236 relations: African Monetary Union, ANCAP (commodity standard), Ancient Egypt, Archimedes' principle, Argentina, ASEAN Free Trade Area, Asian Monetary Unit, Australian dollar, Bahrain, Bancor, Bank, Banknote, Barter, Bi Sheng, Bimetallism, Bitcoin, Brand, Brazil, Bretton Woods system, Brill Publishers, Bronze Age, Burundi, Canadian dollar, Caribbean Community, Caribbean guilder, Cash, Cent (currency), Centime, Central bank, Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, CFA franc, Cheque, China, Coin, Coinage of India, Columbia University Press, Commodity money, Copper, Counterfeit money, Credit, Crete, Croesus, CSIRO, Cuban peso, Curaçao, Currency board, Currency pair, Currency strength, Currency symbol, Currency transaction tax, ..., Cyprus, Danish krone, David Hume, Debasement, Debt, Deposit account, Digital currency, Dinar, Dogecoin, Dollar, East African Community, East African shilling, East Asian Community, Eco (currency), Economic Community of West African States, Ecuador, El Salvador, Elam, Euro, European Currency Unit, Exchange rate, Fertile Crescent, Fiat money, Fictional currency, Finance minister, Financial institution, Fineness, Fiscal localism, Fixed exchange-rate system, Floating exchange rate, Foreign exchange market, Foreign-exchange reserves, Franc, Franc Poincaré, Gaucho (currency), Ghana, Gleaner Company, Gold standard, Granada War, Gresham's law, Guinea, Gulf Cooperation Council, Hard money (policy), Harz, History of banking, History of China, History of money, Hong Kong dollar, Icelandic króna, Index of international trade topics, Inflation, International Monetary Fund, International Organization for Standardization, International trade, Internet, IOU, Iraimbilanja, Iranian rial, Iranian toman, Islamic Golden Age, ISO 3166-1, ISO 4217, Ivory, Jane Jacobs, Japanese yen, John Maynard Keynes, Joint-stock company, Kenya, Khaleeji (currency), Khoums, Kuwait, Late Bronze Age collapse, Legal tender, Lex monetae, Liberia, List of alternative names for currency, List of circulating currencies, List of currencies, List of currencies in Africa, List of Esperanto speakers, List of fictional currencies, List of historical currencies, List of motifs on banknotes, Litecoin, Loan, Local currency, Local exchange trading system, Lydia, Madagascar, Mahajanapada, Malagasy ariary, Manilla (money), Market economy, Mauritania, Mauritanian ouguiya, Medium of exchange, Mesopotamia, Minoan civilization, Mint (facility), Monero (cryptocurrency), Monetary policy, Monetary system, Money, Monopoly, Montenegrin perun, Montenegro, Movable type, Mozambican metica, Mozambique, MP3, Mutilated currency, Mycenae, Netherlands Antillean guilder, New World, Nigeria, Nixon shock, Non-decimal currency, North American monetary union, North Korean won, Norwegian krone, Numismatics, Oman, Optimum currency area, Oxhide ingot, Panama, Peercoin, Penny sterling, Petrocurrency, Polish złoty, Polymer banknote, Pound (currency), Pound sterling, Price revolution, Printing, Promissory note, Qatar, Receipt, Renminbi, Russian ruble, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Savings account, Sea Peoples, Share (finance), Shekel, Sierra Leone, Silver standard, Singapore dollar, Sint Maarten, Slang terms for money, Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, Song dynasty, South African rand, Special drawing rights, Spesmilo, Standing army, Stelo, Stock, Sumer, Sweden, Swedish krona, Swiss franc, Tables of historical exchange rates to the United States dollar, Tang dynasty, Tanzania, Tax evasion, TED (conference), Thai baht, The Bahamas, The Gambia, Transaction account, Treaty, Trust law, Uganda, Unit of account, United Arab Emirates, United States dollar, United States Note, Virtual currency, Washington Irving, West Africa, Wholesaling, Woodblock printing, World, World currency, World War I. Expand index (186 more) » « Shrink index
The African Monetary Union is the proposed creation of an economic and monetary union for the countries of the African Union, administered by the African Central Bank.
ANCAP is an alternative currency system that uses ammonium nitrate, copper, aluminum and plywood as the units of exchange.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Archimedes' principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the center of mass of the displaced fluid.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) is a trade bloc agreement by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations supporting local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries.
The Asian Monetary Unit (AMU) is a basket of currencies proposed by the Japanese government's Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
The bancor was a supranational currency that John Maynard Keynes and E. F. Schumacher conceptualised in the years 1940–1942 and which the United Kingdom proposed to introduce after World War II.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
Bì Shēng (990–1051 AD) was a Chinese artisan and inventor of the world's first movable type technology, one of the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China.
Bimetallism is the economic term for a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent to certain quantities of two metals, typically gold and silver, creating a fixed rate of exchange between them.
Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
The Canadian dollar (symbol: $; code: CAD; dollar canadien) is the currency of Canada.
The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an organization of fifteen Caribbean nations and dependencies whose main objective is to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy.
The Caribbean guilder (Caribische gulden) is the proposed currency of the Caribbean islands, and constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which formed after the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on October 10, 2010.
In economics, cash is money in the physical form of currency, such as banknotes and coins.
In many national currencies, the cent, commonly represented by the cent sign (a minuscule letter "c" crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line: ¢; or a simple "c") is a monetary unit that equals of the basic monetary unit.
Centime (from centesimus) is French for "cent", and is used in English as the name of the fraction currency in several Francophone countries (including Switzerland, Algeria, Belgium, Morocco and France).
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (CBI; Bank Markazi-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān, also known as Bank Markazi) is the central bank of Iran.
The CFA franc (in French: franc CFA, or colloquially franc) is the name of two currencies used in parts of West and Central African countries which are guaranteed by the French treasury.
A cheque, or check (American English; see spelling differences), is a document that orders a bank to pay a specific amount of money from a person's account to the person in whose name the cheque has been issued.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Coinage of India, issued by imperial dynasties and middle kingdoms, began anywhere between the 1st millennium BCE to the 6th century BCE, and consisted mainly of copper and silver coins in its initial stage.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Counterfeit money is imitation currency produced without the legal sanction of the state or government.
Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Croesus (Κροῖσος, Kroisos; 595 BC – c. 546 BC) was the king of Lydia who, according to Herodotus, reigned for 14 years: from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 546 BC (sometimes given as 547 BC).
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.
The peso (ISO 4217 code: CUP, sometimes called the "national currency" or in Spanish moneda nacional) is one of two official currencies in use in Cuba, the other being the convertible peso (ISO 4217 code: CUC, occasionally called "dollar" in the spoken language).
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with a foreign currency.
A currency pair is the quotation of the relative value of a currency unit against the unit of another currency in the foreign exchange market.
Currency strength expresses the value of currency.
A currency symbol is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money.
A currency transaction tax is a tax placed on the use of currency for various types of transactions.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
A deposit account is a savings account, current account or any other type of bank account that allows money to be deposited and withdrawn by the account holder.
Digital currency (digital money or electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins).
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.
Dogecoin (code: DOGE, symbol: Ð and D) is a cryptocurrency featuring a likeness of the Shiba Inu dog from the "Doge" Internet meme as its logo.
Dollar (often represented by the dollar sign $) is the name of more than twenty currencies, including those of Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Liberia, Namibia, New Zealand, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States.
The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organization composed of six countries in the African Great Lakes region in eastern Africa: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.
The East African shilling was the currency issued for use in British controlled areas in East Africa from 1921 until 1969.
East Asian Community (EAC) is a proposed trade bloc for the East Asian and Southeast Asian countries that may arise out of either ASEAN Plus Three or the East Asia Summit (EAS).
The Eco is the proposed name for the common currency that the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) plans to introduce in the framework of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS, is a regional economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Currency Unit (₠ or ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro on 1 January 1999, at parity.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
A fictional currency is some form of currency defined, or alluded to, in works of fiction.
A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation.
Financial institutions, otherwise known as banking institutions, are corporations which provide services as intermediaries of financial markets.
The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.
Fiscal localism comprises institutions of localized monetary exchange.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.
A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.
The franc (₣) is the name of several currency units.
The Franc Poincaré is a unit of account that was used in the international regulation of liability.
The Gaucho was the name of a currency intended to be used by Argentina and Brazil in the context of the Argentina-Brazil Integration and Economics Cooperation Program or PICE (Spanish: Programa de Integración y Cooperación Económica Argentina-Brasil) to make interregional payments.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
The Gleaner Company Ltd. is a newspaper publishing enterprise in Jamaica.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
The Granada War (Guerra de Granada) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1492, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos) Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty's Emirate of Granada.
In economics, Gresham's law is a monetary principle stating that "bad money drives out good".
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
Hard money policies (as opposed to fiat currency policies) support a specie standard, usually gold or silver, typically implemented with representative money.
The Harz is a Mittelgebirge that has the highest elevations in Northern Germany and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia.
The history of banking began with the first prototype banks were the merchants of the world, who made grain loans to farmers and traders who carried goods between cities.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of money concerns the development of means of carrying out transactions involving a medium of exchange.
The Hong Kong dollar (sign: HK$; code: HKD) is the official currency of Hong Kong.
The króna (plural krónur) (sign: kr; code: ISK) is the currency of Iceland.
This is a list of international trade topics.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
An IOU (abbreviated from the phrase "I owe you") is usually an informal document acknowledging debt.
The iraimbilanja (singular and plural) is the divisory currency unit of Madagascar, being equal to one fifth of an ariary.
The Iranian rial (ریال ایران Riâl Irân; ISO 4217 code IRR) is the currency of Iran.
The Iranian toman (fa, pronounced; from Mongolian tümen "unit of ten thousand", see Tumen (unit)) is a superunit of the official currency of Iran, the rial.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
ISO 3166-1 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
Jane Jacobs (née Butzner; May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-Canadian journalist, author, and activist who influenced urban studies, sociology, and economics.
The is the official currency of Japan.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Khaleeji (خليجي) was a proposed name for the common currency of the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council for the Arab States (GCC).
The khoums (Arabic خمس, "fifth") is the subdivisory unit of the Mauritanian monetary system, the Ouguiya.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
Lex monetae is a Latin phrase which means that a sovereign state chooses which currency it will use and that the meaning of units of above-mentioned currency is determined by the law of the country whose money is in question.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
This is a list of alternative names for currency.
This list contains the 180 currencies recognized as legal tender in United Nations (UN) member states, UN observer states, partially recognized or unrecognized states, and their dependencies.
For a list of current national currencies, see List of circulating currencies.
African currency was originally formed from basic items, materials, animals and even people available in the locality to create a medium of exchange.
An Esperantist (Esperantisto) is a person who speaks Esperanto.
Fictional currency is the currency used in works of fiction.
This is a list of historical currencies.
This is a list of current motifs on the banknotes of different countries.
Litecoin (LTC or Ł) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open source software project released under the MIT/X11 license.
In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, and/or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc.
In economics, a local currency is a currency that can be spent in a particular geographical locality at participating organisations.
A local exchange trading system (also local employment and trading system or local energy transfer system; abbreviated LETS) is a locally initiated, democratically organised, not-for-profit community enterprise that provides a community information service and records transactions of members exchanging goods and services by using locally created currency.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Mahājanapada (lit, from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe, country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.
The ariary (sign: Ar; ISO 4217 code MGA) is the currency of Madagascar.
Manillas are a form of money, usually made of bronze or copper, which were used in West Africa.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
The ouguiya (sign: UM; أوقية; currency code: MRU), also spelled "ougiya", is the currency of Mauritania.
A medium of exchange is a tradeable entity used to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
Monero (XMR) is an open-source cryptocurrency created in April 2014 that focuses on privacy and decentralization that runs on Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS, and FreeBSD.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
A monetary system is the set of institutions by which a government provides money in a country's economy.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
The perun (Serbian Cyrillic: Перун, older spelling: Перунъ) was the currency that was planned for introduction in Montenegro by Petar II Petrović Njegoš in 1851.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.
The metica (plural meticas) was a proposed currency for Mozambique.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is an audio coding format for digital audio.
Mutilated currency is a term used by the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) to describe currency which is damaged to the point where it is difficult to determine the value of the currency, or where it is not clear that at least half of the note is present.
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
The Netherlands Antillean guilder (gulden) is the currency of Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which until 2010 formed the Netherlands Antilles along with Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nixon shock was a series of economic measures undertaken by United States President Richard Nixon in 1971, the most significant of which was the unilateral cancellation of the direct international convertibility of the United States dollar to gold.
A non-decimal currency is a currency that has sub-units that are a non-decimal fraction of the main unit, i.e. the number of sub-units in a main unit is not a power of 10.
The North American monetary union is a theoretical economic and monetary union of three North American countries: Canada, the United States of America and Mexico.
The won (원,; symbol: ₩; code: KPW) or Korean People's won is the official currency of North Korea.
The krone (sign: kr; code: NOK), plural kroner, is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
In economics, an optimum currency area (OCA), also known as an optimal currency region (OCR), is a geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency.
Oxhide ingots are metal slabs, usually of copper but sometimes of tin, produced and widely distributed during the Mediterranean Late Bronze Age (LBA).
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Peercoin, also known as PPCoin or PPC, is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency utilizing both proof-of-stake and proof-of-work systems.
The penny sterling (symbol: p; plural: pence) is a subdivision of pound sterling, the currency for the United Kingdom.
Petrocurrency, is a neologism used with three distinct meanings, often confused.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
Polymer banknotes are banknotes made from a polymer such as biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP).
The pound is a unit of currency in some nations.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The price revolution, sometimes known as the Spanish Price Revolution, was a series of economic events that occurred between the second half of the 15th century and the first half of the 17th century, and most specifically to the high rate of inflation that occurred during this period across Western Europe.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument (more particularly, a financial instrument and a debt instrument), in which one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
A receipt (also known as a bill of parcel, unpacking note, packaging slip, (delivery) docket, shipping list, packing list, packing slip, delivery list, manifest or customer receipt), is a document acknowledging that a person has received money or property in payment following a sale or other transfer of goods or provision of a service.
The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
A savings account is a deposit account held at a retail bank that pays interest but cannot be used directly as money in the narrow sense of a medium of exchange (for example, by writing a cheque).
The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).
In financial markets, a share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts.
Shekel (Akkadian: šiqlu or siqlu; שקל,. shekels or sheqalim) is any of several ancient units of weight or of currency.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver.
The Singapore dollar (sign: S$; code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore.
Sint Maarten is an island country in the Caribbean.
Slang terms for money often derive from the appearance and features of banknotes or coins, their values, historical associations or the units of currency concerned.
The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) provides a network that enables financial institutions worldwide to send and receive information about financial transactions in a secure, standardized and reliable environment.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.
Special drawing rights (ISO 4217 currency code XDR, also abbreviated SDR) are supplementary foreign-exchange reserve assets defined and maintained by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
The spesmilo (pronounced, plural spesmiloj) is an obsolete decimal international currency, proposed in 1907 by René de Saussure and used before the First World War by a few British and Swiss banks, primarily the Ĉekbanko Esperantista.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
The stelo ("star"; plural: steloj) was from 1945 to 1993 a monetary unit of Esperantists, one of whose aims was to achieve a single world currency.
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873.
The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.
Listed below is a table of historical exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar, at present the most widely traded currency in the world.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.
TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".
The baht (บาท,; sign: ฿; code: THB) is the currency of Thailand.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
A transaction account, checking account, current account, demand deposit account, or share draft account (at credit unions) is a deposit account held at a bank or other financial institution.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
A unit of account in economics is a nominal monetary unit of measure or currency used to represent the real value (or cost) of any economic item; i.e. goods, services, assets, liabilities, income, expenses.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
A United States Note, also known as a Legal Tender Note, is a type of paper money that was issued from 1862 to 1971 in the U.S. Having been current for more than 100 years, they were issued for longer than any other form of U.S. paper money.
Virtual currency, or virtual money, is a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community.
Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users; or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
In the foreign exchange market and international finance, a world currency, supranational currency, or global currency refers to a currency that is transacted internationally, with no set borders.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.