326 relations: A Treatise on Money, Aaron Director, Abba P. Lerner, Adam Ferguson, Adam Smith, Agnosticism, Alain de Benoist, Alan Gibbs, Alan O. Ebenstein, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Alexis de Tocqueville, Alfred Marshall, Alfred Schütz, Alfred Tarski, Algernon Sidney, Andrew Phillips, Baron Phillips of Sudbury, Andrzej Walicki, Anna Schwartz, Anschluss, António de Oliveira Salazar, Antony Flew, Aristotelian ethics, Arthur Laffer, Arthur Seldon, Atilla Yayla, August von Hayek, August Weismann, Augusto Pinochet, Austria-Hungary, Austrian business cycle theory, Austrian Decoration for Science and Art, Austrian Institute of Economic Research, Austrian School, Austrians, Austro-Hungarian Army, Authoritarianism, Baden-Württemberg, Baronet, Basic income, Bernard Harcourt, Bernard Mandeville, Botany, British Academy, British Currency School, British subject, Bruce Caldwell (economist), Business cycle, Cambridge University Press, Capital (economics), Carl Menger, ..., Carl Schmitt, Catallactics, Catallaxy, Catholic Church, Cato Institute, Central bank, Centre for Policy Studies, Centro de Estudios Públicos, Chandran Kukathas, Chicago, Chicago school of economics, Cisleithania, Classical liberalism, Cognitive science, Committee on Social Thought, Conservatism, Conservative Research Department, Constantin von Monakow, Constructivist epistemology, Credit cycle, Critical theory, David D. Friedman, David Hume, David Miller (philosopher), David Rockefeller, David Steel, David Stockman, Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria, Democratic socialism, Dick Armey, Dispersed knowledge, Doctor of Law, Doctorate, Econometrica, Economic calculation problem, Economic growth, Economics, Edmund Burke, Elinor Ostrom, Elizabeth II, Empiricism, England, Enrico Fermi, Epistemology, Eric Voegelin, Ernst Mach, Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Evolutionary psychology, Fear the Boom and Bust, Felix Kaufmann, Frank Fetter, Frank Knight, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free market, Free price system, Free to Choose, Freiburg im Breisgau, Friedrich von Wieser, Fritz Machlup, G. L. S. Shackle, General equilibrium theory, George H. W. Bush, George Mason University, George Selgin, George Stigler, Gerald Edelman, Germany, Gladwyn Jebb, Global financial system, Gold standard, Gottfried Haberler, Government Junta of Chile (1973), Guaranteed minimum income, Guardian Media Group, Guggenheim Fellowship, Gunnar Myrdal, Gustav von Hayek, Ha-Joon Chang, Hanns Martin Schleyer Foundation, Hebbian theory, Hein Schreuder, Henry Hazlitt, Herbert A. Simon, Herbert Furth, History of economic thought, Hugo de Vries, Ian Jarvie, Imperialism, Individualism, Individualism and Economic Order, Information economics, Institute for Humane Studies, Institute of Economic Affairs, Intercollegiate Studies Institute, Interest rate, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Internationalism (politics), Italian Front (World War I), James M. Buchanan, Jeremiah Jenks, Joaquin Fuster, John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, John Gray (philosopher), John Hicks, John Kenneth Galbraith, John Locke, John Maynard Keynes, John Stuart Mill, Joseph Schumpeter, Josiah Tucker, Karl Popper, Keith Joseph, Kenneth Arrow, Knut Wicksell, Lakshmi Kant Jha, Law, Law, Legislation and Liberty, Lawrence H. White, Lawrence Summers, Léon Walras, Leland B. Yeager, Leo Szilard, Leonid Hurwicz, Leonid Kantorovich, Liberalism in Austria, Libertarianism, Liberty Fund, Lionel Robbins, List of Fellows of the Econometric Society, List of Nobel laureates, List of Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics, Logical positivism, London School of Economics, Ludwig Erhard, Ludwig Feuerbach, Ludwig von Mises, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Macroeconomics, Madsen Pirie, Margaret Thatcher, Marginal utility, Mart Laar, Max Eastman, Max Weber, Mercatus Center, Microeconomics, Military dictatorship of Chile (1973–90), Milton Friedman, Mises Institute, MIT Press, Monetary policy, Mont Pelerin Society, Murray Rothbard, Nationalism, Nazi Germany, Neoliberalism, Neustift am Walde, New York City, New York University, New York University School of Law, Nicholas Kaldor, Nicholas Wapshott, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel Prize, Norman P. Barry, Nouvelle Droite, Oliver E. Williamson, Order of the Companions of Honour, Oskar R. Lange, Othmar Spann, Paul Krugman, Paul Rosenstein-Rodan, Paul Samuelson, Peter Boettke, Philadelphia Society, Philosophy, Philosophy of science, Piero Sraffa, Planned economy, Political philosophy, Political science, Pope John Paul II, Positivism, Postmodernism, Pour le Mérite, Praxeology, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Price, Price signal, Prime Minister of Estonia, Princeton University Press, Private property, Psychology, Rational choice theory, Raymond Plant, Baron Plant of Highfield, Reader's Digest, Reform Club, Richard Timberlake, Richard Wolin, Rikkyo University, Roger Garrison, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Routledge, Rule of law, SAGE Publications, Salvador Allende, Samuel Brittan, Scientism, Scottish Enlightenment, Secular stagnation theory, Self-organization, Sewall Wright, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social justice, Social market economy, Social philosophy, Social safety net, Social science, Socialism (book), Soviet Empire, Spanish flu, Spontaneous order, Sraffa–Hayek debate, Staining, Sytse Douma, Tacit knowledge, Telos (journal), Thatcherism, The American Economic Review, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, The Constitution of Liberty, The Counter-Revolution of Science, The Fatal Conceit, The Geistkreis, The Guardian, The Road to Serfdom, The Theory of Money and Credit, The Times, The Use of Knowledge in Society, Think tank, Thomas Balogh, Baron Balogh, Thomas Sowell, Tjalling Koopmans, Totalitarianism, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), United Kingdom, United Kingdom general election, 1979, Universidad Francisco Marroquín, University of Arkansas, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Cambridge, University of Canterbury, University of Chicago, University of Chicago Press, University of Freiburg, University of Oxford, University of Salzburg, University of Vienna, Václav Klaus, Vernon L. Smith, Vienna, Von Mises, W. Arthur Lewis, W. W. Bartley III, W. W. Norton & Company, Walter E. Williams, Walter Eucken, Wassily Leontief, Whigs (British political party), WHU-Otto Beisheim School of Management, William Baumol, William Volker Fund, World War I, 1984 Birthday Honours. Expand index (276 more) » « Shrink index
A Treatise on Money is a work on economics by English economist John Maynard Keynes.
Aaron Director (September 21, 1901 – September 11, 2004), a celebrated professor at the University of Chicago Law School, played a central role in the development of the Chicago school of economics.
Abraham (Abba) Ptachya Lerner (also Abba Psachia Lerner; 28 October 1903 – 27 October 1982) was a Russian-born British economist.
Adam Ferguson, FRSE (Scottish Gaelic: Adhamh MacFhearghais), also known as Ferguson of Raith (1 JulyGregorian Calendar/20 JuneJulian Calendar 1723 – 22 February 1816), was a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Alain de Benoist (born 11 December 1943) is a French academic, philosopher, a founder of the Nouvelle Droite (New Right), and head of the French think tank GRECE.
Alan Gibbs (born 1939) is a New Zealand-born businessman, entrepreneur and art collector.
Alan Oliver (Lanny) Ebenstein (born May 28, 1959) is an American political scientist, educator and author, known from his biographical works on Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman.
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
Alfred Marshall, FBA (26 July 1842 – 13 July 1924) was one of the most influential economists of his time.
Alfred Schutz (born Alfred Schütz,; 13 April 1899 – 20 May 1959) was an Austrian philosopher and social phenomenologist whose work bridged sociological and phenomenological traditions.
Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.
Algernon Sidney or Sydney (14 or 15 January 1623 – 7 December 1683) was an English politician and member of the middle part of the Long Parliament.
Andrew Wyndham Phillips, Baron Phillips of Sudbury, OBE (born 15 March 1939) is a solicitor and Liberal Democrat politician.
Andrzej Walicki (born May 15, 1930) is a Polish historian.
Anna Jacobson Schwartz (/ʃwɔːrts/; November 11, 1915 – June 21, 2012) was an American economist who worked at the National Bureau of Economic Research in New York City and a writer for the New York Times.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
António de Oliveira Salazar (28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.
Antony Garrard Newton Flew (11 February 1923 – 8 April 2010) was an English philosopher.
Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and Plato.
Arthur Betz Laffer (born August 14, 1940) is an American economist who first gained prominence during the Reagan administration as a member of Reagan's Economic Policy Advisory Board (1981–89).
Arthur Seldon (29 May 1916 – 11 October 2005) was joint founder president, with Ralph Harris, of the Institute of Economic Affairs, where he directed editorial affairs and publishing for more than thirty years.
Atilla Yayla (born), is a Turkish political thinker and a proponent of liberal democracy.
August von Hayek (14 December 1871 – 11 June 1928) was an Austrian physician and botanist born in Vienna.
August Friedrich Leopold Weismann (17 January 1834 – 5 November 1914) was a German evolutionary biologist.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian business cycle theory (ABCT) is an economic theory developed by the Austrian School of economics about how business cycles occur.
The Austrian Decoration for Science and Art (Österreichisches Ehrenzeichen für Wissenschaft und Kunst) is a state decoration of the Republic of Austria and forms part of the national honours system of that country.
The Austrian Institute of Economic Research (Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, WIFO) is a private non-profit association located in Vienna, Austria.
The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.
Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
A baronet (or; abbreviated Bart or Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (or; abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown.
A basic income, also called basic income guarantee, universal basic income (UBI), basic living stipend (BLS) or universal demogrant, is a type of program in which citizens (or permanent residents) of a country may receive a regular sum of money from the government.
Bernard E. Harcourt (born 1963) is an American critical theorist with a specialization in the area of punishment, surveillance, legal and political theory, and political economy.
Bernard Mandeville, or Bernard de Mandeville (15 November 1670 – 21 January 1733), was an Anglo-Dutch philosopher, political economist and satirist.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
The British Academy is the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and the social sciences.
The British Currency School was a group of British economists, active in the 1840s and 1850s, who argued that the excessive issuing of banknotes was a major cause of price inflation.
The term British subject has had a number of different legal meanings over time.
Bruce J. Caldwell is an American historian of economics, Research Professor of Economics at Duke University, and Director of the Center for the History of Political Economy.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Carl Menger (February 23, 1840 – February 26, 1921) was an Austrian economist and the founder of the Austrian School of economics.
Carl Schmitt (11 July 1888 – 7 April 1985) was a conservative German jurist and political theorist.
Catallactics is a theory of the way the free market system reaches exchange ratios and prices.
Catallaxy or catallactics is an alternative expression for the word "economy".
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Centre for Policy Studies (CPS) is a free-market British policy think tank whose goal is to promote coherent and practical public policy, to "roll back the state," reform public services, support communities, and challenge threats to Britain’s independence.
Centro de Estudios Públicos (Center of Public Studies) is a Chilean think tank.
Chandran Kukathas (born 12 September 1957) is a Malaysian-born Australian political theorist and the author of several books.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
The Chicago school of economics is a neoclassical school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularized its principles.
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Předlitavsko, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
The John U. Nef Committee on Social Thought is one of several PhD-granting committees at the University of Chicago.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
The Conservative Research Department (CRD) part of the central organisation of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom.
Constantin von Monakow (November 4, 1853 – October 19, 1930) was a Russian-Swiss neuropathologist who was a native of Bobretsovo in the Vologda Governorate.
Constructivist epistemology is a branch in philosophy of science maintaining that scientific knowledge is constructed by the scientific community, who seek to measure and construct models of the natural world.
The credit cycle is the expansion and contraction of access to credit over time.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
David Director Friedman (born February 12, 1945) is an American economist, physicist, legal scholar, and libertarian theorist.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David W. Miller (born 19 August 1942, Watford) is an English philosopher and prominent exponent of critical rationalism.
David Rockefeller (June 12, 1915 – March 20, 2017) was an American banker who was chairman and chief executive of Chase Manhattan Corporation.
David Martin Scott Steel, Baron Steel of Aikwood, (born 31 March 1938) is a British Liberal Democrat politician who served as the Leader of the Liberal Party from 1976 until its merger with the Social Democratic Party in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
David Alan Stockman (born November 10, 1946) is an American politician and former businessman who served as a Republican U.S. Representative from the state of Michigan (1977–1981) and as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (1981–1985) under President Ronald Reagan.
The Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um die Republik Österreich) is a national honour awarded by the Republic of Austria.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
Richard Keith Armey (born July 7, 1940) is an American economist and politician.
Dispersed knowledge in economics is the notion that no single agent has information as to all of the factors which influence prices and production throughout the system.
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
Econometrica is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics, publishing articles in many areas of economics, especially econometrics.
The economic calculation problem is a criticism of using economic planning as a substitute for market-based allocation of the factors of production.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Elinor Claire "Lin" Ostrom (August 7, 1933 – June 12, 2012) was an American political economist whose work was associated with the New Institutional Economics and the resurgence of political economy.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Eric Voegelin (born Erich Hermann Wilhelm Vögelin;; January 3, 1901 – January 19, 1985) was a German-born American political philosopher.
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.
Eugen Böhm Ritter von Bawerk (born Eugen Böhm, 12 February 1851 – 27 August 1914) was an Austrian economist who made important contributions to the development of the Austrian School of Economics.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
Fear the Boom and Bust is a 2010 hip hop music video in which 20th century economists John Maynard Keynes and Friedrich von Hayek (played by Billy Scafuri and Adam Lustick, respectively) take part in a rap battle discussing economics, specifically, the boom and bust business cycle, for which the video is named.
Felix Kaufmann (4 July 1895, Vienna – 23 December 1949, New York) was an Austrian-American philosopher of law.
Frank Albert Fetter (March 8, 1863 – March 21, 1949) was an American economist of the Austrian School.
Frank Hyneman Knight (November 7, 1885 – April 15, 1972) was an American economist who spent most of his career at the University of Chicago, where he became one of the founders of the Chicago school.
The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
A free price system or free price mechanism (informally called the price system or the price mechanism) is a mechanism of resource allocation that relies upon monetary prices set by the interchange of supply and demand.
Free to Choose: A Personal Statement (1980) is a book and a ten-part television series broadcast on public television by economists Milton and Rose D. Friedman that advocates free market principles.
Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000.
Friedrich Freiherr von Wieser (10 July 1851 – 22 July 1926) was an early (so-called "first generation") economist of the Austrian School of economics.
Fritz Machlup (December 15, 1902 – January 30, 1983) was an Austrian-American economist who was president of the International Economic Association from 1971–1974.
George Lennox Sharman Shackle (14 July 1903 – 3 March 1992) was an English economist.
In economics, general equilibrium theory attempts to explain the behavior of supply, demand, and prices in a whole economy with several or many interacting markets, by seeking to prove that the interaction of demand and supply will result in an overall general equilibrium.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Mason University (GMU, Mason, or George Mason) is a public research university in Fairfax County, Virginia.
George Selgin (born 1957) is the Director of the Cato Institute's Center for Monetary and Financial Alternatives, where he is editor-in-chief of the Center's blog, Alt-M, Professor Emeritus of economics at the Terry College of Business at the University of Georgia, and an associate editor of Econ Journal Watch.
George Joseph Stigler (January 17, 1911 – December 1, 1991) was an American economist, the 1982 laureate in Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and a key leader of the Chicago School of Economics.
Gerald Maurice Edelman (July 1, 1929 – May 17, 2014) was an American biologist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work with Rodney Robert Porter on the immune system.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Hubert Miles Gladwyn Jebb, 1st Baron Gladwyn known as Gladwyn Jebb (25 April 1900 – 24 October 1996), was a prominent British civil servant, diplomat and politician as well as the Acting Secretary-General of the United Nations for a little over three months.
The global financial system is the worldwide framework of legal agreements, institutions, and both formal and informal economic actors that together facilitate international flows of financial capital for purposes of investment and trade financing.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
Gottfried von Haberler (July 20, 1900 – May 6, 1995) was an Austrian-American economist.
The Government Junta of Chile (Junta Militar de Gobierno) was the military junta established to rule Chile during the military dictatorship that followed the overthrow of President Salvador Allende in the 1973 Chilean coup d'état backed by the United States.
Guaranteed minimum income (GMI), also called minimum income, is a system of social welfare provision that guarantees that all citizens or families have an income sufficient to live on, provided they meet certain conditions.
Guardian Media Group plc (GMG) is a British mass media company owning various media operations including The Guardian and The Observer.
Guggenheim Fellowships are grants that have been awarded annually since 1925 by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those "who have demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the arts".
Karl Gunnar Myrdal (6 December 1898 – 17 May 1987) was a Swedish economist and sociologist.
Gustav von Hayek (21 March 1836 in Brno – 11 January 1911 in Vienna) was an Austrian naturalist.
Ha-Joon Chang (born 7 October 1963) is a South Korean institutional economist and socialist specialising in development economics.
The Hanns Martin Schleyer Foundation (German: Hanns Martin Schleyer-Stiftung) is a German foundation that promotes research in economics, law and cultural sciences.
In neuroscience, Hebbian theory is a theory that proposes an explanation for the adaptation of neurons in the brain during the learning process.
Hein Schreuder (born December 24, 1951) is a Dutch economist and business executive, former Executive Vice-President Corporate Strategy & Acquisitions at DSM and former Professor at the University of Maastricht.
Henry Stuart Hazlitt (November 28, 1894July 9, 1993) was an American journalist who wrote about business and economics for such publications as The Wall Street Journal, The Nation, The American Mercury, Newsweek, and The New York Times.
Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".
Josef Herbert Furth (J. Herbert Furth, October 12, 1899, Vienna, Austria - March 6, 1995, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States) was Austrian and American jurist and economist.
The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics, from the ancient world to the present day in the 21st Century.
Hugo Marie de Vries ForMemRS (16 February 1848 – 21 May 1935) was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists.
Ian Charles Jarvie (born 8 July 1937) is a philosopher trained in England, long resident in Canada.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Individualism and Economic Order is a book written by Friedrich Hayek.
Information economics or the economics of information is a branch of microeconomic theory that studies how information and information systems affect an economy and economic decisions.
The Institute for Humane Studies (IHS) is a libertarian non-profit organization that engages with students and professors throughout the United States.
The Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) is a privately funded non-profit conservative think tank based in Westminster, London, United Kingdom.
The Intercollegiate Studies Institute, Inc.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, originally edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, is a 26-volume work published by Elsevier.
Internationalism is a political principle which transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people.
The Italian Front (Fronte italiano; in Gebirgskrieg, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.
James McGill Buchanan Jr. (October 3, 1919 – January 9, 2013) was an American economist known for his work on public choice theory (included in his most famous work, co-authored with Gordon Tullock, The Calculus of Consent, 1962), for which he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1986.
Jeremiah Whipple Jenks (1856–1929) was an American economist, educator, and Professor at the Cornell University.
Joaquin M. Fuster (born 1930)* is a Spanish neuroscientist whose research has made fundamental contributions to the understanding of the neural structures underlying cognition and behavior.
John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, (10 January 1834 – 19 June 1902), was an English Catholic historian, politician, and writer.
John Nicholas Gray (born 17 April 1948) is an English political philosopher with interests in analytic philosophy and the history of ideas.
Sir John Richard Hicks (8 April 1904 – 20 May 1989) was a British economist.
John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.
Josiah Tucker (also Josias) (December 1713 – 4 November 1799), also known as Dean Tucker, was a Welsh churchman, known as an economist and political writer.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, (17 January 1918 – 10 December 1994), known as Sir Keith Joseph, 2nd Baronet, for most of his political life, was a British barrister and politician.
Kenneth Joseph "Ken" Arrow (23 August 1921 – 21 February 2017) was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist.
Johan Gustaf Knut Wicksell (December 20, 1851 – May 3, 1926) was a leading Swedish economist of the Stockholm school.
Lakshmi Kant Jha, MBE (22 November 1913 – 16 January 1988), born in Bhagalpur district, Bihar,or L. K. Jha as he was called, was the eighth Governor of the Reserve Bank of India from 1 July 1967 to 3 May 1970.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Law, Legislation and Liberty is the 1973 work in three volumes by Nobel laureate economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek.
Lawrence H. White (born November 27, 1954) is an American economics professor at George Mason University who teaches graduate level monetary theory and policy.
Lawrence Henry Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist, former Vice President of Development Economics and Chief Economist of the World Bank (1991–93),, Data & Research office, The World Bank, retrieved March 31, 2017, World Bank Live, The World Bank, retrieved March 31, 2017 Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, retrieved March 31, 2017 senior U.S. Treasury Department official throughout President Clinton's administration (ultimately Treasury Secretary, 1999–2001), U.S. Treasury Department, Last Updated: 11/20/2010, retrieved March 31, 2017 and former director of the National Economic Council for President Obama (2009–2010).
Marie-Esprit-Léon Walras (16 December 1834 – 5 January 1910) was a French mathematical economist and Georgist.
Leland Bennett Yeager (November 4, 1924 – April 23, 2018) was an American economist and an expert on monetary policy and international trade.
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
Leonid "Leo" Hurwicz (August 21, 1917 – June 24, 2008) was a Polish American economist and mathematician.
Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich (a) (19 January 19127 April 1986) was a Soviet mathematician and economist, known for his theory and development of techniques for the optimal allocation of resources.
This article gives an overview of liberalism in Austria.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, (22 November 1898 – 15 May 1984) was a British economist, and prominent member of the economics department at the London School of Economics.
In the scientific discipline of economics, the Econometric Society is a learned society devoted to the advancement of economics by using mathematical and statistical methods.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially known as The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to researchers in the field of economic sciences.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard (4 February 1897 – 5 May 1977) was a German politician affiliated with the CDU and the second Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1963 until 1966.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Duncan Madsen Pirie (born 24 August 1940) is a British researcher, author, and educator.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
In economics, utility is the satisfaction or benefit derived by consuming a product; thus the marginal utility of a good or service is the change in the utility from an increase in the consumption of that good or service.
Mart Laar (born 22 April 1960) is an Estonian politician and historian.
Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883 – March 25, 1969) was an American writer on literature, philosophy and society, a poet and a prominent political activist.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
The Mercatus Center at George Mason University is an American non-profit free-market-oriented research, education, and outreach think tank directed by Tyler Cowen.
Microeconomics (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.
The military dictatorship of Chile (dictadura militar de Chile) was an authoritarian military government that ruled Chile between 1973 and 1990.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
The Mises Institute, short name for Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, is a tax-exempt educative organization located in Auburn, Alabama, United States.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
The Mont Pelerin Society (MPS) is an international liberal organization composed of economists, philosophers, historians, intellectuals, business leaders.
Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
Until 1892 Neustift am Walde was an independent municipality in the outskirts of Vienna, Austria and is today a part of Döbling, the 19th district of Vienna.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.
The New York University School of Law is the law school of New York University.
Nicholas Kaldor, Baron Kaldor (12 May 1908 – 30 September 1986), born Káldor Miklós, was a Cambridge economist in the post-war period.
Nicholas Henry Wapshott (born 13 January 1952) is a British journalist, broadcaster and author.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Norman Patrick Barry (25 June 1944 – 21 October 2008) was an English political philosopher best known as an exponent of classical liberalism.
Nouvelle Droite (New Right) is a European school of political thought that emerged in France during the late 1960s.
Oliver Eaton Williamson (born September 27, 1932) is an American economist, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, which he shared with Elinor Ostrom.
The Order of the Companions of Honour is an order of the Commonwealth realms.
Oskar Ryszard Lange (27 July 1904 – 2 October 1965) was a Polish economist and diplomat.
Othmar Spann (1 October 1878 – 8 July 1950) was a conservative Austrian philosopher, sociologist and economist whose radical anti-liberal and anti-Socialist views, based on early 19th century Romantic ideas expressed by Adam Müller et al.
Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.
Paul Narcyz Rosenstein-Rodan (1902–1985) was an economist of Jewish origin born in Kraków, who was trained in the Austrian tradition under in Vienna.
Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Peter Joseph Boettke (born January 3, 1960) is an American economist of the Austrian School.
The Philadelphia Society is a membership organization the purpose of which is "to sponsor the interchange of ideas through discussion and writing, in the interest of deepening the intellectual foundation of a free and ordered society, and of broadening the understanding of its basic principles and traditions".
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Piero Sraffa (5 August 1898 – 3 September 1983) was an influential Italian economist, who served as lecturer of economics at the University of Cambridge.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
The Pour le Mérite (French, literally "For Merit") is an order of merit (Verdienstorden) established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia.
Praxeology or praxiology is the study of human action, based on the notion that humans engage in purposeful behavior, as opposed to reflexive behavior like sneezing and unintentional behavior.
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
A price signal is information conveyed to consumers and producers, via the price charged for a product or service, which provides a signal to increase or decrease supply or demand.
The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi peaminister, literally translated as Head Minister of Estonia) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.
Raymond Plant, Baron Plant of Highfield FKC (born 19 March 1945) is a British Labour peer and academic.
Reader's Digest is an American general-interest family magazine, published ten times a year.
The Reform Club is a private members club on the south side of Pall Mall in central London.
Richard H. Timberlake, Jr. (born June 24, 1922) is an American economist who was Professor of Economics at the University of Georgia for much of his career.
Richard Wolin (born 1952) is an American intellectual historian.
, also known as Saint Paul's University, is a private university, in Ikebukuro, Tokyo, Japan.
Roger Wayne Garrison (born 1944) is an American professor of economics at Auburn University, and an adjunct scholar of the Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Ronald Harry Coase (29 December 1910 – 2 September 2013) was a British economist and author.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
Sir Samuel Brittan (born 29 December 1933) is an English journalist and author.
Scientism is the ideology of science.
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
The secular stagnation theory was originally put forth by Alvin Hansen in 1938 to "describe what he feared was the fate of the American economy following the Great Depression of the early 1930s: a check to economic progress as investment opportunities were stunted by the closing of the frontier and the collapse of immigration".
Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.
Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
The social market economy (SOME; soziale Marktwirtschaft), also called Rhine capitalism, is a socioeconomic model combining a free market capitalist economic system alongside social policies which establish both fair competition within the market and a welfare state.
Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations.
The social safety net is a collection of services provided by the state or other institutions such as friendly societies.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis is a book by Austrian School economist and libertarian thinker Ludwig von Mises, first published in German by Gustav Fischer Verlag in Jena in 1922 under the title Die Gemeinwirtschaft: Untersuchungen über den Sozialismus.
The informal term "Soviet Empire" is used by critics of the Soviet Union and Russian nationalists"The borders of the Russian World extend significantly farther than borders of Russian Federation.
The Spanish flu (January 1918 – December 1920), also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.
Spontaneous order, also named self-organization in the hard sciences, is the spontaneous emergence of order out of seeming chaos.
The Sraffa–Hayek debate is debate between Piero Sraffa and Friedrich Hayek in 1930s.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Sytse Wybren Douma (born 1942) is a Dutch organizational theorist, consultant and Emeritus Professor at the Tilburg School of Economics and Management of the Tilburg University, known for his work with Hein Schreuder on "Economic approaches to organizations".
Tacit knowledge (as opposed to formal, codified or explicit knowledge) is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it.
Telos is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal established in May 1968 to provide the New Left with a coherent theoretical perspective.
Thatcherism describes the conviction, economic, social and political style of the British Conservative Party politician Margaret Thatcher, who was leader of her party from 1975 to 1990.
The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.
The American Journal of Economics and Sociology is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1941 by Will Lissner with support from the Robert Schalkenbach Foundation.
The Constitution of Liberty is a book by Austrian economist and Nobel Prize recipient Friedrich A. Hayek.
The Counter-Revolution of Science: Studies on the Abuse of Reason is a 1952 book by Nobel laureate economist Friedrich Hayek, in which the author addresses the problem of scientism in the social sciences, where researchers and reporters attempt to apply the methods and claims of objective certainty from hard science, despite the fact that these attempt to eliminate the human factor from study, yet these "soft" sciences center around attempting to understand human action.
The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism (1988) is a non-fiction book written by the economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek and edited by William Warren Bartley.
The Geistkreis or "Mind Circle" was an informal Viennese seminar of science and ideas founded by Friedrich Hayek and Herbert Furth in the early 1920s, whose members included sociologist Alfred Schutz, philosopher Felix Kaufmann, economists Fritz Machlup, Gottfried Haberler and Oskar Morgenstern, political scientist Eric Voegelin, Friedrich Engel-Janosi, Franz Glück, mathematician Karl Menger, art historians Otto Benesch and Johannes Wilde, among others.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Road to Serfdom (German: Der Weg zur Knechtschaft) is a book written between 1940 and 1943 by Austrian British economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayek, in which the author " of the danger of tyranny that inevitably results from government control of economic decision-making through central planning." He further argues that the abandonment of individualism and classical liberalism inevitably leads to a loss of freedom, the creation of an oppressive society, the tyranny of a dictator, and the serfdom of the individual.
The Theory of Money and Credit is a 1912 economics book written by Ludwig von Mises, originally published in German as Theorie des Geldes und der Umlaufsmittel.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
"The Use of Knowledge in Society" is a scholarly article written by economist Friedrich Hayek, first published in the September 1945 issue of The American Economic Review.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
Tamás (Thomas) Balogh, Baron Balogh (2 November 1905 – 20 January 1985) was a British economist and member of the House of Lords.
Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930) is an American economist and social theorist who is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
Tjalling Charles Koopmans (August 28, 1910 – February 26, 1985) was a Dutch American mathematician and economist.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP) (Latin for "Logico-Philosophical Treatise") is the only book-length philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The 1979 United Kingdom general election was held on 3 May 1979 to elect 635 members to the British House of Commons.
Francisco Marroquín University (Spanish: Universidad Francisco Marroquín), also known by the abbreviation UFM, is a private, secular university in Guatemala City, Guatemala.
The University of Arkansas (U of A, UARK, or UA) is a public land-grant, doctoral research university located in Fayetteville, Arkansas.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Canterbury (Te Whare Wānanga o Waitaha; postnominal abbreviation Cantuar. or Cant. for Cantuariensis, the Latin name for Canterbury) is New Zealand's second oldest university.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Freiburg (colloquially Uni Freiburg), officially the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg), is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Salzburg, also known as the Paris Lodron University of Salzburg (Paris-Lodron-Universität Salzburg, PLUS), named after its founder, Prince-Archbishop Paris Lodron, is a public university located in Salzburg city, Austria.
The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.
Václav Klaus (born 19 June 1941) is a Czech economist and politician who served as the second President of the Czech Republic from 2003 to 2013.
Vernon Lomax Smith (born January 1, 1927) is an American professor of economics and law at Chapman University's Argyros School of Business and Economics and School of Law in Orange, California, a former professor of economics and law at George Mason University, and a board member of the Mercatus Center in Arlington, Virginia.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
von Mises may refer to.
Sir William Arthur Lewis (23 January 1915 – 15 June 1991) was a Saint Lucian economist well known for his contributions in the field of economic development.
William Warren Bartley III (October 2, 1934 – February 5, 1990), known as W. W. Bartley III, was an American philosopher specializing in 20th century philosophy, language and logic, and the Vienna Circle.
Walter Edward Williams (born March 31, 1936) is an American economist, commentator, and academic.
Walter Eucken (17 January 1891 – 20 March 1950) was a German economist of the Freiburg school and father of ordoliberalism.
Wassily Wassilyevich Leontief (Василий Васильевич Леонтьев; August 5, 1905 – February 5, 1999), was a Russian-American economist known for his research on input-output analysis and how changes in one economic sector may affect other sectors.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management (or WHU Vallendar) belongs to Germany's leading business schools with campuses in Vallendar and Düsseldorf, Germany.
William Jack Baumol (February 26, 1922 – May 4, 2017) was an American economist.
The William Volker Fund was a charitable foundation established in 1932 by Kansas City, Missouri, businessman and home-furnishings mogul William Volker.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Queen's Birthday Honours are announced on or around the date of the Queen's Official Birthday in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.
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