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Burmese salads, transliterated as a thoke, thohk or thouk, are part of Burmese cuisine.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
The Academy Award for Documentary Feature is an award for documentary films.
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, statoid, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Alaungpaya (အလောင်းဘုရား,; also spelled Alaunghpaya or Alaung Phra; 11 May 1760) was the founder of the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar).
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Anawrahta Minsaw (အနော်ရထာ မင်းစော,; 11 May 1014 – 11 April 1077) was the founder of the Pagan Empire.
The Andaman Sea is a marginal sea of the eastern Indian Ocean separated from the Bay of Bengal (to its west) by the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and touching Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and the Malay Peninsula.
The Anglo-Burmese, also known as the Anglo-Burmans, are a community of Eurasians of Burmese and European descent, who emerged as a distinct community through mixed relations (sometimes permanent, sometimes temporary) between the British and other European settlers and the indigenous peoples of Burma from 1826 until 1948 when Myanmar gained its independence from the United Kingdom.
There have been three Burmese Wars or Anglo-Burmese Wars.
The term Anglo-Indians can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
The Arakan Mountains (Arakan Range, Rakhine Range, Rakhine Yoma, Arakan Yoma, Rakhine Roma, Arakan Roma; ရခိုင်ရိုးမ) is a mountain range in western Burma (Myanmar), between the coast of Rakhine State and the Central Burma Basin, in which flows the Irrawaddy River.
Arakanese (also known as Rakhine; ရခိုင်ဘာသာ, MLCTS: ra.hkuing bhasa) is a language closely related to Burmese, of which it is often considered a dialect.
Areca catechu is a species of palm which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Arunachal Pradesh ("the land of dawn-lit mountains") is one of the 29 states of India and is the northeastern-most state of the country.
The ASEAN Summit is a semiannual meeting held by the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in relation to economic, political, security and socio-cultural development of Southeast Asian countries.
Asian Correspondent is an English language news website launched in October 2009 by Hybrid (media company) that combines articles by professional journalists, bloggers and news wire content in one website.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
The Assembly of the Union (ပြည်ထောင်စု လွှတ်တော် Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) is the national-level bicameral legislature of Myanmar (officially known as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar) established by the 2008 National Constitution.
Assistance Association of Political Prisoners (Burma) (နိုင်ငံရေးအကျဉ်းသားများကူညီစောင့်ရှောက်ရေးအသင်း; abbreviated AAPP or AAPPB) is an independent non-profit organisation founded by Burmese former political prisoners living in exile.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Aung Myint (အောင်မြင့်,; born 27 October 1946) is a Burmese painter and performance artist.
Bogyoke (Major General) Aung San (13 February 1915 – 19 July 1947) served as the 5th Premier of the British Crown Colony of Burma from 1946 to 1947.
Aung San Suu Kyi (born 19 June 1945) is a Burmese politician, diplomat, and author, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1991).
Aung Zan Wai (အောင်ဇံဝေ; 19 November 1893 – 29 December 1984) was a Burmese politician.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Ayeyarwady Region (ဧရာဝတီတိုင်းဒေသကြီး,,; formerly Ayeyarwady Division and Irrawaddy Division), is a region of Myanmar, occupying the delta region of the Ayeyarwady River (Irrawaddy River).
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري, born June 19, 1951) is the current leader of Al-Qaeda and a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
The Ayutthaya Kingdom (อยุธยา,; also spelled Ayudhya or Ayodhaya) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767.
Ba Maw (ဘမော်,; 8 February 1893 – 29 May 1977) was a Burmese political leader, active during the interwar and World War II period.
Ba Nyan (ဘဉာဏ်,; 1897 – 12 October 1945) was a Burmese painter who has been called the greatest name in modern painting in Myanmar.
Bagan (formerly Pagan) is an ancient city located in the Mandalay Region of Myanmar.
Bago Region (ပဲခူးတိုင်းဒေသကြီး,; formerly Pegu Division and Bago Division) is an administrative region of Myanmar, located in the southern central part of the country.
Bago (formerly spelt Pegu;,; ဗဂေါ), formerly known as Hanthawaddy (meaning "She Who Has Swans"), is a city and the capital of the Bago Region in Myanmar.
The Bamar (also historically the Burmese and Burmans) are the dominant ethnic group in Myanmar.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Bando (ဗန်တို) is a defensive unarmed martial art from Myanmar.
The Bangkok Post is a broadsheet English-language daily newspaper published in Bangkok, Thailand.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Banshay (ဗန်ရှည်) is a weapon-based martial art from Myanmar focusing primarily on the sword, staff and spear.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The barn owl (Tyto alba) is the most widely distributed species of owl and one of the most widespread of all birds.
Bassam Tibi (بسام طيبي), is a German political scientist and Professor of International Relations.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
Bayinnaung Kyawhtin Nawrahta (ဘုရင့်နောင် ကျော်ထင်နော်ရထာ; บุเรงนองกะยอดินนรธา,; 16 January 1516 – 10 October 1581) was king of the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1550 to 1581.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").
Bo Hmu Aung (ဗိုလ်မှူးအောင်), born San Hlaing was a member of the Thirty Comrades.
Bodawpaya (ဘိုးတော်ဘုရား,; ปดุง; 11 March 1745 – 5 June 1819) was the sixth king of the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma.
Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
British rule in Burma, also known as British Burma, lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese wars through the creation of Burma as a Province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in Myanmar is practiced by 89% of the country's population, and is predominantly of the Theravada tradition.
In the United States Government, the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (EAP, originally the Office of Chinese Affairs) is part of the United States Department of State and is charged with advising the Secretary of State and Under Secretary for Political Affairs on matters of the Asia-Pacific region, as well as dealing with U.S. foreign policy and U.S. relations with countries in that area.
The fighting in the Burma Campaign in 1944 was among the most severe in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II.
The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily by British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of Imperial Japan, who were assisted to some degree by Thailand, the Burmese Independence Army and the Indian National Army.
Burma Chronicles (Chroniques Birmanes), is a 2007 Canadian graphic novel written and illustrated by Guy Delisle.
The Burma National Army (also known as the Burma Independence Army) (ဗမာ့အမျိုးသားတပ်မတော်) served as the armed forces of the puppet Burmese government created by the Japanese during World War II and fought in the Burma Campaign.
The Burma Socialist Programme Party (မြန်မာ့ဆိုရှယ်လစ်လမ်းစဉ်ပါတီ;; also Burmese acronyms) was formed by the Ne Win's military regime that seized power in 1962 and was the sole political party allowed to exist legally in Burma during the period of military rule from 1964 until its demise in the aftermath of the popular uprising of 1988.
Burma VJ: Reporting from a Closed Country is a 2008 Danish documentary film directed by Anders Østergaard.
The royal chronicles of Myanmar (မြန်မာ ရာဇဝင် ကျမ်းများ; also known as Burmese chronicles) are detailed and continuous chronicles of the monarchy of Myanmar (Burma).
The Burmese or Myanmar Coast mangroves are an ecoregion in Burma, Malaysia, and Thailand where there were once thick forests of mangroves but today most has been cleared, resulting in loss of habitat for wildlife.
Myanmar's folk religion refers to the animistic and polytheistic religious worship of nats (deities of local and Hindu origin) in Burma (Myanmar).
General elections were held in Burma over several months between June 1951 and April 1952 due to internal conflict within the country.
General elections were held in Burma to vote for 202 out of 250 seats to the Burmese Chamber of Deputies; the remaining 48 members (all from the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League, AFPFL)) were elected unopposed as no opposition candidates stood against them. The AFPFL, a former wartime resistance organisation, won the elections with a reduced majority. After the election, U Nu, leader of the AFPFL, temporarily retired to reform the party and its policies. The second part of the election to elect members to the Chamber of Nationalities took place on 22 May after the election commission stated that "rebel intimidation and the lack of security prevented the people from exercising freedom of choice". Voter turnout was 47.8%.
General elections were held in Burma on 6 February 1960 to install a government to take over from General Ne Win's interim administration, established in October 1958.
Burmese Gurkhas (ဂေါ်ရခါးလူမျိုး; गोर्खा) are a group of Nepali language speaking Burmese people of Gurkha ethnic group living in Myanmar (formerly Burma).
Burmese Indians are a group of people of Indian origin who live in Burma.
The kyat (or; ကျပ်; ISO 4217 code MMK) is the currency of Myanmar (Burma).
The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.
The literature of Burma (or Myanmar) spans over a millennium.
Martyrs' Day (အာဇာနည်နေ့) is a Burmese national holiday observed on 19 July to commemorate Gen.
The Burmese python (Python bivittatus) is one of the five largest species of snakes in the world (about the third-largest as measured either by length or weight).
The Burmese script is the basis of the alphabets used for modern Burmese, Mon, Shan and Karen.
The Burmese Way to Socialism (မြန်မာ့နည်းမြန်မာ့ဟန် ဆိုရှယ်လစ်စနစ်; also known as the Burmese Road to Socialism) refers to the ideology of the socialist government in Burma, from 1962 to 1988, when the 1962 coup d'état was led by Ne Win and the military to remove U Nu from power.
The Burmese–Siamese War (1765–1767) (ယိုးဒယား-မြန်မာစစ် (၁၇၆၅–၁၇၆၇); สงครามคราวเสียกรุงศรีอยุธยาครั้งที่สอง, lit. "war of the second fall of Ayutthaya") was the second military conflict between the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) and the Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty of Siam (Thailand), and the war that ended the four-century-old Siamese kingdom.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chamber of Deputies (ပြည်သူ့လွှတ်တော်) was the lower house of the bicameral Union Parliament of Burma (Myanmar) from 1948 to 1962.
The Chamber of Nationalities (လူမျိုးစုလွှတ်တော်) was the upper house of the bicameral Union Parliament of Burma (Myanmar) from 1948 to 1962.
The Royal Institute of International Affairs, commonly known as Chatham House, is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
The Chin people are one of the major ethnic nationalities in Burma.
Chin State is a state in western Myanmar.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chindits, known officially as the Long Range Penetration Groups, were special operations units of the British and Indian armies, which saw action in 1943–1944, during the Burma Campaign of World War II.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Chinese people in Burma, Burmese Chinese, Tayoke or Sino-Burmese (မြန်မာတရုတ်လူမျိုး) are a group of overseas Chinese born or raised in Burma (Myanmar).
Chinlone (Burmese: ခြင်းလုံး), also known as caneball, is the traditional, national sport of Myanmar (Burma).
Chittagong Division, officially known as Chattogram Division, is geographically the largest of the eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity in Burma has a history dating to the early 18th century.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a wild cat occurring from the Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Cobra is the common name of various elapid snakes, most of which belonging to the genus Naja.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (ပြည်ထောင်စုသမ္မတမြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော် ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေ) is the supreme law of Myanmar.
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the late 20th century or in the 21st century.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
A Crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly is a synonym for all of Corvus.
The culture of Myanmar (also known as Burma) has been heavily influenced by Buddhism and the Mon people.
Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis (نرگس) caused the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Myanmar during early May 2008.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
Davos (German pronunciation; Tavau, archaic Italian: Tavate) is an Alpine town, and a municipality in the Prättigau/Davos Region in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
Dawei (ဓဝဲါ,; ทวาย, RTGS: Thawai,; formerly known as Tavoy) is a city in south-eastern Myanmar and is the capital of the Tanintharyi Region, formerly known as the Tenasserim Division, about south of Yangon on the northern bank of the Dawei River.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic Voice of Burma (ဒီမိုကရေတစ်မြန်မာ့အသံ, abbreviated DVB) is a non-profit media organization based in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
In the 2011 census, Nepal's population was approximately 26 million people with a population growth rate of 1.35% and a median age of 21.6 years.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Direct-to-video or straight-to-video refers to the release of a film to the public immediately on home video formats rather than a theatrical release or television broadcast.
Districts (ခရိုင်) are the second-level administrative divisions of Myanmar.
Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous).
In the study of comparative religion, the East Asian religions form a subset of the Eastern religions.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Edward Elgar Publishing is a global publisher of academic books, journals and online resources in the social sciences and law.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Eleven Media Group was founded in 2000 by Than Htut Aung in Yangon, Myanmar.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The First Anglo-Burmese War, also known as the First Burma War, (ပထမ အင်္ဂလိပ် မြန်မာ စစ်;; 5 March 1824 – 24 February 1826) was the first of three wars fought between the British and Burmese empires in the 19th century.
The first Mongol invasions of Burma (present-day Myanmar) (မွန်ဂို–မြန်မာ စစ် (၁၂၇၇–၁၂၈၇)) were a series of military conflicts between Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty, division of the Mongol Empire, and the Pagan Empire that took place between 1277 and 1287.
First Myanmar Investment (also abbreviated FMI) is a major Myanmar investment company founded in 1992 as one of Myanmar's first publicly traded companies.
Fish sauce is a condiment made from fish coated in salt and fermented from weeks to up to two years.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
The Forty Years' War (အနှစ်လေးဆယ်စစ်; 1385 – 1424; also Ava-Pegu War or the Mon-Burmese War) was a military conflict fought between the Burmese-speaking Kingdom of Ava and the Mon-speaking Kingdom of Hanthawaddy Pegu.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Freshwater fish are those that spend some or all of their lives in fresh water, such as rivers and lakes, with a salinity of less than 0.05%.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Geckos are lizards belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, found in warm climates throughout the world.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Geographical renaming is the changing of the name of a geographical feature or area.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae.
The Golden Triangle is the area where the borders of Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar meet at the confluence of the Ruak and Mekong Rivers.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Gulf of Martaban (မုတ္တမပင်လယ်ကွေ့) or the Gulf of Mottama is an arm of the Andaman Sea in the southern part of Burma.
Guy Delisle (born January 19, 1966) is a Canadian cartoonist and animator, best known for his graphic novels about his travels, such as Shenzhen (2000), Pyongyang: A Journey in North Korea (2003), Burma Chronicles (2007), and Jerusalem (2011).
The Hanthawaddy Kingdom (ဟံသာဝတီ နေပြည်တော်;,; also Hanthawaddy Pegu or simply Pegu) was the dominant kingdom that ruled lower Burma (Myanmar) from 1287 to 1539 and from 1550 to 1552.
The Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations at Harvard University seeks to expand understanding and accelerate critical thinking about civil society among scholars, practitioners, policy makers and the general public, by encouraging scholarship, developing curriculum, fostering mutual learning between academics and practitioners, and shaping policies that enhance the sector and its role in society.
The Hengduan Mountains are a group of mountain ranges in southwest China that connect the southeast portions of the Tibetan Plateau with the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau.
Henry Van Thio (ဟင်နရီဗန်ထီးယူ; born 9 August 1958) is a Burmese politician who has been Second Vice President of Myanmar (Burma) since 2016.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
The herons are the long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae, with 64 recognised species, some of which are referred to as egrets or bitterns rather than herons.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism in Myanmar is practised by about 252,763 people, however Pew Research estimates range from 820,000-840,000.
The history of Myanmar (also known as Burma) covers the period from the time of first-known human settlements 13,000 years ago to the present day.
The term Southeast Asia has been in use since World War II.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Burma (or Myanmar), recognised as a disease of concern by the Ministry of Health and is a major social and health issue in the country.
Hkakabo Razi (ခါကာဘိုရာဇီ) is believed to be Burma's highest mountain, and with its height of the probable highest mountain in South East Asia.
The Hmong–Mien (also known as Miao–Yao) languages are a highly tonal language family of southern China and northern Southeast Asia.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.
Hopea odorata, or Ta-khian (ตะเคียน), is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family.
The House of Nationalities (အမျိုးသားလွှတ်တော်, Amyotha Hluttaw) is the upper house of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the bicameral legislature of Myanmar (Burma).
The House of Representatives (ပြည်သူ့ လွှတ်တော်, Pyithu Hluttaw) is the lower house of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the bicameral legislature of Myanmar (Burma).
Hpa-An (ဘားအံမြို့, also spelled Pa-An) is the capital of Kayin State (also known as Karen State), Myanmar (Burma).
Htin Kyaw (ထင်ကျော်, or; born 20 July 1946) is a Burmese politician, writer and scholar who served as the 9th President of Myanmar from 30 March 2016 to 21 March 2018.
Hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color, defined technically (in the CIECAM02 model), as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow", (which in certain theories of color vision are called unique hues).
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human rights in Myanmar under its military regime have long been regarded as among the worst in the world.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
Independence Day (လွတ်လပ်ရေးနေ့) is a national holiday observed annually in Myanmar every 4 January.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Myanmar (also known as Burma) include.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Inle Lake (အင်းလေးကန်), a freshwater lake located in the Nyaungshwe Township of Taunggyi District of Shan State, part of Shan Hills in Myanmar (Burma).
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Crisis Group (ICG; also simply known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1995 that carries out field research on violent conflict and advances policies to prevent, mitigate or resolve conflict.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
International reaction to the 2007 Burmese anti-government protests ranges from support of the protestors through neutrality to support of the State Peace and Development Council, the ruling junta.
The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with ~1,300 staff.
On September 26, 2008, YIEC was renamed to ISM (International School of Myanmar).
The International School Yangon (ISY) is a private, co-educational day school, which offers an educational program from Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12 for students of all nationalities who desire a U.S. education.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The Irrawaddy River or Ayeyarwady River (also spelt Ayeyarwaddy) is a river that flows from north to south through Myanmar.
Isan (Isan/อีสาน,; also written as Isaan, Isarn, Issarn, Issan, Esan, or Esarn; from Pali ऐशान aiśāna or Sanskrit ऐशान aiśāna "northeast") consists of 20 provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand.
Islam is a religion in Myanmar, practiced by about 4% of the population, according to the 2008 Myanmar official statistics.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Isolationism is a category of foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that their nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japanese conquest of Burma was the opening chapter of the Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945.
The Japanese occupation of Burma was the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was occupied by the Empire of Japan.
Jingpho (Jinghpaw, Chingp'o) or Kachin (ကချင်ဘာသာ) is a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sal branch mainly spoken in Kachin State, Burma and Yunnan, China.
The Jingpo people are an ethnic group who are the largest subset of the Kachin peoples, which largely inhabit the Kachin Hills in northern Myanmar's Kachin State and neighbouring Yunnan Province of China and India's Arunachal Pradesh, which is claimed by China.
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
A jungle is land covered with dense vegetation dominated by trees.
"Kaba Ma Kyei" (ကမ္ဘာမကျေ; "Till the End of the World") is the Burmese national anthem.
The Kachin conflict or Kachin War is one of the multiple conflicts collectively referred to as the internal conflict in Myanmar.
The Kachin Independence Army (Kachin: ShangLawt Hpyen, ကချင် လွတ်မြောက်ရေး တပ်မတော်; abbreviated KIA) is the military wing of the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO), a political group of ethnic Kachins in northern Myanmar (formerly Burma).
The Kachin people (Jingpho: Ga Hkyeng red soil), Jingpho Wunpong (Jingpho: Jinghpaw Wunpawng the Confederation of Jingpo) or simply Wunpong (the Confederation), are a confederation of ethnic groups who inhabit the Kachin Hills in northern Burma's Kachin State and neighbouring Yunnan Province, China, and Arunachal Pradesh, India.
Kachin State (Kachin: Jingphaw Mungdaw; ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္) is the northernmost state of Myanmar.
Citrus hystrix, called the kaffir lime, makrut lime or Mauritius papeda, is a citrus fruit native to tropical Asia, including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
Kanchanaburi (กาญจนบุรี) is a town municipality (thesaban mueang) in the west of Thailand and part of Kanchanaburi Province.
The Karen, Kayin, Kariang or Yang people (ကညီကလုာ်, ကရင်လူမျိုး,; Per Ploan Poe or Ploan in Pwo Karen and Pwa Ka Nyaw or Kanyaw in Sgaw Karen; กะเหรี่ยง) refer to a number of individual Sino-Tibetan language speaking ethnic groups, many of which do not share a common language or culture.
The Karen or Karenic languages are tonal languages spoken by some seven million Karen people.
The Karenni, also known as the Red Karen, the Kayah or the Kayahli (meaning "red human"), are a Sino-Tibetan people living mostly in Kayah State, Myanmar (Burma).
The Karenni States, also known as Red Karen States, was the name formerly given to the states inhabited mainly by the Red Karen, in the area of present-day Kayah State, eastern Burma.
Kawthaung (เกาะสอง;,; Pulodua, ڤولودوا) is a town located in the southernmost part of Myanmar, in the Tanintharyi Region.
Kayah State (ကယားပြည်နယ်, formerly, Karenni State) is a state of Myanmar.
Kayin State (ကညီကီၢ်ဆဲၣ်,, ကရင်ပြည်နယ်,; formerly Karen) is a state of Myanmar.
Kengtung (Shan:;,; เชียงตุง,,; also spelled Kyaingtong, Chiang Tung, Cheingtung, and Kengtong) is a town in Shan State, Myanmar (formerly Burma).
Khin Maung Yin (1938–2014) was an influential Burmese artist and recognized as one of the leaders in the first generation of Burma's modern art movement together with Win Pe and Paw Oo Thet.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.
The Ava Kingdom (အင်းဝခေတ်) was the dominant kingdom that ruled upper Burma (Myanmar) from 1364 to 1555.
The Kingdom of Mrauk-U was an independent coastal kingdom of Arakan which existed for over 350 years.
The Kokang people (ကိုးကန့်လူမျိုး) are an ethnic group of Myanmar.
The Konbaung dynasty (ကုန်းဘောင်ခေတ်), formerly known as the Alompra dynasty, or Alaungpaya dynasty, was the last dynasty that ruled Burma/Myanmar from 1752 to 1885.
The Konbaung–Hanthawaddy War (ကုန်းဘောင်-ဟံသာဝတီ စစ်) was the war fought between the Konbaung Dynasty and the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom of Burma (Myanmar) from 1752 to 1757.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
The Kuki-Chin languages are a branch of 50 or so Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in northeastern India, western Burma and eastern Bangladesh.
Kyaukpyu (ကျောက်ဖြူမြို့; also spelt Kyaukphyu) is a major town in Rakhine State, in western Myanmar.
Lahpet, also spelled laphat, laphet, lephet, leppet, or letpet in English, is Burmese for fermented or pickled tea.
The Lahu people (Lahu: Ladhulsi / Kawzhawd; La Hủ) are an ethnic group of China and Mainland Southeast Asia.
The Lan Na or Lanna Kingdom (95px,, "Kingdom of a Million Rice Fields"; อาณาจักรล้านนา,,; ອານາຈັກລ້ານນາ, ဇင္းမယ္ျပည္, or), also known as Lannathai, was an Indianized state centered in present-day Northern Thailand from the 13th to 18th centuries.
The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (ຮົ່ມຂາວ;; "Million Elephants and White Parasols") existed as a unified kingdom from 1354 to 1707.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee (user) to pay the lessor (owner) for use of an asset.
The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
Lethwei (လက်ဝှေ့; IPA) or Burmese bareknuckle boxing is a full contact combat sport from Myanmar that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some cuisines.
Myanmar (also known as Burma) is an extremely ethnically diverse nation with 135 distinct ethnic groups officially recognised by the Burmese government.
The following is a list of ongoing armed conflicts that are taking place around the world and continue to result in violence.
This is a list of heads of government of Belarus from 1918 until present.
This is a list of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and botanical gardens in Myanmar (also known as Burma).
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
A long-range penetration patrol, group, or force is a special operations unit capable of operating long distances behind enemy lines far away from direct contact with friendly forces as opposed to a Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol, a small group primarily engaged in scouting missions.
India's Look East policy is an effort to cultivate extensive economic and strategic relations with the nations of Southeast Asia in order to bolster its standing as a regional power and a counterweight to the strategic influence of the People's Republic of China.
Love and Liquor (မေတ္တာနှင့်သူရာ; Myitta Hnint Thuyar) is a 1920 Burmese silent film directed by Ohn Maung, written by P Moe Nin and starring Nyi Pu.
Lower Burma (အောက်မြန်မာပြည်, also called Outer Myanmar) is a geographic region of Burma (Myanmar) and includes the low-lying Irrawaddy delta (Ayeyarwady, Bago and Yangon Regions), as well as coastal regions of the country (Rakhine and Mon States and Tanintharyi Region).
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Lun Gywe (လွန်းကြွယ်,; born 24 October 1930) is a Burmese painter who works in oil and watercolor.
Mae Sai (แม่สาย) is a village and tambon (subdistrict) of Mae Sai District, in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand.
Mae Sot (แม่สอด,; မဲဆောက်,; ႄႈသၢႆ) is a city in western Thailand that shares a border with Myanmar to the west.
Magnolia champaca, known in English as champak, is a large evergreen tree in the Magnoliaceae family.
Magway Region (မကွေးတိုင်းဒေသကြီး,, formerly Magway Division) is an administrative division in central Myanmar.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula and previously as Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia east of India and south of China that is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mandalay is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Myanmar (Burma).
Mandalay Region (မန္တလေးတိုင်းဒေသကြီး,, formerly Mandalay Division) is an administrative division of Myanmar.
Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Mawlamyine (also spelled Mawlamyaing; မတ်မလီု), formerly Moulmein, is the fourth largest city of Myanmar (Burma), World Gazetteer 300 km south east of Yangon and 70 km south of Thaton, at the mouth of Thanlwin (Salween) River.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; pronounced), also known in English as Doctors Without Borders, is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organisation (NGO) of French origin best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases.
The Meitei (also Meetei, Meithei, Manipuri) people are the majority ethnic group of Manipur, a northeastern state of India.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
Merrill’s Marauders (named after Frank Merrill) or Unit Galahad, officially named the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional), was a United States Army long range penetration special operations jungle warfare unit, which fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, or China-Burma-India Theater (CBI).
The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
A "migrant worker" is a person who either migrates within their home country or outside it to pursue work such as seasonal work.
Mikhail Vladimirovich Myasnikovich (Міхаі́л Уладзі́міравіч Мясніко́віч, tr. Mikhail Uladzimiravich Myasnikovich,; Михаи́л Влади́мирович Мяснико́вич; born 6 May 1950)http://government.gov.by/en/prime-minister/ is a Belarusian politician who was Prime Minister of Belarus from 2010 to 2014.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Mindon Min (မင်းတုန်းမင်း,; 8 July 1808 – 1 October 1878) was the penultimate king of Burma (Myanmar) from 1853 to 1878.
The Ministry of Education (ပညာရေးဝန်ကြီးဌာန,; abbreviated MOE) is the Myanmar government agency responsible for education in Myanmar.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic (MZVČR, MFACR) (Czech: Ministerstvo zahraničních věcí České republiky) is a Czech government ministry responsible for international relations of the Czech Republic.
The Ministry of Health (ကျန်းမာရေးဝန်ကြီးဌာန,; abbreviated MOH) is a national government-run ministry administering health affairs and health care in Myanmar, including all of the medical schools.
The Ministry of Hotels and Tourism (ဟိုတယ်နှင့် ခရီးသွားလာရေးဝန်ကြီးဌာန) is a ministry in the Burmese government responsible for the country's tourism sector.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Mizoram is a state in Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city.
Mogok Township is a township of Pyin Oo Lwin District in the Mandalay Region of Burma (Myanmar).
Mohinga is a rice noodle and fish soup from Myanmar and is an essential part of Burmese cuisine.
Mon kingdoms were political establishments by the Mon-speaking people that ruled large sections of present-day Burma (Myanmar) at various times in the last 1200 years.
The Mon language (ဘာသာ မန်; မွန်ဘာသာ) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar and Thailand.
The Mon (မောန် or မည်; မွန်လူမျိုး,; មន, มอญ) are an ethnic group from Myanmar living mostly in Mon State, Bago Region, the Irrawaddy Delta and along the southern border of Thailand and Myanmar.
Mon State (မွန်ပြည်နယ်,; တွဵုရးဍုၚ်မန်၊ ရးမညဒေသ) is an administrative division of Myanmar.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
Mong Mao, Möngmao or Mao kingdom (Mong is the etymological equivalent of Thai Mueang, meaning nation) was an ethnically Dai state that controlled several smaller Tai states or chieftainships along the frontier of what is now Myanmar and China in the Dehong region of Yunnan with a capital near the modern-day border town of Ruili.
Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Monywa District (မုံရွာခရိုင်) (formerly Lower Chindwin District) is an administrative district in southern Sagaing Division, Burma (Myanmar).
Mrauk U (formerly known as Mrohaung) is an archaeologically important town in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Muse (မူဆယ်,; မူႇၸေႊ; 木姐) is the capital town of Mu Se Township (also spelled as Muse Township) in northern Shan State, Myanmar.
Myanma Economic Bank (မြန်မာ့စီးပွားရေးဘဏ်; abbreviated MEB) is a commercial public bank in Myanmar (Burma).
The Myanmar Air Force (တပ်မတော် (လေ)), known until 1989 as the Burmese Air Force, is the aerial branch of Myanmar's armed forces, the Tatmadaw.
The Myanmar Army (တပ်မတော်(ကြည်း)) is the largest branch of the Armed Forces (''Tatmadaw'') of Myanmar (Burma) and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations.
The 2012 Myanmar by-elections were held on 1 April 2012.
A constitutional referendum was held in Myanmar on 10 May 2008 (24 May 2008 in some townships) according to an announcement by the State Peace and Development Council in February 2008.
General elections were held in Myanmar on 27 May 1990, the first multi-party elections since 1960, after which the country had been ruled by a military dictatorship.
A general election was held in Myanmar on 2010, in accordance with the new constitution which was approved in a referendum held in.
General elections were held in Myanmar on 8 November 2015, with the National League for Democracy winning a supermajority of seats in the combined national parliament.
Myanmar International School (MIS) is an independent coeducational day school, (Nursery school to Year 13) located in Yangon, Myanmar.
The Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (abbreviated MNDAA; မြန်မာအမျိုးသား ဒီမိုကရက်တစ် မဟာမိတ်တပ်မတော်; p), also known as the Myanmar Nationalities Democratic Alliance Army and the Kokang Army, is a communist-inspired armed insurgent group in the Kokang region, Myanmar (Burma).
The Myanmar National Human Rights Commission (မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ အမျိုးသားလူ့အခွင့်အရေး ကော်မရှင်, abbreviated MNHRC) is the independent national human rights commission of Myanmar, consisting of 11 retired bureaucrats and academics.
Myanmar nationality law currently recognises three categories of citizens, namely citizen, associate citizen and naturalised citizen, according to the 1982 Citizenship Law.
The Myanmar Navy (တပ်မတော် (ရေ)) is the naval branch of the armed forces of Myanmar with 19,000 men and women.
Myanmar Standard Time (MMT) (မြန်မာ စံတော်ချိန်,; formerly Burma Standard Time (BST)) is the standard time in Myanmar, 6:30 hours ahead of UTC (UTC+06:30).
Myawaddy (မြဝတီ; เมียวดี) is a town in southeastern Myanmar, in Kayin State, close to the border with Thailand.
Myeik (or; ဗိက်,; มะริด), formerly Mergui, is a city in Tanintharyi Region in Myanmar (Burma), located in the extreme south of the country on the coast of an island on the Andaman Sea.
Myint Swe (မြင့်ဆွေ;; born 24 June 1951) is a Burmese politician and First Vice President of the Republic of Union of Myanmar (Burma).
The myna (also known as mynah) is a bird of the starling family (Sturnidae).
Nagaland is a state in Northeast India.
Nanzhao, also spelled Nanchao or Nan Chao, was a polity that flourished in what is now southern China and Southeast Asia during the 8th and 9th centuries.
The nats (နတ်; MLCTS: nat) are spirits worshipped in Myanmar in conjunction with Buddhism.
The National League for Democracy (အမျိုးသား ဒီမိုကရေစီ အဖွဲ့ချုပ်,; abbreviated NLD) is a social-democratic and liberal democratic political party in Myanmar (Burma), currently serving as the governing party.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Naypyidaw, officially spelled Nay Pyi Taw (formerly known as Kyetpyay, Pyinmana or Kyatpyay, Pyinmana), is the capital city of Myanmar and seat of the government of Myanmar.
Ne Win (နေဝင်း; 10 July 1910, or 14 or 24 May 1911 – 5 December 2002), sometimes known honorifically as U Ne Win was a Burmese politician and military commander.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Ngapi (ငပိ or, literally "pressed fish"), formerly also spelled ngapee, nga-pee, and gnapee, is a generic term for pungent pastes made of either fish or shrimp in Burmese cuisine.
Ngwe Gaing (ငွေကိုင်; 1901–1967) was a Burmese artist who worked in both oil and watercolor.
Ngwesaung (ငွေဆောင်) is a beach resort located 48 km west of Pathein, Ayeyarwady Region, Myanmar.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Nok Air (นกแอร์, derived from nok (นก), the Thai word for bird) is a low-cost airline in Thailand operating mostly domestic services out of Bangkok's Don Mueang International Airport.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
An official script is a writing system that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other jurisdictions.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Operation Dragon King, known officially as Operation Nagamin (နဂါးမင်း စစ်ဆင်ရေး) and sometimes translated as the King Dragon operation, was a military operation carried out by the Tatmadaw and immigration officials in northern Arakan, Burma (present-day Rakhine State, Myanmar), during the socialist rule of Ne Win.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Afghanistan has been the world's leading illicit opium producer since 1992 (excluding the year 2001).
The location of Myanmar. An enlargeable map of Myanmar. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Myanmar: Myanmar, also known as Burma, is the most extensive country in mainland Southeast Asia.
Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property.
Padah-Lin Caves (ဗဒလင်းဂူ,; also Padalin or Badalin) are limestone caves located in Taunggyi District, Shan State, Burma (Myanmar).
The Kingdom of Pagan (ပုဂံခေတ်,, lit. "Pagan Period"; also commonly known as the Pagan Dynasty and the Pagan Empire) was the first kingdom to unify the regions that would later constitute modern-day Burma (Myanmar).
Pagoda festivals (ဘုရားပွဲ; paya pwe) are regular festivals found throughout Burma (Myanmar) that commemorate major events in pagoda's history, including the founding of a pagoda and the crowning of the pagoda's hti (umbrella).
Palaung, or in Chinese De'ang, is a Mon–Khmer dialect cluster spoken by over half a million people in Burma (Shan State) and neighboring countries.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Panglong Agreement (ပင်လုံစာချုပ်) was reached in Panglong, Southern Shan State, between the Burmese government under Aung San and the Shan, Kachin, and Chin peoples on 12 February 1947.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.
The Pegu Range (ပဲခူးရိုးမ, Pegu Yoma or Bago Yoma) is a range of low mountains or hillsSeekins, Donald M. (2006) Historical dictionary of Burma (Myanmar) Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland,, and uplands between the Irrawaddy and the Sittaung River in central Burma (Myanmar).
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Phu Nam Ron (พุน้ำร้อน) is a pass across the Tenasserim Hills on the border between Thailand and Myanmar, at an elevation of.
Pindaya (ပင်းတယမြို့) is a town in the Shan State of Burma.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
The Ploceidae are a family of small passerine birds, many of which are called weavers or weaverbirds.
Po Po (born 1957) is a Burmese installation and performance artist.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Myanmar (also known as Burma) is a unitary parliamentary republic under its constitution of 2008.
Pongyi thaing (ဘုန်းကြီးသိုင်း) is a Burmese martial art created by the monk Oopali in the 9th century.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
During the first years of post-independence Burma, insurgencies by the Red Flag Communists led by Thakin Soe, the White Flag Communists led by Thakin Than Tun, the Yèbaw Hpyu (White-band PVO) led by Bo La Yaung, a member of the Thirty Comrades, army rebels calling themselves the Revolutionary Burma Army (RBA) led by communist officers Bo Zeya, Bo Yan Aung and Bo Yè Htut – all three of them members of the Thirty Comrades, Arakanese, and the Karen National Union (KNU).
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar is the head of state and the head of government of Myanmar and leads the executive branch of the Burmese government, and heads the Cabinet of Myanmar.
The Prime Minister of Myanmar was the head of government of Myanmar (also known as Burma) from 1948 to 2011.
The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances.
Bats of the genus Pteropus (suborder Yinpterochiroptera) are among the largest bats in the world.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Putao (ပူတာအိုမြို့) is the northernmost town of Kachin State, Myanmar.
Pyin Oo Lwin or Pyin U Lwin (ပြင်ဦးလွင်,; MLCTS.
Pyinmana (population: 100,000 (2006 estimate)) is a logging town and sugarcane refinery center in the Naypyidaw Union Territory of Myanmar.
The Pyu city states (ပျူ မြို့ပြ နိုင်ငံများ) were a group of city-states that existed from c. 2nd century BCE to c. mid-11th century in present-day Upper Burma (Myanmar).
The Pyu language (ပျူ ဘာသာ,; also Tircul language) is an extinct Sino-Tibetan language that was mainly spoken in present-day central Burma (Myanmar) in the first millennium CE.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
Deshamanya Radhika Coomaraswamy (born 1953) was the Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations, Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict until 13 July 2012.
Radio Australia is the international broadcasting and online service operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), Australia's public broadcaster.
The Rakhine people (ရခိုင်လူမျိုး, Rakhine pronunciation;; formerly Arakanese) are an ethnic group in Myanmar (Burma) forming the majority along the coastal region of present-day Rakhine State (formerly officially called Arakan).
Rakhine State (Rakhine pronunciation;; formerly Arakan) is a state in Myanmar (Burma).
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
The red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) is a tropical member of the family Phasianidae.
Red Karen or Karenni, known in Burmese as Kayah, is a Karen dialect continuum spoken by over half a million Kayah people (Red Karen) in Burma.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Myanmar (Burma) is a multi-religious country.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom (ဟံသာဝတီ နေပြည်တော်) was the kingdom that ruled Lower Burma and parts of Upper Burma from 1740 to 1757.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo-Aryan-speaking people who reside in Rakhine State, Myanmar (also known as Burma).
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri), also known as the ring-necked parakeet, is a medium-sized parrot in the genus Psittacula of the family Psittacidae and has a very wide range.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
Ruili (เมืองมาว; ရွှေလီ) is a county-level city of Dehong Prefecture, in the west of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saffron Revolution is a term used to describe a series of economic and political protests and demonstrations that took place during August, September and October 2007 in Myanmar.
Sagaing Region (စစ်ကိုင်းတိုင်းဒေသကြီး,, formerly Sagaing Division) is an administrative region of Myanmar, located in the north-western part of the country between latitude 21° 30' north and longitude 94° 97' east.
The Salween, known in China as the Nu River, is a river about long that flows from the Tibetan Plateau into the Andaman Sea in Southeast Asia.
Samantha Jane Power (born September 21, 1970) is an Irish-born American academic, author, political critic, and diplomat who served as the United States Ambassador to the United Nations from 2013 to 2017.
Sao Shwe Thaik (စဝ်ရွှေသိုက်,; 16 October 1895 – 21 November 1962) was the first president of the Union of Burma and the last Saopha of Yawnghwe.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Senior General Saw Maung (စောမောင်,; 12 May 1928 – 24 July 1997) was the founder of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, later renamed State Peace and Development Council in Myanmar.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Second Anglo-Burmese War or the Second Burma War (ဒုတိယ အင်္ဂလိပ် မြန်မာ စစ်; 5 April 185220 January 1853) was the second of the three wars fought between the Burmese and British forces during the 19th century, with the outcome of the gradual extinction of Burmese sovereignty and independence.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse.
A sex worker is a person who is employed in the sex industry.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
The Shan Hills (ရှမ်းရိုးမ, ฉานโยมา; Shan Yoma), also known as Shan Highland, is a vast mountainous zone that extends through Yunnan to Myanmar and Thailand.
The Shan language (Shan written: လိၵ်ႈတႆး), Shan spoken: ၵႂၢမ်းတႆး), or ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး,; ရှမ်းဘာသာ,; ภาษาไทใหญ่) is the native language of the Shan people and is mostly spoken in Shan State, Burma. It is also spoken in pockets of Kachin State in Burma, in northern Thailand, and decreasingly in Assam. Shan is a member of the Tai–Kadai language family, and is related to Thai. It has five tones, which do not correspond exactly to Thai tones, plus a "sixth tone" used for emphasis. It is called Tai Yai, or Tai Long in the Tai languages. The number of Shan speakers is not known in part because the Shan population is unknown. Estimates of Shan people range from four million to 30 million, though the true number is somewhere around six million, with about half speaking the Shan language. In 2001 Patrick Johnstone and Jason Mandryk estimated 3.2 million Shan speakers in Myanmar; the Mahidol University Institute for Language and Culture gave the number of Shan speakers in Thailand as 95,000 in 2006.http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code.
The Shan (တႆး;, ရှမ်းလူမျိုး;; ไทใหญ่ or ฉาน) are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia.
Shan State (Burmese: ရှမ်းပြည်နယ်,; Shan: မိူင်းတႆး) is a state of Myanmar.
Shan States and British Shan States (1885 - 1948) is an historic name for Minor Kingdoms (analogous to Princely state of British India) ruled by Saopha (similar to Thai royal title Chao Fa Prince or Princess) in large areas of today's Burma (Myanmar), China's Yunnan Province, Laos and Northern Thailand from the late 13th century until the mid-20th century.
Shinbyu (also spelt shinpyu) is the Burmese term for a novitiation ceremony (pabbajja) in the tradition of Theravada Buddhism, referring to the celebrations marking the sāmaṇera (novitiate) monastic ordination of a boy under the age of 20.
The Shwedagon Pagoda (MLCTS), officially named Shwedagon Zedi Daw (ရွှေတိဂုံစေတီတော်) and also known as the Great Dagon Pagoda and the Golden Pagoda, is a gilded stupa located in Yangon, Myanmar.
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound (and in particular, no spoken dialogue).
The Sino-Burmese War (တရုတ်-မြန်မာ စစ် (၁၇၆၅–၆၉)), also known as the Qing invasions of Burma or the Myanmar campaign of the Qing dynasty, was a war fought between the Qing dynasty of China and the Konbaung dynasty of Burma (Myanmar).
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
The Sittaung (စစ်တောင်းမြစ်; formerly, the Sittang or Sittoung) is a river in south central Myanmar in Bago Division.
Sittwe (formerly Akyab) is the capital of Rakhine State, Myanmar (Burma).
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The State Counsellor of Myanmar (နိုင်ငံတော်၏ အတိုင်ပင်ခံပုဂ္ဂိုလ်) is the de facto head of government of Myanmar, equivalent to a prime minister.
The State of Burma (ဗမာ) was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, created in 1943 during the Japanese occupation of Burma in World War II.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
The State Peace and Development Council (နိုင်ငံတော် အေးချမ်းသာယာရေး နှင့် ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေး ကောင်စီ; abbreviated to SPDC or) was the official name of the military government of Burma, which seized power under the rule of Saw Maung in 1988.
In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tabinshwehti (တပင်ရွှေထီး,; 16 April 1516 – 30 April 1550) was king of Toungoo Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1530 to 1550, and the founder of Toungoo Empire.
Tachileik (တာချီလိတ်မြို့; also spelt Tachilek; ท่าขี้เหล็ก), is a border town in the Shan State of eastern Myanmar.
The Tai–Kadai-speaking peoples refer collectively to the ethnic groups of southern China and Southeast Asia, stretching from Hainan to Northeast India and from southern Sichuan to Laos, Thailand and parts of Vietnam, which speak languages in the Tai–Kadai language family and share some similar traditions.
Tanintharyi Region (တနင်္သာရီတိုင်းဒေသကြီး,; Mon: or; Tanah Sari; formerly Tenasserim Division and subsequently Tanintharyi Division) is an administrative region of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus.
The Tatmadaw is the official name of the armed forces of Myanmar (Burma).
The Toungoo–Hanthawaddy War (1534–1541) (တောင်ငူ–ဟံသာဝတီ စစ် (၁၅၃၄–၁၅၄၁)) was a military conflict between Toungoo Kingdom, and the Hanthawaddy Kingdom and its allies the Prome Kingdom and the Confederation of Shan States that took place in present-day Lower Burma (Myanmar) between 1534 and 1541.
Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae.
Telephone numbers in Myanmar are 8 to 11 digits long including the trunk prefix 0.
Tenasserim Hills or Tenasserim Range (တနင်္သာရီ တောင်တန်း,; ทิวเขาตะนาวศรี,,; Banjaran Tanah Seri/Banjaran Tenang Sari) is the geographical name of a roughly 1,700 km long mountain chain, part of the Indo-Malayan mountain system in Southeast Asia.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Myoma Than Kywe (မြို့မ သန်းကြွယ်,; 26 December 1924 – 22 September 1983) was a Burmese politician.
Thandwe ("Thandway" in Arakanese)(formerly Sandoway) is a town and major seaport in Rakhine State, the westernmost part of Myanmar.
Thanlyin (သန်လျင်မြို့, or; သေၚ်,; formerly, Syriam) is a major port city of Myanmar, located across Bago River from the city of Yangon.
The Diplomat is an online international news magazine covering politics, society, and culture in the Asia-Pacific region.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Irrawaddy is a website by the Irrawaddy Publishing Group (IPG), founded in 1990 by Burmese exiles living in Thailand.
The Lady is a 2011 French-British biographical film directed by Luc Besson, starring Michelle Yeoh as Aung San Suu Kyi and David Thewlis as her late husband Michael Aris.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Thein Sein (သိန်းစိန်; IPA:; born 20 April 1944) is a Burmese politician and retired general in the Myanmar Army who served as the 8th President of Myanmar from 2011 to 2016.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
The Third Anglo-Burmese War, also known as the Third Burma War, was a conflict that took place during 7–29 November 1885, with sporadic resistance and insurgency continuing into 1887.
Thomson Reuters Foundation is the London-based charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, a Canadian global information and news network.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
Tiger Airways Singapore Pte Ltd, operating as Tigerair, was a budget airline headquartered in Singapore.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The Toungoo dynasty (တောင်ငူမင်းဆက်,; also spelt Taungoo dynasty) was the ruling dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from the mid-16th century to 1752.
A trade preference is preference by one country for buying goods from some other country more than from other countries.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
The split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in mainstream and southeastern accents of English in England (including Received Pronunciation), in New Zealand English and South African English, and also to a lesser extent in Australian English as well as older Northeastern New England English (notably, older Boston accents), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened in certain environments and ultimately merged with the long of father.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
Nu (နု;; 25 May 1907 – 14 February 1995), known honorifically as U Nu (ဦးနု) or Thakin Nu, was a leading Burmese statesman, politician, nationalist, and political figure of the 20th century.
Thant (22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974), known honorifically as U Thant, was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1961 to 1971, the first non-European to hold the position.
The U Thant funeral crisis or U Thant crisis (Burmese: ဦးသန့် အရေးအခင်း) was a series of protests and riots in the then-Burmese capital of Yangon triggered by the death of U Thant, the third Secretary-General of the United Nations on 25 November 1974.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The Union Revolutionary Council (ပြည်ထောင်စု တော်လှန်ရေး ကောင်စီ အဖွဲ့, abbreviated URC; also known as the Revolutionary Council of Burma, abbreviated RC) was the supreme governing body of Burma (now Myanmar) from 2 March 1962, following the overthrow of U Nu's civilian government, to 3 March 1974, with the promulgation of the 1974 Constitution of Burma and transfer of power to the People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw), the country's new unicameral legislature.
The Union Solidarity and Development Party (ပြည်ထောင်စုကြံ့ခိုင်ရေးနှင့်ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေးပါတီ; abbreviated USDP), which was registered on 2 June 2010 by the Union Election Commission, currently standing as an opposition political party, is the successor to the Burmese government's mass organisation, the Union Solidarity and Development Association.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom.
University of Yangon (also the Yangon University; ရန်ကုန် တက္ကသိုလ်,; formerly Rangoon College, Rangoon University and Rangoon Arts and Sciences University), located in Kamayut, Yangon, is the oldest university in Myanmar's modern education system and the best known university in Myanmar.
Upper Burma (အထက်မြန်မာပြည်, also called Real Myanmar) refers to a geographic region of Burma (Myanmar), traditionally encompassing Mandalay and its periphery (modern Mandalay, Sagaing, Magway Regions), or more broadly speaking, Kachin and Shan States.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
The Vice-President of Myanmar (also known as Burma) is the second highest-ranking post in the government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar.
Video journalism or videojournalism is a form of journalism, where the journalist shoots, edits and often presents his or her own video material.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
The Wa people (Wa language: Vāx; ဝလူမျိုး;; ว้า) are an ethnic group that lives mainly in northern Myanmar, in the northern part of Shan State and the eastern part of Kachin State, near and along Burma's border with China, as well as in Yunnan, China.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes.
Weekly Eleven is a weekly newspaper published in Burma.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee), also called Asian buffalo, Asiatic buffalo and wild Asian buffalo, is a large bovine native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) was founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society (NYZS) and currently works to conserve more than two million square miles of wild places around the world.
Win Myint (ဝင်းမြင့်; born 8 November 1951) is a Burmese politician and former political prisoner who is serving as the 10th President of Myanmar since 30 March 2018.
The Women's League of Burma is a community-based organisation working on the rights of women from Burma, with a focus on systematic sexual violence in ethnic areas, and women's involvement in political processes, especially in the peace process.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wunna Maung Lwin (ဝဏ္ဏမောင်လွင်; born 30 May 1952) was the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Myanmar from March 2011 to March 2016.
Ya ba (also yaba, yaa baa, ya baa or yah bah; ยาบ้า, literally "mad drug", formerly known as ya ma (ยาม้า; literally "horse drug"), are tablets containing a mixture of methamphetamine and caffeine.
Yama Zatdaw (ရာမဇာတ်တော်), unofficially Myanmar's national epic, is the Burmese version of the Ramayana.
Yangon (ရန်ကုန်မြို့, MLCTS rankun mrui,; formerly known as Rangoon, literally: "End of Strife") was the capital of the Yangon Region of Myanmar, also known as Burma.
Yangon International School (YIS) is a private college-preparatory school, located in Yangon, Myanmar.YIS offers an American, standards based curriculum from grades Pre-School to Grade 12.
Yangon Region (formerly Rangoon Division and Yangon Division) is an administrative region of Myanmar.
The Yangon Stock Exchange (ရန်ကုန်စတော့အိတ်ချိန်း; abbreviated YSX) The stock exchange is slated to open in October 2015, at the former Central Bank of Myanmar and Myawaddy Bank headquarters in Yangon.
MPP Yei Myint (ရဲမြင့်,; also spelled Ye Myint; born 1953) is a Burmese artist.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Maung Thura "Zarganar" (also called Zaganar (ဇာဂနာ; also Zargana); born 27 January 1961) is a popular Burmese comedian, film actor, and a film director as well as a fierce critic and often political prisoner of the Burmese military government.
Zaw Zaw Aung (ဇော်ဇော်အောင်; born 1971) is a Burmese artist.
.mm is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Myanmar (officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar).
The meridian 102° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 1961 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games officially known as the 2nd Southeast Asian Peninsular Games was a Southeast Asian multi-sport event held in Rangoon, Burma from 11 to 16 December 1961 with 13 sports featured in the games.
The 1962 Burmese coup d'état on 2 March 1962 marked the beginning of totalitarian rule and the political dominance of the army in Burma (now Myanmar) which spanned the course of 26 years.
The 1962 Rangoon University protests were a series of marches, demonstrations, and protests against stricter campus regulations, the end of the system of university self-administration, and the policy of the new military regime of General Ne Win.
The 1969 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games officially known as the 5th Southeast Asian Peninsular Games, was a Southeast Asian multi-sport event held in Rangoon, Burma from 6 to 13 December 1969 with 15 sports featured in the games.
The Kokang incident was a violent series of skirmishes that broke out in August 2009 in Kokang in Myanmar's northern Shan State.
The 36th annual Toronto International Film Festival, (TIFF) was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between September 8 and September 18, 2011.
The 2011–2015 Myanmar political reforms were a series of political, economic and administrative reforms in Myanmar undertaken by the military-backed government.
The 2012 Rakhine State riots were a series of conflicts primarily between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar, though by October Muslims of all ethnicities had begun to be targeted.
The 2013 Southeast Asian Games (၂၀၁၃ ခုနှစ် အရှေ့တောင် အာရှ အားကစား ပြိုင်ပွဲ), officially known as the 27th Southeast Asian Games, was a Southeast Asian multi-sport event took place in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar.
Myanmar Census 2014 (၂ဝ၁၄ခုနှစ် လူဦးရေနှင့် အိမ်အကြောင်းအရာ သန်းခေါင်စာရင်း) was a nationwide census that took place between 30 March and 10 April 2014 in Myanmar (Burma).
The 2015 Kokang offensive was military operations launched by the Myanmar Army in 2015 in Kokang in northern Shan State, Myanmar (Burma).
The 29th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 29 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 82nd Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2009 and took place on March 7, 2010, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST.
The 8888 Nationwide Popular Pro-Democracy Protests (MLCTS: hrac le: lum), also known as the 8-8-88 Uprisings, or the People Power Uprising,Yawnghwe (1995), pp.
The meridian 92° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 9th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 9 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
Birma, Birman Empire, Birmania, Birmanie, Borders of Burma, Burma, Burma (Myanmar), Burma-Myanmar, Burma/Myanmar, Burmese Republic, Eastern Burma, Economic sanctions against Burma, Economic sanctions against Myanmar, Environmental issues in Myanmar, Etymology of Burma, ISO 3166-1:MM, Mayanmar, Mianmar, Myammar, Myanma, Myanmar (Burma), Myanmar (formerly Burma), Myanmar/(Burma), Myanmar/Burma, Myanmer, Myanmese, Natural resources of Myanmar, Pyi-daung-zu Myan-ma Naing-ngan-daw, Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw, Republic of The Union of Myanmar, Republic of the Union of Myanmar, Sanctions against Burma, Union of Myanmar, Union of burma, ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ, ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော, ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်, မြန်မာပြည်.