240 relations: Acalculia, Acrophobia, Acute (medicine), Acute stress reaction, Adjustment disorder, Adolescence, Agoraphobia, Alcohol, Alcohol intoxication, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Alcoholic hallucinosis, Alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, Alcoholism, Alzheimer's disease, Amnesia, Anorexia nervosa, Anorgasmia, Anthropophobia, Antisocial personality disorder, Anxiety disorder, Asperger syndrome, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Atypical depression, Autism, Avoidant personality disorder, Behavior, Benzodiazepine dependence, Benzodiazepine overdose, Benzodiazepine use disorder, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Bipolar disorder, Bipolar II disorder, Body dysmorphic disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Brain damage, Bulimia nervosa, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Caffeine, Cannabinoid, Cannabis use disorder, Catatonia, Central nervous system disease, Childhood, Chronic hallucinatory psychosis, Circadian rhythm, Claustrophobia, Cluttering, Cocaine, Cocaine dependence, Cocaine intoxication, ..., Conduct disorder, Conversion disorder, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Cyclothymia, Da Costa's syndrome, Delirium, Delirium tremens, Delusional disorder, Dementia, Dependent personality disorder, Depersonalization disorder, Developmental coordination disorder, Developmental psychology, Dhat syndrome, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Disease, Disinhibited attachment disorder, Disorganized schizophrenia, Dissociative disorder, Dissociative identity disorder, Drug withdrawal, Dual-role transvestism, Dyslexia, Dyspareunia, Dysthymia, Eating disorder, Effects of cannabis, Ego-dystonic sexual orientation, Elective mutism, Emotional and behavioral disorders, Encopresis, Erectile dysfunction, Exhibitionism, Expressive language disorder, Factitious disorder, Factitious disorder imposed on self, Feeding disorder, Female sexual arousal disorder, Folie à deux, Frotteurism, Fugue state, Ganser syndrome, Gender dysphoria, Gender dysphoria in children, Generalized anxiety disorder, Gerstmann syndrome, Habituation, Hallucinogen, Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, Haltlose personality disorder, Health care, Histrionic personality disorder, HIV, Huntington's disease, Hyperkinetic disorder, Hypersexuality, Hypersomnia, Hypnotic, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Hypochondriasis, Hypomania, ICD-10, Infant, Insomnia, Intellectual disability, Intermittent explosive disorder, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Kleptomania, Landau–Kleffner syndrome, Language, Lisp, List of diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry, List of ICD-9 codes 290–319: mental disorders, List of phobias, Major depressive disorder, Major depressive episode, Mania, Masked depression, Medical classification, Medication, Mental disorder, Mind, Mixed affective state, Mood disorder, Nail biting, Narcissistic personality disorder, Necrophilia, Neurasthenia, Neurosis, Nicotine withdrawal, Night terror, Nightmare, Nocturnal enuresis, Nose-picking, Nosophobia, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, Opioid, Opioid overdose, Opioid use disorder, Oppositional defiant disorder, Organic brain syndrome, Organic personality disorder, Overactive disorder associated with mental retardation and stereotyped movements, Overeating, Panic disorder, Paranoid personality disorder, Paranoid schizophrenia, Paraphilia, Parkinson's disease, Paroxysmal attack, Passive–aggressive personality disorder, Pedophilia, Personality disorder, Pervasive developmental disorder, Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, Phobia, Pica (disorder), Pick's disease, Post-concussion syndrome, Post-schizophrenic depression, Postencephalitic, Postpartum depression, Postpartum period, Postpartum psychosis, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Premature ejaculation, Problem gambling, Pseudohallucination, Psychasthenia, Psychoactive drug, Psychogenic amnesia, Psychogenic non-epileptic seizure, Psychogenic pain, Psychology, Psychosexual development, Psychosis, Puberty, Pyromania, Querulant, Reactive attachment disorder, Receptive aphasia, Rett syndrome, Sadomasochism, Schizoaffective disorder, Schizoid personality disorder, Schizophrenia, Schizotypal personality disorder, Sedative, Separation anxiety disorder, Sexual dysfunction, Sexual fetishism, Sexual maturation disorder, Sexual orientation, Sexual relationship disorder, Sibling rivalry, Simple-type schizophrenia, Sleep disorder, Sleepwalking, Social anxiety, Social anxiety disorder, Solvent, Somatic symptom disorder, Somatization disorder, Specific developmental disorder, Specific phobia, Speech, Speech disorder, Stereotypic movement disorder, Stimulant, Stimulant psychosis, Stuttering, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Substance intoxication, Thumb sucking, Tic disorder, Tobacco, Tourette syndrome, Transsexual, Transvestic fetishism, Trichotillomania, Vaginismus, Vascular dementia, Vomiting, Voyeurism, Weakness, World Health Organization, Writer's cramp, Zoophilia. 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Acalculia is an acquired impairment in which patients have difficulty performing simple mathematical tasks, such as adding, subtracting, multiplying and even simply stating which of two numbers is larger.
Acrophobia is an extreme or irrational fear or phobia of heights, especially when one is not particularly high up.
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event, or witnessing a traumatic event that induces a strong emotional response within the individual.
An adjustment disorder (AD)—sometimes called exogenous, reactive, or situational depression—occurs when an individual is unable to adjust to or cope with a particular stress or a major life event.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.
Alcoholic hallucinosis (or alcohol-related psychosis or alcohol-induced psychotic disorder) is a complication of alcohol abuse in alcoholics.
Alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome (AKS), Korsakoff syndrome is an amnestic disorder caused by thiamine deficiency associated with prolonged ingestion of alcohol.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Anorgasmia, or Coughlan's syndrome, is a type of sexual dysfunction in which a person cannot achieve orgasm despite adequate stimulation.
Anthropophobia or AnthrophobiaWen-Shing Tseng, Handbook of Cultural Psychiatry, San Diego: Academic Press, 2001,, (literally "fear of humans", from άνθρωπος, ánthropos, "human" and φόβος, phóbos, "fear"), also called interpersonal relation phobia or social phobia, is pathological fear of people or human company.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger's, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Atypical depression, or depression with atypical features as it has been known in the DSM IV, is depression that shares many of the typical symptoms of the psychiatric syndromes major depression or dysthymia but is characterized by improved mood in response to positive events.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is a Cluster C personality disorder.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV.
Benzodiazepine overdose describes the ingestion of one of the drugs in the benzodiazepine class in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Benzodiazepine use disorder, also called misuse or abuse, is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses risks of dependence, withdrawal and other long-term effects.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Bipolar II disorder (BP-II; pronounced "type two bipolar" or "bipolar type two" disorder) is a bipolar spectrum disorder (see also Bipolar disorder) characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression.
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
The Bulletin of the World Health Organization is a monthly public health journal published by the World Health Organization that was established in 1947.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cannabis use disorder (CUD) (also known as cannabis or marijuana addiction) is defined in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and ICD-10 published by World Health Organization as the continued use of cannabis despite clinically significant impairment, ranging from mild to severe.
Catatonia is a state of psycho-motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor.
Central nervous system diseases, also known as central nervous system disorders, are a group of neurological disorders that affect the structure or function of the brain or spinal cord, which collectively form the central nervous system (CNS).
Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chronic hallucinatory psychosis is a psychosis subtype, classified under "Other nonorganic psychosis" by the ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Cluttering (also called tachyphemia or tachyphrasia) is a speech and communication disorder characterized by a rapid rate of speech, erratic rhythm, and poor syntax or grammar, making speech difficult to understand.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cocaine dependence is a psychological desire to use cocaine regularly.
Cocaine intoxication refers to the immediate and deleterious effects of cocaine on the body.
Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.
Conversion disorder (CD) is a diagnostic category used in some psychiatric classification systems.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is a universally fatal brain disorder.
Cyclothymia, also known as cyclothymic disorder, is a mental disorder that involves periods of symptoms of depression and periods of symptoms of hypomania.
Da Costa's syndrome, which was colloquially known as soldier's heart, is a syndrome with a set of symptoms that are similar to those of heart disease, though a physical examination does not reveal any physiological abnormalities.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol.
Delusional disorder is a generally rare mental illness in which the patient presents delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dependent personality disorder (DPD), formerly known as asthenic personality disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people.
Depersonalization disorder (DPD), also known as depersonalization/derealization disorder, is a mental disorder in which the person has persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization or derealization.
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), also known as developmental dyspraxia or simply dyspraxia, is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Dhat syndrome (Sanskrit: धातु दोष, IAST: Dhātu doṣa) is a condition found in the cultures of the Indian subcontinent in which male patients report that they suffer from premature ejaculation or impotence, and believe that they are passing semen in their urine.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disinhibited attachment disorder of childhood (DAD) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), is defined as: Disinhibited attachment disorder is a subtype of the ICD-10 category F94, "Disorders of social functioning with onset specific to childhood and adolescence".
Disorganized schizophrenia, also known as hebephrenia or hebephrenic schizophrenia, is a subtype of schizophrenia, although it is not recognized in the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Dissociative disorders (DD) are conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity, or perception.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID), also known as multiple personality disorder, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring personality states.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Dual-role transvestism is the formal diagnosis used by psychologists and physicians to describe people who wear clothes of the opposite sex to experience being the opposite sex temporarily, but don't have a sexual motive or want gender reassignment surgery.
Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.
Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes.
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
The effects of cannabis are caused by the chemical compounds in the plant, including cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is only one of more than 100 different cannabinoids present in the plant.
Ego-dystonic sexual orientation is an ego-dystonic mental disorder characterized by having a sexual orientation or an attraction that is at odds with one's idealized self-image, causing anxiety and a desire to change one's orientation or become more comfortable with one's sexual orientation.
Elective mutism is a now outdated term which was defined as a refusal to speak in almost all social situations (despite normal ability to do so), while selective mutism was considered to be a failure to speak in specific situations and is strongly associated with social anxiety disorder.
Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; sometimes called emotional disturbance or serious emotional disturbance) refer to a disability classification used in educational settings that allows educational institutions to provide special education and related services to students that have poor social or academic adjustment that cannot be better explained by biological abnormalities or a developmental disability.
Encopresis (from the Ancient Greek ἐγκόπρησις / egkóprēsis), also known as paradoxical diarrhea, is voluntary or involuntary passage of feces (fecal soiling) in children who are four years or older and after an organic cause has been excluded.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Exhibitionism is the act of exposing in a public or semi-public context those parts of one's body that are not normally exposed – for example, the breasts, genitals or buttocks.
Expressive language disorder is a communication disorder in which there are difficulties with verbal and written expression.
A factitious disorder is a condition in which a person, without a malingering motive, acts as if they have an illness by deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms, purely to attain (for themselves or for another) a patient's role.
Factitious disorder imposed on self, also known as Munchausen syndrome, is a factitious disorder wherein those affected feign disease, illness, or psychological trauma to draw attention, sympathy, or reassurance to themselves.
A feeding disorder, in infancy or early childhood, is a child's refusal to eat certain food groups, textures, solids or liquids for a period of at least one month, which causes the child to not gain enough weight, grow naturally or cause any developmental delays.
Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a disorder characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain sexual arousal or to maintain arousal until the completion of a sexual activity.
Folie à deux (French for "madness of two"), or shared psychosis, is a psychiatric syndrome in which symptoms of a delusional belief and sometimes hallucinations are transmitted from one individual to another.
Frotteurism is a paraphilic interest in rubbing, usually one's pelvic area or erect penis, against a non-consenting person for sexual pleasure.
Dissociative fugue, formerly fugue state or psychogenic fugue, is a dissociative disorderDissociative Fugue (formerly Psychogenic Fugue) and a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by reversible amnesia for personal identity, including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality.
Ganser syndrome is a rare dissociative disorder characterized by nonsensical or wrong answers to questions and other dissociative symptoms such as fugue, amnesia or conversion disorder, often with visual pseudohallucinations and a decreased state of consciousness.
Gender dysphoria (GD), or gender identity disorder (GID), is the distress a person experiences as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth.
Gender dysphoria in children or gender identity disorder in children (GIDC) is a formal diagnosis used by psychologists and physicians to describe children who experience significant discontent (gender dysphoria) with their biological sex, assigned gender, or both.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
Gerstmann syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by a constellation of symptoms that suggests the presence of a lesion in a particular area of the brain.
Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a disorder characterized by a continual presence of sensory disturbances, most commonly visual, that are reminiscent of those generated by the use of hallucinogenic substances.
Haltlose personality disorder is an ICD-10 personality disorder in which affected individuals are selfish, irresponsible and hedonistic.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive attention-seeking emotions, usually beginning in early adulthood, including inappropriately seductive behavior and an excessive need for approval.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hyperkinetic disorder is an outdated term for a psychiatric neurodevelopmental condition emerging in early childhood.
Hypersexuality is a clinical diagnosis used by mental healthcare professionals to describe extremely frequent or suddenly increased libido.
Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is considered a sexual dysfunction and is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, as judged by a clinician.
Hypochondriasis or hypochondria is a condition in which a person is excessively and unduly worried about having a serious illness.
Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Intermittent explosive disorder (sometimes abbreviated as IED) is a behavioral disorder characterized by explosive outbursts of anger and violence, often to the point of rage, that are disproportionate to the situation at hand (e.g., impulsive screaming triggered by relatively inconsequential events).
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Kleptomania or klopemania is the inability to refrain from the urge for stealing items and is usually done for reasons other than personal use or financial gain.
Landau–Kleffner syndrome (LKS)—also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia or aphasia with convulsive disorder—is a rare childhood neurological syndrome.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
A lisp, also known as sigmatism, is a speech impediment in which a person misarticulates sibilants,. These misarticulations often result in unclear speech.
The following diagnostic systems and rating scales are used in psychiatry and clinical psychology.
Here's the list of the ICD-9 codes 290–319: mental disorders.
The English suffixes -phobia, -phobic, -phobe (from Greek φόβος phobos, "fear") occur in technical usage in psychiatry to construct words that describe irrational, abnormal, unwarranted, persistent, or disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. acidophobia), and in medicine to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory (e.g. photophobia).
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
A major depressive episode (MDE) is a period characterized by the symptoms of major depressive disorder.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Masked depression (MD) was a proposed form of atypical depression in which somatic symptoms or behavioural disturbances dominate the clinical picture and disguise the underlying affective disorder.
Medical classification, or medical coding, is the process of transforming descriptions of medical diagnoses and procedures into universal medical code numbers.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Traditionally, a mixed affective state, formerly known as a mixed-manic or mixed episode, has been defined as a state wherein features unique to both depression and mania—such as despair, fatigue, morbid or suicidal ideation, racing thoughts, pressure of activity, and heightened irritability—occur either simultaneously or in very short succession.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Nail biting, also known as onychophagy or onychophagia (or even erroneously onchophagia), is an oral compulsive habit.
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.
Necrophilia, also known as necrophilism, necrolagnia, necrocoitus, necrochlesis, and thanatophilia, is a sexual attraction or sexual act involving corpses.
Neurasthenia is a term that was first used at least as early as 1829 to label a mechanical weakness of the nerves and would become a major diagnosis in North America during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries after neurologist George Miller Beard reintroduced the concept in 1869.
Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving chronic distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nicotine withdrawal is a group of symptoms that occur in the first few weeks upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of nicotine.
Night terror, also known as sleep terror, is a sleep disorder, causing feelings of terror or dread, and typically occurs during the first hours of stage 3–4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.
A nightmare, also called a bad dream, Retrieved July 11, 2016.
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs.
Nose-picking is the act of extracting nasal mucus with one's finger (rhinotillexis) and may include the subsequent ingestion of the extracted mucus (mucophagy).
Nosophobia is the irrational fear of contracting a disease, a type of specific phobia.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a general pattern of concern with orderliness, perfectionism, excessive attention to details, mental and interpersonal control, and a need for control over one's environment, at the expense of flexibility, openness to experience, and efficiency.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
An opioid overdose is toxicity due to excessive opioids.
Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is defined by the DSM-5 as "a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness" in children and adolescents.
An organic brain syndrome (OBS), also known as an organic brain disease/disorder (OBD), an organic mental syndrome (OMS), or an organic mental disorder (OMD), is a syndrome or disorder of mental function whose cause is alleged to be known as organic (physiologic) rather than purely of the mind.
Organic personality disorder (OPD) is not included in the wide variety of group of personality disorders.
Overactive disorder associated with mental retardation and stereotyped movements is a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) listed in Chapter V(F) of the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10); its diagnostic code is F84.4.
Overeating is the excess food in relation to the energy that an organism expends (or expels via excretion), leading to weight gaining and often obesity.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a mental disorder characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.
Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common type of schizophrenia.
Paraphilia (previously known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation) is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Paroxysmal attacks or paroxysms (from Greek παροξυσμός) are a sudden recurrence or intensification of symptoms, such as a spasm or seizure.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revision IV (DSM-IV) describes passive–aggressive personality disorder as a "pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance in social and occupational situations." Passive-aggressive behavior is the obligatory symptom of the passive–aggressive personality disorder.
Pedophilia, or paedophilia, is a psychiatric disorder in which an adult or older adolescent experiences a primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of five disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication.
A pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is one of the four autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and also one of the five disorders classified as a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD).
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.
Pica is a psychological disorder characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive, such as ice (pagophagia); hair (trichophagia); paper (xylophagia); drywall or paint; metal (metallophagia); stones (lithophagia) or soil (geophagia); glass (hyalophagia); or feces (coprophagia); and chalk.
Pick's disease is a term that can be used in two different ways.
Post-concussion syndrome, also known as postconcussive syndrome or PCS, is a set of symptoms that may continue for weeks, months, or a year or more after a concussion – a mild form of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Post-schizophrenic depression is a "depressive episode arising in the aftermath of a schizophrenic illness where some low-level schizophrenic symptoms may still be present." Someone that suffers from post-schizophrenic depression experiences both symptoms of depression and can also continue showing mild symptoms of schizophrenia.
Postencephalitic may refer to.
Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
Postpartum psychosis is a rare psychiatric emergency in which symptoms of high mood and racing thoughts (mania), depression, severe confusion, loss of inhibition, paranoia, hallucinations and delusions set in, beginning suddenly in the first two weeks after childbirth.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Premature ejaculation (PE) occurs when a man experiences orgasm and expels semen soon after sexual activity and with minimal penile stimulation.
Problem gambling (or ludomania, but usually referred to as "gambling addiction" or "compulsive gambling") is an urge to gamble continuously despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop.
A pseudohallucination is an involuntary sensory experience vivid enough to be regarded as a hallucination, but recognised by the patient not to be the result of external stimuli.
Psychasthenia is a psychological disorder characterized by phobias, obsessions, compulsions, or excessive anxiety.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychogenic amnesia or dissociative amnesia, is a memory disorder characterized by sudden retrograde episodic memory loss, said to occur for a period of time ranging from hours to years.
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are events resembling an epileptic seizure, but without the characteristic electrical discharges associated with epilepsy.
Psychogenic pain, also called psychalgia, is physical pain that is caused, increased, or prolonged by mental, emotional, or behavioral factors.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido (sexual energy) that develops in five stages.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Pyromania is an impulse control disorder in which individuals repeatedly fail to resist impulses to deliberately start fires, in order to relieve tension or for instant gratification.
In the legal profession and courts, a querulant (from the Latin querulus - "complaining") is a person who obsessively feels wronged, particularly about minor causes of action.
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is described in clinical literature as a severe and relatively uncommon disorder that can affect children.
Wernicke's aphasia, also known as receptive aphasia, sensory aphasia, or posterior aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which individuals have difficulty understanding written and spoken language.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a genetic brain disorder which typically becomes apparent after 6 to 18 months of age in females.
Sadomasochism is the giving or receiving pleasure from acts involving the receipt or infliction of pain or humiliation.
Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.
Schizoid personality disorder (often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment, and apathy.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) or schizotypal disorder is a mental disorder characterized by severe social anxiety, thought disorder, paranoid ideation, derealization, transient psychosis, and often unconventional beliefs.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Separation anxiety disorder (SAD), is an anxiety disorder in which an individual experiences excessive anxiety regarding separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (e.g., a parent, caregiver, significant other or siblings).
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Sexual fetishism or erotic fetishism is a sexual fixation on a nonliving object or nongenital body part.
Sexual maturation disorder is a disorder of anxiety or depression related to an uncertainty about one's gender identity or sexual orientation.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Sexual relationship disorder is a disorder where a person has difficulties in forming or maintaining a sexual relationship because of their gender identity or sexual orientation.
Sibling rivalry is a type of competition or animosity among siblings, whether blood related or not.
Simple-type schizophrenia is a sub-type of schizophrenia as defined in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism or noctambulism, is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness.
Social anxiety can be defined as nervousness in social situations.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,(2013) " " dsm5.org.
Somatization disorder (also Briquet's syndrome) is a mental disorder characterized by recurring, multiple, and current, clinically significant complaints about somatic symptoms, although it is no longer considered a clinical diagnosis.
Specific developmental disorders (SDD) are disorders in which development is delayed in one specific area or areas,Ahuja Vyas: Textbook of Postgraduate Psychiatry (2 Vols.), 2nd ed.
A specific phobia is any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
Speech disorders or speech impediments are a type of communication disorder where 'normal' speech is disrupted.
Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) is a motor disorder with onset in childhood involving repetitive, nonfunctional motor behavior (e.g., hand waving or head banging), that markedly interferes with normal activities or results in bodily injury.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels. According to Watkins et al., stuttering is a disorder of "selection, initiation, and execution of motor sequences necessary for fluent speech production." For many people who stutter, repetition is the primary problem. The term "stuttering" covers a wide range of severity, encompassing barely perceptible impediments that are largely cosmetic to severe symptoms that effectively prevent oral communication. In the world, approximately four times as many men as women stutter, encompassing 70 million people worldwide, or about 1% of the world's population. The impact of stuttering on a person's functioning and emotional state can be severe. This may include fears of having to enunciate specific vowels or consonants, fears of being caught stuttering in social situations, self-imposed isolation, anxiety, stress, shame, being a possible target of bullying having to use word substitution and rearrange words in a sentence to hide stuttering, or a feeling of "loss of control" during speech. Stuttering is sometimes popularly seen as a symptom of anxiety, but there is actually no direct correlation in that direction (though as mentioned the inverse can be true, as social anxiety may actually develop in individuals as a result of their stuttering). Stuttering is generally not a problem with the physical production of speech sounds or putting thoughts into words. Acute nervousness and stress do not cause stuttering, but they can trigger stuttering in people who have the speech disorder, and living with a stigmatized disability can result in anxiety and high allostatic stress load (chronic nervousness and stress) that reduce the amount of acute stress necessary to trigger stuttering in any given person who stutters, exacerbating the problem in the manner of a positive feedback system; the name 'stuttered speech syndrome' has been proposed for this condition. Neither acute nor chronic stress, however, itself creates any predisposition to stuttering. The disorder is also variable, which means that in certain situations, such as talking on the telephone or in a large group, the stuttering might be more severe or less, depending on whether or not the stutterer is self-conscious about their stuttering. Stutterers often find that their stuttering fluctuates and that they have "good" days, "bad" days and "stutter-free" days. The times in which their stuttering fluctuates can be random. Although the exact etiology, or cause, of stuttering is unknown, both genetics and neurophysiology are thought to contribute. There are many treatments and speech therapy techniques available that may help decrease speech disfluency in some people who stutter to the point where an untrained ear cannot identify a problem; however, there is essentially no cure for the disorder at present. The severity of the person's stuttering would correspond to the amount of speech therapy needed to decrease disfluency. For severe stuttering, long-term therapy and hard work is required to decrease disfluency.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Substance intoxication is a type of substance use disorder which is potentially maladaptive and impairing, but reversible, and associated with recent use of a substance.
Thumb sucking is a behavior found in humans, chimpanzees, captive ring-tailed lemurs, and other primates.
Tic disorders is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements).
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.
Transvestic fetishism is a psychiatric diagnosis applied to those who are thought to have an excessive sexual or erotic interest in cross-dressing; this interest is often expressed in autoerotic behavior.
Trichotillomania (TTM), also known as hair pulling disorder, is an impulse control disorder characterised by a long term urge that results in the pulling out of one's hair.
Vaginismus, sometimes called vaginism, is a condition that affects a woman's ability to engage in vaginal penetration, including sexual intercourse, manual penetration, insertion of tampons or menstrual cups, and the penetration involved in gynecological examinations (pap tests).
Vascular dementia, also known as multi-infarct dementia (MID) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), is dementia caused by problems in the supply of blood to the brain, typically a series of minor strokes, leading to worsening cognitive decline that occurs step by step.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Voyeurism is the sexual interest in or practice of spying on people engaged in intimate behaviors, such as undressing, sexual activity, or other actions usually considered to be of a private nature.
Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Writer's cramp, also called mogigraphia and scrivener's palsy, is a disorder caused by cramps or spasms of certain muscles of the hand and/or forearm, and presents itself while performing fine motor tasks, such as writing or playing an instrument.
Zoophilia is a paraphilia involving a sexual fixation on non-human animals.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.