339 relations: -stan, Abduhamid Juraev, Abdumalik Abdullajanov, Abdumalik Bahori, Academy of Sciences Range, Achaemenid Empire, Afghanistan, Agricultural University of Tajikistan, Alexander the Great, Alma-Ata Protocol, Aluminium, Amu Darya, Andronovo culture, Anzob Tunnel, Arabs, Aral Sea, Asian Cricket Council, Asian Football Confederation, Assembly of Representatives (Tajikistan), Association football, Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's hammer throw, Ayni Air Base, Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex, Badakhshan, Bandy, Basmachi movement, BBC, BBC News, Bobojon Ghafurov, Bolsheviks, Boulder, Colorado, Boxing at the 2012 Summer Olympics – Women's lightweight, Bronze Age, Buddhism, Bukhara, Bukharan Jews, Buzkashi, CASA-1000, Ceasefire, Central Asia, Central Asian Union, Chagatai Khanate, China, Christianity, Christianity in Tajikistan, Church (building), Collective farming, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of 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The suffix -stan (ـستان|translit.
Abduhamid Juraev (10 October 1932 – 5 June 2005) Isfara, Tajikistan was a Tajik mathematician.
Abdumalik Abdullayevich Abdullajanov (Абдумалик Абдуллоҷонов; born January 1, 1949) is a Tajikistani politician.
Abdumalik Bahori (Абдумалик Баҳорӣ, March 1927 Leninabad, USSR - 3 December 2010, Dushanbe, Tajikistan) was children's poet and the first Tajikistani fiction writer.
Academy of Sciences Range (Хребет Академии Наук, Khrebet Akademiy Nauk; Qatorkuhi Akademiyai Fanho) is a mountain range in the Western Pamirs of Tajikistan.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Tajik Agrarian University Shirinsho Shotemur (TAU) ((Russian) Донишгоҳи аграрии Тоҹикистон) is a university in Tajikistan.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Alma-Ata Protocols are the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished c. 2000–900 BC in western Siberia and the central Eurasian Steppe.
The Anzob Tunnel, Istiqlol tunnel or Ushtur Tunnel is a 5,040 m long tunnel located 80 km northwest of Tajikistan's capital Dushanbe.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
The Asian Cricket Council (ACC) is a cricket organisation which was established in 1983, to promote and develop the sport of cricket in Asia.
The Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of association football in Asia and Australia.
The Assembly of Representatives (Маҷлиси намояндагон) is the lower house of the bicameral Supreme Assembly of Tajikistan.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The men's hammer throw competition at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Ayni Air Force Base, also known as Gissar Air Base, is a military air base in Tajikistan, just 10 km west of the capital Dushanbe.
The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (short BMAC), also known as the Oxus civilisation, is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia, dated to c. 2300–1700 BC, located in present-day northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus River).
Badakhshan (Pashto/بدخشان, Badaxšân; Бадахшон, Badaxşon;;, Dungan: Бадахәшон, Xiao'erjing: بَا دَا کْ شًا, Ming dynasty era Chinese name- 巴丹沙) is a historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan.
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.
The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bobojon Ghafurov (18 December 1908 – 12 July 1977) (Tajiki: Бобоҷон Ғафуров) or Babadzan Gafurovich Gafurov (Бободжан Гафурович Гафуров) was a Tajik historian, academician, and the author of several books published in Russian and Tajik, including History of Tajikistan and The Tajiks.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boulder is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado.
The women's lightweight boxing competition at the 2012 Olympic Games in London was held from 5 to 9 August at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Bukharan Jews, also Bukharian Jews or Bukhari Jews (Бухарские евреи Bukharskie evrei; בוכרים Bukharim; Tajik and Bukhori Cyrillic: яҳудиёни бухороӣ Yahudiyoni bukhoroī (Bukharan Jews) or яҳудиёни Бухоро Yahudiyoni Bukhoro (Jews of Bukhara), Bukhori Hebrew Script: and), are Jews of the Mizrahi branch from Central Asia who historically spoke Bukhori, a Tajik dialect of the Persian language.
Buzkashi (بزکشی, literally "goat pulling" in Persian) is a Central Asian sport in which horse-mounted players attempt to place a goat or calf carcass in a goal.
The Central Asia-South Asia power project, commonly known by the acronym CASA-1000, is a $1.16 billion project currently under construction that will allow for the export of surplus hydroelectricity from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to Pakistan and Afghanistan.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Asian Union (CAU), later called the Central Asian Economic Union, was an intergovernmental organisation for economic integration between the Central Asian post-Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan between 1994 and 2004.
The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity is a minority religion in Tajikistan.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of Tajikistan (Ҳизби Коммунистии Тоҷикистон, Hizbi Kommunistiyi Tojikiston; Коммунистическая партия Таджикистана) is a communist party in Tajikistan, and the oldest political party in the country.
Concord Peak or Pik Soglasiya is a mountain of the Pamirs, on the Afghan-Tajik border, about south of Lake Zorkul.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Constitution of Tajikistan adopted on 6 November 1994 and amended by referendum on 26 September 1999 and 22 June 2003 is the supreme law of the Republic of Tajikistan (Article 10).
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Daler Nazarov (Далер Назаров; دلیر نظراف) (born September 8, 1959) is a Tajik songwriter, singer and actor.
The Demographics of Tajikistan is about the demographic features of the population of Tajikistan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
Dilshod Jamoliddinovich Nazarov (Дилшод Ҷамолиддинович Назаров, دلشاد نظروف; Дильшод Джамолиддинович Назаров, Dilshod Dzhamoliddinovich Nazarov) (born 6 May 1982) is a Tajikistani track and field athlete who specializes in the hammer throw.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Districts of Republican Subordination (Ноҳияҳои тобеи ҷумҳурӣ, Nohiyaho‘i tobe‘i jumhurî/Nohijahoji toвeji çumhurī; Районы республиканского подчинения, Rajony respublikanskogo podčinenija) is a region in Tajikistan, consisting of 13 districts that are directly under central rule.
A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organisations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future."Suttner, R. (2006), "Party dominance 'theory': Of what value?", Politikon 33 (3), pp.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
Dushanbe (Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.
Dushanbe International Airport is an airport in Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan.
The Boulder Dushanbe Tea House was a gift from Mayor Maksud Ikramov of Dushanbe to the city of Boulder, Colorado.
The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC).
The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Elections in Tajikistan gives information on election and election results in Tajikistan.
The Emirate of Bukhara (امارت بخارا; Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920, which is now modern-day Uzbekistan.
Emomali Rahmon (Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon); (born 5 October 1952) is a Tajikistani politician who has served as President of Tajikistan (or its equivalent post) since 1992.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fann Mountains (Кӯҳҳои Фон, Fon togʻlari; also known as the Fanns) are part of the western Pamir-Alay mountain system and are primarily located in Tajikistan's Sughd Province between the Zarafshan Range to the north and the Gissar Range to the south.
Farruh Negmat-Zade (Фаррух Негматзода, فرخ نعمتزاده) (born 1959) is a Tajikistani artist.
The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
The First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan was the head of the Communist Party of Tajikistan and the highest Executive power in the republic of Tajikistan from 1924 until November 1990.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Forum 18 is a Norwegian human rights organization that promotes religious freedom.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frances Wood (Chinese name Wú Fāngsī 吴芳思; born 1948) is an English librarian, sinologue and historian known for her writings on Chinese history, including Marco Polo, life in the Chinese treaty ports, and the First Emperor of China.
Freedom of religion in Tajikistan is provided for in Tajikistan's constitution.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Gharm (Tajik: Ғарм, alternative spellings Garm and Gharm) is a city and jamoat in the Rasht Valley area of central Tajikistan.
The Kuhistani Badakhshan Autonomous Region (Вилояти Мухтори Кӯҳистони Бадахшон, Viloyati Muxtori Köhistoni Badaxshon; also known as Gorno-Badakhshan (after translit) is an autonomous region in eastern Tajikistan. Located in the Pamir Mountains, it makes up 45% of the land area of the country but only 3% of its population.Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January 2008, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gulmurod Salimovich Khalimov (Гулмурод Салимович Ҳалимов) was a Tajik and Islamist military commander.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hisor (Ҳисор, حصار) is a city in western Tajikistan, about 15 km west of Dushanbe.
The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves.
Tajikistan harkens to the Samanid Empire (875–999).
Hizb ut-Tahrir (حزب التحرير Ḥizb at-Taḥrīr; Party of Liberation) is an international, pan-Islamist political organization, which describes its ideology as Islam, and its aim as the re-establishment of the Islamic Khilafah (Caliphate) or Islamic state to resume the Islamic way of life.
Human rights in Tajikistan, a country in Central Asia, have become an issue for international concern.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Independence Peak or Qullai Istiqlol (Қуллаи Истиқлол), at, is the seventh highest peak in Pamir Mountains, located at the center of Tajikistan's Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, above the source of Yazgulem River in the Yazgulem Range.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Tajikistan include.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Ishkashimi (Ishkashimi: škošmī zəvuk/rənīzəvuk) is an Iranian language spoken in the Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region in Tajikistan, and Chitral region of Pakistan.
Iskanderkul is a mountain lake of glacial origin in Tajikistan's Sughd Province.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Sunni Islam is, by far, the most widely practiced religion in Tajikistan.
The Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRP or IRPT; Ҳизби Наҳзати Исломии Тоҷикистон Hizbi Nahzati Islomii Tojikiston, حزب نهضت اسلامی تاجیکستان; also known as the Islamic Renaissance of Tajikistan, the Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan, the Islamic Party of Revival, or simply the Islamic Renaissance Party) is a banned Islamist political party in Tajikistan.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Junko Tabei climbing the peak in 1985 Ismoil Somoni Peak (Tajik: Қуллаи Исмоили Сомонӣ, Qulla-i Ismō‘il-i Sōmōnî/Qullaji Ismojili Somonī; قلّهٔ اسماعیل سامانی) is the highest mountain in Tajikistan.
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Istaravshan (Истаравшан; استروشن) is a city in Sughd Province in Tajikistan.
The Ittihodi Scouthoi Tojikiston (Иттиҳоди Скоутҳои Тоҷикистон, اتحادیه اسکاوتهای تاجیکستان), the national Scouting organization of Tajikistan, was founded in 1993, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) on April 18, 1997.
Jabbor Rasulovich Rasulov (Ҷаббор Расулович Расулов) (Джабар Расулович Расулов) (July 10, 1913 – April 4, 1982) was First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan between April 12, 1961 and April 4, 1982.
The Jadids were Muslim modernist reformers within the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Men's 73 kg Judo competition at the 2008 Summer Olympics was held on August 11 at the Beijing Science and Technology University Gymnasium.
The Kambojas were a tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature.
The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.
The Karakoram, or Karakorum is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
Karakul, Qarokul (Kyrgyz for "black lake", replacing the older Tajik name Siob) is a diameter lake within a impact crater.
Karl Marx Peak (Қуллаи Карл Маркс) rises to in the Shakhdara Range in Pamir Mountains, in the south-west of Tajikistan's Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province (eastern part of Ishkoshim district), just north of the Panj River and the Afghanistan border.
Kayrakkum Reservoir (Tajik: Обанбори Қайроққум; Russian: Кайраккумское водохранилище), also spelled variously as Qayroqqum, Qayraqqum, Kayrakum or Kairakum, is a large artificial lake in Ghafurov District of Sughd Province, in northwestern Tajikistan.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Khanate of Bukhara (or Khanate of Bukhoro) (خانات بخارا; Buxoro Xonligi) was a Central Asian state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century.
The Khanate of Kokand (Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Qoqon xandığı, قوقون حاندىعى; Xânâte Xuqand) was a Central Asian state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan.
Khatlon Region (Вилояти Хатлон, Viloyati Xatlon), one of the three provinces of Tajikistan (вилоят, viloyat) is the most populous of the four first level administrative regions.
Khorog Airport is an airport serving Khorugh (also spelled Khorog), a city in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in Tajikistan.
The town of Khorugh (Хоруғ) is the capital of the Gorno-Badakhshan (Кӯҳистони Бадахшон, Köhistoni Badaxshon, "Badakhshan Mountainous Region") Autonomous Region (GBAO) in Tajikistan.
Khorugh State University (also known as Khorog State University), is a public university located in Khorugh, GBAO, Tajikistan.
Khufi is one of the Pamir languages of Tajikistan's Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region.
Khujand (Xujand; Xo‘jand/Хўжанд; Xojand), formerly known as Leninabad (Leninobod; Leninâbâd) in 1936-1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan and the capital of the northernmost province of Tajikistan, now called Sughd.
Khujand International Airport is an airport serving Khujand, the second-largest city in Tajikistan.
Khujand State University - Донишгоҳи Давлатии Хуҷанд - was founded in 1932 in Khujand (formerly Leninabad), Tajikistan.
Kingdom of Balhara was an Iranian kingdom and the subject of a fringe theory on the originating homeland of the Bulgar people by some Bulgarian historians (for example: Georgi Bakalov, Petar Dobrev, Ian Mladjov) to have been the earliest known state of the ancient Bulgars, situated in the upper course of Oxus River (present Amu Darya), and the foothills and valleys of Hindu Kush and Pamir Mountains (ancient Mount Imeon).
Kofarnihon River (Кофарниҳон) or Kofirnihan (also transliterated from Russian as Kafirnigan) is one of the major tributaries of Amudarya (together with Vakhsh and Panj).
Kokhir Rasulzoda (Қоҳир Расулзода, Kohir Rasulzoda; Кохир Расулзада, born Abdukokhir Abdurasulovich Nazirov (Абдукохир Абдурасулович Назиров; born 8 March 1961) is the Prime Minister of Tajikistan from 23 November 2013. He is a member of the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan.
The Kulikalon Lakes, also spelt Kul-i Kalon, are a group of three glacial lakes, or tarns, in the Zeravshan Mountains of south-western Sughd Province in western Tajikistan.
Kulob (translit), also Kulyab (translit), is a city in Kulob District, Khatlon Province, Tajikistan.
Kulob Airport or Kulyab Airport is an airport serving Kulob (also spelled Kulyab), a city in the Khatlon province in Tajikistan.
Kulob District or Nohiya-i Kulob (Ноҳияи Кӯлоб, Nohiya‘i Kûlob/Nohijaji Kūloв) is a district in Khatlon province, Tajikistan.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Kyzylart Pass is a mountain pass and border crossing in the Trans-Alay Range on the border of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
Lenin Peak (Ленин Чокусу, Lenin Çoqusu, لەنىن چوقۇسۇ; Пик Ленина, Pik Lenina; қуллаи Ленин, qulla‘i Lenin/qullaji Lenin, renamed қуллаи Абӯалӣ ибни Сино (qulla‘i Abûalî ibni Sino) in July 2006 (Tajik); for Russian text.), or Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Peak, rises to 7,134 metres (23,406 ft) in Gorno-Badakhshan (GBAO) on the border of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, and is the second-highest point of both countries.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
This is a list of cities in Tajikistan.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
Below is the list of leaders of present-day Tajikistan since the establishment of Tajik ASSR in 1925.
This is a list of universities in Tajikistan.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Makhmadjon Khabibulloev (Маҳмадҷон Ҳабибуллоев, born May 8, 1965, Tajikistan) is Tajikistani football coach.
Mamadsho Ilolovich Ilolov (Мамадшо Илолович Илолов) is President of the Tajik Academy of Sciences, a former member of the Tajikistan Parliament and former Minister of Labor and Social Protection of Population of the Republic of Tajikistan, and former rector of Khorugh State University.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Mavzuna Chorieva (born 1 October 1992 in Kulob, Tajikistan) is a Tajikistani boxer.
Mayakovsky Peak (Пик Маяковского) is a peak in Pamir Mountains.
The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia from 1219 to 1221 marked the beginning of the Mongol conquest of the Islamic states.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mount Garmo (Tajik: Қуллаи Гармо, Qullai Garmo, Russian: пик Гармо, pik Garmo) is a mountain of the Pamirs in Tajikistan, Central Asia, with a height reported to be between 6,595 metres and 6,602 metres.
Mount Imeon is an ancient name for the Central Asian complex of mountain ranges comprising the present Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tian Shan, extending from the Zagros Mountains in the southwest to the Altay Mountains in the northeast, and linked to the Kunlun, Karakoram and Himalayas to the southeast.
There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is ابو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي or ابو جعفر محمد بن موسی الخوارزمی.
The Muksu River is a west-flowing river in north-central Gorno-Badakhshan province, Tajikistan.
Murghob District or Nohiya-i Murghob (Ноҳияи Мурғоб) is a district in Tajikistan, occupying the eastern two-thirds of the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province (GBAO).
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
Nargis Bandishoeva (Наргис Бандишоева, نرگس بندشوا) (October 8, 1966 - September 21, 1991) was a popular pop singer from Tajikistan.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.
The Nurek Dam (Tajik: Нерӯгоҳи обии Норак, Nerūgohi obii Norak, Tajiki for Nurek Hydro-electric Station) is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Vakhsh River in Tajikistan.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Otakhon Latifi (Tajik:Отахон Латифи) (March 18, 1936 – September 22, 1998) was a noted journalist and politician from Tajikistan.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tajikistan: Tajikistan – mountainous, landlocked, sovereign country located in Central Asia.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
The Pamiris (پامیری; Помири) are an Iranian ethnic group who are native to the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region of eastern Tajikistan, the Badakhshan Province of northeastern Afghanistan, the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County in Xinjiang, China, and the Chitral and Gilgit Baltistan regions of northern Pakistan.
The Panj River (د پنج سیند) (Панҷ, پنج), also known as Pyandzh River or Pyanj River (derived from its Russian name "Пяндж"), is a tributary of the Amu Darya.
Panjakent (Панҷакент.; پنجکنت; Пенджикент), also spelled Panjikent, Panjekent, Panjikant or Penjikent, is a city in the Sughd province of Tajikistan on the Zeravshan River, with a population of 33,000 (2000 census).
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
Korzhenevskaya Peak is the third highest peak in the Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan.
The People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan, PDPT (Ҳизби халқии демократии Тоҷикистон / Hizbi xalqii demokratii Tojikiston; حزب خلق دموکرات تاجیکستان; Народная демократическая партия Таджикистана) is a political party in Tajikistan.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
The President of Tajikistan is the head of state and the highest position within the Government of Tajikistan.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Prime Minister of Tajikistan is the leader of the government in the Tajik parliament.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Qurghonteppa or Kurganteppa (Қурғонтеппа, Qurğonteppa, Qurƣonteppa), Kurgan-Tyube (Курган-Тюбе, Kurgan-Tjube), is a city in southwestern Tajikistan, which serves as the capital of the Khatlon region.
Qurghonteppa International Airport (translit) is an airport in Qurghonteppa, Tajikistan.
Rahmon Nabiyevich Nabiyev (Раҳмон Набиев, alternative spelling Rakhmon Nabiev; October 5, 1930 – April 11, 1993) served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan and twice as the President of Tajikistan.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
OAO RAO UES (OAO Unified Energy System of Russia; ЕЭС России or Единая Энергетическая Система) was an electric power holding company in Russia.
The Rasht Valley is located in Tajikistan and composes a significant portion of the Region of Republican Subordination, including the six districts of Lakhsh, Rasht, Roghun, Tavildara, Tajikobod and Nurabad.
Rasul Boqiev (also spelled as Rasul Bokiev (Расул Боқиев) (born 29 September 1982) is a Tajikistani judoka who competes in the -73 kg (lightweight) category. He has won bronze medal at the Judo World Championships and a bronze medal, Tajikistan's first ever Olympic medal, at the 2008 Summer Olympics.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Rogun Dam is an embankment dam under construction on the Vakhsh River in southern Tajikistan.
Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.
Rugby union in Tajikistan is a minor but growing sport.
Rushani is one of the Pamir languages spoken in Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Russian Turkestan (Русский Туркестан, Russkiy Turkestan) was the western part of Turkestan within the Russian Empire (administered as a Krai or Governor-Generalship), comprising the oasis region to the south of the Kazakh Steppe, but not the protectorates of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russians in Tajikistan are a minority ethnic group numbering 68,200 individuals as of 2000 Census, representing 1.1% of the population.
Safed Dara (Caфeд Дapa — formerly Takob (Taкoб)) is a ski resort located in the Region of Republican Subordination (a region in Tajikistan), on the Safedorak Plateau (part of the Pamir Mountains), at heights from 2,100 metres (6,890 feet) up to 3,000 metres (9,842 feet) above sea level, 50 km (31.07 mi) north of Dushanbe.
The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Sarazm is an ancient town and also a jamoat in north-western Tajikistan.
Sarez Lake is a lake in Rushon District of Gorno-Badakhshan province, Tajikistan.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shabnam Surayyo (also spelled as Surayo, Suraya, or Soraya, Шабнами Сурайё, شبنم ثریا), born on October 14, 1981 in Kulob, Tajik SSR, Soviet Union (today Tajikistan), is a popular Tajik singer.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
Sherali Dostiev (Шерали Достиев; born January 12, 1985 in Dushanbe, Region of Republican Subordination) is a male boxer from Tajikistan.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shirin Akiner (born 16 June 1943) is a Research Associate at London University's School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS).
Shughni is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sinohydro (Chinese: 中国水电; long form: 中国水利水电建设集团公司) is a Chinese state-owned hydropower engineering and construction company.
A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
The Sogdian language was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China.
Somon Air is the national carrier in Tajikistan with an office headquartered in Dushanbe.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Sughd Region (Viloyati Sughd; "Sogdia Province") is one of the four administrative divisions and one of the three provinces (вилоятҳо, viloyatho) that make up Tajikistan.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Supreme Assembly (Majlisi Oli), Tajikistan's parliament, has two chambers.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Surudi Milli (Суруди Миллӣ,,; literally "National Anthem") is the national anthem of Tajikistan, officially adopted on 7 September 1994.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
State Unitary Aviation Enterprise, doing business as Tajik Air, (Tajikistan Airlines) is the national airline of Tajikistan. It has its head office at Dushanbe International Airport in Dushanbe. The airline has its main hub at Dushanbe International Airport, and it retains a secondary focus point at Khujand's Khudzhand Airport.
The Tajik Aluminium Company (Ширкати Алюминийи Тоҷик; Таджикская алюминиевая компания), abbreviated as TALCO (Tajik/Russian: ТАЛКО) headquartered in Tursunzoda, Tajikistan, runs the largest aluminium manufacturing plant in Central Asia, and is Tajikistan's chief industrial asset.
The Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik ASSR) (Таджикская Автономная Социалистическая Советская Республика) was an autonomous republic within the Uzbek SSR in the Soviet Union.
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Tajik National University (Донишгоҳи Миллии Тоҷикистон, Таджикский Национальный Университет) is the first and largest prestigious university in Tajikistan with a total of 23 thousand students trained per year on 17 to 56 special faculty (15% in absentia).
Presidential elections were held in Tajikistan on 6 November 1999.
Presidential elections were held in Tajikistan on 6 November 2006.
The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, also commonly known as Soviet Tajikistan and Tajik SSR, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union which existed from 1929 to 1991 located in Central Asia.
The Tajikistan–Afghanistan Friendship Bridge connects the two banks of Darvaz region across the Panj River (further downstream known under the name Amu Darya) separating Tajikistan and Afghanistan, at the town of Qal'ai Khumb.
Tajikistan Cricket Federation is the governing body for cricket in Tajikistan.
Tajikistan Football League (Tajiki: Лигаи футболи Тоҷикистон / Ligai futboli Tojikiston; Russian: Футбольная лига Таджикистана), Tajikistan Higher League (Tajiki: Лигаи олии Тоҷикистон / Ligai olii Tojikiston; Russian: Высшая лига Таджикистана) — is the top division of football in Tajikistan, and is operated under the auspices of the Tajikistan Football League Organization and Tajikistan Football Federation.
The Tajikistan national football team (Тими миллии футболи Тоҷикистон, Timi milliji futʙoli Toçikiston; Сборная Таджикистана по футболу) is a football (soccer) team that represents Tajikistan in association football, and is controlled by the Tajikistan Football Federation, the governing body for football in Tajikistan.
TSULBP main building in Khujand --> Tajikistan State University of Law, Business, & Politics - TSULBP (Original: Донишгоҳи Давлатии Ҳуқуқ, Бизнес, ва Сиёсати Тоҷикистон - ДДҲБСТ) is one of several state-funded, five-year universities of higher education in the region of Sughd in Tajikistan.
The Tajikistani Civil War (Ҷанги шаҳрвандии Тоҷикистон, Jangi şahrvandi‘i Tojikiston/Çangi şahrvandiji Toçikiston); also known as the Tajik Civil War or the War in Tajikistan, began in May 1992 when regional groups from the Garm and Gorno-Badakhshan regions of Tajikistan rose up against the government of President Rahmon Nabiyev, which was dominated by people from the Khujand and Kulyab regions.
The somoni (cомонӣ, ISO 4217 code: TJS) is the currency of Tajikistan.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
The spread of telecommunications services in Tajikistantelephony, radio, television and internethas not been as extensive as in many other countries.
National Significant Numbers (NSN): four to nine digits.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
The Trans-Alay Range (Чоң Алай кырка тоосу, Chon Alai Krka Toosu; Заалайский хребет, Zaalaisky Khrebet; also 'Trans Alai') is the northernmost range of the Pamir Mountain System.
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a market economy.
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Tursun Uljabayevich Uljabayev (Tajiki: Турсун Ӯлҷабоев) (1 May 1916 – 31 May 1988) was First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan between May 24, 1956 and April 12, 1961.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
United Nations Security Council resolution 738, adopted without a vote on 29 January 1992, after examining the application of the Republic of Tajikistan for membership in the United Nations, the Council recommended to the General Assembly that Tajikistan be admitted.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United Tajik Opposition (UTO) was an alliance of democratic, nationalist and Islamist forces that officially banded together in 1993, after the most violent phase of the Tajik Civil War.
The University of Central Asia was established in 2000 with the first campus opened in 2016.
UTC+05:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +05:00.
Uzbekistan is the common English name for the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR; Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси, Oʻzbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi; Узбекская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Uzbekskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) and later, the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi, Ўзбекистон Республикаси), that refers to the period of Uzbekistan from 1924 to 1991.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
The Vakhsh (River) (translit), also known as the Surkhob (Сурхоб), in north-central Tajikistan, and the Kyzyl-Suu (translit), in Kyrgyzstan, is a Central Asian river, and one of the main rivers of Tajikistan.
Vakhsh (душанбе, وخش) is a city in Человека без места регистратсионую жителсваsouthwestern Tajikistan.
Varzob is a settlement in Varzob district, Region of Republican Subordination, Tajikistan, in central Asia.
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.
The Virgin Lands Campaign (Освое́ние целины́, Osvoyeniye tseliny; Tyn' i'gery') was Nikita Khrushchev’s 1953 plan to dramatically boost the Soviet Union’s agricultural production in order to alleviate the food shortages plaguing the Soviet populace.
Wakhi is an Indo-European language in the Eastern Iranian branch of the language family spoken today in Wakhan District, Afghanistan and also in Northern Pakistan, China, and Tajikistan.
A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Men's freestyle 84 kg competition at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China, took place on 21 August at the China Agricultural University Gymnasium.
The Yaghnob Valley is a valley in north-west Tajikistan, between the southern slope of the Zarafshan Range and the northern slope of the Gissar Range.
The Yaghnobi language is a living Eastern Iranian language (the other living members being Pashto, Ossetic and the Pamir languages).
The Yaghnobi people (Yaghnobi: yaγnōbī́t; яғнобиҳо, yağnobiho/jaƣnoʙiho) are an ethnic minority in Tajikistan.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Yuri Lobanov (sometimes listed as Yuriy Lobanov, September 29, 1952 – May 1, 2017) was a Soviet-born Tajik sprint canoeist who competed from the early 1970s to the early 1980s.
Yusup Abdusalomov (Абдусаламов, Юсуп Рашидович; born November 8, 1977; Dagestan) is an Avar-born Russian and Tajik wrestler, who won a silver medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics.
Zhang Qian (d. 113) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty.
Zorkul (or Sir-i-kol) is a lake in the Pamir Mountains that runs along the border between Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
.tj is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Tajikistan.
On July 29, the 2006 Tajikistan earthquake hit the Khatlon region of Tajikistan.
The Gorno-Badakhshan clashes consisted of fighting between Tajik government forces and an armed group led by Tolib Ayombekov in Tajikistan's semi-autonomous Gorno-Badakhshan province in late July 2012.
The 36th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 36 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 41st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 41 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
Railways with a railway track gauge of were first constructed in the United Kingdom and the United States.
The meridian 67° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 75° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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