony Tunguska) is a river in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.

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Politehnica University of Bucharest

Politehnica University of Bucharest (Universitatea Politehnica din București) is a technical university in Bucharest, Romania.

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Popular Science

Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.

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Potentially hazardous object

A potentially hazardous object (PHO) is a near-Earth object – either an asteroid or a comet – with an orbit that can make exceptionally close approaches to the Earth and large enough to cause significant regional damage in the event of impact.

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Primary Life Support System

A Primary (or Portable or Personal) Life Support System (or Subsystem) (PLSS), is a device connected to an astronaut or cosmonaut's spacesuit, which allows extra-vehicular activity with maximum freedom, independent of a spacecraft's life support system.

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Princeton, New Jersey

Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.

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Private foundation (United States)

Until 1969, the term private foundation was not defined in the United States Internal Revenue Code.

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Project Ara

Project Ara was a modular smartphone project under development by Google.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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RIA Novosti

RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.

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Richard Kowalski

Richard A. Kowalski (born 1963) is an American astronomer who has discovered numerous asteroids and comets, among them, many near-Earth objects.

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Roger Blandford

Roger David Blandford (born 1949), FRS FRAS, is a British theoretical astrophysicist, best known for his work on black holes.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Romanian Space Agency

The Romanian Space Agency (ROSA) is a public institution with extrabudgetary funding which coordinates the national space technology research programs and the space research related activities since 1991.

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The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.

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Royal College of Art

The Royal College of Art (RCA) is a public research university in London, in the United Kingdom.

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Rubble pile

In astronomy, a rubble pile is a celestial body that is not a monolith, consisting instead of numerous pieces of rock that have coalesced under the influence of gravity.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Rusty Schweickart

Russell Louis "Rusty" Schweickart (also Schweikart; born October 25, 1935) is an American aeronautical engineer, and a former NASA astronaut, research scientist, U.S. Air Force fighter pilot, as well as a former business executive and government executive.

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Salyut 6

Salyut 6 (Салют-6; lit. Salute 6), DOS-5, was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut programme.

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San Francisco Chronicle

The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.

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San Rafael, California

San Rafael ("Saint Raphael") is a city and the county seat of Marin County, California, United States.

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Santa Fe Institute

The Santa Fe Institute (SFI) is an independent, nonprofit theoretical research institute located in Santa Fe (New Mexico, United States) and dedicated to the multidisciplinary study of the fundamental principles of complex adaptive systems, including physical, computational, biological, and social systems.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Science Applications International Corporation

Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) is an American company headquartered in Reston, Virginia that provides government services and information technology support.

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Science Mission Directorate

The Science Mission Directorate (SMD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engages the United States’ science community, sponsors scientific research, and develops and deploys satellites and probes in collaboration with NASA’s partners around the world to answer fundamental questions requiring the view from and into space.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Sentinel Space Telescope

The Sentinel Space Telescope washttp://spacenews.com/b612-studying-smallsat-missions-to-search-for-near-earth-objects/http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3255059/Nasa-pulls-plug-killer-asteroid-hunter-Sentinel-mission-set-search-dangerous-space-rocks-loses-30-million-support.html a space observatory being designed and built for the B612 Foundation, and under development by Ball Aerospace & Technologies.

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SETI Institute

The SETI Institute is a not-for-profit research organization whose mission is to explore, understand, and explain the origin and nature of life in the universe, and to apply the knowledge gained to inspire and guide present and future generations.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sierra de San Pedro Mártir

Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Kiliwa: ʔxaal haq, mountains of Saint Peter the Martyr) is a mountain range located within southern Ensenada Municipality and southern Baja California state, of northwestern Mexico.

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Skylab 2

Skylab 2 (also SL-2 and SLM-1) was the first manned mission to Skylab, the first U.S. orbital space station.

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Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).

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Solar energy

Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.

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Solar flare

A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.

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Solar physics

Solar physics is the branch of astrophysics that specializes in the study of the Sun.

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Solar sail

Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails) are a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion using radiation pressure exerted by sunlight on large mirrors.

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Southwest Research Institute

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, is one of the oldest and largest independent, nonprofit, applied research and development (R&D) organizations in the United States.

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Space Act Agreement

Space Act Agreements (abbreviated SAA) are a type of legal agreement specified in the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (and subsequent congressional authorizations) that uniquely empowers NASA to work with any entity that enables fulfillment of the Administration's mandate.

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Space environment

Space environment is a branch of astronautics, aerospace engineering and space physics that seeks to understand and address conditions existing in space that affect the design and operation of spacecraft.

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Space industry

Space industry refers to economic activities related to manufacturing components that go into Earth's orbit or beyond, delivering them to those regions, and related services.

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Space medicine

Space medicine is the practice of medicine on astronauts in outer space whereas astronautical hygiene is the application of science and technology to the prevention or control of exposure to the hazards that may cause astronaut ill health.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Space Shuttle program

The Space Shuttle program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011.

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Space station

A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.

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Space telescope

A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.

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Space Telescope Science Institute

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST; in orbit since 1990) and for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST; scheduled to be launched in March 2021).

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The term Spaceguard loosely refers to a number of efforts to discover and study near-Earth objects (NEO), especially those that may impact Earth.

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Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.

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Spitzer Space Telescope

The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.

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SRI International

SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.

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Stanford Entrepreneurship Corner

Stanford Technology Ventures Program (STVP) Entrepreneurship Corner (ECorner) (Formerly Educators Corner) is a free online archive of entrepreneurship resources for teaching and learning.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Stanley G. Love

Stanley G. Love, Ph.D. (born June 8, 1965) is an American scientist and a NASA astronaut from Oregon.

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Star Trek

Star Trek is an American media franchise based on the science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry.

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Stardust (spacecraft)

Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.

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Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

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Stewart Brand

Stewart Brand (born December 14, 1938) is an American writer, best known as editor of the Whole Earth Catalog.

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Stirling cycle

The Stirling cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the general class of Stirling devices.

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STS-59 Shuttle mission was a Space Shuttle program mission that took place in 1994.

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Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite

The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) is a NASA submillimeter astronomy satellite, and is the third spacecraft in the Small Explorer program.

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The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Sun Microsystems

Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.

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System integration

System integration is defined in engineering as the process of bringing together the component sub-systems into one system (an aggregation of subsystems cooperating so that the system is able to deliver the overarching functionality) and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system, and in information technology as the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications physically or functionally, to act as a coordinated whole.

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Systems architecture

A system architecture or systems architecture is the conceptual model that defines the structure, behavior, and more views of a system.

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Telesto (moon)

Telesto (Τελεστώ) is a moon of Saturn.

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Tempel 1

Tempel 1 (official designation: 9P/Tempel) is a periodic Jupiter-family comet discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1867.

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Little Prince

The Little Prince (French: Le Petit Prince), first published in April 1943, is a novella, the most famous work of French aristocrat, writer, poet, and pioneering aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Spaceguard Foundation

The Spaceguard Foundation (SGF) is a private organization based in Frascati, Italy, whose purpose is to study, discover and observe near-Earth objects (NEO) and protect the Earth from the possible threat of their collision.

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Theodore von Karman Medal

The Theodore von Karman Medal in Engineering Mechanics is awarded annually to an individual in recognition of his distinguished achievement in engineering mechanics, applicable to any branch of civil engineering.

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Thermographic camera

A thermographic camera (also called an infrared camera or thermal imaging camera) is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light.

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Thomas David Jones

Thomas David Jones (born January 22, 1955) is a former United States astronaut.

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Tiburon, California

Tiburon is an incorporated town in Marin County, California.

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Tim O'Reilly

Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates).

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TNT equivalent

TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.

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Torino scale

The Torino Scale is a method for categorizing the impact hazard associated with near-Earth objects (NEOs) such as asteroids and comets.

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In telecommunication, a transponder can be one of two types of devices.

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A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.

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Tucson, Arizona

Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.

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Tunguska event

The Tunguska event was a large explosion that occurred near the Stony Tunguska River in Yeniseysk Governorate (now Krasnoyarsk Krai), Russia, on the morning of 30 June 1908 (NS).

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U.S. Venture Partners

U.S. Venture Partners (USVP), is a venture capital investment firm headquartered in Menlo Park, California in the heart of Silicon Valley focusing on investments in an array of segments including enterprise software, IT security, consumer internet, mobile, e-commerce, healthcare, and IT-enabled healthcare services.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space

The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) was established in 1959 (shortly after the launch of Sputnik) as an ad hoc committee.

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United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs

The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is a part of the United Nations Secretariat, located at the United Nations Office in Vienna.

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United States Air Force Academy

The United States Air Force Academy (also known as USAFA, the Air Force Academy, or the Academy), is a military academy for officer cadets of the United States Air Force.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States congressional hearing

A United States congressional hearing is the principal formal method by which United States congressional committees collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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United States House Science Subcommittee on Space

The Science Subcommittee on Space is one of six subcommittees of the United States House Committee on Science and Technology.

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Universe Today

Universe Today (UT) is a popular North American-based non-commercial space and astronomy news website.

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University of Amsterdam

The University of Amsterdam (abbreviated as UvA, Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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University of Arizona

The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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University of Colorado

The University of Colorado system is a system of public universities in Colorado consisting of four campuses: University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, University of Colorado Denver in downtown Denver and at the Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora.

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University of Florida

The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a campus in Gainesville, Florida.

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University of Hawaii

The University of Hawaiʻi system (formally the University of Hawaiʻi and popularly known as UH) is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States.

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University of Maryland, College Park

The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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University of Toledo

The University of Toledo, commonly referred to as U of Toledo or UT, is a public research university located in Toledo, Ohio, United States.

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University of Western Ontario

The University of Western Ontario (UWO), corporately branded as Western University as of 2012 and commonly shortened to Western, is a public research university in London, Ontario, Canada.

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USA Today

USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.

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Utrecht University

Utrecht University (UU; Universiteit Utrecht, formerly Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht) is a university in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

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Vanderbilt University

Vanderbilt University (informally Vandy) is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee.

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Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Villanova University

Villanova University is a private research university located in Radnor Township, a suburb northwest of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, within the Archdiocese of Philadelphia in the United States.

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Voyager program

The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.

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Wake Shield Facility

Wake Shield Facility is an experimental science platform that was placed in low Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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Whole Earth Catalog

The Whole Earth Catalog (WEC) was an American counterculture magazine and product catalog published by Stewart Brand several times a year between 1968 and 1972, and occasionally thereafter, until 1998.

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William Anders

William Alison "Bill" Anders (born October 17, 1933), (Maj Gen, USAFR, Ret.), is a former United States Air Force officer, electrical engineer, nuclear engineer, NASA astronaut, and businessman.

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William Randolph Lovelace II

William Randolph "Randy" Lovelace II (December 30, 1907 – December 12, 1965) was an American physician who made contributions to aerospace medicine.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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Xerox Corporation (also known as Xerox, stylized as xerox since 2008, and previously as XEROX or XeroX from 1960 to 2008) is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document solutions, and document technology products in more than 160 countries.

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Xerox Star

The Star workstation, officially named Xerox 8010 Information System, was the first commercial system to incorporate various technologies that have since become standard in personal computers, including a bitmapped display, a window-based graphical user interface, icons, folders, mouse (two-button), Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers, and e-mail.

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Yarkovsky effect

The Yarkovsky effect is a force acting on a rotating body in space caused by the anisotropic emission of thermal photons, which carry momentum.

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(10302) 1989 ML

(10302) 1989 ML is an as yet unnamed near-Earth asteroid.

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1490 Ch'ing-yang event

The Ch'ing-yang event of 1490 (also Ch'ing-yang, Chi-ing-yang or Chíing-yang meteor shower) is a presumed meteor shower or air burst in Qìngyáng (Ch'ing-Yang) in March or April 1490.

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2001 Mars Odyssey

2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars.

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2003 SM84

is a sub-kilometer asteroid, classified as near-Earth object of the Amor group orbiting between Earth and Mars.

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2008 TC3

(Catalina Sky Survey temporary designation 8TA9D69) was an, diameter asteroid that entered Earth's atmosphere on October 7, 2008.

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46610 Bésixdouze

46610 Bésixdouze, provisional designation, is a bright background asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 2 kilometers in diameter.

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501(c) organization

A 501(c) organization is a nonprofit organization in the federal law of the United States according to and is one of 29 types of nonprofit organizations exempt from some federal income taxes.

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501(c)(3) organization

A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of Title 26 of the United States Code.

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5145 Pholus

5145 Pholus (from Φόλος) provisional designation, is an eccentric centaur in the outer Solar System, approximately 180 kilometers in diameter, that crosses the orbit of both Saturn and Neptune.

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6141 Durda

6141 Durda, provisional designation is a stony Hungaria asteroid, classified as slow rotator and Mars-crosser from the innermost region of the asteroid belt, approximately 3.2 kilometers in diameter.

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65803 Didymos

65803 Didymos, provisional designation, is a sub-kilometer asteroid and synchronous binary system, classified as potentially hazardous asteroid and near-Earth object of both the Apollo and Amor group.

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7553 Buie

7553 Buie, provisional designation, is a Nysa asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately in diameter.

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99942 Apophis

99942 Apophis (previously known by its provisional designation) is a near-Earth asteroid that caused a brief period of concern in December 2004 because initial observations indicated a probability of up to 2.7% that it would hit Earth on April 13, 2029.

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Redirects here:

B-612 Project, B612 Project, B621 Foundation, Clark Chapman, Clark R. Chapman, Dan Durda, Daniel David Durda, John Troeltzsch, Tom Gavin.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B612_Foundation

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