398 relations: AirAsia, Akha people, AKM, Allies of World War II, Amnesty International, Annam (French protectorate), Annamite Range, Anouvong, Anouvong District, Army of the Republic of Vietnam, ASEAN Declaration, Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement, Asian Development Bank, Association football, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Attapeu, Attapeu Province, Australia, Austroasiatic languages, Bamboo, Ban Houayxay, Bangkok, Bangkok Airways, Basketball at the 2017 Southeast Asian Games – Men's tournament, Bauxite, BBC News, Beerlao, Bill Clinton, Black Flag Army, Bokeo Province, Bolaven Plateau, Bolikhamsai Province, Bounnhang Vorachith, Bruce Vento, Buddhism, Buddhism in Laos, Cambodia, Canada, Central Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, Champasak Province, Chanthaly, China, China Eastern Airlines, Christianity in Laos, Cluster munition, Coal, Communism, Comprehensive Plan of Action, Conservatism in the United States, Constitution of Laos, ..., Constitutional monarchy, Containment, Convention on Cluster Munitions, Copper, Corvée, Dana Rohrabacher, Dearest Sister, Democracy Index, Development aid, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Districts of Laos, Don Det–Don Khon railway, Drug policy in Laos, East Asia Summit, Eastern Bloc, Ecotourism, Empire of Japan, Encyclopædia Britannica, English language, Export–Import Bank of the United States, Fa Ngum, Fantastic Fest, First Indochina War, Folk music, Foreign direct investment, France, Free France, Freedom of religion, Freedom of speech, French colonial empire, French Indochina, French language, French Union, Gender equality, General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, Genocide, Global Hunger Index, Glutinous rice, Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), Greater Mekong Subregion, Guangxi, Hani people, Hill tribe (Thailand), History of Laos, History of slavery in Asia, Hmong language, Hmong people, Ho Chi Minh trail, Hoabinhian, Hong Kong, Houaphanh Province, Houay Xay District, Human capital flight, Human Development Index, Human Development Report, Human rights, Human Rights Watch, Hydropower, Illegal drug trade, Illegal logging, Indochina, Indochina refugee crisis, Indochinese Communist Party, Insurgency in Laos, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Food Policy Research Institute, International Futures, International isolation, International Monetary Fund, International Rice Research Institute, Irrawaddy dolphin, Islam, Judicial independence, Judiciary, Katang people, Kaysone Phomvihane, Kerry and Kay Danes, Khammouane Province, Khanthaboury District, Khene, Khmer alphabet, Khmer Empire, Khmer people, Khmu language, Khmu people, Khone Phapheng Falls, Kindavong, Kingdom of Champasak, Kingdom of Laos, Kingdom of Luang Phrabang, Kingdom of Vientiane, Lam Mam District, Lam saravane, Lan Xang, Landlocked country, Lao Airlines, Lao alphabet, Lao Army F.C., Lao Brewery Company, Lao kip, Lao language, Lao Loum, Lao people, Lao People's Armed Forces, Lao People's Revolutionary Party, Lao Premier League, Lao rebellion (1826–28), Lao Securities Exchange, Lao Sung, Lao Theung, Lao Veterans of America, Laos Memorial, Laos national basketball team, Laotian Civil War, Laotian sign languages, Le Rénovateur, Lethwei, Life expectancy, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries by Human Development Index, List of countries by real GDP growth rate, List of ethnic groups in Laos, List of monarchs of Laos, List of submissions to the 90th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, Literacy, Lowy Institute, Lu people, Lua people, Luang Namtha, Luang Namtha Province, Luang Prabang, Luang Prabang District, Luang Prabang International Airport, Luang Prabang Province, Luang Prabang Range, Mainland Southeast Asia, Makarov pistol, Martin Stuart-Fox, Marxism–Leninism, Mattie Do, Mụ Giạ Pass, Médecins Sans Frontières, Mekong, Mekong Delta, Mekong giant catfish, Mekong River Commission, Melbourne International Film Festival, Metallurgy, Michael Johns (policy analyst), Millennium Development Goals, Milton Osborne, Mining industry of Laos, Mon people, Monogamy, Monsoon, Mor lam, Muang Ngoi Neua, Muang Phôn-Hông, Muang Phuan, Muang Xay, Muay Lao, Muay Thai, Multinational state, Musical instrument, Myanmar, Myanmar national basketball team, Nam Et-Phou Louey, Namtha District, Nan Province, National Assembly (Laos), National Review, National University of Laos, Natural rubber, Netherlands, Nhân Dân, Nong Khai, North Vietnam, One-party state, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Oudomxay Province, Oun Kham, Outline of Laos, Overseas Chinese, Overseas Development Institute, Pak Sé District, Paksane District, Pakse, Pakse International Airport, Pakxan, Pan flute, Pany Yathotou, Pathet Lao, Patriot Act, Paul Wellstone, Pek District, People's Army of Vietnam, Pha That Luang, Phankham Viphavanh, Pheng Xat Lao, Phetchabun Province, Phetsarath Ratanavongsa, Philippines, Phongsali, Phongsaly District, Phongsaly Province, Phonsavan, Phonthong Prison, Photisarath, Phou Bia, PK machine gun, Plain of Jars, Pleistocene, Politburo of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, Polygamy, Portage railway, Poverty threshold, Pradal serey, President of Laos, President of the National Assembly of Laos, Prime Minister of Laos, Programs Evaluation Office, Promulgation, Provinces of Laos, Quảng Bình Province, Ramon Magsaysay Award, Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782–1932), Real ID Act, Republic, Republic of China (1912–1949), Republican Party (United States), Rice, Route 13 (Laos), Royal Lao Army, RPD machine gun, Rubber stamp (politics), Sabaidee Luang Prabang, Sainyabuli, Sainyabuli Province, Salavan (city), Salavan Province, Samakkhixay District, Samsenethai, Sanitation, Saravane District, Savannakhet, Savannakhet Province, Sekong, Sekong Province, Setthathirath, Shan people, Si Phan Don, SilkAir, Sinh (clothing), Sisavang Vatthana, Sisavang Vong, Socialist state, Sombath Somphone, Songthaew, Sourigna Vongsa, South Vietnam, Southeast Asia, Souvanna Phouma, Soviet Union, Steve Gunderson, Subsistence agriculture, Suzerainty, Tai folk religion, Tai languages, Tai peoples, Tam Pa Ling Cave, Tân Ấp railway station, Telephone numbers in Laos, Thai Airways, Thai highlands, Thai people, Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge, Thailand, Thakhek, Thakhek District, The BMJ, The Center for Public Policy Analysis, The Economist, The Heritage Foundation, The Independent, The New York Times, The Rocket (2013 film), Theravada, Thonburi Kingdom, Thongloun Sisoulith, Thongsouk Saysangkhi, Tibeto-Burman languages, Tiger, Tin, Tonkin, Transparency International, Unexploded ordnance, Unitary state, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United States, United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, United States Department of Defense, United States dollar, United States House of Representatives, Université Laval, UTC+07:00, Vang Pao, Vang Pobzeb, Vang Vieng, Vat Phou, Việt Minh, 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AirAsia Berhad is a Malaysian low-cost airline headquartered near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The Akha are an indigenous hill tribe who live in small villages at higher elevations in the mountains of Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, and Yunnan Province in China.
The AKM is a 7.62mm assault rifle designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.
The Annamite Range or the Annamese Mountains (Chaîne Annamitique; ພູ ຫລວງ Xai Phou Luang; Dãy Trường Sơn) is a mountain range of eastern Indochina, which extends approximately through Laos, Vietnam, and a small area in northeast Cambodia.
Chao Anouvong (ເຈົ້າອານຸວົງສ໌; เจ้าอนุวงศ์), or regnal name Xaiya Setthathirath V (ໄຊຍະເສດຖາທິຣາຊທີ່ຫ້າ; ไชยเชษฐาธิราชที่ห้า), (1767 – 1829), led the Lao rebellion (1826–28) as the last monarch of the Kingdom of Vientiane.
Anouvong District is the capital of Xaisomboun Province.
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), also known as the South Vietnamese army (SVA), were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 until the Fall of Saigon in 1975.
The ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
The, previously known as the and renamed 2 November 2005, was signed in 1975.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Attapeu (ອັດຕະປື), also written as Attopu or Attapu, is the capital of Attapeu Province, Laos.
Attapeu is a province of Laos, located in the south-east of the country.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Ban Houayxay (ຫ້ວຍຊາຍ), also (Ban) Huoeisay, (Ban) Houei Sai or (Ban) Huay Xai and, is the capital of the Lao province of Bokèo, on the border with Thailand.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Bangkok Airways Public Company Limited (บางกอกแอร์เวย์) is a regional airline based in Bangkok, Thailand.
The men's basketball tournament at the 2017 Southeast Asian Games was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia at the MABA Stadium from 20 to 26 August.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beerlao (Lao language: ເບຍລາວ) is the generic name of a range of beers produced by the Lao Brewery Company (LBC) of Vientiane, Laos.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Black Flag Army was a splinter remnant of a bandit group recruited largely from soldiers of ethnic Zhuang background, who crossed the border in 1865 from Guangxi, China into Upper Tonkin, then part of the Empire of Annam (Central Vietnam).
Bokèo (Laotian: ບໍ່ແກ້ວ; literally "gem mine"; previously, Hua Khong, meaning "Head of the Mekong") is a northern province of Laos.
The Bolaven Plateau is an elevated region in southern Laos.
Bolikhamsai (also Borikhamxay, Lao ບໍລິຄໍາໄຊ) is a province of Laos, located in the middle of the country.
Bounnhang Vorachith (ບຸນຍັງ ວໍລະຈິດ; born August 15, 1937) is a Laotian politician who has been General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (de facto leader) and President of Laos (de jure head of state) since 2016.
Bruce Frank Vento (October 7, 1940 – October 10, 2000) was an American politician, a Democratic-Farmer-Labor member of the United States House of Representatives from 1977 until his death in 2000, representing.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism is the primary religion of Laos.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Central Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party was established in 1955, and is the highest authority within the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.
Champasak (or Champassak, Champasack – Lao: ຈຳປາສັກ) is a province in southwestern Laos, near the borders with Thailand and Cambodia.
Chanthaly (Lao: ຈັນທະລີ) is a 2012 Lao horror film directed by Mattie Do and written by Christopher Larsen.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited (colloquially known as 东航/東航) is an airline headquartered in the China Eastern Airlines Building, on the grounds of Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport in Changning District, Shanghai.
Christianity is a minority religion in Laos.
A cluster munition is a form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Comprehensive Plan of Action (CPA) is a program, adopted in June, 1989 at a conference in Geneva held by The Steering Committee of the International Conference on Indo-Chinese Refugees, which was designed to deter and to stop the continuing influx of Indochinese boat people and to cope with an increasing reluctance by third countries to maintain resettlement opportunities for every Vietnamese or Laotian exile, with the threat of countries of first asylum in Southeast Asia to push back asylum seekers.
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.
The Constitution of Laos specifies the functions and powers of the government of the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and defines the rights and duties of Laotian citizens.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.
The Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) is an international treaty that prohibits the use, transfer, and stockpiling of cluster bombs, a type of explosive weapon which scatters submunitions ("bomblets") over an area.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
Dana Tyrone Rohrabacher (born June 21, 1947) is a member of the U.S House of Representatives representing.
Dearest Sister (Lao: ນ້ອງຮັກ,Slovak:Bratr láska/Drahá sestra.) is a 2016 Lao horror film that was released in the US on September 25, 2016 and Slovakia about the year 2017.
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Laos is divided into 16 provinces (Lao: ແຂວງ, khoueng) and 1 prefecture (kampheng nakhon) plus capital city municipality (ນະຄອນຫລວງ, nakhon luang).
The Don Det–Don Khon railway (sometimes spelled "Don Deth–Don Khone") was a -long narrow-gauge portage railway on the islands of Don Det and Don Khon, part of the Si Phan Don (Four Thousand Islands) archipelago in Champasak Province of southern Laos.
In 1994, Laos was the world's third largest producer of opium, primarily in the northern provinces.
The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian and South Asian regions.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Export–Import Bank of the United States (abbreviated as Ex-Im Bank or the Bank) is the official export credit agency (ECA) of the United States federal government.
Somdetch Brhat-Anya Fa Ladhuraniya Sri Sadhana Kanayudha Maharaja Brhat Rajadharana Sri Chudhana Negara ລາວ: ສົມເດັດ ພຣະບາດ ອັນຍາ ຟ້າ ລັດທຸຣັນຍາ ສຣີ ສັດຕະນາ ຄະນະຍຸດທາ ມະຫາຣາຊ໌ ພຣະບາດ ຣາຊະທໍຣະນາ ສຣີ ສັດຕະນະ ນະຄອນ, better known as Fa Ngum (Laotian: ຟ້າງູ່ມ; 1316 – 1393, born in Muang Sua, died in Nan), established the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang in 1354.
Fantastic Fest is an annual film festival in Austin, Texas.
The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946, and lasted until 20 July 1954.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Union was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system, colloquially known as the "French Empire" (Empire Français).
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party is the office of the highest-ranking member of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party and the de facto leader of Laos.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a multidimensional statistical tool used to describe the state of countries’ hunger situation.
Glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice or waxy rice) is a type of rice grown mainly in Southeast and East Asia and the eastern parts of South Asia, which has opaque grains, very low amylose content, and is especially sticky when cooked.
The Golden Triangle is the area where the borders of Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar meet at the confluence of the Ruak and Mekong Rivers.
The Greater Mekong Subregion, or just Greater Mekong, is an international region of the Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Yuanyang County, Yunnan Province. The Hani or Ho people (Hani: Haqniq;; Người Hà Nhì) are an ethnic group.
Hill tribe (ชาวดอย, ชาวเขา, คนเขา) (Northern Thai: จาวดอย, คนดอย,; "mountain people/folk") is a term used in Thailand for all of the various ethnic groups who mostly inhabit the high mountainous Northern and Western regions of Thailand, including both sides of the border areas between Northern Thailand, Laos and Burma, the Phi Pan Nam Range, the Thanon Range, the latter a southern prolongation of the Shan Hills, as well as the Tenasserim Hills in Western Thailand.
Evidence for modern human presence in the northern and central highlands of Indochina, that constitute the territories of the modern Laotian nation-state dates back to the Lower Paleolithic.
Slavery has existed all throughout Asia, and forms of slavery still exist today.
Hmong (RPA: Hmoob) or Mong (RPA: Moob), known as First Vernacular Chuanqiandian Miao in China, is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob) are an indigenous people in Asia.
The Hồ Chí Minh trail (also known in Vietnam as the "Trường Sơn trail") was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia.
The term Hòa Bình culture (Văn hóa Hòa Bình, in French culture de Hoà Bình) was first used by French archaeologists working in Northern Vietnam to describe Holocene period archaeological assemblages excavated from rock shelters.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Houaphanh province (Laotian: ແຂວງ ຫົວພັນ) is a province of eastern Laos.
Houay Xay or Houaixai is a district (muang) of Bokeo Province in north-western Laos.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
The Indochina refugee crisis was the large outflow of people from the former French colonies of Indochina, comprising the countries of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, after communist governments were established in 1975.
The Indochinese Communist Party (ICP; Vietnamese: Đảng Cộng sản Đông Dương, French: Parti Communiste Indochinois, Cantonese: 印度支那共產黨, Lao: ອິນດູຈີນພັກກອມມູນິດ, Khmer: គណបក្សកុម្មុយនីស្តឥណ្ឌូចិន) was a political party which was transformed from the old Vietnamese Communist Party (Việt Nam Cộng sản Đảng) in October 1930.
The insurgency in Laos refers to the ongoing, albeit sporadic, military conflict of the Third Indochina War between the Lao People's Army, and Vietnam People's Army opposed primarily by members of the former "Secret Army" or the Hmong people as well as various other ethnic lowland Lao insurgencies in Laos, who have faced governmental reprisals due to Royal Lao and Hmong support for the American-led, anti-communist campaigns in Laos during the Laotian Civil War—which is an extension to the war itself.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is an international agricultural research center founded in the early 1970s to improve the understanding of national agricultural and food policies to promote the adoption of innovations in agricultural technology.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
International isolation is a penalty applied by the international community or a sizeable or powerful group of countries, like the United Nations, towards one nation, government or people group.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with ~1,300 staff.
The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is a euryhaline species of oceanic dolphin found in discontinuous subpopulations near sea coasts and in estuaries and rivers in parts of the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The Katang (Kataang) are an ethnic group predominantly living in Laos.
Kaysone Phomvihane (ໄກສອນ ພົມວິຫານ) (13 December 1920 – 21 November 1992) was the leader of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party from 1955 until his death in 1992.
Kerry Arthur Danes (an Australian career soldier born 21 October 1958) and wife Kay Frances Danes nee Stewart (an office manager born 20 October 1967 Wynnum, Queensland) were imprisoned in Laos on 23 December 2000 and later convicted of embezzlement, tax evasion and destruction of evidence.
Khammouane or Khammouan (Lao: ຄໍາມ່ວນ) is a province of Laos, located in the center of the country.
Khanthaboury is the old name of the Savannakhet City, which now was renamed as Kaysone Phomvihane City (ໄກສອນ ພົມວິຫານ).
The khene (spelled "Can" in English; Lao: ແຄນ; แคน,,; គែន - Ken; Vietnamese: khèn) is a mouth organ of Lao origin whose pipes, which are usually made of bamboo, are connected with a small, hollowed-out hardwood reservoir into which air is blown.
The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.
Khmu is the language of the Khmu people of the northern Laos region.
The Khmu (Khmu:; ຂະມຸ; ขมุ; Khơ Mú;; ခမူ) are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia.
The Khone Falls and Pha Pheng Falls (ນ້ຳຕົກຕາດຄອນພະເພັງ), (ល្បាក់ខោន - Lbak Khaon) is a waterfall located in Champasak Province on the Mekong River in southern Laos, near the border with Cambodia.
Prince Kindavong (1900 – 30 March 1951) was a Laotian prince and the younger half-brother of Phetsarath Ratanavongsa.
The Kingdom of Champasak (Lao: ຈຳປາສັກ) or Bassac, (1713–1946) was a Lao kingdom under Nokasad, a grandson of King Sourigna Vongsa, the last king of Lan Xang; and son-in-law of the Cambodian King Chey Chettha IV.
The Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953.
The Kingdom of Luang Phrabang was formed in 1707 as a result of the split of the Kingdom of Lan Xang.
Kingdom of Vientiane was formed in 1707 as a result of the split of the Kingdom of Lan Xang.
Lam Mam is a district (muang) of Sekong Province in southeastern Laos.
Lam saravane (ลำสาละวัน) is a popular folksong originally from the southern province of Saravane Province of Laos, but popular throughout the Lao-speaking world, including the Isan region of Thailand, but it is also regarded as a traditional folksong and dance of Khmer culture.
The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (ຮົ່ມຂາວ;; "Million Elephants and White Parasols") existed as a unified kingdom from 1354 to 1707.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
Lao Airlines State Enterprise"." Lao Airlines.
Lao script or Akson Lao (Lao: ອັກສອນລາວ) is the primary script used to write the Lao language and other minority languages in Laos.
Lao Army is a football club from Laos.
The Lao Brewery Company Ltd. (LBC) (ບໍລິສັັັດ ເບຍລາວ ຈໍາກັດ Bolisad Beerlao Chamkad) is a producer of beer, soft drinks, and bottled drinking water in Laos.
The kip (ກີບ; code: LAK; sign: ₭ or ₭N; kip; Official Name: ເງີນກີບລາວ, lit. "Currency Lao Kip") is the currency of Laos since 1952.
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ 'Lao language') is a tonal language of the Kra–Dai language family.
The Lao Loum (ລາວລຸ່ມ; ลาวลุ่ม) is an official Lao People's Democratic Republic designation for lowland dwelling Tai peoples, including the majority Lao people.
The Lao are a Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, who speak the eponymous language of the Tai–Kadai group.
The Lao People's Armed Forces (LPAF) is the name of the armed forces of the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the institution of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, who are charged with protecting the country.
The Lao People's Revolutionary Party (Laotian: ພັກປະຊາຊົນປະຕິວັດລາວ), formerly the Lao People's Party, is a Marxist-Leninist political party in Laos and has emerged from the Communist Party of Vietnam founded by Hồ Chí Minh in 1930.
The Lao Premier League (ລາວ ພຣີເມຍລີກ) is a football league representing the sport's highest level in Laos.
The Lao rebellion (also known as Anouvong's Rebellion) was an attempt by King Anouvong (Xaiya Sethathirath V) of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang.
The Lao Securities Exchange (LSX) is the primary stock exchange in Laos, located in the capital Vientiane.
Lao Sung or more commonly Lao Soung (Laotian: ລາວສູງ) is an official Laotian designation for highland dwelling peoples in Laos (the others being the Lao Loum and the Lao Theung).
The Lao Theung or Lao Thoeng (Lao: ລາວເທິງ) is one of the traditional divisions of ethnic groups living in Laos (the others being the Lao Loum and the Lao Soung).
The Lao Veterans of America, Inc., describes itself as a non-profit, non-partisan, non-governmental, veterans organization that represents Lao- and Hmong-American veterans who served in the U.S. clandestine war in the Kingdom of Laos during the Vietnam War as well as their refugee families in the United States.
The Laos and Hmong Memorial, or Lao Veterans of America Monument, is a granite monument, bronze plaque and living memorial (that includes an Atlas Cedar tree) in Arlington National Cemetery.
Laos national basketball team is the basketball team from Laos, administered by the Fédération de Basketball du Laos (ສະຫະພັນສປປລາວນໍ້ແດດ).
The Laotian Civil War (1959–75) was fought between the Communist Pathet Lao (including many North Vietnamese of Lao ancestry) and the Royal Lao Government, with both sides receiving heavy external support in a proxy war between the global Cold War superpowers.
There are an unknown number of indigenous deaf sign languages in Laos, which may have historical connections with the languages indigenous to Vietnam and Thailand, though it is not known if they are related to each other.
Le Rénovateur is the only French-language newspaper in the Lao PDR (Laos).
Lethwei (လက်ဝှေ့; IPA) or Burmese bareknuckle boxing is a full contact combat sport from Myanmar that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This article includes a list of countries and dependent territories sorted by their real gross domestic product growth rate; the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
The following is a list of ethnic groups within Laos.
The Lao People's Democratic Republic is the modern state derived from the former kingdoms of Laos.
This is a list of submissions to the 90th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
The Lowy Institute is an independent think tank founded in April 2003 by Frank Lowy to conduct original, policy-relevant research about international political, strategic and economic issues from an Australian perspective.
The Tai Lü people (Dǎi lè, ລື້ Lư̄, ไทลื้อ, Người Lự) are an ethnic group of China, Laos, Thailand, Burma, and Vietnam.
The Lua people are a minority ethnic group native to Laos, although there is now a sizable community living in Thailand.
Louang Namtha, M. Luang Nam Tha (Lao: ມ. ຫລວງນໍ້າທາ) is the capital of Luang Namtha Province in northern Laos.
Luang Namtha (Lao ຫລວງນໍ້າທາ, literally "Royal Sugar Palm" or "Royal Green River") is a province of Laos located in the north of the country.
Louangphabang, (Lao: ຫລວງພະບາງ) or Luang Phabang (pronounced), commonly transliterated into Western languages from the pre-1975 Lao spelling ຫຼວງພຣະບາງ (ຣ.
Luang Prabang District is a district (muang) of Luang Prabang Province in northern Laos.
Luang Prabang International Airport (Lao: ສະຫນາມບິນສາກົນຫຼວງພະບາງ), is one of the few international airports in Laos.
Luang Prabang (also Louangphabang, Lao ຫລວງພະບາງ) is a province of Laos, located in the north of the country.
The Luang Prabang Range (ทิวเขาหลวงพระบาง), named after Luang Prabang, is a mountain range straddling northwestern Laos and Northern Thailand.
Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula and previously as Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia east of India and south of China that is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east.
The Makarov pistol or PM (Пистолет Макарова, Pistolet Makarova, literally Makarov's Pistol) is a Russian semi-automatic pistol.
Martin Stuart-Fox (born 1939) is a retired Australian professor and journalist who writes about the history of Southeast Asia, primarily Laos.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Mattie Do is a Lao film director.
The Mụ Giạ Pass (Đèo Mụ Giạ, Quảng Bình) is a mountain pass in the Annamite Range between northern Vietnam and Laos, located 90 km northwest of Đồng Hới, Vietnam.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; pronounced), also known in English as Doctors Without Borders, is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organisation (NGO) of French origin best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases.
The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia.
The Mekong Delta (Đồng bằng Sông Cửu Long, "Nine Dragon river delta" or simply Đồng Bằng Sông Mê Kông, "Mekong river delta"), also known as the Western Region (Miền Tây) or the South-western region (Tây Nam Bộ) is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries.
The Mekong giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas; ปลาบึก,,; ត្រីរាជ /trəy riec/; cá tra dầu), is a large, critically endangered species of catfish (order Siluriformes) in the shark catfish family (Pangasiidae), native to the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and adjacent China.
The Mekong River Commission (MRC) is an "...inter-governmental organisation that works directly with the governments of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Vietnam to jointly manage the shared water resources and the sustainable development of the Mekong River." Its mission is "To promote and coordinate sustainable management and development of water and related resources for the countries' mutual benefit and the people's well-being.".
The Melbourne International Film Festival (MIFF) is an annual film festival held over three weeks in Melbourne, Australia.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Michael Johns (born September 8, 1964) is an American conservative commentator, policy analyst and writer, a former speechwriter for President George H. W. Bush, and a leader and spokesman in the Tea Party movement.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Milton Osborne is an Australian historian, author, and consultant specializing in Southeast Asia.
The Mining industry of Laos which has received prominent attention with foreign direct investments (FDI) has, since 2003–04, made significant contributions to the economic condition of Laos.
The Mon (မောန် or မည်; မွန်လူမျိုး,; មន, มอญ) are an ethnic group from Myanmar living mostly in Mon State, Bago Region, the Irrawaddy Delta and along the southern border of Thailand and Myanmar.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Mor lam (Thai/Isan: หมอลำ) is a traditional Lao form of song in Laos and Isan.
Muang Ngoi Neua is a Lao town along the Nam Ou in Louangphrabang Province.
Muang Phôn-Hông (Lao language: ໂພນໂຮງ) is a town and capital of Vientiane Province, Laos.
Muang Phuan (''Xieng Khouang'', or Trấn Ninh (historical Vietnamese name of the province)) was a historical principality on the Xiangkhoang Plateau, which constitutes the modern territory of Xiangkhouang Province, Laos.
Muang Xay (ເມືອງໄຊ), also referred to as Oudomxai, is the capital city of Oudomxai Province, Laos.
Muay Lao (ມວຍລາວ) is a traditional unarmed martial art from Laos.
Muay Thai (มวยไทย) or Thai boxing is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Myanmar national basketball team represents Myanmar (Burma) in international basketball competitions and is controlled by the Myanmar Basketball Federation.
Nam Et-Phou Louey National Biodiversity Conservation Area (NBCA) is a protected area in northern Laos, covering 5,959 km2 in three provinces: Houaphan, Luang Prabang, and Xieng Khouang.
Namtha is a district (muang) of Louang Namtha Province in north-western Laos.
Nan (น่าน) is one of the northern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
The National Assembly (Laotian: Sapha Heng Xat, French: Assemblée nationale) is the unicameral parliament of Laos.
National Review (NR) is an American semi-monthly conservative editorial magazine focusing on news and commentary pieces on political, social, and cultural affairs.
The National University of Laos (NUOL) is a university in Vientiane, the capital of Laos.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nhân Dân (Vietnamese for The People) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Vietnam.
Nong Khai (เทศบาลเมืองหนองคาย, Thesaban Mueang Nong Khai (Nong Khai Town) or หนองคาย or Nong Khai) is a city in north-east Thailand.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
Oudomxay (alternates: Oudômxai or Moung Xai; ອຸດົມໄຊ) is a province of Laos, located in the northwest of the country.
Oun Kham (June 5, 1811 – December 15, 1895) was King of Luang Prabang during 1868-1887 and a second time between 1889 and 1895.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Laos: Laos – landlocked sovereign country located in Southeast Asia.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
Pak Sé is a district (muang) of Champassack Province in south-western Laos.
Paksane (ປາກຊັນ) is a district (muang) of Bolikhamsai province in central Laos.
Pakse, or Pakxe (French: Paksé; Laotian: ປາກເຊ "mouth of the river"; ปากเซ), is the capital and most populous city of the southern Laotian province of Champasak, making it the second most populous city in Laos.
Pakse International Airport is one of the few international airports in Laos.
Pakxan, Paksan or Muang Pakxan (Lao ປາກຊັນ) (Paksane) is a town in Bolikhamsai Province, in western Laos.
The pan flutes (also known as panpipes or syrinx) are a group of musical instruments based on the principle of the closed tube, consisting of multiple pipes of gradually increasing length (and occasionally girth).
Pany Yathotou (born 18 February 1951) is a Laotian politician, banker and member of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.
The Pathet Lao (Lao: ປະເທດລາວ, "Lao Nation") was a communist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid-20th century.
The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress signed into law by US President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.
Paul David Wellstone (July 21, 1944 – October 25, 2002) was an American academic, author, and politician who represented Minnesota in the United States Senate from 1991 until he was killed in a plane crash in Eveleth, Minnesota, in 2002.
Pek is a district (muang) of Xiangkhouang Province in northern-central Laos.
The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Pha That Luang (ທາດຫຼວງ, 'Great Stupa') is a gold-covered large Buddhist stupa in the centre of the city of Vientiane, Laos.
Pheng Xat Lao (literally "Hymn of the Lao People") is the national anthem of the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
Phetchabun (เพชรบูรณ์) is one of the central or northern provinces (changwat) of Thailand.
Prince Phetsarath Ratanavongsa (Somdej Chao Maha Uparaja Pethsarath Ratanavongsa lit: His Highness (the) Vice-King Phetsarath Ratanavongsa) (ເພັຊຣາຊ; 19 January 1890 – 14 October 1959) was the 1st Prime Minister of Laos from 8 April to 20 October 1945, and was the first and last vice-king of the Kingdom of Laos.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phongsali or Phongsaly (ຜົ້ງສາລີ) is the capital of Phongsali Province, Laos.
Phongsaly is a district (muang) of Phongsaly Province in northern Laos.
Phôngsali (Lao ຜົ້ງສາລີ) is a province of Laos, located in the extreme north of the country.
Phonsavan (Lao: ໂພນສະຫວັນ) (population 37,507) is the capital of Xiangkhoang Province of Laos.
Phonthong Prison(ຄຸກໂພນຕ້ອງ), known as the 'Foreigners Prison', is a mixed sex prison near Vientiane.
Photisarath (also spelled Phothisarath, Phothisarat, or Potisarat) (1501–1547) son of King Visoun of Lanxang, is considered to be the most devout of the Lao kings.
Phou Bia (Lao: ພູເບັ້ຍ) is the highest mountain in Laos and is located in the Annamese Cordillera, at the southern limit of the Xiangkhoang Plateau in Xiangkhouang Province.
The PK (Пулемёт Калашникова, transliterated as Pulemyot Kalashnikova, or "Kalashnikov's Machinegun"), is a 7.62x54mmR general-purpose machine gun designed in the Soviet Union and currently in production in Russia.
The Plain of Jars (Lao: ທົ່ງໄຫຫິນ) is a megalithic archaeological landscape in Laos.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The Politburo of the Central Committee Lao People's Revolutionary Party, formerly the Standing Committee of the Central Committee, is the highest body of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP) between Central Committee meetings, which are held at least twice a year.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
A portage railway is a short and possibly isolated section of railway used to bypass a section of unnavigable river or between two water bodies which are not directly connected.
The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country.
Kun Khmer (pronounced as kun khmer) or Pradal Serey (ប្រដាល់សេរី) (គុនខ្មែរ) is an unarmed martial art and combat sport from Cambodia.
The President of the Lao People's Democratic Republic is the head of state of Laos.
The Prime Minister of the Lao People's Democratic Republic is the head of government of Laos.
The Programs Evaluation Office was a covert paramilitary mission to the Kingdom of Laos, established on 13 December 1955 by the United States Department of Defense.
Promulgation is the formal proclamation or declaration that a new statutory or administrative law is enacted after its final approval.
Laos is divided into provinces (Lao ແຂວງ,, khoeng, qwang or khoueng) and 1 prefecture (kampheng nakhon) plus the Vientiane Capital city municipality (ນະຄອນຫຼວງ, nakhon louang, or Na Kone Luang Vientiane).
Quảng Bình, formerly Tiên Bình under the reign of Lê Trung Hưng of the Lê Dynasty (this province was renamed Quảng Bình in 1604), is a province along Vietnam's north-central coast.
The Ramon Magsaysay Award is an annual award established to perpetuate former Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay's example of integrity in governance, courageous service to the people, and pragmatic idealism within a democratic society.
The Rattanakosin Kingdom (อาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์) is the fourth and present traditional centre of power in the history of Thailand (or Siam).
The Real ID Act of 2005,, is an Act of Congress that modifies U.S. federal law pertaining to security, authentication, and issuance procedures standards for state driver's licenses and identity documents, as well as various immigration issues pertaining to terrorism.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Route 13 is the most important highway in the country of Laos.
The Royal Lao Army (French: Armée royale du Laos – ARL), also designated by its Americanized title RLA, was the Land Component of the Royal Lao Armed Forces (FAR), the official military of the Kingdom of Laos during the North Vietnamese invasion of Laos and the Laotian Civil War between 1960 and 1975.
The RPD (Russian: ручной пулемёт Дегтярёва Ruchnoy Pulemyot Degtyaryova, English: Degtyaryov hand-held machine gun) is a 7.62mm light machine gun developed in the Soviet Union by Vasily Degtyaryov for the 7.62×39mm M43 intermediate cartridge.
A rubber stamp, as a political metaphor, refers to a person or institution with considerable de jure power but little de facto power; one that rarely or never disagrees with more powerful organs.
Sabaidee Luang Prabang (สะบายดี หลวงพะบาง, English title: Good Morning, Luang Prabang) is a 2008 romantic drama film directed by Sakchai Deenan and starring Ananda Everingham.
Sainyabuli, Xaignabouli, Xayaburi or Xayaboury (ໄຊຍະບູລີ) is the capital of Sainyabuli Province, Laos.
Xayabuli (Lao ໄຊຍະບູລີ; Xaignabouli; alternate spellings: Xaignabouri, Xayaboury, Sayabouli, Sayabouri) is a province of Laos, located in the northwest of the country.
The city of Salavan (ສາລະວັນ) is the capital of the Salavan Province in southern Laos.
Salavan (also Saravane, Lao: ສາລະວັນ) is a province of Laos, located in the south of the country.
Samakkhixay is a district (muang) of Attapu Province in southern Laos.
Samsenethai(ສາມແສນໄທ) also called Oun Huan(ອຸ່ນເຮືອນ) was the second king of Lan Xang, the son of Fa Ngum, whom he succeeded.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Saravane is a district (muang) of Saravane Province in southern Laos.
Savannakhet, officially named Kaysone Phomvihane (ໄກສອນ ພົມວິຫານ; ไกสอน พมวิหาน) and previously known as Khanthabouli (ຄັນທະບູລີ), is a city in western Laos and the capital of the Savannakhet Province.
Savannakhét (Lao:ສະຫວັນນະເຂດ) is a province of Laos.
Sekong (or Xekong; Lao ເຊກອງ) is the capital city of Sekong Province, Laos.
Sekong (also sometimes Xekong, Lao ເຊກອງ) is a province of Laos, located in the south-east of the country.
Setthathirath (ເສດຖາທິຣາດ; 1534–1571) or Xaysettha (ໄຊເສດຖາ; ไชยเชษฐาธิราช Chaiyachetthathirat) is considered one of the great leaders in Lao history.
The Shan (တႆး;, ရှမ်းလူမျိုး;; ไทใหญ่ or ฉาน) are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia.
The Si Phan Don (ສີ່ພັນດອນ; meaning 4000 islands) is a riverine archipelago in the Mekong River, Champasak Province in southern Laos.
SilkAir (Singapore) Private Limited is a full service regional airline with its head office in Airline House in Singapore; previously the head office was on the fifth storey of the SIA Superhub in Singapore.
The sinh is a traditional garment worn by Lao and Thai women, particularly northern Thai and northeastern Thai women.
Sisavang Vatthana (ພຣະບາທສົມເດັຈພຣະເຈົ້າມະຫາຊີວິຕສີສວ່າງວັດທະນາ) or sometimes Savang Vatthana (full title: Samdach Brhat Chao Mavattaha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Phra Rajanachakra Lao Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Savangsa Vadhana; 13 November 1907 – 13 May 1978 or 1984) was the last king of the Kingdom of Laos and the 6th Prime Minister of Laos serving from 15 October to 21 November 1951.
Sisavang Phoulivong (or Sisavangvong, ພຣະບາທສົມເດັຈພຣະເຈົ້າມະຫາຊີວິຕສີສວ່າງວົງສ໌) (14 July 1885 – 29 October 1959) was king of the Kingdom of Luang Phrabang and later the Kingdom of Laos from 28 April 1904 until his death on 29 October 1959.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
Sombath Somphone (ສົມບັດ ສົມພອນ, born 17 February 1952 in Khammouane Province, Laos) is an internationally acclaimed community development worker and prominent member of Lao civil society.
A songthaew (two rows,,; ສອງແຖວ,; dua baris) is a passenger vehicle in Thailand and Laos adapted from a pick-up or a larger truck and used as a share taxi or bus.
Sourigna Vongsa (ສຸຣິຍະວົງສາທັມມິກຣາດ) was the king of Lan Xang and during his period, it considered the golden age of Laos.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Prince Souvanna Phouma (7 October 1901 – 10 January 1984) was the leader of the neutralist faction and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Laos several times (1951–1954, 1956–1958, 1960, and 1962–1975).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Steven Craig "Steve" Gunderson (born May 10, 1951, in Eau Claire, Wisconsin) is the former President and CEO of the Council on Foundations, the current president and CEO of the Career Education Colleges and Universities, and a former Republican congressman from Wisconsin.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Satsana Phi (ສາສນາຜີ; ศาสนาผี, "religion of spirits") is a Thai and Lao term describing ethnic Tai folk beliefs.
The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages (ภาษาไท or ภาษาไต, transliteration: or) are a branch of the Kra–Dai language family.
Tai peoples refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language.
Tam Pa Ling (Cave of the Monkeys) is a cave in the Annamite Mountains in north-eastern Laos.
Tân Ấp railway station is a railway station on the North–South Railway (Reunification Express) line in Vietnam.
Thai Airways International Public Company Limited, trading as THAI (บริษัท การบินไทย จำกัด (มหาชน)) is the flag carrier airline of Thailand.
The Thai highlands or Hills of northern Thailand is a mountainous natural region in the north of Thailand.
Thai people or the Thais (ชาวไทย), also known as Siamese (ไทยสยาม), are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, primarily living mainly Central Thailand (Siamese proper).
The First Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge (สะพานมิตรภาพ ไทย-ลาว แห่งที่ 1, pronounced; ຂົວມິດຕະພາບ ລາວ-ໄທ ແຫ່ງທຳອິດ) is a bridge over the Mekong, connecting Nong Khai Province and the city of Nong Khai in Thailand with Vientiane Prefecture in Laos; the city of Vientiane is approximately from the bridge.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thakhek (Lao language: ທ່າແຂກ) is a town in south-central Laos on the Mekong River and facing Nakhon Phanom across the river in northeastern Thailand.
Thakhek is a district (muang) of Khammouane Province in mid Laos.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Center for Public Policy Analysis (CPPA), or Centre for Public Policy Analysis, was established in Washington, D.C. in 1988 and describes itself as a non-profit, non-partisan, think tank and research organization.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Rocket is a 2013 Australian drama film written and directed by Kim Mordaunt.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Kingdom of Thonburi (Thai: ธนบุรี) was a Siamese kingdom after the downfall of the Ayutthaya Kingdom by the Konbaung Burmese invader.
Thongloun Sisoulith (ທອງລຸນ ສີສຸລິດ; born 10 November 1945) is a Laotian politician who has been Prime Minister of Laos since 2016.
Thongsouk Saysangkhi (sometimes spelt Thongsouk Saysangkhy) was a political prisoner and a former deputy minister of science and technology in the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, a communist political party that has governed Laos since 1975.
The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
Unexploded ordnance (UXO, sometimes abbreviated as UO), unexploded bombs (UXBs), or explosive remnants of war (ERW) are explosive weapons (bombs, shells, grenades, land mines, naval mines, cluster munition, etc.) that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation, sometimes many decades after they were used or discarded.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a U.S. federal government commission created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
Université Laval (Laval University) is a French-language, public research university in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
UTC+07:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +07:00.
Vang Pao (Hmong: Vaj Pov; 8 December 1929 – 6 January 2011) was a major general in the Royal Lao Army.
Vang Vieng (ວັງວຽງ) is a tourist-oriented town in Laos in Vientiane Province about four hours bus ride north of the capital.
Vat Phou (or Wat Phu; ວັດພູ temple-mountain) is a ruined Khmer Hindu temple complex in southern Laos.
Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941.
Vice President of Laos is the political position in Laos created in 1996.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Vientiane (ວຽງຈັນ/ວຽງຈັນທນ໌/ວຽງຈັນທະບູຣີ ສຼີສັຕນາຄຄນາຫຸຕ ວິສຸທທິຣັຕນຣາຊທານີ ບໍຣີຣົມຍ໌, Viang chan) is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand.
Vientiane or Viengchan (also known as Urban Vientiane, Vieng Chan or Viang Chan) (Lao: ນະຄອນຫຼວງວຽງຈັນ, Nakhônlouang ViangChan) is a prefecture of Laos, located in the north-west of the country.
Vientiane Province (also known as rural Vientiane) (Lao ແຂວງວຽງຈັນ) is a province of Laos, located in the northwest of the country.
The Vientiane Times is an English language newspaper, published daily in Vientiane, Laos.
The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vietnam Airlines (Hãng Hàng không Quốc gia Việt Nam) is the flag carrier of Vietnam.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vietnamese boat people (Thuyền nhân Việt Nam), also known simply as boat people, were refugees who fled Vietnam by boat and ship following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
Wat Sen, Luang Prabang also known as Wat Sene Souk Haram is a Buddhist temple (wat), located in Luang Phrabang, Laos.
Wat Thamkrabok (วัดถ้ำกระบอก, literally Temple of the Bamboo Cave) is a Buddhist temple (wat) in Thailand, located in the Phra Phutthabat district of Saraburi Province, Thailand.
The Water Festival is the New Year's celebrations that take place in East Asian countries such as China and Taiwan, and Southeast Asian nations such as Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand.
Wattay International Airport is one of the few international airports in Laos.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xaisomboun (/saɪʒəʊmbuːn/ Lao ໄຊສົມບູນ) is a mountainous province located in Central Laos, between Vientiane Province and Xiangkhouang Province.
Xam Neua (ຊຳເໜືອ, Xâm Neua or Sầm Nưa, sometimes transcribed as Sam Neua or Samneua, literally "northern swamp", is the capital city of Houaphan Province, Laos, in the northeast of the country. Xam Neua is one of the country's least visited provincial capitals by Western tourists.
Xam Neua (ຊຳເໜືອ) is a district (muang) of Houaphanh Province in north-eastern Laos.
Xay is a district (muang) of Oudomxay Province in north-western Laos.
The Xayaburi Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Lower Mekong River approximately east of Xayaburi (Sainyabuli) town in northern Laos.
The Xiangkhouang Plateau or Xiangkhoang Plateau, also known in French as Plateau du Tran-Ninh is a plateau in the north of Laos.
Xiangkhouang (Lao: ຊຽງຂວາງ, meaning "Horizontal City") is a province of Laos, located in the Xiangkhouang Plateau, north-east of the country.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
The Yao people (its majority branch is also known as Mien;; người Dao) is a government classification for various minorities in China and Vietnam.
.la is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Laos.
The meridian 100° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 108° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 14th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 14 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The Geneva Conference was a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 – July 20, 1954.
The 23rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 23 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 90th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2017 and took place at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California.
Ai Lao, Etymology of Laos, ISO 3166-1:LA, LPDR, Languages of Lao People's Democratic Republic, Languages of Laos, Lao P D R, Lao P. D. R., Lao P.D.R, Lao P.D.R., Lao PDR, Lao People's Dem. Republic, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lao Peoples' Democratic Republic, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lao Please Don't Rush, Lao Republic, Laos PDR, Name of Laos, People's Democratic Republic of Laos, People's Republic of Laos, Saathiaranagroat Prachhathippatay Prachhachhon Lao, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao, Sport in Laos, ປະເທດລາວ, ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ.