319 relations: Affricate consonant, Agglutination, Agglutinative language, Alfonso Lacadena, Allophone, Alonso de Molina, Altepetl, Alveolar consonant, American Anthropological Association, American Anthropologist, Americanist phonetic notation, Anales de Tlatelolco, Andrés de Olmos, Animacy, Antigua Guatemala, Antonio del Rincón, Applicative voice, Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America, Aridoamerica, Arizona, Arizona State University, Arte de la lengua mexicana con la declaración de los adverbios della, Arte para aprender la lengua mexicana, Arthur J. O. Anderson, Assimilation (phonology), Avocado, Axolotl, Azcapotzalco, Aztec codices, Aztecs, Back vowel, Barrio, Bernardino de Sahagún, Bilingual Review, California, Calque, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Cantares Mexicanos, Causative, Censo General de Población y Vivienda, Central America, Central consonant, Central Nahuatl languages, Central vowel, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Chalco (altépetl), Chamber of Deputies (Mexico), Charles E. Dibble, Charles II of Spain, ..., Chayote, Chicle, Chihuahua (state), Chili pepper, Chimalpahin, Chocolate, Cholula (Mesoamerican site), Chronicle, Classical Nahuatl, Close vowel, Clusivity, Cocoa bean, Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, Colhuacan (altepetl), Colima, Continuant, Continuous and progressive aspects, Cora language, Corachol languages, Couplet, Coyote, Crónica Mexicayotl, Creation myth, Cuautitlán, Decree, Diego Muñoz Camargo, Difrasismo, Diminutive, Document, Dominican Order, Dumbarton Oaks, Durango, Eastern Peripheral Nahuatl, El Colegio de México, El Salvador, Eloise Quiñones Keber, Emiliano Zapata, Epigraphy, Ethnohistory, Ethnologue, Federal government of Mexico, Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc, Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl, Five Suns, Florentine Codex, Focus (linguistics), Franciscans, French language, Front vowel, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Grammar, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical tense, Grave accent, Guatemala, Guerrero, H. B. Nicholson, Harvard University, Hidalgo (state), Hispanicization, History of Tlaxcala, Honduras, Honorific, Horacio Carochi, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Huasteca Nahuatl, Huei tlamahuiçoltica, Huichol language, Imperative mood, Imperfective aspect, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Informant (linguistics), Instituto Lingüístico de Verano (Mexico), Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas, Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal, Intercultural bilingual education, International Journal of American Linguistics, Isthmus Nahuatl, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Iximche, Jalisco, James Lockhart (historian), Jane H. Hill, K'iche' people, Kaqchikel people, Koiné language, La Huasteca, Labial consonant, Labialized velar consonant, Lake Texcoco, Language (journal), Language contact, Language death, Languages of Mexico, Lateral consonant, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Lenition, Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas, Lingua franca, Linguistic Society of America, Literary language, Loanword, Logogram, Macehualtin, Macron (diacritic), Maya script, Mayan languages, Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican chronology, Mesoamerican language area, Mesoamerican languages, Mesoamerican region, Metaphor, Mexica, Mexican Plateau, Mexican Revolution, Mexican War of Independence, Mexicanero language, Mexicaneros, Mexico, Mexico City, Michoacán, Mid vowel, Miguel León-Portilla, Mixe–Zoque languages, Mnemonic, Monolingualism, Morelos, Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Munro S. Edmonson, Mutual intelligibility, Nahuan languages, Nahuas, Nasal consonant, National Autonomous University of Mexico, National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples, National Institute of Statistics and Geography, National language, New Mexico, New Philology, New Spain, New York (state), Nezahualcoyotl (tlatoani), Nicaragua, Non-configurational language, Northern Arizona University, Oaxaca, Object (grammar), Ocelot, Official Journal of the Federation, Open vowel, Optative mood, Oto-Manguean languages, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Oxford University Press, Palatal consonant, Parallelism (rhetoric), Patient (grammar), PDF, Pedro de Alvarado, Perfective aspect, Peyote, Philip II of Spain, Phoneme, Pipil language, Pipil people, Pitch-accent language, Pochutec language, Poetry, Polity, Polysynthetic language, Pragmatics, Prefix, Preposition and postposition, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Priest, Primeros Memoriales, Pro-drop language, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Productivity (linguistics), Pronoun, Prose, Proto-Nahuan language, Puebla, Rémi Siméon, Rebus, Reduplication, Relational noun, Religious order, Romances de los señores de Nueva España, Root (linguistics), Saltillo, Saltillo (linguistics), San Esteban de Nueva Tlaxcala, San Luis Potosí, School for Advanced Research, Secretariat of Public Education (Mexico), Secretariat of the Interior (Mexico), Semivowel, SIL International, Society of Jesus, Southwestern United States, Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Spear-thrower, Speech scroll, Stanford University Press, State of Mexico, Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Subject–verb–object, Suffix, Syllabary, Syllable, Tabasco, Tenochtitlan, Teotihuacan, Tetelcingo, Tetelcingo Nahuatl, Texas, The University of Utah Press, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala (Nahua state), Toltec, Tomato, Topic and comment, Totonacan languages, Tula (Mesoamerican site), Tulane University, Una Canger, United States, Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights, Universidad de Sonora, University of Arizona Press, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, University of Oklahoma Press, University of Texas at Arlington, University of Texas Press, Uto-Aztecan languages, Valency (linguistics), Valley of Mexico, Velar consonant, Venustiano Carranza, Veracruz, Verb, Vocabulario manual de las lenguas castellana y mexicana, Vocabulario trilingüe, Voice (grammar), Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate, Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiceless glottal fricative, Voiceless labialized velar approximant, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Walter de Gruyter, Western Peripheral Nahuatl, Yolanda Lastra, Zapatista Army of National Liberation. 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An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Alfonso Lacadena García-Gallo (August 21, 1964 – February 9, 2018), was a Spanish archaeologist, historian and epigraphist, one of the greatest experts in Mayan culture, researcher and specialist in writing and deciphering its texts.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alonso de Molina (1513. or 1514.. – 1579 or 1585) was a Franciscan priest and grammarian, who wrote a well-known dictionary of the Nahuatl language published in 1571 and still used by scholars working on Nahuatl texts in the tradition of the New Philology.
The altepetl or, in pre-Columbian and Spanish conquest-era Aztec society, was the local, ethnically-based political entity, usually translated into English as "city-state".
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The American Anthropological Association (AAA) is an organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology.
American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association (AAA), published quarterly by Wiley.
Americanist phonetic notation, also known as the North American Phonetic Alphabet or NAPA, is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and American anthropologists and language scientists (many of whom were students of Neogrammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of indigenous languages of the Americas and for languages of Europe.
The Anales de Tlatelolco (Annals of Tlatelolco) is a codex manuscript written in Nahuatl, using Latin characters, by anonymous Aztec authors.
Andrés de Olmos (c.1485 – 8 October 1571), Franciscan priest and extraordinary grammarian and ethno-historian of Mexico's Indians, was born in Oña, Burgos, Spain, and died in Tampico in New Spain (modern-day Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico).
Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.
Antigua Guatemala, commonly referred to as just Antigua or la Antigua, is a city in the central highlands of Guatemala famous for its well-preserved Spanish Baroque-influenced architecture as well as a number of ruins of colonial churches.
Antonio del Rincón (1566 – March 2, 1601) was a Jesuit priest and grammarian, who wrote one of the earliest grammars of the Nahuatl language (known generally as the Arte mexicana, MS. published in 1595).
The applicative voice (abbreviated or) is a grammatical voice that promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) object argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb.
The Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America (AILLA) is a digital repository housed in LLILAS Benson Latin American Studies and Collections at the University of Texas at Austin.
Aridoamerica denotes an ecological region spanning Mexico and the Southwest United States, defined by the presence of the culturally significant staple foodstuff Phaseolus acutifolius, a drought-resistant bean.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.
The Arte de la lengua mexicana con la declaración de los adverbios della is a grammar of the Nahuatl language in Spanish by Jesuit grammarian Horacio Carochi.
The Arte para aprender la lengua mexicana is a grammar of the Nahuatl language in Spanish by Andrés de Olmos.
Arthur James Outram Anderson (November 26, 1907 – June 3, 1996) was an American anthropologist specializing in Aztec culture and translator of the Nahuatl language.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
The axolotl (from āxōlōtl) also known as a Mexican salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum) or a Mexican walking fish, is a neotenic salamander, closely related to the tiger salamander.
Azcapotzalco (Āzcapōtzalco,, from āzcapōtzalli “anthill” + -co “place”; literally, “In the place of the anthills”) is one of the 16 municipalities (municipios) into which Mexico's Mexico City is divided.
Aztec codices (Mēxihcatl āmoxtli) are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Nahuas in pictorial and/or alphabetic form.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Barrio is a Spanish word meaning neighborhood.
Bernardino de Sahagún (c. 1499 – October 23, 1590) was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain (now Mexico).
The Bilingual Review/La revista bilingüe is a triannual peer-reviewed open access academic and literary journal covering research on Spanish-English bilingualism, bilingual education, and Hispanic American literature.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Cantares Mexicanos is the name given to a manuscript collection of Nahuatl songs or poems recorded in the 16th century.
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
The Censo General de Población y Vivienda (General Census of Population and Housing, or National Census of…) is the main national census for Mexico.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
Central Nahuatl is a group of Nahuatl languages of central Mexico, in the regions of central Puebla, Tlaxcala, central Veracruz, Morelos, Mexico State, and Guerrero.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
Chālco was a complex pre-Columbian Nahua altepetl or confederacy in central Mexico.
The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico.
Charles E. Dibble (18 August 1909 – 30 November 2002) was an American academic, anthropologist, linguist, and scholar of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures.
Charles II of Spain (Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire.
Chayote (Sechium edule) is an edible plant belonging to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, along with melons, cucumbers and squash.
Chicle is a natural gum traditionally used in making chewing gum and other products.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Domingo Francisco de San Antón Muñón Chimalpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin (1579, Amecameca, Chalco—1660, Mexico City), usually referred to simply as Chimalpahin or Chimalpain, was a Nahua annalist from Chalco.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
Cholula (Cholōllān) (Spanish) was an important city of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, dating back to at least the 2nd century BCE, with settlement as a village going back at least some thousand years earlier.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
Classical Nahuatl (also known simply as Aztec or Nahuatl) is any of the variants of Nahuatl, spoken in the Valley of Mexico and central Mexico as a lingua franca at the time of the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, clusivity is a grammatical distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we".
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
The Colegio de Santa Cruz in Tlatelolco, Mexico, the first European school of higher learning in the Americas, was established by the Franciscans in the 1530s with the intention, as is generally accepted, of preparing Native American boys for eventual ordination to the Catholic priesthood.
Culhuacan (koːlˈwaʔkaːn) was one of the Nahuatl-speaking pre-Columbian city-states of the Valley of Mexico.
Colima, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Colima (Estado Libre y Soberano de Colima), is one of the 32 states that make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
In phonology, a continuant is a speech sound produced without a complete closure in the oral cavity, namely fricatives, approximants and vowels.
The continuous and progressive aspects (abbreviated and) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.
Cora is an indigenous language of Mexico of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
Coracholan (alternatively Corachol, Cora-Huichol or Coran) is a grouping of languages within the Uto-Aztecan language family.
A couplet is a pair of successive lines of metre in poetry.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
The Crónica Mexicayotl is a chronicle of the history of Aztec Empire from the early Nahua migrations to the colonial period, which was written in the Nahuatl language around in the 16th century.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
Cuautitlán is a city and municipality in the State of Mexico, just north of the northern tip of the Federal District (Distrito Federal) within the Greater Mexico City urban area.
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).
Diego Muñoz Camargo (c. 1529 – 1599) was the author of History of Tlaxcala, an illustrated codex that highlights the religious, cultural, and military history of the Tlaxcalan people.
Difrasismo is a term derived from Spanish that is used in the study of certain Mesoamerican languages, to describe a particular grammatical construction in which two separate words are paired together to form a single metaphoric unit.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
A document is a written, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
Dumbarton Oaks is a historic estate in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C. It was the residence and garden of Robert Woods Bliss (1875–1962) and his wife Mildred Barnes Bliss (1879–1969).
Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango (Estado Libre y Soberano de Durango) (Tepehuan: Korian) (Nahuatl: Tepēhuahcān), is a Mexican state.
Eastern Peripheral Nahuatl is a group of Nahuatl languages, including the Pipil language of El Salvador and the Nahuatl dialects of the Sierra Norte de Puebla, southern Veracruz, and Tabasco (Isthmus dialects).
El Colegio de México, A.C. (commonly known as Colmex, English: The College of Mexico) is a prestigious Mexican institute of higher education, specializing in teaching and research in social sciences and humanities.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Eloise Quiñones Keber is Professor of Art History at Baruch College and the CUNY Graduate Center, where she specializes in Pre-Columbian and early colonial Latin American art.
Emiliano Zapata Salazar (8 August 1879 – 10 April 1919) was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the state of Morelos, and the inspiration of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Ethnohistory is the study of cultures and indigenous peoples' customs by examining historical records as well as other sources of information on their lives and history.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The federal government of Mexico (alternately known as the Government of the Republic or Gobierno de la Republica) is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states, and to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations.
Fernando or Hernando (de) Alvarado Tezozómoc was a colonial Nahua noble.
Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl (between 1568 and 1580 – 1648) was a Castizo nobleman of the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain, modern Mexico.
The term Five Suns in the context of creation myths, describes the doctrine of the Aztec and other Nahua peoples in which the present world was preceded by four other cycles of creation and destruction.
The Florentine Codex is a 16th-century ethnographic research study in Mesoamerica by the Spanish Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún.
Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guerrero (Spanish for "warrior"), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero (Estado Libre y Soberano de Guerrero), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Henry Bigger Nicholson, (September 5, 1925 – March 2, 2007) who published under the name H.B. Nicholson, was a scholar of the Aztecs.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hidalgo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Hidalgo (Estado Libre y Soberano de Hidalgo), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Hispanicisation or hispanisation, also known as castilianization or castilianisation (Spanish: castellanización) refers to the process by which a place or person becomes influenced by Hispanic culture or a process of cultural and/or linguistic change in which something non-Hispanic becomes Hispanic.
History of Tlaxcala is an illustrated codex written by and under the supervision of Diego Muñoz Camargo in the years leading up to 1585.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.
Horacio Carochi (1586–1666) was a Jesuit priest and grammarian who was born in Florence and died in Mexico.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Huasteca Nahuatl is a Nahuan language spoken by over a million people in the region of La Huasteca in Mexico, centered in the states of Hidalgo (Eastern) and San Luis Potosí (Western), but also spoken in the northern part of Veracruz and the extreme north of Puebla.
Huei tlamahuiçoltica omonexiti in ilhuicac tlatocaçihuapilli Santa Maria totlaçonantzin Guadalupe in nican huei altepenahuac Mexico itocayocan Tepeyacac ("By a great miracle appeared the heavenly queen, Saint Mary, our precious mother of Guadalupe, here near the great altepetl of Mexico, at a place called Tepeyacac") is the title of a tract in Nahuatl, being its opening words.
The Huichol language is an indigenous language of Mexico which belongs to the Uto-Aztecan language family.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
An informant or consultant in linguistics is a native speaker who acts as a linguistic reference for a language being studied.
The Instituto Lingüístico de Verano A.C. (abbreviated ILV, in Summer Institute of Linguistics (in Mexico)) is a non-profit organization incorporated in Mexico with the legal status of a civil association (Asociación Civil).
The Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas (National Indigenous Languages Institute, better known by its acronym INALI) is a Mexican federal public agency, created 13 March 2003 by the enactment of the Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (General Law of Indigenous Peoples' Linguistic Rights) by the administration of President Vicente Fox Quesada.
The Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal (National Institute for Federalism and Municipal Development, better known by the acronym INAFED) is a decentralised agency of the Mexican federal government.
Intercultural Bilingual Education (Educación bilingüe intercultural) is a language-planning model employed throughout Latin America in public education, and it arose as a political movement asserting space for indigenous languages and culture in the education system.
The International Journal of American Linguistics (IJAL) is an academic journal devoted to the study of the indigenous languages of the Americas.
Isthmus Nahuatl (Isthmus Nahuat; native name: mela'tájtol) is a Nahuatl dialect cluster spoken by about 30,000 people in Veracruz, Mexico.
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico.
Iximche (or Iximché using Spanish orthography) is a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican archaeological site in the western highlands of Guatemala.
Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
James Lockhart (born April 8, 1933 - January 17, 2014) was a U.S. historian of colonial Latin America, especially the Nahua people and Nahuatl language.
Jane Hassler Hill, (born Frances Jane Hassler, October 27, 1939) is an American anthropologist and linguist who has worked extensively with Native American languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family and anthropological linguistics of North American communities.
K'iche' (pronounced; previous Spanish spelling: Quiché) are indigenous peoples of the Americas and are one of the Maya peoples.
The Kaqchikel (also called Kachiquel) are one of the indigenous Maya peoples of the midwestern highlands in Guatemala.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
La Huasteca is a geographical and cultural region located in Mexico along the Gulf of Mexico which includes parts of the states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Puebla, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, and Querétaro.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
A labialized velar or labiovelar is a velar consonant that is labialized, with a /w/-like secondary articulation.
Lake Texcoco (Lago de Texcoco) was a natural lake within the "Anahuac" or Valley of Mexico.
Language is a peer-reviewed quarterly academic journal published by the Linguistic Society of America since 1925.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
Many different languages are spoken in Mexico.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (En: General Law of Indigenous Peoples' Linguistic Rights) was published in the Mexican Official Journal of the Federation on 13 March 2003 during the term of Mexican President Vicente Fox Quesada.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The Linguistic Society of America (LSA) is a learned society for the field of linguistics.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
The mācēhualtin (IPA:, singular mācēhualli) were the commoner social class in the Mexica Empire, commonly referred to as the Aztec Empire.
A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.
The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (before 2600 BCE), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–250 CE), the Classic (250–900CE), and the Postclassic (900–1521 CE), Colonial (1521–1821), and Postcolonial (1821–present).
The Mesoamerican language area is a sprachbund containing many of the languages natively spoken in the cultural area of Mesoamerica.
Mesoamerican languages are the languages indigenous to the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers southern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize and parts of Honduras and El Salvador and Nicaragua.
The Mesoamerican region (often abbreviated MAR) is a trans-national economic region in the Americas that is recognized by the OECD and other economic and developmental organizations, comprising the united economies of the seven countries in Central America — Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama — plus nine southeastern states of Mexico — Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz, and Yucatán.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
The Mexica (Nahuatl: Mēxihcah,; the singular is Mēxihcatl Nahuatl Dictionary. (1990). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from) or Mexicas were a Nahuatl-speaking indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico, known today as the rulers of the Aztec Empire.
The Central Mexican Plateau, also known as the Mexican Altiplano (Spanish: Altiplanicie Mexicana), is a large arid-to-semiarid plateau that occupies much of northern and central Mexico.
The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) was a major armed struggle,, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government.
The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain.
Mexicanero is the Nahuan language spoken by the Mexicanero people of southern Durango and northern Nayarit.
The Mexicaneros are an indigenous people of Durango and Nayarit, Mexico.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Michoacán, formally Michoacán de Ocampo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Michoacán de Ocampo (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Miguel León-Portilla (born February 22, 1926 in Mexico City) is a Mexican anthropologist and historian, and a prime authority on Nahuatl thought and literature.
The Mixe–Zoque languages are a language family whose living members are spoken in and around the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico.
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
Monoglottism (Greek μόνοσ monos, "alone, solitary", + γλώττα glotta, "tongue, language") or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism, is the condition of being able to speak only a single language, as opposed to multilingualism.
Morelos, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Morelos (Estado Libre y Soberano de Morelos), is one of the 32 states, which comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Munro Sterling Edmonson (May 18, 1924 – February 15, 2002) was an American linguist and anthropologist, renowned for his contributions to the study of Mesoamerican languages and Mesoamerican cultural heritage.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
The Nahuan or Aztecan languages are those languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family that have undergone a sound change, known as Whorf's law, that changed an original *t to /tɬ/ before *a.
The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, - literal translation: Autonomous National University of Mexico, UNAM) is a public research university in Mexico.
The National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, CDI) is a decentralized agency of the Mexican Federal Public Administration.
The National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI by its name in Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) is an autonomous agency of the Mexican Government dedicated to coordinate the National System of Statistical and Geographical Information of the country.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
New Philology generally refers to a branch of Mexican ethnohistory and philology that uses colonial-era native language texts written by Indians to construct history from the indigenous point of view.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
Nezahualcoyotl (Nezahualcoyōtl), meaning "Coyote in fast" or "Coyote who fasts") (April 28, 1402 – June 4, 1472) was a philosopher, warrior, architect, poet and ruler (tlatoani) of the city-state of Texcoco in pre-Columbian era Mexico. Unlike other high-profile Mexican figures from the century preceding Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Nezahualcoyotl was not Mexica; his people were the Acolhua, another Nahuan people settled in the eastern part of the Valley of Mexico, settling on the eastern side of Lake Texcoco. He is best remembered for his poetry, but according to accounts by his descendants and biographers, Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxóchitl and Juan Bautista Pomar, he had an experience of an "Unknown, Unknowable Lord of Everywhere" to whom he built an entirely empty temple in which no blood sacrifices of any kind were allowed — not even those of animals. However, he allowed human sacrifices to continue in his other temples.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
In generative grammar, non-configurational languages are languages characterized by a non-rigid phrase structure, which allows syntactically discontinuous expressions, and a relatively free word order.
Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public higher-research university with a main campus at the base of the San Francisco Peaks in Flagstaff, Arizona, statewide campuses, and NAU Online.
Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a wild cat native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America.
The Diario Oficial de la Federación (DOF; translated variously as the Official Journal of the Federation or else as Official Gazette of the Federation), published daily by the government of Mexico, is the main official government publication in Mexico.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
The optative mood or (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope.
Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas.
Our Lady of Guadalupe (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe), also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgen de Guadalupe), is a Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with a venerated image enshrined within the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Parallelism is a rhetorical device that compounds words or phrases that have equivalent meanings so as to create a definite pattern.
In linguistics, a grammatical patient, also called the target or undergoer, is the participant of a situation upon whom an action is carried out or the thematic relation such a participant has with an action.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala.
The perfective aspect (abbreviated), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe an action viewed as a simple whole—a unit without interior composition.
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nicarao language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America.
The Pipils or Cuzcatlecs are an indigenous people who live in western El Salvador, which they call Cuzcatlan.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Pochutec is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language of the Nahuan (or Aztecan) branch which was spoken in and around the town of Pochutla on the Pacific coast of Oaxaca, Mexico.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
The Primeros Memoriales ("First Memoranda") is an illustrated Nahuatl-language manuscript compiled by the Franciscan missionary Bernardino de Sahagún and his indigenous assistants in Tepepulco as the first part of his project to document pre-Columbian Nahua society, known as the Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España ("General History of the Things of New Spain").
A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
Proto-Nahuan is the hypothetical daughter language of the Proto-Uto-Aztecan language which is the common ancestor from which the modern Nahuan languages have developed.
Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Rémi Siméon (1 October 1827 in Lurs, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department, France – 23 November 1890 in Paris, France) was a French lexicographer.
A rebus is a puzzle device which combines the use of illustrated pictures with individual letters to depict words and/or phrases.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
Relational nouns or relator nouns are a class of words used in many languages.
A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice.
The Romances de los señores de Nueva España (Spanish for "Ballads of the Lords of New Spain") is a 16th-century compilation of Nahuatl songs or poems preserved in the Library of the University of Texas.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Saltillo is the capital of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name.
In Mexican linguistics, saltillo (Spanish, meaning "little skip") refers to a glottal stop consonant,.
San Esteban de Nueva Tlaxcala was a Tlaxcalan municipality in what is now the Mexican state of Coahuila.
San Luis Potosí, officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí (Estado Libre y Soberano de San Luis Potosí), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The School for Advanced Research (SAR), until 2007 known as the School of American Research and founded in 1907 as the School for American Archaeology (SAA), is an advanced research center located in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.
The Mexican Secretariat of Public Education (in Spanish Secretaría de Educación Pública, SEP) is a federal government authority with Cabinet representation and responsibility for overseeing the development and implementation of national educational policy and school standards in Mexico.
The Mexican Secretariat of the Interior (Secretaría de Gobernación, SEGOB, literally "Secretary of Governorship") is concerned with the country's internal affairs, the presentation of the president's bills to Congress, their publication and certain issues of national security.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A spear-thrower or atlatl (or; ahtlatl) is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to store energy during the throw.
In art history, speech scroll (also called a banderole or phylactery) is an illustrative device denoting speech, song, or, in rarer cases, other types of sound.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The State of Mexico (Estado de México) is one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Tabasco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tabasco (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tabasco), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.
Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
Tetelcingo is a town in the Mexican state of Morelos.
Tetelcingo Nahuatl, called Mösiehuali by its speakers, is a Nahuatl variety of central Mexico.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The University of Utah Press is the independent publishing branch of the University of Utah and is a division of the J. Willard Marriott Library.
Tlaxcala (Spanish;; from Tlaxcallān), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Tlaxcala (Estado Libre y Soberano de Tlaxcala), is one of the 31 states which along with the Federal District make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.
Tlaxcala ("place of maize tortillas") was a pre-Columbian city and state in central Mexico.
The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 900–1168 CE).
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.
The Totonacan languages (also known as Totonac–Tepehua languages) are a family of closely related languages spoken by approximately 290,000 Totonac (approx. 280,000) and Tepehua (approx. 10,000) people in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo in Mexico.
Tula is a Mesoamerican archeological site, which was an important regional center which reached its height as the capital of the Toltec Empire between the fall of Teotihuacan and the rise of Tenochtitlan.
Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.
Una Canger (née Una Rasmussen) (born May 14, 1938) is a Danish linguist specializing in languages of Mesoamerica.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights (known also as the Barcelona Declaration) is a document signed by the International PEN Club, and several non-governmental organizations in 1996 to support linguistic rights, especially those of endangered languages.
The University of Sonora (Universidad de Sonora, abbreviated as Unison) is a public university in the northwestern state of Sonora, Mexico that has a strong research program.
The University of Arizona Press, a publishing house founded in 1959 as a department of the University of Arizona, is a nonprofit publisher of scholarly and regional books.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
The University of Texas at Arlington (UTA or UT Arlington) is a public research university located in Arlington, Texas, midway between Dallas and Fort Worth.
The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.
Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan is a family of Indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over 30 languages.
In linguistics, verb valency or valence is the number of arguments controlled by a verbal predicate.
The Valley of Mexico (Valle de México; Tepētzallāntli Mēxihco) is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with present-day Mexico City and the eastern half of the State of Mexico.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Venustiano Carranza Garza (29 December 1859 – 21 May 1920) was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta (February 1913-July 1914) and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster.
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave,In isolation, Veracruz, de and Llave are pronounced, respectively,, and.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
Vocabulario manual de las lenguas castellana y mexicana is a Spanish-Nahuatl dictionary by Pedro de Arenas, first published some time before 1611 (the year of the second edition).
The Vocabulario trilingüe (Spanish for "trilingual vocabulary"; Ayer MS 1478) is an anonymous 16th-century manuscript copy of the second edition (1516) of Antonio de Nebrija's Spanish-Latin dictionary, which has been expanded by the addition of Nahuatl translations of its entries in red ink.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiceless labialized velar (labiovelar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Western Peripheral Nahuatl is a group of Nahuatl languages of Western Mexico.
Yolanda Lastra de Suárez (born 1932) is a Mexican linguist specializing in the descriptive linguistics of the indigenous languages of Mexico.
The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN), often referred to as the Zapatistas, is a left-wing revolutionary political and militant group based in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico.