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Kawasaki disease

Index Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed. [1]

250 relations: Abdominal aorta, Abdominal pain, Acute (medicine), Acute abdomen, Adenitis, Adult, Aggression, Albumin, Amaurosis, American Journal of Cardiology, American Journal of Ophthalmology, Aneurysm, Angiography, Angioplasty, Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, Antibiotic, Antibody, Antigen, Antipyretic, Anxiety, Aorta, Aortic valve, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Arteritis, Arthralgia, Arthritis, Ascending cholangitis, Ascites, Aseptic meningitis, Aspirin, Ataxia, Atelectasis, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmunity, Axillary artery, Bandemia, BCG vaccine, Beau's lines, Biopsy, Bleeding, Blood lipids, Blood vessel, Boston Children's Hospital, Bowel obstruction, Brachial artery, Brachiocephalic artery, Brain ischemia, C-reactive protein, Cardiac arrest, Cardiology, ..., Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Cerebrum, Cervical lymphadenopathy, Chest pain, Chest pain in children, Chickenpox, Chorea, Circulatory system, Clinical urine tests, Coma, Common carotid artery, Common iliac artery, Complete blood count, Compliance (physiology), Confusion, Conjunctiva, Conjunctivitis, Convalescence, Coronary arteries, Coronary artery aneurysm, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Coronary catheterization, Corticosteroid, Cough, Cranial nerves, CT scan, Cutaneous condition, Depression (mood), Desquamation, Diarrhea, Differential diagnosis, Disease, Echocardiography, Edema, El Niño, Electrocardiography, Emotional lability, Endemic (epidemiology), Enzyme, Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Epileptic seizure, Erythema, Erythema multiforme, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, European Journal of Pediatrics, Facial nerve paralysis, Femoral artery, Fever, Fibrinoid necrosis, Fibrosis, Gallbladder, Gangrene, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetic predisposition, Genitourinary system, Glossitis, Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Hand, Headache, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Heart transplantation, Hemiparesis, Hemoglobin, Henoch–Schönlein purpura, Hepatitis, Histology, Hives, HLA-B51, Human musculoskeletal system, Human serum albumin, Hypertension, Hypervolemia, Ibuprofen, Immune system, Immunoglobulin therapy, Infant, Infarction, Infection, Influenza, Influenza-like illness, Interstitial nephritis, Intestinal pseudo-obstruction, Intussusception (medical disorder), Irritability, Itch, ITPKC, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Journal of Pediatric Surgery, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Keratic precipitate, Large intestine, Lethargy, Limb (anatomy), Lipid metabolism, Liver disease, Liver failure, Liver function tests, Lumbar puncture, Lymph node, Lymphadenopathy, Medical diagnosis, Medical sign, Meningoencephalitis, Mental disorder, Mercury poisoning, Mesenteric ischemia, Microscopic polyangiitis, Mitral insufficiency, Mitral valve, Myocardial infarction, Myocarditis, Nail (anatomy), Nature Reviews Microbiology, Necrosis, Nephrotic syndrome, Night terror, Normocytic anemia, Obesity, Ocular ischemic syndrome, Ophthalmology, Optic neuritis, Orchitis, Pancreatitis, Paracetamol, Parotitis, Pathogen, Pediatric Neurology, Pediatrics, Pediatrics (journal), Percutaneous coronary intervention, Pericarditis, Pharynx, Pleural effusion, Pneumonitis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Polyarthritis, Priapism, Prostatitis, Proteinuria, Purpura, Pyuria, Rash, Red eye (medicine), Regurgitation (circulation), Relapse, Renal artery, Respiratory system, Respiratory tract, Reye syndrome, Rheumatic fever, Rheumatology, Rhinorrhea, Salicylic acid, Scarlet fever, Sensorineural hearing loss, Sex organ, Shock (circulatory), Shortness of breath, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Slit lamp, Sole (foot), Sore throat, Splenic infarction, Sputum, Stenosis, Subdural effusion, Superantigen, Superficial temporal artery, Symptom, Tachycardia, The Journal of Pediatrics, The New England Journal of Medicine, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Thrombocythemia, Thrombosis, Tissue (biology), Toe, Tomisaku Kawasaki, Tongue, Toxic shock syndrome, Tricuspid valve, Troposphere, Tunica intima, Ultrasound, Unrest, Urethritis, Urinary tract infection, Uveitis, Valve, Valve replacement, Valvular heart disease, Valvulitis, Vasculitis, Ventricle (heart), Vomiting, White blood cell, World Neurosurgery. Expand index (200 more) »

Abdominal aorta

The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity.

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Abdominal pain

Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.

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Acute (medicine)

In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.

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Acute abdomen

An acute abdomen refers to a sudden, severe abdominal pain.

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Adenitis is a general term for an inflammation of a gland.

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Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.

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Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.

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Amaurosis (Greek meaning darkening, dark, or obscure) is vision loss or weakness that occurs without an apparent lesion affecting the eye.

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American Journal of Cardiology

The American Journal of Cardiology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of cardiology and general cardiovascular disease.

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American Journal of Ophthalmology

American Journal of Ophthalmology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering ophthalmology.

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An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.

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Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.

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Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.

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Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).

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Aortic valve

The aortic valve is a valve in the human heart between the left ventricle and the aorta.

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Archives of Disease in Childhood

Archives of Disease in Childhood is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the BMJ Group and covering the field of paediatrics.

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Arteritis is the inflammation of the walls of arteries, usually as a result of infection or autoimmune response.

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Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.

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Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.

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Ascending cholangitis

Ascending cholangitis, also known as acute cholangitis or simply cholangitis, is an infection of the bile duct (cholangitis), usually caused by bacteria ascending from its junction with the duodenum (first part of the small intestine).

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Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.

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Aseptic meningitis

Aseptic meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges, a membrane covering the brain and spinal cord in patients whose cerebral spinal fluid test negative with routine bacterial cultures.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.

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Atelectasis is the collapse or closure of a lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange.

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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.

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Axillary artery

In human anatomy, the axillary artery is a large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla (armpit) and the upper limb.

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Bandemia refers to an excess of band cells (immature white blood cells) released by the bone marrow into the blood.

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BCG vaccine

Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a vaccine primarily used against tuberculosis (TB).

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Beau's lines

Beau's lines are deep grooved lines that run from side to side on the fingernail or the toenail.

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A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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Blood lipids

Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Boston Children's Hospital

Boston Children's Hospital (called Children's Hospital Boston until 2012) is a 395-licensed-bed children's hospital in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area of Boston, Massachusetts.

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Bowel obstruction

Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.

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Brachial artery

The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm.

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Brachiocephalic artery

The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck.

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Brain ischemia

Brain ischemia (a.k.a. cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular ischemia) is a condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand.

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C-reactive protein

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.

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Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

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Cervical lymphadenopathy

93-231700-6 service name number Cervical lymphadenopathy refers to lymphadenopathy of the cervical lymph nodes (the glands in the neck).

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Chest pain

Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.

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Chest pain in children

Chest pain in children is the pain felt in the chest by infants, children and adolescents.

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Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).

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Chorea (or choreia, occasionally) is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesias.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Clinical urine tests

Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.

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Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

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Common carotid artery

In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.

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Common iliac artery

The common iliac arteries are two large arteries that originate from the aortic bifurcation at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra.

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Complete blood count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.

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Compliance (physiology)

Compliance is the ability of a hollow organ (vessel) to distend and increase volume with increasing transmural pressure or the tendency of a hollow organ to resist recoil toward its original dimensions on application of a distending or compressing force.

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Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

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The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).

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Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.

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Convalescence is the gradual recovery of health and strength after illness or injury.

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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.

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Coronary artery aneurysm

Coronary artery aneurysm is an abnormal dilatation of part of the coronary artery.

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Coronary artery bypass surgery

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Coronary catheterization

A coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter.

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Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.

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Cranial nerves

Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cutaneous condition

A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Desquamation, also called skin peeling, is the shedding of the outermost membrane or layer of a tissue, such as the skin.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Differential diagnosis

In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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Emotional lability

In medicine and psychology, emotional lability is a sign or symptom typified by exaggerated changes in mood or affect in quick succession.

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Endemic (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg–Strauss syndrome (CSS) or allergic granulomatosis, is an extremely rare autoimmune condition that causes inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels (vasculitis) in persons with a history of airway allergic hypersensitivity (atopy).

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries.

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Erythema multiforme

Erythema multiforme (EM) is a skin condition of unknown cause; it is a type of erythema possibly mediated by deposition of immune complexes (mostly IgM-bound complexes) in the superficial microvasculature of the skin and oral mucous membrane that usually follows an infection or drug exposure.

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Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.

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European Journal of Pediatrics

The European Journal of Pediatrics is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering pediatrics.

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Facial nerve paralysis

Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve.

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Femoral artery

The femoral artery is a large artery in the thigh and the main arterial supply to the leg.

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Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Fibrinoid necrosis

Fibrinoid necrosis is a form of necrosis, or tissue death, in which there is accumulation of amorphous, basic, proteinaceous material in the tissue matrix with a staining pattern reminiscent of fibrin.

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Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.

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In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.

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Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Genetic predisposition

A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions.

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Genitourinary system

The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.

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Glossitis can mean soreness of the tongue, or more usually inflammation with depapillation of the dorsal surface of the tongue (loss of the lingual papillae), leaving a smooth and erythematous (reddened) surface, (sometimes specifically termed atrophic glossitis).

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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is a long-term systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis.

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A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.

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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heart transplantation

A heart transplant, or a cardiac transplant, is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease when other medical or surgical treatments have failed.

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Hemiparesis, or unilateral paresis, is weakness of one entire side of the body (hemi- means "half").

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Henoch–Schönlein purpura

Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP) also known as IgA vasculitis, anaphylactoid purpura, purpura rheumatica, and Schönlein–Henoch purpura, is a disease of the skin, mucous membranes, and sometimes other organs that most commonly affects children.

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Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.

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HLA-B51 (B51) is an HLA-B serotype.

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Human musculoskeletal system

The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.

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Human serum albumin

Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypervolemia, or fluid overload, is the medical condition where there is too much fluid in the blood.

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Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunoglobulin therapy

Immunoglobulin therapy, also known as normal human immunoglobulin (NHIG), is the use of a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health conditions.

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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Influenza-like illness

Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or other illness causing a set of common symptoms.

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Interstitial nephritis

Interstitial nephritis (or tubulo-interstitial nephritis) is a form of nephritis affecting the interstitium of the kidneys surrounding the tubules, i.e., is inflammation of the spaces between renal tubules.

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Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a clinical syndrome caused by severe impairment in the ability of the intestines to push food through.

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Intussusception (medical disorder)

Intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine folds into the section next to it.

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Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.

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Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.

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ITPKC is a gene that has been associated with Kawasaki disease.

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Journal of General Internal Medicine

The Journal of General Internal Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal established in 1986 and covering internal medicine.

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Journal of Pediatric Surgery

The Journal of Pediatric Surgery is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering pediatric surgery.

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Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is the most common form of arthritis in children and adolescents.

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Keratic precipitate

Keratic precipitate (KP) is an inflammatory cellular deposit seen on corneal endothelium.

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Large intestine

The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.

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Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.

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Limb (anatomy)

A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.

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Lipid metabolism

Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the break down or storage of fats for energy.

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Liver disease

Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.

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Liver failure

Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.

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Liver function tests

Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.

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Lumbar puncture

Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical sign

A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.

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Meningoencephalitis (from Greek μῆνιγξ meninx, "membrane", ἐγκέφαλος, enképhalos "brain", and the medical suffix -itis, "inflammation") is a medical condition that simultaneously resembles both meningitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the meninges, and encephalitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the brain.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Mercury poisoning

Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to mercury exposure.

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Mesenteric ischemia

Mesenteric ischemia is a medical condition in which injury of the small intestine occurs due to not enough blood supply.

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Microscopic polyangiitis

Microscopic polyangiitis is an ill-defined autoimmune disease characterized by a systemic, pauci-immune, necrotizing, small-vessel vasculitis without clinical or pathological evidence of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation.

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Mitral insufficiency

Mitral insufficiency (MI), mitral regurgitation or mitral incompetence is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood.

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Mitral valve

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in the heart, that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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Myocarditis, also known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle.

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Nail (anatomy)

A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.

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Nature Reviews Microbiology

Nature Reviews Microbiology is a peer-reviewed review journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.

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Night terror

Night terror, also known as sleep terror, is a sleep disorder, causing feelings of terror or dread, and typically occurs during the first hours of stage 3–4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.

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Normocytic anemia

Normocytic anemia is a type of anemia and is a common issue that occurs for men and women typically over 85 years old.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Ocular ischemic syndrome

Ocular ischemic syndrome is the constellation of ocular signs and symptoms secondary to severe, chronic arterial hypoperfusion to the eye.

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Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.

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Optic neuritis

Optic neuritis is a demyelinating inflammation of the optic nerve.

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Orchitis or orchiditis (from the Ancient Greek ὄρχις meaning "testicle"; same root as orchid) is inflammation of the testes.

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Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.

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--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.

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Parotitis is an inflammation of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands located on either side of the face, in humans.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pediatric Neurology

Pediatric Neurology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering pediatric neurology.

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Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.

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Pediatrics (journal)

Pediatrics is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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Percutaneous coronary intervention

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.

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Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium (the fibrous sac surrounding the heart).

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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Pleural effusion

A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.

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Pneumonitis or pulmonitis is an inflammation of lung tissue due to factors other than microorganisms.

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Polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), also known as panarteritis nodosa, periarteritis nodosa, Kussmaul disease, or Kussmaul-Maier disease, is a systemic necrotizing inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis) affecting small- or medium-sized muscular arteries, typically involving the arteries of the kidneys and other internal organs but generally sparing the lungs' circulation.

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Polyarthritis is any type of arthritis that involves 5 or more joints simultaneously.

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Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended.

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Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland.

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Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.

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Purpura is a condition of red or purple discolored spots on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure.

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Pyuria is the condition of urine containing white blood cells or pus.

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A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.

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Red eye (medicine)

A red eye is an eye that appears red due to illness or injury.

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Regurgitation (circulation)

Regurgitation is blood flow in the opposite direction from normal, as the backward flowing of blood into the heart or between heart chambers.

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In medicine, relapse or recidivism is a recurrence of a past (typically medical) condition.

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Renal artery

The renal arteries normally arise off the left interior side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood.

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

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Respiratory tract

In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.

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Reye syndrome

Reye syndrome is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy.

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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.

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Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.

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Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.

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Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).

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Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A ''streptococcus'' (group A strep) infection.

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Sensorineural hearing loss

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss, or deafness, in which the root cause lies in the inner ear or sensory organ (cochlea and associated structures) or the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII).

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Sex organ

A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.

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Shock (circulatory)

Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.

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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

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Slit lamp

The slit lamp is an instrument consisting of a high-intensity light source that can be focused to shine a thin sheet of light into the eye.

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Sole (foot)

The sole is the underside of the foot.

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Sore throat

Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.

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Splenic infarction

Splenic infarction is a condition in which oxygen supply to the spleen is interrupted, leading to partial or complete infarction (tissue death due to oxygen shortage) in the organ.

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Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).

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A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.

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Subdural effusion

Subdural effusion refers to an effusion in the subdural space, usually of cerebrospinal fluid.

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Superantigens (SAgs) are a class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells resulting in polyclonal T cell activation and massive cytokine release.

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Superficial temporal artery

In human anatomy, the superficial temporal artery is a major artery of the head.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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The Journal of Pediatrics

The Journal of Pediatrics is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers all aspects of pediatrics.

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The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research pertaining to infectious diseases in children.

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Thrombocythemia (also thrombocytosis) is the presence of high platelet (thrombocyte) counts in the blood, and can be either primary (also termed essential thrombocythemia, and caused by a myeloproliferative disease) or secondary (also termed reactive).

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Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod.

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Tomisaku Kawasaki

is a Japanese pediatrician.

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The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.

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Toxic shock syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a condition caused by bacterial toxins.

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Tricuspid valve

The tricuspid valve, or right atrioventricular valve, is on the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

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The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

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Tunica intima

The tunica intima (New Latin "inner coat"), or intima for short, is the innermost tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.

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Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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Unrest (also called disaffection) is a sociological phenomenon, for instance.

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Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra.

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Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.

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Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.

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A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.

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Valve replacement

Valve replacement surgery is the replacement of one or more of the heart valves with either an artificial heart valve or a bioprosthesis (homograft from human tissue or xenograft e.g. from pig).

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Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart. These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging,Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano. Lancet. 2006 Sep;368(9540):1005-11. but may also be the result of congenital (inborn) abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy. Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. Valve failure or dysfunction can result in diminished heart functionality, though the particular consequences are dependent on the type and severity of valvular disease. Treatment of damaged valves may involve medication alone, but often involves surgical valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve).

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No description.

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Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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World Neurosurgery

World Neurosurgery is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal that was established in 1973 as Surgical Neurology before obtaining its current name in 2010.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kawasaki_disease

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