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The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.
An absurdity is a thing that is extremely unreasonable, so as to be foolish or not taken seriously, or the state of being so.
Athletic Club Sparta Praha, commonly known as Sparta Prague, is a Czech football club based in Prague.
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
The Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (Akademie múzických umění v Praze, AMU) is a university in the centre of Prague, Czech Republic, specialising in the study of music, dance, drama, film, television and multi-media.
Adalbert of Prague (Adalbertus / Wojciech Sławnikowic); 95623 April 997), known in Czech by his birth name Vojtěch (Voitecus), was a Bohemian missionary and Christian saint. He was the Bishop of Prague and a missionary to the Hungarians, Poles, and Prussians, who was martyred in his efforts to convert the Baltic Prussians to Christianity. He is said to be the composer of the oldest Czech hymn Hospodine, pomiluj ny and Bogurodzica, the oldest known Polish hymn, but the authorship has not confirmed. St. Adalbert (or St.
Adam Václav Michna z Otradovic – literally Adam Václav Michna of Otradovice – (1600 – 2 November 1676, Jindřichův Hradec) was a Czech Catholic poet, composer, hymn writer, organist and choir leader of the early Baroque era.
Adelheid is the modern German form of the Old High German female given name Adalheidis, meaning "nobility" and may refer to the following people.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austrian and Czech architect and influential European theorist of modern architecture.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Aero L-159 ALCA is a light subsonic attack jet and advanced trainer developed in the single-seat L-159A and two-seat L-159B versions respectively, produced in the Czech Republic by Aero Vodochody.
Aero Vodochody (commonly referred to as Aero; Vodochody is a location) is a Czech (previous Czechoslovak) aircraft company, active from 1919, notable for producing the L-29 Delfin, L-39 Albatros, L-59 Super Albatros, and the L-159 Alca military light combat jet.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agrofert is a Czech conglomerate holding company headquartered in Prague, Czech Republic.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna; 24 September 158325 February 1634),Schiller, Friedrich.
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.
Alfréd Radok (December 17, 1914 in Koloděje nad Lužnicí, Bohemia – April 22, 1976 in Vienna) was a distinguished Czech stage director.
Alice Herz-Sommer, also known as Alice Sommer (26 November 1903 – 23 February 2014), was a Prague-born Jewish pianist, music teacher, and supercentenarian who survived Theresienstadt concentration camp.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
Alois Hába (21 June 1893 – 18 November 1973) was a Czech composer, music theorist and teacher.
Alois Jirásek (August 23, 1851, Hronov, Kingdom of Bohemia – March 12, 1930, Prague) was a Czech writer, author of historical novels and plays.
Alois Musil (30 June 1868, Rychtářov, now part of Vyškov, Moravia, Austria-Hungary – 12 April 1944, Otryby, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia) was a Czech theologist, orientalist, explorer and writer.
Johann Alois Senefelder (6 November 177126 February 1834) was a German actor and playwright who invented the printing technique of lithography in the 1790s.
Alfons Maria Mucha (24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative artist, known best for his distinct style.
Amanita Design is a Czech independent video game developing company founded in 2003 by Jakub Dvorský and headquartered in Brno, Czech Republic.
American Truck Simulator (ATS) is a 2016 business and vehicle simulation game developed by the Czech company SCS Software and is the parallel video game sequel to Euro Truck Simulator 2.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Andrej Babiš (born 2 September 1954) is a Czech politician who has been the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic since December 2017, and previously served as Minister of Finance and Deputy Prime Minister for the Economy from January 2013 to May 2017.
ANO 2011 is a centrist populist political party in the Czech Republic founded by Andrej Babiš, the second-wealthiest person in the Czech Republic, owner of the Agrofert conglomerate, and Mafra media group.
Anti-Austrian sentiment (also known as Austrophobia) refers to hostile sentiment toward the nation of Austria and/or its people.
Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and its adherents.
Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.
Anton Raphael Mengs (March 22, 1728 – June 29, 1779) was a German Bohemian painter, active in Rome, Madrid and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting.
Anton (Antonín, Antoine) Reicha (Rejcha) (26 February 1770 – 28 May 1836) was a Czech-born, later naturalized French composer.
Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.
Antonín Holý (1 September 1936 – 16 July 2012) was a pioneering Czech scientist.
Antonín Panenka (born 2 December 1948 in Prague) is a Czech former footballer who played as an attacking midfielder.
Antonín Puč (16 May 1907 in Jinonice – 18 April 1988 in Prague) was a Czech footballer who played as a forward; he is the all-time leading scorer for the Czechoslovak national team.
Apple strudel (Apfelstrudel; štrúdl) is a traditional Viennese strudel, a popular pastry in Austria and in many countries in Europe that once belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918).
An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).
The Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy.
ARMA (stylized as AA) is a series of first person tactical military shooters, originally released for Microsoft Windows.
The Army of the Czech Republic (Armáda České republiky, AČR), also known as the Czech Army or Czech Armed Forces, is the military service responsible for the defence of the Czech Republic in compliance with international obligations and treaties on collective defence.
Arnošt Lustig (21 December 1926 – 26 February 2011) was a renowned Czech Jewish author of novels, short stories, plays, and screenplays whose works have often involved the Holocaust.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide.
The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 and manufactured until 1992.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Austrian literature is the literature written in Austria, which is mostly, but not exclusively, written in the German language.
Austrian Silesia (Österreichisch-Schlesien (historically also Oesterreichisch-Schlesien, Oesterreichisch Schlesien, österreichisch Schlesien); Rakouské Slezsko; Śląsk Austriacki), officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia (Herzogtum Ober- und Niederschlesien (historically Herzogthum Ober- und Niederschlesien); Vévodství Horní a Dolní Slezsko), was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Austrian Empire, from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
Austro-Slavism was a political concept and program aimed to solve problems of Slavic peoples in the Austrian Empire.
Avast is a Czech multinational cybersecurity software company headquartered in Prague, Czech Republic.
AVG Technologies is a Czech security software company headquartered in Brno, Czech Republic, that was founded in 1991 by Jan Gritzbach and Tomáš Hofer and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Avast since 2016.
Avia is a Czech automotive manufacturer.
Ústí nad Labem, formerly known by its German name Aussig, is the 7th-most populous city of the Czech Republic.
ČD Class 680 are electric multiple units used in the Czech Republic, using tilting Pendolino technology.
Česká televize (abbreviation: ČT, Czech Television) is the public television broadcaster in the Czech Republic, broadcasting six channels.
České Budějovice (Budweis or Böhmisch Budweis, Budovicium) is a statutory city in the Czech Republic.
České dráhy, often shortened to ČD (English: Czech Railways), is the main railway operator in the Czech Republic providing regional and long-distance services.
Český Krumlov (Krumau or Böhmisch Krumau), is a town in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.
Český Těšín (Czeski Cieszyn, Tschechisch-Teschen) is a town in the Karviná District, Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic.
Čestlice is a village and municipality in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic, near the city of Prague and the larger village of Průhonice.
ČEZ Group ('Skupina ČEZ' České Energetické Závody) is a conglomerate of 96 companies (including the parent company ČEZ, a.s.), 72 of them in the Czech Republic.
ČT24 (Czech pronunciation: ˌtʃeteˈdvatsɛtxtɪrɪ) is the first and only 24-hour news channel in Czech language, owned and operated by Czech Television.
Říp Mountain (hora Říp,; Georgsberg or Raudnitzer Berg), also known as Říp Hill, is a 459 m solitary hill rising up from the central Bohemian flatland where, according to legend, the first Czechs settled.
Škoda Auto, more commonly known as Škoda, is a Czech automobile manufacturer founded in 1895 as Laurin & Klement.
Škoda Transportation a.s. is a Czech engineering company that continues the legacy of Škoda Works' rolling stock manufacturing that started at the end of 19th century in Pilsen.
Špilberk Castle (German: Spielberg) is a castle on the hilltop in Brno, Southern Moravia.
Štěpánka Hilgertová (née Prošková, born 10 April 1968 in Prague) is a former Czechoslovak-Czech slalom canoeist who competed at the international level from 1988 to 2017.
The Šumava National Park (Národní park Šumava, usually shortened as NP Šumava) or Bohemian Forest National Park is a national park in the South Bohemian regions of the Czech Republic along the border with Germany (where the smaller adjacent Bavarian Forest National Park lies) and Austria.
Želary is a 2003 Czech/Slovak film directed by Ondřej Trojan, starring Anna Geislerová.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Barbora Špotáková (born 30 June 1981) is a Czech track and field athlete who competes in the javelin throw.
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
Barrandov Studios is a famous set of film studios in Prague, Czech Republic.
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Königgrätz (Schlacht bei Königgrätz), also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.
The Battle of Kolín on 18 June 1757 saw 44,000 Austrians under Count von Daun defeat 32,000 Prussians under Frederick the Great during the Third Silesian War (Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Kulm was a battle near the town Kulm (Chlumec) and the village Přestanov in northern Bohemia.
The Battle of Legnica (bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battle between the Mongol Empire and the combined defending forces of European fighters that took place at Legnickie Pole (Wahlstatt) near the city of Legnica in the Silesia province of the Kingdom of Poland on 9 April 1241.
The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.
In the Battle of Prague or Battle of Štěrboholy, fought on 6 May 1757 during the Third Silesian War (Seven Years' War), Frederick the Great's 67,000 Prussians forced 60,000 Austrians to retreat, but having lost 14,300 men, decided he was not strong enough to attack Prague.
The Battle of White Mountain (Czech: Bitva na Bílé hoře, German: Schlacht am Weißen Berg) was an important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War.
The Battle on the Marchfeld (i.e. Morava Field; Bitva na Moravském poli; Morvamezei csata) at Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen took place on 26 August 1278 and was a decisive event for the history of Central Europe for the following centuries.
Bílý Potok (Weißbach) is a village in the Liberec Region of the Czech Republic.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Becherovka, formerly Karlsbader Becherbitter, is a herbal bitters, often drunk as a digestive aid, that is produced in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic by the Jan Becher company.
Bedřich Bridel, or Fridrich Bridelius (Friedrich Briedel, Bridelius; 1619, Vysoké Mýto – October 15, 1680, Kutná Hora) was a Czech baroque writer, poet, and missionary.
Bedřich (Friedrich) Hrozný (May 6, 1879 – December 12, 1952) was a Czech orientalist and linguist.
Bedřich Smetana (2 March 1824 – 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer who pioneered the development of a musical style that became closely identified with his country's aspirations to independent statehood.
A beer festival is an event at which a variety of beers are available for purchase.
Beer (pivo) has a long history in what is now the Czech Republic, with brewing taking place in Břevnov Monastery in 993.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The Decrees of the President of the Republic (Dekrety presidenta republiky, Dekréty prezidenta republiky) and the Constitutional Decrees of the President of the Republic (Ústavní dekrety presidenta republiky, Ústavné dekréty prezidenta republiky), commonly known as the Beneš decrees, were a series of laws drafted by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile in the absence of the Czechoslovak parliament during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II.
Benedikt Rejt (often spelled Benedikt Ried), also known as Benedikt Rieth, Benedikt Reyd, or Benedict Reijt.
Bernard Bolzano (born Bernardus Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano; 5 October 1781 – 18 December 1848) was a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest of Italian extraction, also known for his antimilitarist views.
The Berounka is a river in the Czech Republic, the biggest left tributary of Vltava.
Bertha Felicitas Sophie Freifrau von Suttner (Baroness Bertha von Suttner, née Countess Kinsky, Gräfin Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau; 9 June 184321 June 1914) was an Austrian-Bohemian pacifist and novelist.
The Bethlehem Chapel (Betlémská kaple) is a medieval religious building in the Old Town of Prague, Czech Republic, notable for its connection with the origins of the Bohemian Reformation, especially with the Czech reformer Jan Hus.
The Bible of Kralice, also called the Kralice Bible (Bible kralická), was the first complete translation of the Bible from the original languages into the Czech language.
The Czech literature of the Middle Ages is very rich in translations of Biblical books, made from the Vulgate.
Black comedy, also known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter that is generally considered taboo, particularly subjects that are normally considered serious or painful to discuss.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blackhole is a Czech indie platform video game by FiolaSoft Studio.
Blesk is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Prague, the Czech Republic.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
This is a complete list of variants and designations of the BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicle (IFV).
The BMP-2 (Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty,, literally "infantry combat vehicle") is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following on from the BMP-1 of the 1960s.
Božena Němcová (4 February 1820 in Vienna – 21 January 1862 in Prague) was a Czech writer of the final phase of the Czech National Revival movement.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bohemia Interactive is a video game development studio and publisher, based in Prague, Czech Republic.
The Bohemian Forest, known in Czech as Šumava and in German as Böhmerwald, is a low mountain range in Central Europe.
Bohemian glass, chiefly referred to as Bohemia crystal, is glass produced in the regions of Bohemia and Silesia, now parts of the Czech Republic.
Bohemian Paradise (Český ráj) is a Protected Landscape Area and a region in the Czech Republic.
The Bohemian Reformation (also known as the Czech Reformation or Hussite Reformation), preceding the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, was a Christian movement in the late medieval and early modern Kingdom and Crown of Bohemia (present-day Czech Republic) striving for a reform of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Bohemian Revolt (1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War.
Bohemian Switzerland (České Švýcarsko; Böhmische Schweiz), also known as Czech Switzerland, is a picturesque region in the north-western Czech Republic.
Bohumil Hrabal (28 March 1914 – 3 February 1997) was a Czech writer, often cited as one of the best Czech writers of the 20th century.
Bohumil Kubišta (1884, Vlčkovice, Bohemia – 1918)Chilvers, Ian, and John Glaves-Smith.
Bohuslav Balbín (3 December 1621 Hradec Králové – 29 November 1688 Prague) was a Czech writer, historian, geographer and Jesuit, called the "Czech Pliny".
Bohuslav Hasištejnský z Lobkovic (1461 – 11 November 1510) was a Czech nobleman, writer and humanist of old Bohemian family (later the princes) of Lobkovic.
Bohuslav Jan Martinů (December 8, 1890 – August 28, 1959) was a Czech composer of modern classical music.
Bohuslav Sobotka (born 23 October 1971) is a Czech politician who served as the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from January 2014 to December 2017 and Leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) from 2010 until his resignation in June 2017.
The Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Βόιοι) were a Gallic tribe of the later Iron Age, attested at various times in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), Pannonia (Hungary and its western neighbours), parts of Bavaria, in and around Bohemia (after whom the region is named in most languages; comprising the bulk of the Czech Republic), and Gallia Narbonensis.
Boleslaus I the Cruel, also called Boleslav I (Boleslav I. Ukrutný) (– 15 July, 967 or 972), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was ruler (kníže, "duke" or "prince") of the Duchy of Bohemia from 935 to his death.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.
Buchteln (pl., sing. Buchtel; also Ofennudel(n), Rohrnudel(n)), are sweet rolls made of yeast dough, filled with jam, ground poppy seeds or curd and baked in a large pan so that they stick together.
Budweiser Budvar ("Budvar from Budweis") is a brewery in the Czech city of České Budějovice (Budweis), best known for its original Budweiser or Budweiser Budvar pale lager brewed using artesian water, Moravian barley and Saaz hops.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
Bus Driver is a game developed by SCS Software.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
Karel Bořivoj Presl (17 February 1794 – 2 October 1852) was a Czech botanist.
Carl Ferdinand Cori, ForMemRS (December 5, 1896 – October 20, 1984) was a Czech-American biochemist and pharmacologist born in Prague (then in Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic) who, together with his wife Gerty Cori and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, received a Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of how glycogen (animal starch) – a derivative of glucose – is broken down and resynthesized in the body, for use as a store and source of energy.
Baron Carl von Rokitansky (Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Karel Rokytanský) (19 February 1804 – 23 July 1878), was a Bohemian Physician, Pathologist, humanist philosopher and liberal politician.
Carniola (Slovene, Kranjska; Krain; Carniola; Krajna) was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia.
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.
Carpatho-Ukraine (Карпа́тська Украї́на, Karpats’ka Ukrayina) was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939.
The cathedral of St.
The Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul is located on the Petrov hill in the centre of the city of Brno in the Czech Republic.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
CDMA2000 (also known as C2K or IMT Multi‑Carrier (IMT‑MC)) is a family of 3G mobile technology standards for sending voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
The Chamber of Deputies (Poslanecká sněmovna) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of the Czech Republic.
Charles Bridge (Karlův most) is a historic bridge that crosses the Vltava river in Prague, Czech Republic.
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was the last reigning monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles Square (Karlovo náměstí) is a city square in the New Town of Prague, Czech Republic.
Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).
Charter 77 (Charta 77 in Czech and in Slovak) was an informal civic initiative in communist Czechoslovakia from 1976 to 1992, named after the document Charter 77 from January 1977.
The Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms (Listina základních práv a svobod, Listina základných práv a slobôd) is a document enacted in 1991 by the Czechoslovak Federative Republic, and continued as part of the constitutional systems of both the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christian Andreas Doppler (29 November 1803 – 17 March 1853) was an Austrian mathematician and physicist.
Christian Mayer (August 20, 1719 – April 16, 1783) was a Czech-German Catholic priest, astronomer and teacher.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
Christoph Dientzenhofer (Kryštof Dientzenhofer) (born 7 July 1655 in St. Margarethen near Brannenburg, Landkreis Rosenheim - 20 June 1722 in Prague), retrieved 23 September 2012 (in German) was a prominent Bavarian architect of South-German, Austrian and Bohemian Baroque.
The Chronicle of Dalimil (Dalimilova kronika; Kronika tak řečeného Dalimila) is the first chronicle written in the Old Czech language.
The Church of Mother of God before Týn (in Czech Kostel Matky Boží před Týnem, also Týnský chrám (Týn Church) or just Týn), often translated as Church of Our Lady before Týn, is a gothic church and a dominant feature of the Old Town of Prague, Czech Republic.
The Church of the Most Sacred Heart of Our Lord (Kostel Nejsvětějšího Srdce Páně) is a Roman Catholic church at Jiřího z Poděbrad Square in Prague's Vinohrady district.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Předlitavsko, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.
The Civic Democratic Party (Občanská demokratická strana, ODS) is a liberal-conservative political party in the Czech Republic.
The Civic Forum (Czech: Občanské fórum, OF) was a political movement in the Czech part of Czechoslovakia, established during the Velvet Revolution in 1989.
A civil code is a systematic collection of laws designed to deal with the core areas of private law such as for dealing with business and negligence lawsuits and practices.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
The Clementinum (Klementinum in Czech) is a historic complex of buildings in Prague.
Closely Watched Trains (Ostře sledované vlaky) is a 1966 Czechoslovak film directed by Jiří Menzel and is one of the best-known products of the Czechoslovak New Wave.
The coat of arms of the Czech Republic displays the three historical regions—the Czech lands—which make up the nation.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
The Codex Gigas (Giant Book) is the largest extant medieval illuminated manuscript in the world, at long.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink, made from ingredients that contain caffeine from the kola nut and non-cocaine derivatives from coca leaves, flavored with vanilla and other ingredients.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak: Komunistická strana Československa, KSČ) was a Communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
The Constitution of the Czech Republic (Ústava České republiky) is the supreme law of the Czech Republic.
The Constitutional Act on the Czechoslovak Federation (Ústavní zákon o československé federaci, Ústavný zákon o česko-slovenskej federácii) was a constitutional law in Czechoslovakia adopted on 27 October 1968 and in force from 1969 to 1992, by which the unitary Czechoslovak state was turned into a federation.
The Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic (Ústavní soud České republiky) is a specialized type of court which primarily works to protect the people in the Czech Republic against violations of the Constitution by either the legislature, government or by any other subject that violates people's constitutional rights and freedoms.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.
A contact lens, or simply contact, is a thin lens placed directly on the surface of the eye.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Cosmas of Prague (Kosmas Pražský; Cosmas Decanus; – October 21, 1125) was a priest, writer and historian born in a noble family in Bohemia.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium.
Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
A criminal code (or penal code) is a document which compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
The Czech Academy of Sciences (abbr. CAS, Akademie věd České republiky, abbr. AV ČR) was established in 1992 by the Czech National Council as the Czech successor of the former Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences and its tradition goes back to the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences (founded in 1784) and the Emperor Franz Joseph Czech Academy for Sciences, Literature and Arts (founded in 1890).The Academy is the leading non-university public research institution in the Czech Republic.
The Czech Air Force (Czech: Vzdušné síly Armády České republiky, literally the "Air Force of the Army of the Czech Republic"), is the air force branch of the Army of the Czech Republic.
Czech Americans (Čechoameričané), known in the 19th and early 20th century as Bohemian Americans, are citizens of the United States who are of Czech descent.
Czech Baroque architecture refers to the architectural period of the 17th and 18th century in Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia, which comprised the Crown of Bohemia and today constitute the Czech Republic.
Czech Beer Festival (Český pivní festival) is the biggest beer festival in the Czech Republic, held for 17 days every year in May in Prague.
Czech Game of the Year Awards (Česká hra roku) are annual awards that recognize accomplishments in video game development, first presented in 2010.
Czech Gothic architecture refers to the architectural period primarily of the Late Middle Ages in the area of the present-day Czech Republic (former Crown of Bohemia, primarily consisting of the Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia).
The Czech Hiking Markers Standard is an international system of hiking markers for tourist trails, used in more countries than any competing standard.
The koruna (sign: Kč; code: CZK) is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, and in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown.
The Czech Land Forces (Czech: Pozemní síly Armády České republiky, literally the "Land Forces of the Army of the Czech Republic") is the land-based military branch of the Army of the Czech Republic.
The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands (České země) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Lion Awards (Český lev) are annual awards that recognize accomplishments in filmmaking and television.
Czech literature is the literature written in the Czech language.
The Czech National Bank, (Česká národní banka, ČNB) is the central bank and financial market supervisor in the Czech Republic with its headquarters in Prague, and a member of the European System of Central Banks.
The Czech National Council (Česká národní rada, ČNR) was the legislative body of the Czech Republic since 1968 when the Czech Republic was created as a member state of Czech-Slovak federation.
Czech National Revival was a cultural movement, which took part in the Czech lands during the 18th and 19th century.
The Czech News Agency (Česká tisková kancelář), abbreviated to ČTK, is a national public service news agency in the Czech Republic.
The Česká filharmonie (Czech Philharmonic) is a Czech symphony orchestra based in Prague.
The first direct presidential election in the Czech Republic was held on 11–12 January 2013.
Český rozhlas (ČRo) is the public radio broadcaster of the Czech Republic, operating since 1923.
The Czech men's national ice hockey team is the national ice hockey team of the Czech Republic.
The Czech Republic national men's volleyball team is controlled by the Czech Volleyball Federation, which represents the country in international competitions and friendly matches.
The Czech Republic motorcycle Grand Prix is a motorcycling event that is part of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing season.
The Czech national football team (Česká fotbalová reprezentace) represents the Czech Republic in association football and is controlled by the Football Association of the Czech Republic, the governing body for football in the Czech Republic.
The Czech Republic women's national basketball team’s biggest success so far is the gold medal at the EuroBasket 2005.
Czech Silesia (České Slezsko; Czeski Ślůnsk; Tschechisch-Schlesien; Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region of Silesia presently located in the Czech Republic.
The Czech Social Democratic Party (Česká strana sociálně demokratická, ČSSD) is a social-democratic political party in the Czech Republic.
The Czech Socialist Republic (Česká socialistická republika in Czech; abbreviated ČSR) was was from 1969 to 1990 the official name of Czechia.
The Czech Statistical Office (Český statistický úřad) is the main organization which collects, analyzes and disseminates statistical information for the benefit of the various parts of the local and national governments of the Czech Republic.
Czech Technical University in Prague (České vysoké učení technické v Praze, ČVUT) is one of the largest universities in the Czech Republic, and is one of the oldest institutes of technology in Central Europe.
Wine in the Czech Republic is produced mainly in southern Moravia, although a few vineyards are located in Bohemia.
The Czechoslovak government built a system of border fortifications, as well as some fortified defensive lines inland, from 1935 to 1938 as a defensive countermeasure against the rising threat of Nazi Germany.
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition.
The Czechoslovak Hussite Church (Církev československá husitská, CČSH or CČH) is a Christian church that separated from the Catholic Church after World War I in former Czechoslovakia.
The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech and Slovak) were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the Allied Powers' support for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Czechoslovak New Wave (also Czech New Wave) is a term used for the 1960s films of Czech directors Miloš Forman, František Vláčil, Věra Chytilová, Ivan Passer, Pavel Juráček, Jaroslav Papoušek, Jiří Menzel, Jan Němec, Jaromil Jireš, Vojtěch Jasný, Evald Schorm, Elmar Klos and Slovak directors Dušan Hanák, Juraj Herz, Juraj Jakubisko, Štefan Uher, Ján Kadár, Elo Havetta and others.
Parliamentary elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 26 May 1946.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Czechoslovakia men's national ice hockey team was one of the world's premiere teams for the duration of its existence.
The Czechoslovak national basketball team was the basketball side that represented Czechoslovakia in international competitions.
The Czechoslovakia national football team (Československá fotbalová reprezentace, Československé národné futbalové mužstvo) was the national association football team of Czechoslovakia from 1920 to 1992.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
The Dancing House (Tančící dům), or Fred and Ginger, is the nickname given to the Nationale-Nederlanden building on the Rašínovo nábřeží (Rašín Embankment) in Prague, Czech Republic.
Daniel Adam z Veleslavína, literally translated Daniel Adam of Veleslavín, (31 August 1546 – 18 October 1599), was a Czech lexicographer, publisher, translator, and writer.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
David Popper (June 16, 1843 – August 7, 1913) was a Bohemian cellist and composer.
DayZ is an open world survival video game currently in development by Bohemia Interactive.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
The Defenestrations of Prague (Pražská defenestrace, Prager Fenstersturz, Defenestratio Pragensis) were two incidents in the history of Bohemia in which multiple people were defenestrated (that is, thrown out of a window).
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Der Ackermann aus Böhmen (German for "The Ploughman from Bohemia"), also known as Der Ackermann und der Tod ("The Ploughman and Death"), is a work of poetry in Early New High German by Johannes von Tepl, written around 1401.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia (Rozdělení Československa, Rozdelenie Česko-Slovenska), which took effect on 1 January 1993, was an event that saw the self-determined split of the federal state of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, entities that had arisen before as the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic in 1969 within the framework of Czechoslovak federalisation.
In 1960, Czechoslovakia was re-divided into districts (okres, plural okresy) often without regard to traditional division and local relationships.
Divided We Fall (Musíme si pomáhat literally translated as We Must Help Each Other) is a 2000 Czech film directed by Jan Hřebejk.
Dobřichovice is a town in Prague-West District, Central Bohemian Region, Czech Republic.
Dominik Hašek (born January 29, 1965) is a retired Czech ice hockey goaltender.
Drahoslav Lím (born September 30, 1925 in Czechoslovakia; died August 22, 2003 in San Diego, California) was a Czech chemist.
The Druzhba pipeline (нефтепровод «Дружба»; also has been referred to as the Friendship Pipeline and the Comecon Pipeline) is the world's longest oil pipeline and one of the biggest oil pipeline networks in the world.
The Duchies of Silesia were the more than twenty divisions of the region of Silesia formed between the 12th and 14th centuries by the breakup of the Duchy of Silesia, then part of the Kingdom of Poland.
A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.
The Dukovany Nuclear Power Station is a nuclear power plant (NPP) near Dukovany, a village in the Czech Republic.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
In many European countries, there are various traditions surrounding the use of bread during the Easter holidays.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) is a holistic measure of the production characteristics of large economic systems, usually whole countries.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
The Economy of the Czech Republic is a developed export-oriented social market economy based on services, manufacturing and innovation, that maintains a high-income welfare state and the "continental" type of the European social model.
The European Union is the second largest economy in the world in nominal terms and according to purchasing power parity (PPP).
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Ecstasy (Extase, Extase, Ekstase) is a 1933 Czech-Austrian romantic drama film directed by Gustav Machatý and starring Hedy Lamarr (then Hedy Kiesler), Aribert Mog, and Zvonimir Rogoz.
EDEN ARÉNA (formerly known as Synot Tip Arena) is a football stadium, in Prague-Vršovice, Czech Republic.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Eduard Čech (29 June 1893 – 15 March 1960) was a Czech mathematician born in Stračov (then Bohemia, Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic).
Eduard Hanslick (11 September 18256 August 1904) was a German Bohemian music critic.
The United Nations publishes a Human Development Index every year, which consists of the Education index, GDP Index and Life Expectancy Index.
Edvard Beneš, sometimes anglicised to Edward Benesh (28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948), was a Czech politician and statesman who was President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948.
Egon Bondy, born Zbyněk Fišer, (January 20, 1930 in Prague – April 9, 2007 in Bratislava) was a Czech philosopher, writer, and poet, one of the leading personalities of the Prague underground.
Egon Erwin Kisch (29 April 1885, Prague – 31 March 1948, Prague) was an Austrian and Czechoslovak writer and journalist, who wrote in German.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
The electoral threshold is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature.
An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
Elmar Klos (26 January 1910 – 31 July 1993) was a Czechoslovak film director of Czech origin who collaborated for 17 years with his Slovak colleague Ján Kadár and with him won the 1965 Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film with the film The Shop on Main Street.
Emil Filla (4 April 1882 – 7 October 1953), a Czech painter, was a leader of the avant-garde in Prague between World War I and World War II and was an early Cubist painter.
Emil Holub (7 October 1847 – 21 February 1902) was a Czech physician, explorer, cartographer, and ethnographer in Africa.
Emil Orlik (July 21, 1870 – September 28, 1932) was a painter, etcher and lithographer.
Emil Zátopek (19 September 1922 – 22 November 2000) was a Czechoslovak long-distance runner best known for winning three gold medals at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki.
Emmy Destinn (26 February 1878 – 28 January 1930) was a Czech operatic soprano with a strong and soaring lyric-dramatic voice.
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) (also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC), or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM.
Enlightened absolutism refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
Erich Wolfgang Korngold (May 29, 1897 – November 29, 1957) was an Austrian-born composer and conductor.
Ernest André Gellner (9 December 1925 – 5 November 1995) was a British-Czech philosopher and social anthropologist described by The Daily Telegraph, when he died, as one of the world's most vigorous intellectuals, and by The Independent as a "one-man crusader for critical rationalism".
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.
Erwin Schulhoff (Ervín Šulhov; 8 June 189418 August 1942) was a Czech composer and pianist.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
The Estates Theatre or Stavovské divadlo is a historic theatre in Prague, Czech Republic.
Eugen Böhm Ritter von Bawerk (born Eugen Böhm, 12 February 1851 – 27 August 1914) was an Austrian economist who made important contributions to the development of the Austrian School of Economics.
The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) is a species of eagle-owl that resides in much of Eurasia.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Euro Health Consumer Index (EHCI) is a comparison of European health care systems based on waiting times, results, and generosity.
The 1946 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1946, was the fourth FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe and the first since 1939 due to World War II.
The 1981 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1981, was the 22nd FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.
The 2005 European Women Basketball Championship, commonly called Eurobasket 2005 Women, was held in Turkey between 2 September and 11 September 2005.
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European social model is a common vision many European states have for a society that combines economic growth with high living standards and good working conditions.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
Eva Jiřičná CBE RA (born 3 March 1939) is a Czech architect and designer, active in London and Prague.
Evald Schorm (15 December 1931 – 14 December 1988) was a Czech film and stage director, screenwriter and actor.
The Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren (ECCB) (Českobratrská církev evangelická; ČCE) is the largest Czech Protestant church and the second largest church in general after the Catholic Church.
Expo 58, also known as the Brussels World’s Fair (Brusselse Wereldtentoonstelling, Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Bruxelles), was held from 17 April to 19 October 1958.
The expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II was part of a series of evacuations and expulsions of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe during and after World War II.
This article discusses historical famines that have occurred in the area of today's Czech Republic.
Prague International Film Festival - Febiofest is the largest film festival in the Czech Republic and the second most prestigious festival in the country (after Karlovy Vary).
Fee-for-service (FFS) is a payment model where services are unbundled and paid for separately.
Ferdinand Maxmilian Brokoff (Czech: Ferdinand Maxmilián Brokoff, 12 September 1688 - 8 March 1731) was a sculptor and carver of the Baroque era.
Ferdinand Peroutka (6 February 1895 – 20 April 1978) was a Czech journalist and writer.
Ferdinand Porsche (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company.
Ferdinand Karl Franz Schwarzmann, Ritter von Hebra (7 September 1816, in Brno, Moravia – 5 August 1880 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary) was an Austrian physician and dermatologist known as the founder of the New Vienna School of Dermatology, an important group of physicians who established the foundations of modern dermatology.
Ferdinand Stoliczka (Czech written Stolička, June 7, 1838 – June 19, 1874) was a Moravian palaeontologist who worked in India on paleontology, geology and various aspects of zoology, including ornithology, malacology, and herpetology.
Fernet Stock is a herbal bitters made in Plzeň-Božkov, Czech Republic.
The FIAPF (Fédération Internationale des Associations de Producteurs de Films; International Federation of Film Producers Associations) based in Paris, created in 1933, is an organization composed with 36 member associations from 30 of the leading audiovisual production countries.
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is possibly the best-known salamander species in Europe.
The first Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Československá republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938.
The First Vienna Award was a treaty signed on November 2, 1938, as a result of the First Vienna Arbitration.
The FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship is an international volleyball competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.
Floorball is a type of floor hockey with five players and a goalkeeper in each team.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
A foreign worker or guest worker is a human who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen.
Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd., trading as Foxconn Technology Group, is a multinational electronics contract manufacturing company with its headquarters in Tucheng, New Taipei, Taiwan.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francesco Borromini, byname of Francesco Castelli (25 September 1599 – 2 August 1667), was an Italian architect born in today's Ticino Encyclopædia Britannica. Web.
Frank Owen Gehry,, FAIA (born Frank Owen Goldberg)Reinhart, Anthony (July 28, 2010), Globe and Mail is a Canadian-born American architect, residing in Los Angeles.
František Čáp (7 December 1913 – 12 January 1972), also known as "Franz Cap" in Germany, was a Czech film director and screenwriter.
František Ladislav Čelakovský (7 March 1799 in Strakonice – 5 August 1852 in Prague) was a Czech writer and translator.
František Xaver Brixi (2 January 1732 – 14 October 1771) was a Czech classical composer of the 18th century.
František Drtikol (3 March 1883, Příbram – 13 January 1961, Prague) was a Czech photographer of international renown.
František Josef Gerstner (Franz Josef von Gerstner, František Josef Gerstner; 23 February 1756 – 25 July 1832) was a Bohemian physicist and engineer.
František Křižík (July 8, 1847 – January 22, 1941) was a Czech inventor, electrical engineer, and entrepreneur.
František Kupka (23 September 1871 – 24 June 1957), also known as Frank Kupka or François Kupka, was a Czech painter and graphic artist.
František Maxmilián Kaňka (9 August 1674 – 14 July 1766, both in Prague) was a Czech architect and builder.
František Palacký (14 June 1798 – 26 May 1876) was a Czech historian and politician, the most influential person of the Czech National Revival, called "Father of the Nation".
František Plánička (2 June 1904 – 20 July 1996) was a Czech football goalkeeper and one of the most honoured players in the history of Czechoslovak football.
František Vláčil (February 19, 1924, Český Těšín – January 28, 1999, Prague) was a Czech film director, painter, and graphic artist.
Františkovy Lázně (Franzensbad) is a spa town in Cheb District of Karlovy Vary Region, in the Czech Republic.
Franz Benda or František Benda (baptised 22 November 1709, Benátky nad Jizerou – 7 March 1786, Potsdam) was a Bohemian violinist and composer, who worked for much of his life at the court of Frederick the Great.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.
The Franz Kafka Prize is an international literary award presented in honour of Franz Kafka, the German language novelist.
Franz Viktor Werfel (10 September 1890 – 26 August 1945) was an Austrian-Bohemian novelist, playwright, and poet whose career spanned World War I, the Interwar period, and World War II.
Franz (Czech: František) Xaver Richter, known as François Xavier Richter in France (December 1, 1709 – September 12, 1789) was an Austro-Moravian singer, violinist, composer, conductor and music theoretician who spent most of his life first in Austria and later in Mannheim and in Strasbourg, where he was music director of the cathedral.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Free education is education funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition funding.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
The Fresh Film Fest International Film Festival or Fresh Film Fest is an international student film festival held annually in August in Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad), Czech Republic.
Count Friedrich Carl Eugen Vsemir von Berchtold, baron von Ungarschitz (Bedřich Karel Eugen Všemír Berchtold hrabě z Uherčic) (25 October 1781 – 3 April 1876), was a German-speaking Bohemian physician and botanist from Austrian descent.
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.
In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based solely on the purpose and function of the building.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром») is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data standard on the 2G and 3G cellular communication network's global system for mobile communications (GSM).
The Generali Arena, previously, and still commonly known as Letná Stadium (Stadion Letná), is a football stadium in Prague.
The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Georg Joseph Kamel (Georgius Josephus Camellus; Jiří Josef Kamel; Jorge Camel; 21 April 1661 – 2 May 1706) was a Jesuit missionary, pharmacist and naturalist known for producing the first comprehensive accounts of Philippine flora and fauna and for introducing Philippine nature to the European learned world.
George of Kunštát and Poděbrady (23 April 1420 – 22 March 1471), also known as Poděbrad or Podiebrad (Jiří z Poděbrad; Georg von Podiebrad), was King of Bohemia (1458–1471).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The German-speaking population in the interwar Czechoslovak Republic, 23.3% of the population at the 1921 census, is usually reduced to the Sudeten Germans, but actually there were linguistic enclaves elsewhere in Czechoslovakia, and among the German-speaking urban dwellers there were "ethnic Germans" and/or Austrians as well as German-speaking Jews.
There are various communities of Germans in the Czech Republic (Německá menšina v Česku, Deutsche in Tschechien).
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz; August 15, 1896 – October 26, 1957) was a Jewish Czech-American biochemist who became the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Giovanni de Galliano Pieroni (1586–1654) – military engineer specializing in erecting fortifications (authored Trattato delle fortificazioni moderne), architect, mathematician and astronomer who gained particular fame in his day as also as author of horoscopes.
The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
The Global Enabling Trade Report was first published in 2008 by the World Economic Forum.
The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
The Golden Bull of Sicily (Zlatá bula sicilská, Bulla Aurea Siciliæ) was a decree issued by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in Basel on 26 September 1212 that confirmed the royal title obtained by Ottokar I of Bohemia in 1198, declaring him and his heirs Kings of Bohemia.
In Jewish folklore, a golem (גולם) is an animated anthropomorphic being that is magically created entirely from inanimate matter (specifically clay or mud).
Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
Goulash (gulyás) is a soup of meat and vegetables, seasoned with paprika and other spices.
The Government of the Czech Republic (Vláda České republiky) exercises executive power in the Czech Republic.
Gravy is a sauce often made from the juices of meats that run naturally during cooking and thickened with wheat flour or cornstarch for added texture.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
The Carignano Palace in Turin. Camillo-Guarino Guarini (17 January 1624 – 6 March 1683) was an Italian architect of the Piedmontese Baroque, active in Turin as well as Sicily, France, and Portugal.
Guido Adler (1 November 1855, Ivančice (Eibenschütz), Moravia – 15 February 1941, Vienna) was a Bohemian-Austrian musicologist and writer.
Gustav Machatý (9 May 1901 – 13 December 1963) was a Czech film director, screenwriter and actor.
Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.
GZ Media, named for the Czech, Gramofonové Závody which translates to Gramophone Record Factory, employees nearly 2,000 people, and runs its major operations in Lodenice in the Czech Republic.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hana Mandlíková (born 19 February 1962) is a former professional tennis player from Czechoslovakia who later obtained Australian citizenship.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Hans Kelsen (October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian jurist, legal philosopher and political philosopher.
Hans Tropsch (October 7, 1889 – October 8, 1935) was a chemist responsible, along with Franz Fischer, for the development of the Fischer-Tropsch process.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Hockey Club Lev Praha (stylized as HC LEV Praha) was a professional ice hockey team located in Prague, Czech Republic, which played in the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) in the 2012–13 and 2013–14 seasons.
Hockey Club Sparta Praha, commonly known as Sparta Prague, is a Prague based Czech ice hockey team playing in the Czech Extraliga.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
A health insurance mandate is either an employer or individual mandate to obtain private health insurance instead of (or in addition to) a national health insurance plan.
Healthcare in Europe is provided through a wide range of different systems run at the national level.
The Czech health care system is based on a compulsory insurance model, with fee-for-service care funded by mandatory employment-related insurance plans since 1992.
Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber (12 August 1644 (baptised) – 3 May 1704) was a Bohemian-Austrian composer and violinist.
Heinrich von Freiberg was a Middle High German narrative poet at the court of Wenceslaus II of Bohemia.
Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst (8 June 18128 October 1865) was a Moravian-Jewish violinist, violist and composer.
Heinrich Wilhelm Schott (7 January 1794 in Brünn (Brno), Moravia – 5 March 1865 at Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna) was an Austrian botanist well known for his extensive work on aroids (Family Araceae).
The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index (HVRI) is a global ranking of countries according to the travel freedom that their citizens enjoy.
Henry the Younger of Poděbrady (also: Henry the Younger of Münsterberg; Heinrich der Jüngere von Podiebrad or Heinrich d. J. von Münsterberg; Hynek Poděbrady or Hynek z Minstrberka; 18 May 1452, Prague – 1 July 1492, Poděbrady) was an Imperial Count and Count of Glatz.
Herbert Feigl (December 14, 1902 – June 1, 1988) was an Austrian philosopher and a member of the Vienna Circle.
Herbert Lom (11 September 1917 – 27 September 2012) was a Czech-born British film and television actor who moved to the United Kingdom in 1939.
Hidden & Dangerous is a 1999 World War II video game developed by Illusion Softworks and published by Take-Two Interactive and TalonSoft for Windows, Dreamcast, and PlayStation.
From the Communist coup d'état in February 1948 to the Velvet Revolution in 1989, Czechoslovakia was ruled by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Komunistická strana Československa, KSČ).
The history of what are now known as the Czech lands (České země) is very diverse.
Jews in Bohemia (also known as Bohemian Jews/Czech Jews or, in some cases, Austro-Hungarian Jews), today's Czech Republic, arnise predominantly Ashkenazic Jews, and the current Jewish population is only a fraction of the pre-WWII Czechoslovakia's Jewish population.
Hluboká Castle (German: Schloss Frauenberg) is a historic château situated in Hluboká nad Vltavou, and it is considered one of the most beautiful castles in the Czech Republic.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc, in the Czech Republic is a Baroque monument (Trinity column) that was built between 1716 to 1754.
Hospodine pomiluj ny (English: Lord, Have Mercy on Us) is the oldest known Czech song.
Hotel International (formerly Hotel Družba, Hotel Čedok, Hotel Holiday Inn and Hotel Crowne Plaza) is the largest Socialist realism building in Prague, Czech Republic, and is located in the Dejvice district.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Luxembourg (Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary.
The House of the Black Madonna is a cubist building in the "Old Town" area of Prague, Czech Republic.
Hradec Králové (Königgrätz) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority in Slovakia.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the heretical Catholic Hussites and the combined Catholic orthodox forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite factions themselves.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
The Hyphen war (Pomlčková válka, lit) was the tongue-in-cheek name given to the conflict over what to call Czechoslovakia after the fall of the Communist government.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1920.
The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual international men's ice hockey tournament organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF).
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Ignaz Edler von Born, also known as Ignatius von Born (Born Ignác, Ignațiu von Born, Ignác Born) (26 December 1742 in Alba Iulia, Grand Principality of Transylvania, Habsburg Monarchy – 24 July 1791 in Vienna), was a mineralogist and metallurgist.
The Imperial Council (Reichsrat, Říšská rada, Rada Państwa, Consiglio Imperiale, Državni zbor) was the legislature of the Austrian Empire from 1861, and from 1867 the legislature of Cisleithania within Austria-Hungary.
The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.
An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (Status Imperii; Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag).
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivan Klíma (born 14 September 1931 in Prague, as Ivan Kauders) is a Czech novelist and playwright.
Ivan Lendl (born March 7, 1960) is a retired Czech-American professional tennis player.
Ivan Martin Jirous (23 September 1944 – 9 November 2011) was a Czech poet and dissident, best known as the artistic director of the Czech psychedelic rock group The Plastic People of the Universe, and later one of the key figures of the Czech underground during the communist regime.
Ivan Passer (born 10 July 1933) is a Czech-born film director and screenwriter.
Ivo Viktor (born 21 May 1942 in Křelov) is a Czech former football goalkeeper.
Jakob Christof Rad, born March 25, 1799 in Rheinfelden (present day Switzerland), died October 13, 1871 in Vienna (present day Austria), was a Swiss-born physician and industrial manager.
Jakub Husník (29 March 1837 Vejprnice, near Pilsen – 26 March 1916 in Prague) was a Czech painter, art teacher and inventor of the improved photolithography method.
Jan Švankmajer (born 4 September 1934) is a Czech filmmaker and artist whose work spans several media.
Jan Železný (born 16 June 1966) is a retired Czech track and field athlete who competed in the javelin throw.
Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha (Johann Ziska; John Zizka of Trocnov and the Chalice) was a Czech general, a contemporary and follower of Jan Hus, Hussite military leader, and later also a Radical Hussite who led the Taborites.
Jan Blahoslav (20 February 1523 – 24 November 1571) was a Czech humanistic writer, poet, translator, etymologist, hymnographer, grammarian, music theorist and composer.
Jan Dismas Zelenka (baptised Jan Lukáš Zelenka 16 October 1679 – 23 December 1745), also known as Johann Dismas Zelenka, sometimes Johannes Lucas Ignatius Dismas Zelenka, was a Czech composer and musician of the Baroque period.
Jo(h)annes Dubravius (1486–1553) was a Czech churchman, humanist and writer.
Jan Evangelista Purkyně (also written Johann Evangelist Purkinje) (17 or 18 December 1787 – 28 July 1869) was a Czech anatomist and physiologist.
Jan Fischer (born 2 January 1951) is a Czech politician who served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from May 2009 to June 2010, heading a caretaker government.
Jan František Beckovský (18 August 1658 – 26 December 1722), was a Czech historian, writer, translator, and priest.
Jan Hammer (born 17 April 1948) is a Czech-born American musician, composer and record producer.
Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.
Jan Kaplický (18 April 1937 – 14 January 2009) was a world-renowned Neofuturistic Czech architect who spent a significant part of his life in the United Kingdom.
Jan Kodeš (born 1 March 1946) is a Czech former tennis player who won three Grand Slam singles events in the early 1970s.
Jan Koller (born 30 March 1973) is a former Czech footballer who played as a striker.
Jan Kotěra (18 December 1871 – 17 April 1923) was a Czech architect, artist and interior designer, and one of the key figures of modern architecture in Bohemia.
Jan Kubelík (5 July 18805 December 1940) was a Czech violinist and composer.
Jan Kubiš (24 June 1913 – 18 June 1942) was a Czech soldier, one of a team of Czechoslovak British-trained paratroopers sent to eliminate acting Reichsprotektor (Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, in 1942 as part of Operation Anthropoid.
Jan Kupecký or Ján Kupecký (in German: Johann Kupetzky, in Hungarian: Kupecky János, or Kupeczky János, 1667, Bazin, Royal Hungary (today Pezinok, Slovakia) – 16 July 1740, Nürnberg) was a Czech portrait painter during the baroque.
Jan Ladislav Dussek (baptized Jan Václav Dusík,Černušák, p. 271 with surname also written as Duschek or Düssek; 12 February 176020 March 1812) was a Czech composer and pianist.
Jan Letzel (April 9, 1880 – December 26, 1925) was a Czech architect, most famous for designing a building in Hiroshima whose ruins are now the A-Bomb Dome or Peace Memorial.
Jan Marek Marci FRS, Johannes Marcus Marci de Cronland (June 13, 1595, (Lanscron, Landeskrone, Cronland, Kronland, vertical-align|), Royal Bohemia, Bohemian Crownland, AustriaApril 10, 1667, Prague, R.Bohemia, Bohemian Crownland, Austria), or Johannes (Ioannes) Marcus Marci, was a Bohemian doctor and scientist, rector of the University of Prague, and official physician to the Holy Roman Emperors.
Jan Mukařovský (11 November 1891 – 8 February 1975) was a Czech literary, linguistic, and aesthetic theorist.
Jan Němec (12 July 1936 – 18 March 2016) was a Czech filmmaker whose most important work dates from the 1960s.
Jan Nepomuk Neruda (Czech: ˈjan ˈnɛpomuk ˈnɛruda; 9 July 1834 – 22 August 1891) was a Czech journalist, writer, poet, art critic, one of the most prominent representatives of Czech Realism and a member of the "May School".
Jan Palach (11 August 1948 – 19 January 1969) was a Czech student of history and political economy at Charles University in Prague.
Jan Patočka (1 June 1907 – 13 March 1977) was a Czech philosopher.
Jan Blažej Santini Aichel (3 February 1677 – 7 December 1723) was a Czech architect of Italian descent, whose major works represent the unique Baroque Gothic style - the special combination of the Baroque and Gothic styles.
Jan Saudek (born 13 May 1935 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech art photographer and painter.
Jan Schmidt (born 3 January 1934) is a Czech film director.
Jan Svatopluk Presl (4 September 1791 – 6 April 1849) was a Bohemian natural scientist.
Jan Svěrák (born 6 February 1965 in Žatec) is a Czech film director.
Jan Zrzavý (5 November 1890 – 12 October 1977) was a leading Czech painter, graphic artist, and illustrator of the 20th century.
Jana Novotná (2 October 1968 – 19 November 2017) was a professional tennis player from the Czech Republic.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jarmila Kratochvílová (born 26 January 1951, in Golčův Jeníkov) is a Czech former track and field athlete.
Jaromír Jágr (born 15 February 1972) is a Czech professional ice hockey right winger who is currently playing for HC Kladno in the 1st Czech Republic Hockey League.
Jaroslav Drobný (12 October 1921 - 13 September 2001) was a former World No. 1 amateur tennis champion as well as being an ice hockey player.
Jaroslav Hašek (30 April 1883 – 3 January 1923) was a Czech writer, humorist, satirist, journalist, bohemian and anarchist.
Jaroslav Heyrovský (December 20, 1890 – March 27, 1967) was a Czech chemist and inventor.
Jaroslav Ježek (September 25, 1906 – January 1, 1942) was a Czechoslovakian composer, pianist and conductor, author of jazz, classical, incidental and film music.
Jaroslav Seifert (23 September 1901 – 10 January 1986) was a Nobel Prize–winning Czechoslovak writer, poet and journalist.
Jaroslav Vrchlický (17 February 1853 – 9 September 1912) was one of the greatest Czech lyrical poets.
JAWA is a motorcycle and moped manufacturer founded in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1929 by František Janeček, Retrieved 2014-03-01 who bought the motorcycle division of Wanderer.
Jáchym Topol (born 4 August 1962) is a Czech writer.
Jáchymov, until 1945 known by its German name of Sankt Joachimsthal or Joachimsthal (meaning "Saint Joachim's Valley"; Thal, or Tal in modern orthography) is a spa town in the Karlovy Vary Region of Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic.
Ján Kadár (1 April 1918 – 1 June 1979) was a Jewish-Slovak Hungarian-born film writer and director.
Ján Kollár (29 July 1793 in Mošovce (Mosóc), Kingdom of Hungary, Habsburg Monarchy, now Slovakia – 24 January 1852 in Vienna, Austrian Empire) was a Slovak writer (mainly poet), archaeologist, scientist, politician, and main ideologist of Pan-Slavism.
Jean Baptiste Mathey (1630–1696) was a French architect and painter born in Dijon.
Jean Nouvel (born 12 August 1945) is a French architect.
Jenůfa (Její pastorkyňa, "Her Stepdaughter" in Czech) is an opera in three acts by Leoš Janáček to a Czech libretto by the composer, based on the play Její pastorkyňa by Gabriela Preissová.
Jerome of Prague (Jeroným Pražský in Czech, 1379 in Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia in the Holy Roman Empire – 30 May 1416 in Konstanz, Bishopric of Constance in the Holy Roman Empire) was a Czech scholastic philosopher, theologian, reformer, and professor.
Jiří Antonín Benda, also Georg Anton Benda (30 June 17226 November 1795), was a Czech composer, violinist and Kapellmeister of the classical period.
Jiří Bělohlávek CBE (24 February 1946 – 31 May 2017) was a Czech conductor.
Jiří Menzel (born 23 February 1938, Prague) is a Czech film director, theatre director, actor, and screenwriter.
Jiří Paroubek (born 21 August 1952) is a Czech politician, who was the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from April 2005 to August 2006.
Jiří Trnka (24 February 1912 – 30 December 1969) was a Czech puppet-maker, illustrator, motion-picture animator and film director.
Jiří Wolker (29 March 1900 – 3 January 1924) was a Czech poet, journalist and playwright.
Jihlava (Iglau, Igława) is a city in the Czech Republic.
Ji.hlava International Documentary Film Festival (Mezinárodní festival dokumentárních filmů Ji.hlava), known as MFDF Ji.hlava or Ji.hlava IDFF, is a documentary film festival in Jihlava, Czech Republic, normally held in late October.
The Jireček Line is a conceptual boundary through the ancient Balkans that divides the influence of the Latin (in the north) and Greek (in the south) languages in the Roman Empire from Antiquity until the 4th century.
Jizera Mountains (Jizerské hory) or Izera Mountains (Góry Izerskie; Isergebirge) are part of the Western Sudetes on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland.
Joachim Barrande (11 August 1799 – 5 October 1883) was a French geologist and palaeontologist.
Jože Plečnik (23 January 1872 – 7 January 1957) was a Slovene architect who had a major impact on the modern identity of Vienna, Prague and of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, most notably by designing the iconic Triple Bridge and the Slovene National and University Library building, as well as the embankments along the Ljubljanica River, the Ljubljana open market buildings, the Ljubljana cemetery, parks, plazas etc.
Johann Baptist Wanhal (May 12, 1739 – August 20, 1813), also spelled Waṅhal (the spelling the composer himself and at least one of his publishers used), Wanhall, Vanhal and Van Hall (the modern Czech form Jan Křtitel Vaňhal was introduced in the 20th century"He himself spelt his name Johann Baptist Waṅhal; his Viennese contemporaries and most scholars until World War II used the spelling Waṅhal, but later in the 20th century a modern Czech form, Jan Křtitel Vaňhal, was erroneously introduced." Paul Robey Bryan, "Vanhal, Johann Baptist " in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie (New York: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2001), 19:592.), was an important Czech classical music composer.
Johann Josef Loschmidt (15 March 1821 – 8 July 1895), who referred to himself mostly as Josef Loschmidt (omitting his first name), was a notable Austrian scientist who performed ground-breaking work in chemistry, physics (thermodynamics, optics, electrodynamics), and crystal forms.
Johann Palisa (December 6, 1848 – May 2, 1925) was an Austrian astronomer, born in Troppau in Austrian Silesia (now in the Czech Republic).
Jan Václav Antonín Stamic (later, during his life in Mannheim, Germanized as Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz; 18 June 1717, Deutschbrod, Bohemia – 27 March 1757, Mannheim, Electorate of the Palatinate) was a Czech composer and violinist.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Jan Campanus Vodňanský (Johannes Vodnianus Campanus, Jan Vodňanský Campanus; also Jan z Vodňan, Jan Kampánus Vodňanský, Ionnes Campanus Vodnianus) (27 December 1572 – 13 December 1622) was a Czech humanist, composer, pedagogue, poet, and dramatist.
Johannes von Tepl (c. 1350 – c. 1415), also known as Johannes von Saaz (Jan ze Žatce), was a Bohemian writer of the German language, one of the earliest known writers of prose in Early New High German (or late Middle German—depending on the criteria).
Johannes Widmann (c. 1460 – after 1498) was a German mathematician.
John Amos Comenius (Jan Amos Komenský; Johann Amos Comenius; Latinized: Ioannes Amos Comenius; 28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) was a Czech philosopher, pedagogue and theologian from the Margraviate of Moravia"Clamores Eliae" he dedicated "To my lovely mother, Moravia, one of her faithful son...". Clamores Eliae, p.69, Kastellaun/Hunsrück: A. Henn, 1977.
John Pawson (born 1949, Halifax, England) is a British architectural designer whose work is known for its minimalist aesthetic.
Josef Čapek (23 March 1887 – April 1945) was a Czech artist who was best known as a painter, but who was also noted as a writer and a poet.
Josef Šíma (March 18, 1891 – July 24, 1971) was a renowned Czech painter, an important figure of modern European art.
Josef Škvorecký, (September 27, 1924 – January 3, 2012) was a Czech-Canadian writer and publisher.
Josef "Pepi" Bican (25 September 1913 – 12 December 2001) was a Czech-Austrian football striker.
Josef Bohuslav Foerster (30 December 1859 – 29 May 1951) was a Czech composer of classical music.
Josef Dobrovský (17 August 1753 – 6 January 1829) was a Czech philologist and historian, one of the most important figures of the Czech National Revival along with Josef Jungmann.
Josef Fanta (1856–1954) was a Czech architect, furniture designer, sculptor and painter.
Josef Gočár (13 March 1880 in Semín near Přelouč – 10 September 1945 in Jičín), was a Czech architect, one of the founders of modern architecture in Czechoslovakia.
Josef Hlávka (15 February 183111 March 1908) was a Czech architect, builder, philanthropist and founder of the oldest Czech foundation for sciences and arts.
Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer of consumer goods who co-established Wiener Werkstätte.
Josef Jungmann (16 July 1773 in Hudlice, near Beroun – 14 November 1847 in Prague) was a Czech poet and linguist, and a leading figure of the Czech National Revival.
Josef Kajetán Tyl (4 February 180811 July 1856) was a significant Czech dramatist, writer, and actor.
Josef Koudelka (born 10 January 1938) is a Czech–French photographer.
Josef Lada (born 17 December 1887 in Hrusice, Bohemia – 14 December 1957 in Prague, buried at Olšany Cemetery) was a Czech painter, illustrator and writer.
Josef Masopust (9 February 1931 – 29 June 2015) was a Czech football player and coach.
Josef Mánes (12 May 1820, Prague – 9 December 1871, Prague) was a Czech painter.
Josef Mysliveček (9 March 1737 – 4 February 1781) was a Czech composer who contributed to the formation of late eighteenth-century classicism in music.
Joseph Ludwig Franz Ressel (Josef Ludvík František Ressel; 29 June 1793 – 9 October 1857) was an Austrian forester and inventor of Czech-German descent, who designed one of the first working ship's propellers.
Josef Rovenský (17 April 1894 – 5 November 1937) was a Czech-Jewish film actor and director.
Josef Sudek (17 March 1896, Kolín, Bohemia – 15 September 1976, Prague) was a Czech photographer, best known for his photographs of Prague.
Josef Suk (4 January 1874 – 29 May 1935) was a Czech composer and violinist.
Josef Václav Myslbek (20 June 1848 – 2 June 1922) was a Czech sculptor and medalist credited with founding the modern Czech sculpting style.
Joseph Škoda (10 December 1805 – 13 June 1881) was a Czech physician, medical professor and dermatologist.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
Johann Josef Wenzel Anton Franz Karl, Graf Radetzky von Radetz (John Joseph Wenceslaus Anthony Francis Charles, Count Radetzky of Radetz; Jan Josef Václav Antonín František Karel hrabě Radecký z Radče 2 November 1766 – 5 January 1858) was a Czech nobleman and field marshal, a member of House of Radetzky in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.
Jozef Gabčík (8 April 1912 – 18 June 1942) was a Slovak soldier in the Czechoslovak army involved in Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of acting Reichsprotektor (Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia, SS Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich.
Judah Loew ben Bezalel, alt.
Julius Fučík (18 July 1872 – 25 September 1916) was a Czech composer and conductor of military bands.
Julius Fučík (23 February 1903 – 8 September 1943) was a Czechoslovak journalist, an active member of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, and part of the forefront of the anti-Nazi resistance.
Julius Eduard Mařák (29 March 1832, Litomyšl - 8 October 1899, Prague) was a Czech landscape painter and graphic designer.
Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism.
Julius Vincenz von Krombholz (19 December 1782 – 1 November 1843) was a physician and mycologist born in Oberpolitz (today Horní Police, Czech Republic), northern Bohemia.
Julius Zeyer (26 April 1841 – 29 January 1901) was a Czech prose writer, poet, and playwright.
Juraj Herz (4 September 1934 – 8 April 2018) was a Slovak film director, actor, and scenic designer who was born when Kežmarok was a part of Czechoslovakia.
Juraj Jakubisko (born 30 April 1938, Kojšov, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia)) is a Slovak film director.
Kašperk Castle (Karlsberg) is a medieval castle placed in southwestern Bohemia (modern Czech Republic, former Kingdom of Bohemia).
Karel Ančerl (11 April 1908 – 3 July 1973) was a Czechoslovak conductor, renowned especially for his performances of contemporary music and for his interpretations of music by Czech composers.
Karel Čapek (9 January 1890 – 25 December 1938) was a Czech writer of the early 20th century.
Karel Škréta Šotnovský ze Závořic (1610-1674) was a Czech portrait painter who worked in the Baroque style.
Karel Domin (4 May 1882, Kutná Hora, Kingdom of Bohemia – 10 June 1953, Prague) was a Czech botanist and politician.
Karel Gott (born 14 July 1939, Plzeň), is a Czech singer, and an amateur painter.
Karel Havlíček Borovský (Borová, today Havlíčkova Borová; 31 October 1821 – 29 July 1856) was a Czech writer, poet, critic, politician, journalist, and publisher.
Karel Hynek Mácha (16 November 1810 – 5 November 1836) was a Czech romantic poet.
Karel Jaromír Erben (7 November 1811 – 21 November 1870) was a Czech folklorist and poet of the mid-19th century, best known for his collection Kytice (Bouquet), which contains poems based on traditional and folkloric themes.
Karel Václav Klíč (sometimes written Karl Klietsch, 30 May 1841, Hostinné - 16 November 1926, Vienna) was a Czech painter, photographer, early comics artist, caricaturist, lithographer and illustrator.
Karel Kosík (26 June 1926 – 21 February 2003) was a Czech Neomarxist philosopher.
Karel Kryl (April 12, 1944 Kroměříž – March 3, 1994 Munich) was an iconic Czechoslovak (Moravian born and Czech speaking) poet, singer-songwriter and performer of many hit protest songs in which he identified and attacked the hypocrisy, stupidity and inhumanity of the Communist and later also the post-communist regimes in his home country.
Karel Lamač (27 January 1897 – 2 August 1952) was a Czech film director, actor, screenwriter and producer.
Karel Poborský (born 30 March 1972) is a retired Czech professional footballer who played as a right winger.
Karel Roden (born 18 May 1962) is a Czech actor, popularly known for his roles in Hellboy and The Bourne Supremacy, and his voice work in Grand Theft Auto IV.
Karel Steklý (9 October 1903 – 5 July 1987) was a Czech film director.
Karel Svoboda (19 December 1938 – 28 January 2007) was a Czech composer of popular music.
Karel Teige (13 December 1900 – 1 October 1951) was a Czech modernist avant-garde artist, writer, critic and one of the most important figures of the 1920s and 1930s movement.
Karel Zeman (November 3, 1910 – April 5, 1989) was a Czech film director, artist, production designer and animator, best known for directing fantasy films combining live-action footage with animation.
Karl Johann Kautsky (16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician.
Karl Kraus (April 28, 1874 – June 12, 1936) was an Austrian writer and journalist, known as a satirist, essayist, aphorist, playwright and poet.
Karl von Terzaghi (October 2, 1883 – October 25, 1963) was an Austrian civil engineer, geotechnical engineer and geologist known as the "father of soil mechanics".
Karlštejn Castle (hrad Karlštejn; Burg Karlstein) is a large Gothic castle founded 1348 CE by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor-elect and King of Bohemia.
Karlova Koruna (Karlskrone) is a château in the town of Chlumec nad Cidlinou in the Czech Republic.
Karlovy Vary or Carlsbad (Karlsbad) is a spa town situated in western Bohemia, Czech Republic, on the confluence of the rivers Ohře and Teplá, approximately west of Prague (Praha).
The Karlovy Vary International Film Festival (Mezinárodní filmový festival Karlovy Vary) is a film festival held annually in July in Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad), Czech Republic.
Karolína Plíšková (born 21 March 1992) is a Czech professional tennis player.
Karosa (Továrna na Kočáry, Automobily, Rotory, Obráběcí stroje, Sekací stroje a Autobusy, Factory for carriages, cars, rotors, machine tools, cutting machines and buses) was a bus manufacturer in Vysoké Mýto, a town in the Czech Republic.
Count Kaspar Maria von Sternberg (also: Caspar Maria, Count Sternberg, Kaspar Maria Graf Sternberg, hrabě Kašpar Maria Šternberk), 1761, Prague – 1838, Březina Castle, was a Bohemian theologian, mineralogist, geognost, entomologist and botanist.
Kateřina Neumannová (born 15 February 1973) is a retired Czech cross-country skier.
Kateřina Tučková (born 31 October 1980) is a Czech novelist and curator.
Křivoklát Castle is located in Central Bohemia, Czech Republic.
Křivoklátsko Protected Landscape Area (Chráněná krajinná oblast Křivoklátsko, usually abbreviated as CHKO Křivoklátsko) is a Landscape Protected Area in the Czech Republic.
Kde domov můj (English: "Where my home is") is the national anthem of the Czech Republic, written by the composer František Škroup and the playwright Josef Kajetán Tyl.
Keen Software House is an independent video game developing company based in Prague, Czech Republic.
Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer (Kilián Ignác Dientzenhofer) (1 September 1689, Prague – 18 December 1751) was a Bohemian architect of the Baroque era.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; König der Römer) was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward.
The Kingdom of Arles (also Kingdom of Arelat or Second Kingdom of Burgundy) was a Frankish dominion established from lands of the early medieval Kingdom of the Burgundians in 933 by the merger of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Burgundy under King Rudolf II.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicum, "Teutonic Kingdom"; Deutsches Reich) developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.
Knödel, or Klöße are boiled dumplings commonly found in Central European and East European cuisine.
Kofola is a carbonated soft drink produced by Czech company Kofola, headquartered in Ostrava, Czechia.
A kolach (also spelled kolache, kolace or kolacky, from the Czech and Slovak plural koláče, sg. koláč) is a type of pastry that holds a portion of fruit, surrounded by a puffy cushion of supple dough.
Kolya (Kolja) is a 1996 Czech drama film about a man whose life is reshaped in an unexpected way.
Konrad Ernst Eduard Henlein (6 May 1898 – 10 May 1945) was a leading Sudeten German politician in Czechoslovakia.
Konstantin Josef Jireček (24 July 1854 10 January 1918) was an Austro-Hungarian Czech historian, politician, diplomat, and Slavist.
Konstanz (locally; formerly English: Constance, Czech: Kostnice, Latin: Constantia) is a university city with approximately 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance in the south of Germany, bordering Switzerland.
The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force which was responsible for establishing a secure environment in Kosovo.
Kotva Department Store is a department store in Prague at the Náměstí Republiky (Republic Square).
Kouřim is a small town in the Central Bohemian Region, Czech Republic.
Krakatit is a 1948 Czechoslovak science fiction mystery film directed by Otakar Vávra, starring Karel Höger as a chemist who suffers from delirium and regret after inventing a powerful explosive.
Králický Sněžník or Śnieżnik Kłodzki (Polish) is a mountain in the Eastern Bohemia, located on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland.
The Krkonoše (Czech), Karkonosze (Polish), Riesengebirge (German), Riesageberge (Silesian German) or Giant Mountains, are a mountain range located in the north of the Czech Republic and the south-west of Poland, part of the Sudetes mountain system (part of the Bohemian Massif).
Krkonoše National Park (Krkonošský národní park, often abbreviated as KRNAP) is a national park in the Liberec and Hradec Králové regions of the Czech Republic.
The Kroměříž Castle (Zámek Kroměříž or Arcibiskupský zámek, Schloss Kremsier) in Kroměříž, Czech Republic, used to be the principal residence of the bishops and (since 1777) archbishops of Olomouc.
Kunovice is a town in the Uherské Hradiště District, Zlín Region, Czech Republic.
Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
Ladislav Klíma (22 August 1878 – 19 April 1928), was a Czech philosopher and novelist influenced by George Berkeley, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche.
Ladislav Novák (5 December 1931 – 21 March 2011) was a Czech football defender and later a football manager.
In real estate, a lot or plot is a tract or parcel of land owned or meant to be owned by some owner(s).
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.
Laterna magika, the world's first multimedia theatre, was founded as a cultural program at the 1958 Brussels Expo.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Czech law, often referred to as the legal order of the Czech Republic (právní řád České republiky), is the system of legal rules in force in the Czech Republic, and in the international community it is a member of.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
Lech, Czech and Rus refers to a founding myth of three Slavic peoples: the Poles (or Lechites), the Czechs, and the Rus' people.
The Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape (also Lednice-Valtice Area or Lednice-Valtice Complex, Lednicko-valtický areál) is a cultural-natural landscape complex of in the Lednice and Valtice areas of the South Moravian Region, near Břeclav in the Czech Republic.
A legal case is a dispute between opposing parties resolved by a court, or by some equivalent legal process.
Leoš Janáček (baptised Leo Eugen Janáček; 3 July 1854 – 12 August 1928) was a Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher.
Aircraft Industries, a.s.,"." Let Kunovice.
Liberec (Reichenberg) is a city in the Czech Republic.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Libuše Šafránková (born 7 June 1953 in Brno, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech actress.
A lightning rod (US, AUS) or lightning conductor (UK) is a metal rod mounted on a structure and intended to protect the structure from a lightning strike.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
This is a list of airports in the Czech Republic, grouped by type and sorted by location.
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.
This is a list of castles and chateaux in the Czech Republic, organized by regions.
This is the list of cathedrals in the Czech Republic sorted by denomination.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries ordered by annual per capita consumption of beer.
This list orders countries by their economic complexity index (ECI), as it was defined and calculated by Cesar A. Hidalgo and Ricardo Hausmann.
This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2016 Human Development Report.
The list should also contain various important Czech topics that are not yet covered. The list is divided into categories, ordered alphabetically (initially inspired by List of United Kingdom-related topics).
This is a list of museums in the Czech Republic.
This is list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic.
Root vegetables are plant roots and tubers eaten by humans as food.
This is a list of the 100 busiest airports in Europe, ranked by total passengers per year, including both terminal and transit passengers.
Theatre festivals are amongst the earliest types of festival.
This list of universities in the Czech Republic includes public, state, private and for-profit universities which exist in the Czech Republic.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
Litomyšl Castle is one of the largest Renaissance castles in the Czech Republic.
The Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of common defense against Hungarian revanchism and the prevention of a Habsburg restoration.
Local loop unbundling (LLU or LLUB) is the regulatory process of allowing multiple telecommunications operators to use connections from the telephone exchange to the customer's premises.
Loděnice is a municipality and village in Beroun District in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.
A log house, or log building, is a structure built with horizontal logs interlocked at the corners by notching.
Louny District (Okres Louny) is one of seven districts (okres) located within the Ústí nad Labem Region (Ústecký kraj) in the Czech Republic.
Loves of a Blonde (Lásky jedné plavovlásky), also known as A Blonde in Love, is a 1965 Czechoslovak ensemble comedy film directed by Miloš Forman that follows a young woman, Andula, who has a routine job in a shoe factory in provincial Czechoslovakia, and her attempts at forging a romantic relationship.
Lower Vítkovice (Czech: Dolní oblast Vítkovice) is a national site of industrial heritage located in the Vítkovice district of Ostrava in the Czech Republic.
Lubor Niederle (September 20, 1865 – June 14, 1944) was a Czech archeologist, anthropologist and ethnographer.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect.
Luke (Lukáš) of Prague (Czech: Lukáš Pražský, d. December 11, 1528) was a theologian of the Unitas Fratrum.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Machinarium is a puzzle point-and-click adventure game developed by Amanita Design.
Madfinger Games is a mobile game developer located in the Czech Republic.
Mafia is an 2002 action-adventure video game developed by Illusion Softworks and published by Gathering of Developers.
Magdalena Kožená (also Lady Rattle;; born 26 May 1973) is a Czech mezzo-soprano.
The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribal confederation who eventually came to live in a powerful kingdom north of the Danube, somewhere in the region near modern Bohemia, during the peak of power of the nearby Roman Empire.
Marek Jankulovski (born 9 May 1977) is a retired Czech footballer who played as a defender.
The Margraviate of Moravia (Markrabství moravské; Markgrafschaft Mähren) or March of Moravia was a marcher state existing from 1182 to 1918 and one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Mariánské Lázně (Marienbad) is a spa town in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic.
Marination is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking.
A marionette is a puppet controlled from above using wires or strings depending on regional variations.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Marketa Lazarová is a 1967 Czechoslovak historical film directed by František Vláčil.
Maroboduus (born circa 30 BC, died in AD 37), was a Romanized king of the Germanic Suebi, who under pressure from the wars of the Cherusci and Romans, and losing the Suevic Semnones and Langobardi from his kingdom, moved with the Marcomanni into the forests of Bohemia, near to the Quadi.
Martin Doktor (born 21 May 1974 in Polička, Czechoslovakia) is the Czech Republic's best-known sprint canoeist.
Martin Frič (29 March 1902 – 26 August 1968) was a Czech film director, screenwriter and actor.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Martin of Opava, O.P. (died 1278) also known as Martin of Poland, was a 13th-century Dominican friar, bishop and chronicler.
Martina Navratilova (Martina Navrátilová; born Martina Šubertová; October 18, 1956) is a former Czechoslovak and later American professional tennis player and coach.
Martina Sáblíková (born 27 May 1987) is a Czech speed skater, specializing in long distance races.
The Masaryk circuit (Masarykův okruh) or Masarykring, now referred to as the Brno Circuit, refers to two motorsport race tracks located close to the city of Brno, Czech Republic.
Masaryk University (Masarykova univerzita; Universitas Masarykiana Brunensis) is the second largest university in the Czech Republic, a member of the Compostela Group and the Utrecht Network.
Matěj Rejsek or Matthias Rejsek (around 1445, Prostějov - 1 July 1506, Kutná Hora) was a Czech stonemason, sculptor, builder and architect of the Late Gothic style.
Matthias Bernard Braun (Czech: Matyáš Bernard Braun, 24 February 1684 in Sautens near Innsbruck – 15 February 1738 in Prague) was a sculptor and carver active in the Czech lands, one of the most prominent late baroque style sculptors in the area.
Matthias of Arras (c.1290–1352), sometimes spelled as Matthew of Arras (Matyáš z Arrasu, Matthias von Arras, Mathieu d'Arras) was a French architect, famed for his work on St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague.
Max Švabinský (1873–1963) was a Czech painter, draughtsman, graphic artist, and professor in Academy of Graphic Arts in Prague.
Max Brod (Hebrew: מקס ברוד; May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish Czech, later Israeli, author, composer, and journalist.
Max Wertheimer (April 15, 1880 – October 12, 1943) was an Austro-Hungarian-born psychologist who was one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology, along with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler.
Má vlast (meaning "My homeland" in the Czech language) is a set of six symphonic poems composed between 1874 and 1879 by the Czech composer Bedřich Smetana.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
A variety of measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate total economic activity in a country or region, including gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), net national income (NNI), and adjusted national income also called as NNI at factor cost (NNI* adjusted for natural resource depletion).
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
Michal Viewegh (born 31 March 1962 in Prague) is a contemporary Czech writer.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Mikoláš Aleš (18 November 1852 – 10 July 1913), was a Czech painter.
The Mil Mi-24 (Миль Ми-24; NATO reporting name: Hind) is a large helicopter gunship, attack helicopter and low-capacity troop transport with room for eight passengers.
Milada Horáková (née Králová, 25 December 1901 – 27 June 1950) was a Czech politician.
Milan Štěch (born 13 November 1953) is a Czech politician and former trade union leader who has been President of the Senate since 2010 and Senator from Pelhřimov since 1996.
Milan Baroš (born 28 October 1981) is a Czech football striker who currently plays for Baník Ostrava in the Czech First League.
Milan Kundera (born 1 April 1929) is a Czech-born French writer who went into exile in France in 1975, and became a naturalised French citizen in 1981.
Milena Jesenská (10 August 1896 – 17 May 1944) was a Czech journalist, writer, editor and translator.
Jan Tomáš "Miloš" Forman (18 February 1932 – 13 April 2018) was a Czech American film director, screenwriter, actor and professor who, until 1968, lived and worked primarily in the former Czechoslovakia.
Miloš Zeman (born 28 September 1944) is a Czech politician serving as the third and current President of the Czech Republic since 8 March 2013.
Miloslav Kabeláč (1 August 1908 – 17 September 1979) was a prominent Czech composer and conductor.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic (Ministr zahraničních věcí České republiky) is a senior official of the Cabinet of the Czech Republic and the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic and handles foreign policy of the Czech Republic.
Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic (Ministerstvo obrany České republiky, MO ČR) is the primary agency of the Czech Republic responsible for the planning and carrying-out of defense policy.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic (MZVČR, MFACR) (Czech: Ministerstvo zahraničních věcí České republiky) is a Czech government ministry responsible for international relations of the Czech Republic.
Minnesang ("love song") was a tradition of lyric- and song-writing in Germany that flourished in the Middle High German period.
Minor basilica (Basilica minor, Basilicæ minores in plural) is a title given to some Roman Catholic church buildings.
Mirek Topolánek (born 15 May 1956) is a Czech politician and business manager who served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from 2006 to 2009 and Leader of the Civic Democratic Party (ODS) from November 2002 to April 2010.
Prof. Miroslav Hroch (born 14 June 1932 in Prague) is a Czech historian and political theorist and a professor at the Charles University in Prague.
Miroslav Verner (born October 31, 1941 in Brno) is a Czech egyptologist, who specializes in the history and archaeology of Ancient Egypt of the Old Kingdom and especially of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt.
Miroslav Ladislav Vitouš (6 December 1947) is a Czech jazz bassist who is known for his extensive career in the US.
Mladá fronta Dnes (Young Front Today), also known as MF DNES or simply Dnes (Today), is a daily newspaper in the Czech Republic.
Mošnov (pronunciation moshnov, Engelswald) is a village in Nový Jičín District in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
In music, modernism is a philosophical and aesthetic stance underlying the period of change and development in musical language that occurred around the turn of the 20th century, a period of diverse reactions in challenging and reinterpreting older categories of music, innovations that led to new ways of organizing and approaching harmonic, melodic, sonic, and rhythmic aspects of music, and changes in aesthetic worldviews in close relation to the larger identifiable period of modernism in the arts of the time.
Moldauhafen (Vltava port) is a lot in the port of Hamburg, Germany, that Czechoslovakia acquired on a 99-year lease in 1929 pursuant to the Treaty of Versailles.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
The Mole (in the Czech original called Krtek, or, for little mole, Krteček) is an animated character in a series of cartoons, created by Czech animator Zdeněk Miler.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica (9 April 1241) and in the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241) in the Kingdom of Hungary. The operations were planned by General Subutai (1175–1248) and commanded by Batu Khan (1207–1255) and Kadan (d. 1261). Both men were grandsons of Genghis Khan; their conquests integrated much European territory to the empire of the Golden Horde. Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.
The Morava (March, Morva, Morawa) is a river in Central Europe, a left tributary of the Danube.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
The Moravian–Silesian Beskids (Czech:, Slovak: Moravsko-sliezske Beskydy) is a mountain range in the Czech Republic with a small part reaching to Slovakia.
Moravians (Czech: Moravané or colloquially Moraváci) are a West Slavic ethnographic group from the Moravia region of the Czech Republic, who speak the Moravian dialects of the Czech language or Common Czech or a mixed form of both.
The Moymirid dynasty (Latin: Moimarii, Czech and Slovak: Mojmírovci) was a Moravian ruling dynasty that ruled over Moravia in the 9th and early 10th century.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
Municipal House (Obecní dům) is a civic building that houses Smetana Hall, a celebrated concert venue, in Prague.
My Sweet Little Village (Vesničko má středisková) is a 1985 Czechoslovak film directed by Jiří Menzel.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Front (in Czech: Národní fronta, in Slovak: Národný front) was the coalition of parties which headed the re-established Czechoslovakian government from 1945 to 1948.
The National Gallery in Prague (Národní galerie v Praze) is a state-owned art gallery in Prague, which manages the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic.
The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
The National Library of the Czech Republic (Národní knihovna České republiky) is the central library of the Czech Republic.
The National Museum (Národní muzeum) is a Czech museum institution intended to systematically establish, prepare and publicly exhibit natural scientific and historical collections.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
The National Theatre (Národní divadlo) in Prague is known as the alma mater of Czech opera, and as the national monument of Czech history and art.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
A news program, news programme, news show, or newscast is a regularly scheduled radio or television program that reports current events.
Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
In the history of Czechoslovakia, normalization (normalizace, normalizácia) is a name commonly given to the period following the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 and up to the glasnost era of liberalization that began in the Soviet Union and its neighboring nations in 1987.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
O2 Arena (formerly Sazka Arena, stylised as O2 arena) is a multi-purpose arena, in Prague, Czech Republic.
O2 Czech Republic (operating under the O2 brand) is a major integrated operator in the Czech Republic.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Office for Foreign Relations and Information (ÚZSI) (Czech: Úřad pro zahraniční styky a informace) is the main foreign intelligence service of the Czech Republic responsible for the collection, analysis and dissemination of intelligence.
Oil and gas deposits in the Czech Republic are small, and located mainly in southern Moravia.
Okres (Czech and Slovak term meaning "district" in English; from German Kreis - circle (or perimeter)) refers to administrative entities in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
The Old New Synagogue or Altneuschul (Staronová synagoga; Altneu-Synagoge) situated in Josefov, Prague, is Europe's oldest active synagogue.
The Old Swiss Confederacy (Modern German: Alte Eidgenossenschaft; historically Eidgenossenschaft, after the Reformation also République des Suisses, Res publica Helvetiorum "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (cantons, German or) within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Old Town Hall in Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic, is one of the city's most visited monuments.
Old Town Square execution (Staroměstská exekuce) was a mass execution of 27 Bohemian Protestant leaders (three noblemen, seven knights and 17 burghers) of the Bohemian Revolt by the Austrian Catholic House of Habsburg that took place on June 21, 1621 at the Old Town Square in Prague.
Oldřich Nejedlý (26 December 1909 — 11 June 1990) was a Czech footballer, who spent his entire career at Sparta Prague as an inside-forward.
Olomouc (locally Holomóc or Olomóc; Olmütz; Latin: Olomucium or Iuliomontium; Ołomuniec; Alamóc) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic.
One World (Czech: Jeden Svět) is the biggest human rights film festival in the world, held annually in Prague and other cities of the Czech Republic, with a selection later shown in Brussels and other countries.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
An open-air museum (or open air museum) is a museum that exhibits collections of buildings and artifacts out-of-doors.
Operation Anthropoid was the code name for the assassination during World War II of Schutzstaffel (SS)-Obergruppenführer and General der Polizei Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Main Security Office, RSHA), the combined security services of Nazi Germany, and acting Reichsprotektor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
EU NAVFOR Somalia, also known as Operation Atalanta, is a current counter-piracy military operation at sea off the Horn of Africa and in the Western Indian Ocean, that is the first undertaken by the European Union Naval Force.
Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis is a tactical shooter and battlefield simulator video game developed by Bohemia Interactive Studio and published by Codemasters in 2001.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
Oskar Nedbal (26 March 1874 – 24 December 1930) was a Czech violist, composer, and conductor of classical music.
Ostrava (Ostrawa, Ostrau or Mährisch Ostrau) is a city in the north-east of the Czech Republic and is the capital of the Moravian-Silesian Region.
Osvald Polívka (May 24, 1859 – April 30, 1931), Austrian-born Czech architect associated with the Secession / Art Nouveau period in Prague.
The OT-64 SKOT (Czech acronym for: Střední Kolový Obrněný Transportér, and/or Polish Średni Kołowy Opancerzony Transporter – medium wheeled armoured transporter) is an amphibious, armored personnel carrier (8x8), developed jointly by Poland and Czechoslovakia (ČSSR) well into the 1960s.
Otakar Ševčík (22 March 185218 January 1934) was a Czech violinist and influential teacher.
Otakar Vávra (28 February 1911 – 15 September 2011) was a Czech film director, screenwriter and pedagogue.
Otto Wichterle (27 October 1913 in Prostějov in Austria-Hungary, now the Czech Republic – 18 August 1998) was a Czech chemist, best known for his invention of modern soft contact lenses.
Ottokar I (Přemysl I. Otakar; c. 1155 – 1230) was Duke of Bohemia periodically beginning in 1192, then acquired the title King of Bohemia, first in 1198 from Philip of Swabia, later in 1203 from Otto IV of Brunswick and in 1212 from Frederick.
Ottokar II (Přemysl Otakar II; c. 1233 – 26 August 1278), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Czech Republic: The Czech Republic (also known as Czechia) is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
Palacký University Olomouc is the oldest university in Moravia and the second-oldest in the Czech Republic.
Pale lager is a very pale-to-golden-colored lager beer with a well attenuated body and a varying degree of noble hop bitterness.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
The Pandur II 8x8 is an improved modular all-wheel-drive version of the Pandur 6x6 APC wheeled armoured vehicle.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
The Panocha Quartet (Panochovo kvarteto) is a Czech string quartet.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Pardubice (Pardubitz) is a city in the Czech Republic.
The Parliament of the Czech Republic (Parlament České republiky) or just Parliament (Parlament) is the legislative body of the Czech Republic, seated in Malá Strana, Prague.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Party of Civic Rights – Zeman's people (Strana Práv Občanů - Zemanovci, SPOZ), also known as Zemanovci, formerly Party of Civic Rights (Strana Práv Občanů, SPO) is a political party in the Czech Republic founded in October 2009 by Miloš Zeman, former Prime Minister and former leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party.
Patrik Ouředník (in French sometimes known as Patrick; born April 23, 1957 in Prague) is a Czech author and translator, living in France.
Pavel Baudiš (born 15 May 1960) is a Czech software engineer, entrepreneur and the co-founder of Avast along with Eduard Kučera.
Pavel Bém (born 18 July 1963) is a Czech physician and politician.
Pavel Haas (21 June 189917 October 1944) was a Czech composer who was murdered during the Holocaust.
Pavel Janák (12 March 1881 in Karlín – 1 August 1956 in Prague-Dejvice) was a Czech modernist architect, furniture designer, town planner, professor and theoretician.
Pavel Jozef Šafárik (13 May 1795 – 26 June 1861) was a Slovak philologist, poet, one of the first scientific Slavists; literary historian, historian and ethnographer.
Pavel Kohout (born 20 July 1928) is a Czech and Austrian novelist, playwright, and poet.
Pavel Nedvěd (born 30 August 1972) is a Czech retired footballer who played as a midfielder.
Pavel Pavel (born March 11, 1957 in Strakonice) is a Czech engineer and experimental archaeologist best known for investigating how ancient civilizations transported heavy weights.
The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid (Přemyslovci, Premysliden, Przemyślidzi) was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia (9th century–1306), as well as in parts of Poland (including Silesia), Hungary, and Austria.
The Peace of Prague (Prager Frieden) was a peace treaty signed between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire at Prague on 23 August 1866, ending the Austro-Prussian War.
Pendolino (from Italian pendolo "pendulum", and -ino, a diminutive suffix) is an Italian family of tilting trains used in Italy, Spain, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Finland, Russian Federation, the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, Slovakia, Switzerland and China.
People's Militias (in Slovak Ľudové milície, in Czech Lidové milice), also called The Armed Fist of the Working Class (in Slovak Ozbrojená päsť robotníckej triedy, in Czech Ozbrojená pěst dělnické třídy) was a militia organisation of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia between 1948 and 1989.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink produced and manufactured by PepsiCo.
Peter Andreas Grünberg (18 May 1939 – 7 April 2018) was a German physicist, and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his discovery with Albert Fert of giant magnetoresistance which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disk drives.
Peter of Zittau (Petr Žitavský; –1339) was a Bohemian churchman and historian.
Peter Parler (Peter von Gemünd, Petr Parléř, Petrus de Gemunden in Suevia; 1333 – 13 July 1399) was a German-Bohemian architect and sculptor from the Parler family of master builders.
Petr Čech (born 20 May 1982) is a Czech professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Premier League club Arsenal.
Petr Brandl (Peter Johannes Brandl or Jan Petr Brandl) (October 24, 1668 – September 24, 1735) was a Czech painter of the late Baroque, famous in his time but – due to isolation behind the Iron Curtain – rather forgotten until recently.
Petr Chelčický (c. 1390 – c. 1460) was a Czech Christian spiritual leader and author in the 15th century Bohemia (in what is now the Czech Republic).
Petr Eben (22 January 1929 – 24 October 2007) was a Czech composer of modern and contemporary classical music, organist and choirmaster.
Petr Nečas (born 19 November 1964) is a Czech former politician who served as 9th Prime Minister of the Czech Republic and Leader of the Civic Democratic Party from 2010 to 2013, and as Member of the Chamber of Deputies (MP) from 1993 to 2013.
Petra Kvitová (born 8 March 1990) is a Czech professional tennis player.
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
Photogravure is an intaglio printmaking or photo-mechanical process whereby a copper plate is grained (adding a pattern to the plate) and then coated with a light-sensitive gelatin tissue which had been exposed to a film positive, and then etched, resulting in a high quality intaglio plate that can reproduce detailed continuous tones of a photograph.
Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
The Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk (Czech: Poutní kostel svatého Jana Nepomuckého) at Zelená hora (former German name: Grünberg, meaning "Green Hill") is a religious building at the edge of Žďár nad Sázavou, Czech Republic, near the historical border between Moravia and Bohemia.
Pilsner (also pilsener or simply pils) is a type of pale lager.
Pilsner Urquell (Plzeňský prazdroj), is a Czech lager brewed by the Pilsner Urquell Brewery, that is based in Plzeň, Czech Republic.
Plzeňský prazdroj a.s. (Pilsner Urquell) is a Czech brewery founded in 1842 and headquartered in Plzeň, Czech Republic.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Plastic explosive is a soft and hand-moldable solid form of explosive material.
Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.
Plzeň, also called Pilsen in English and German, is a city in western Bohemia in the Czech Republic.
The PMD 85 was an 8-bit personal computer produced from 1985 by the companies Tesla Piešťany and Bratislava in the former Czechoslovakia.
Podyjí National Park (Národní park Podyjí) is a national park in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polarography is a type of voltammetry where the working electrode is a dropping mercury electrode (DME) or a static mercury drop electrode (SMDE), which are useful for their wide cathodic ranges and renewable surfaces.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish minority in the Czech Republic (Polska mniejszość narodowa w Republice Czeskiej, Polská národnostní menšina v České republice) is a Polish national minority living mainly in the Zaolzie region of western Cieszyn Silesia.
The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas.
Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the poppy (Papaver somniferum).
Postoloprty (Postelberg) is a town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic.
Potato pancakes, latkes, deruny or boxties are shallow-fried pancakes of grated or ground potato, flour and egg, often flavored with grated garlic or onion and seasoning.
A powder tower (Pulverturm), occasionally also powder house (Pulverhaus), was a building used by the military or by mining companies, frequently a tower, to store gunpowder or, later, explosives.
Powidl (or Powidel, from Czech povidla or Polish powidła or powidło) is a zwetschgen stew.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The Prague astronomical clock, or Prague orloj (Pražský orloj), is a medieval astronomical clock located in Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic.
The Prague Bible printed in 1488 was the first complete version of the Bible printed in the Czech language and in a Slavic language at the same time.
Prague Castle (Pražský hrad) is a castle complex in Prague, Czech Republic, dating from the 9th century.
The Prague school or Prague linguistic circle was an influential group of linguists, philologists and literary critics in Prague.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
The Prague Spring International Music Festival (Mezinárodní hudební festival Pražské jaro, commonly Pražské jaro, Prague Spring) is a permanent showcase for outstanding performing artists, symphony orchestras and chamber music ensembles of the world.
The Prague uprising (Pražské povstání) was an attempt by the Czech resistance to liberate the city of Prague from German occupation during World War II.
Praha hlavní nádraží (Prague main railway station, abbreviated Praha hl.n) is the largest and most important railway station in Prague in the Czech Republic.
Právo (in Czech Right or Law) is a Czech daily newspaper published in Prague, Czech Republic.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The President of the Czech Republic is the elected formal head of state of the Czech Republic and the commander-in-chief of the Military of the Czech Republic.
Prima televize (previously Prima family, originally Premiéra) is a Czech private television station.
The Chairman of the Government of the Czech Republic (Czech: Předseda vlády České republiky), normally referred to in English as the Prime Minister, is the head of the Government of the Czech Republic.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
Dom Prokop Diviš, O.Praem. (26 March 1698 – 21 December 1765) was a Czech canon regular, theologian and natural scientist.
Prokop the Great (Prokop Veliký, Procopius Magnus) or Prokop the Bald or the Shaven (Czech: Prokop Holý, Latin: Procopius Rasus) (c. 1380 – 30 May 1434) was a Czech Hussite general and a prominent Taborite military leader during the Hussite Wars.
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
There are at least six types of protected areas of the Czech Republic.
Protector, sometimes spelled protecter, is used as a title or part of various historical titles of heads of state and others in authority.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers, works and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object that might be shaped like a human, animal or mythical creature, or another object to create the illusion that the puppet is "alive".
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons, are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum.
The Purkinje effect (sometimes called the Purkinje shift) is the tendency for the peak luminance sensitivity of the human eye to shift toward the blue end of the color spectrum at low illumination levels as part of dark adaptation.
The Purkinje fibers (Purkinje tissue or subendocardial branches) are located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium in a space called the subendocardium.
Purkinje images are reflections of objects from the structure of the eye.
The Quadi were a Suebian Germanic tribe who lived approximately in the area of modern Moravia in the time of the Roman Empire.
R.U.R. is a 1920 science fiction play by the Czech writer Karel Čapek.
Radek Vondráček (born 30 December 1973) is a Czech lawyer and politician who has served as Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic since November 2017.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Radio Prague (Český rozhlas 7 - Radio Praha) is the official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic.
Rafael Jeroným Kubelík (29 June 191411 August 1996) was a Czech-born conductor and composer.
René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926), better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist.
Ralph Benatzky (5 June 1884 – 16 October 1957), born in Moravské Budějovice as Rudolf Josef František Benatzki, was an Austrian composer of Czech origin (when Benatzky was born Bohemia was part of the Austrian Empire; Benatzky mostly worked in Vienna).
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
A realm is a community or territory over which a sovereign rules; It is commonly used to describe a kingdom or other monarchical or dynastic state.
The red squirrel or Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is a species of tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus common throughout Eurasia.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
According to the Act no.
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
Reinmar von Zweter (also spelled Reymar von Zwetel, Reymar von Zweten, Römer von Zwickau, Ehrenbote, born around 1200 in Zeutern, today known as Ubstadt-Weiher, Germany; died after 1248) was a Middle High German poet of Spruchdichtung.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Renaissance Revival (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a broad designation that covers many 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Grecian (see Greek Revival) nor Gothic (see Gothic Revival) but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes.
René Wellek (August 22, 1903 – November 11, 1995) was a Czech-American comparative literary critic.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Resistance to German Nazi occupation in Czechoslovakia during World War II is a scarcely documented subject, by and large a result of little formal resistance and an effective German policy that deterred acts of resistance or annihilated organizations of resistance.
Resolute Support Mission or Operation Resolute Support is a NATO-led train, advise and assist mission consisting of over 13,000 troops in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, which began on January 1, 2015.
Revivalism in architecture is the use of visual styles that consciously echo the style of a previous architectural era.
A set of revolutions took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849.
A rhetorical question is a figure of speech in the form of a question that is asked to make a point rather than to elicit an answer.
Ricardo Bofill Leví (born 5 December 1939) is a Spanish architect, who, since 1963, continues to lead the international architectural and urban design practice Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura.
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.
Romance films or romance movies are romantic love stories recorded in visual media for broadcast in theaters and on TV that focus on passion, emotion, and the affectionate romantic involvement of the main characters and the journey that their genuinely strong, true and pure romantic love takes them through dating, courtship or marriage.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Romanesque Revival (or Neo-Romanesque) is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rudolf Firkušný (11 February 191219 July 1994) was a Czech-born, Czech-American classical pianist.
Charles Rudolf Friml.
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.
Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).
Rudolf Serkin (28 March 1903 – 8 May 1991) was a Bohemian-born pianist.
Rudolf Slánský (31 July 1901 – 3 December 1952) was a Czech Communist politician.
A rusalka (translit; rusałka) is a female spirit in Slavic mythology and folklore.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
RWE Supply & Trading CZ is the largest natural gas trading company in the Czech Republic.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (English: "griffin") is a light single-engine multirole fighter aircraft manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab.
Saint Wenceslas Chorale (Svatováclavský chorál) or simply Saint Wenceslas is the church hymn and one of the oldest known Czech songs and Czech religious anthems.
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
Samo founded the first recorded political union of Slavic tribes, known as Samo's Empire (realm, kingdom, or tribal union), stretching from Silesia to present-day Slovenia, ruling from 623 until his death in 658.
Samo's Empire is the historiographical name for the West Slavic tribal union established by King ("Rex") Samo, which existed between 631 and 658.
Sauerkraut is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
The Second Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Česko-Slovenská republika), sometimes also called the Czech-Slovak Republic, existed for 169 days, between 30 September 1938 and 15 March 1939.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
The Sedlec Ossuary (Kostnice v Sedlci) is a small Roman Catholic chapel, located beneath the Cemetery Church of All Saints (Czech: Hřbitovní kostel Všech Svatých), part of the former Sedlec Abbey in Sedlec, a suburb of Kutná Hora in the Czech Republic.
Self-immolation is an act of killing oneself as a sacrifice.
Semtex is a general-purpose plastic explosive containing RDX and PETN.
The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Senát Parlamentu České republiky), usually referred to as Senate, is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Shadowgun is a third-person shooter developed and published by Madfinger Games for iOS, BlackBerry PlayBook and Android.
A show trial is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Silent Hill: Downpour is a survival horror video game developed by Vatra Games and published by Konami Digital Entertainment.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory.
Silesians (Silesian: Ślůnzoki; Silesian German: Schläsinger; Ślązacy; Slezané; Schlesier) are the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
The Sinfonietta (subtitled “Military Sinfonietta” or “Sokol Festival”) is a very expressive and festive, late work for large orchestra (of which 25 are brass players) by the Czech composer Leoš Janáček.
The sirloin steak is cut from the back of the animal.
Sportovní klub Slavia Praha – fotbal (Sports Club Slavia Prague – Football), commonly known as Slavia Praha / Slavia Prague, is a Czech professional football club in Prague.
The Slavonic Dances (Slovanské tance) are a series of 16 orchestral pieces composed by Antonín Dvořák in 1878 and 1886 and published in two sets as Op. 46 and Op. 72 respectively.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slivovitz, Šljivovica, Śliwowica, Slivovitza, Schlivowitz, Slivovitsa, Slivovice, Slivovica or Slivovka is a fruit brandy made from damson plums, often referred to as plum brandy.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát), was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
Slovaks in the Czech Republic are the country's second-largest ethnic minority; after the Moravians, who are native to the Czech Republic.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Smažený sýr (or vyprážaný syr – both meaning "fried cheese" – is a Czech and Slovak cheese-based dish that is widely consumed in both countries of the former state of Czechoslovakia. It is a common street food in both countries. A slice of cheese (which is usually Edam, but may also be Hermelín or Niva in the Czech Republic, Emmental in Slovakia) about 1.5 cm thick is first breaded with flour, egg, and bread crumbs and then fried either in a pan or deep-fat fryer. It is typically served with tartar sauce or mayonnaise, and is often served accompanied by a side salad, potatoes (fries or boiled potatoes) It is similar to the Italian Mozzarella in Carrozza. The dish may also be prepared with a thin slice of ham inserted between two slices of cheese, and in Czech fast food outlets it is often served in the form of a sandwich – in something similar to a hamburger bun.
Sněžka or Śnieżka (in Czech and Polish) is a mountain on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland, the most prominent point of the Silesian Ridge in the Krkonoše mountains.
The social market economy (SOME; soziale Marktwirtschaft), also called Rhine capitalism, is a socioeconomic model combining a free market capitalist economic system alongside social policies which establish both fair competition within the market and a welfare state.
Socialism with a human face (in Czech: socialismus s lidskou tváří, in Slovak: socializmus s ľudskou tvárou) was a political programme announced by Alexander Dubček and his colleagues agreed at Presidium of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia on April 1968 after he became the chairman of the Party in January 1968.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
The Sokol movement (falcon) is an all-age gymnastics organization first founded in Prague in the Czech region of Austria-Hungary in 1862 by Miroslav Tyrš and Jindřich Fügner.
SOR Libchavy (Sdružení Opravárenství a Rozvoje) is a Czech manufacturer of buses for urban, intercity and tourist traffic and trolleybuses.
A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The South Moravian Region (Jihomoravský kraj; Juhomoravský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia (an exception is Jobova Lhota which belongs to Bohemia).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa (a developed mineral spring).
Space Engineers is a voxel-based sandbox game set in space and on planets.
The Spartakiads or Spartakiades in Czechoslovakia were mass gymnastics events, designed to celebrate the Red Army's liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1945.
The President of the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Předseda Poslanecké sněmovny parlamentu České republiky), normally referred to as the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, is an elected presiding member of the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
A road speed limit is the limit of speed allowed by law for road vehicles, usually the maximum speed allowed.
Saint Barbara's Church (Chrám svaté Barbory) is a Roman Catholic church in Kutná Hora (Bohemia) in the style of a Cathedral, and is sometimes referred to as the Cathedral of St Barbara (Katedrál sv.). Cathedral of S.t Barbara It is one of the most famous Gothic churches in central Europe and it is a UNESCO world heritage site.
The Church of Saint Nicholas (Kostel svatého Mikuláše) is a Baroque church in the Lesser Town of Prague.
The Metropolitan Cathedral of Saints Vitus, Wenceslaus and Adalbert (metropolitní katedrála svatého Víta, Václava a Vojtěcha) is a Roman Catholic metropolitan cathedral in Prague, the seat of the Archbishop of Prague.
Stadion Evžena Rošického, also known simply as Strahov, is a multi-purpose stadium in Strahov, Prague in the Czech Republic.
Stanislav Brebera (10 August 1925 – 11 May 2012) was a Czech chemist.
Stanislav "Stan" Grof (born July 1, 1931) is a Czech psychiatrist, one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology and a researcher into the use of non-ordinary states of consciousness for purposes of exploring, healing, and obtaining growth and insights into the human psyche.
Stanislav Gross (30 October 1969 – 16 April 2015) was a Czech lawyer and politician who served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic and Leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party from 2004 until 2005 when he resigned as a result of his financial irregularities.
Strahov Monastery (Strahovský klášter) is a Premonstratensian abbey founded in 1143 by Jindřich Zdík, Bishop John of Prague, and Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia.
The Great Strahov Stadium (Velký strahovský stadion) is a stadium in the Strahov district of Prague, Czech Republic.
The Straka Academy (in Czech: Strakova akademie) is the seat of the Government of the Czech Republic.
Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.
The Sudeten German Party (Sudetendeutsche Partei, SdP, Sudetoněmecká strana) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of the Sudeten German Homeland") on October 1, 1933, some months after the state of Czechoslovakia had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP).
German Bohemians, later known as the Sudeten Germans, were ethnic Germans living in the lands of the Bohemian Crown, which later became an integral part of the state of Czechoslovakia.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
The Sudetes (also known as the Sudeten after their German name; Czech: Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie, Sudetská subprovincie, subprovincie Sudety, Sudetská pohoří, Sudetské pohoří, Sudety; Polish: Sudety) are a mountain range in Central Europe.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
The Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic (Nejvyšší správní soud České republiky) is the court of highest authority on issues of procedural and administrative propriety.
The Supreme Court of the Czech Republic (Nejvyšší soud České republiky) is the court of highest appeal for almost all legal cases heard in the Czech Republic.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Svatopluk Čech (February 21, 1846 in Ostředek near Benešov – February 23, 1908 in Prague) was a Czech writer, journalist and poet.
Svatopluk I or Svätopluk I, also known as Svatopluk the Great (Latin: Zuentepulc, Zuentibald, Sventopulch, Old Church Slavic Свѧтопълкъ and transliterated Svętopъłkъ, Polish: Świętopełk, Greek: Sphendoplokos) was a ruler of Great Moravia, which attained its maximum territorial expansion during his reign (870–871, 871–894).
Svatopluk Pluskal (28 October 1930 – 29 May 2005) was a Czechoslovak footballer and holder of a silver medal from the World Cup in Chile in 1962.
Svíčková, or svíčková na smetaně (beef sirloin in cream sauce), is a typical Czech dish and one of the most popular Czech meals.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
A sweet roll or sweet bun refers to any of a number of sweet, baked, yeast-leavened breakfast or dessert foods.
A symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL) is a digital subscriber line (DSL) that transmits digital data over the copper wires of the telephone network, where the bandwidth in the downstream direction, from the network to the subscriber, is identical to the bandwidth in the upstream direction, from the subscriber to the network.
The Symphony No.
Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.
The T-72 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank that entered production in 1971.
The T-72M4 CZ is an upgraded Czech version of the Soviet-made main battle tank T-72.
T-Mobile is the brand name used by the mobile communications subsidiaries of the German telecommunications company Deutsche Telekom AG.
The Taborites (Czech Táborité, singular Táborita) were a Radical Hussite faction within the Hussite movement in medieval Lands of the Bohemian Crown.
Tadeáš Hájek z Hájku (1 December 1525 in Prague – 1 September 1600 in Prague), also known as Tadeáš Hájek of Hájek, Thaddaeus Hagecius ab Hayek or Thaddeus Nemicus, was a Czech naturalist, personal physician of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II and an astronomer in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Tartare sauce (spelled tartar sauce in the USA) is a mayonnaise or aioli-based sauce of French origin, and is typically of a rough consistency due to the addition of diced gherkins or other varieties of pickles.
Tatra is a Czech vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice.
Tři oříšky pro Popelku, also known as Three Wishes for Cinderella and broadcast in the UK under the title Three Gifts for Cinderella) is a Czechoslovak/East German fairy-tale film from 1973. It was directed by Václav Vorlíček in co-production between DEFA-Studio für Spielfilme and Barrandov Studios. The story was based on a fairy tale written by Božena Němcová (a Bohemian variation of the classic Cinderella fairytale). The film had its international premiere in East Berlin in 1973.
Telefónica, S.A. is a Spanish multinational broadband and telecommunications provider with operations in Europe, Asia, and North, Central and South America.
Following the break-up of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the successor states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, continued to share the 42 country code until 28 February 1997, with the Czech Republic then adopting 420 and Slovakia adopting 421.
Temelín Nuclear Power Station (Jaderná elektrárna Temelín, abbreviation JETE) is located near Temelín, a small village in the Czech Republic.
Temperate deciduous or temperate broad-leaf forests are dominated by trees that lose their leaves each year.
Terezín (Theresienstadt) is a former military fortress composed of citadel and adjacent walled garrison town of Litoměřice District, in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Atlas of Economic Complexity is a 2011 economics book by Ricardo Hausmann, Cesar A. Hidalgo, Sebastián Bustos, Michele Coscia, Sarah Chung, Juan Jimenez, Alexander Simoes and Muhammed A. Yıldırım.
The Bartered Bride (Prodaná nevěsta, The Sold Bride) is a comic opera in three acts by the Czech composer Bedřich Smetana, to a libretto by Karel Sabina.
The Castle (Das Schloss, also spelled Das Schloß) is a 1926 novel by Franz Kafka.
The Elementary School (Obecná škola) is a 1991 Czechoslovak comedy film directed by Jan Svěrák.
The Firemen's Ball (or The Fireman's Ball, Hoří, má panenko) is a 1967 comedy film directed by Miloš Forman.
The Good Soldier Švejk (also spelled Schweik, Shveyk or Schwejk) is the abbreviated title of an unfinished satirical dark comedy novel by Jaroslav Hašek.
The Good Soldier Schweik (Dobrý voják Švejk) is a 1956 Czech color antiwar comedy film written and directed by Karel Steklý.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Shop on Main Street (Czech/Slovak: Obchod na korze; in the UK A Shop on the High Street) is a 1965 Czechoslovak film about the Aryanization programme during World War II in the Slovak State.
The Slav Epic (Slovanská epopej) is a cycle of 20 large canvases painted by Czech Art Nouveau painter Alfons Mucha between 1910 and 1928.
The Trial (original German title: Der Process, later Der Proceß, Der Prozeß and Der Prozess) is a novel written by Franz Kafka between 1914 and 1915 and published posthumously in 1925.
The Unbearable Lightness of Being (Nesnesitelná lehkost bytí) is a 1984 novel by Milan Kundera, about two women, two men, a dog and their lives in the 1968 Prague Spring period of Czechoslovak history.
The Valley of the Bees (Údolí včel) is a 1967 Czechoslovak historical drama film directed by František Vláčil.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theodoric of Prague or Master Theoderic (in Latin Magister Theodoricus; working ca. 1360–1380) was a Bohemian Gothic painter who was court painter to Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and the first Bohemian painter whose name can be linked to a body of work.
Theresienstadt concentration camp, also referred to as Theresienstadt ghetto, was a concentration camp established by the SS during World War II in the garrison city of Terezín (Theresienstadt), located in German-occupied Czechoslovakia.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
A tilting train is a train that has a mechanism enabling increased speed on regular rail tracks.
Timothy David Snyder (born 1969) is an American author and historian specializing in the history of Central and Eastern Europe, and the Holocaust.
Tipsport Arena is a multi-purpose arena in Prague, Czech Republic, whose naming rights are currently leased to Czech betting company Tipsport.
Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného (c. 1333 – 1401/1409) was a Czech nobleman, writer, theologian, translator, and preacher.
Tomáš Berdych (born 17 September 1985) is a Czech professional tennis player who is currently ranked No.
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, sometimes anglicised to Thomas Masaryk (7 March 1850 – 14 September 1937), was a Czech politician, statesman, sociologist and philosopher.
Tomáš Rosický (born 4 October 1980) is a Czech former professional footballer who was the captain of the Czech Republic national team for a ten-year period.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Marie Čermínová (21 September 1902, Prague – 9 November 1980, Paris), known as Toyen, was a Czech painter, drafter and illustrator and a member of the surrealist movement.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
A trading nation (also known as a trade-dependent economy, or an export-oriented economy) is a country where international trade makes up a large percentage of its economy.
Trail blazing is to make a mark on a tree by slashing the bark to indicate the direction of a trail through forested wilderness.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
A triumvirate (triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs (triumviri).
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
Truck Simulator is a vehicle simulation game series created by SCS Software.
"Truth prevails" (Pravda vítězí, Pravda víťazí, Veritas vincit) is the national motto of the Czech Republic.
TV Barrandov is a Czech television channel, launched in 2009.
TV Nova is a Czech commercial television station.
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and contested by top-division European clubs.
The UEFA European Championship (known informally as the Euros) is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.
Uherské Hradiště (Ungarisch Hradisch, Magyarhradis) is a town in the Moravia, (Zlín Region) of the Czech Republic, located southwest of Zlín on the Morava River.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
There is a large community of Ukrainians in the Czech Republic.
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Economics, Prague (Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze, VŠE, also called Prague School of Economics) is an economics and business-oriented public university located in Prague, Czech Republic.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Utraquism (from the Latin sub utraque specie, meaning "in both kinds") or Calixtinism (from chalice; Latin: calix, mug, borrowed from Greek kalyx, shell, husk; Czech: kališníci) was a principal dogma of the Hussites and one of the Four Articles of Prague.
Václav Brožík (Vaclav de Brozik; 6 March 1851, Třemošná - 15 April 1901 Paris) was a Czech painter who worked in the academic style.
Václav Havel (5 October 193618 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
Václav Havel Airport Prague (Letiště Václava Havla Praha), formerly Prague Ruzyně International Airport (Mezinárodní letiště Praha-Ruzyně),, is the international airport of Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic.
Václav Klaus (born 19 June 1941) is a Czech economist and politician who served as the second President of the Czech Republic from 2003 to 2013.
Václav Matěj Kramerius (he preferred to write his name in old form as Kraméryus; February 9, 1753 in Klatovy, Bohemia – March 22, 1808 in Prague) was a Czech publisher, journalist and writer, one of the most important early figures of the Czech National Revival.
Václav Neumann (29 September 1920 – 2 September 1995) was a Czech conductor, violinist and viola player.
Václav Talich (28 May 1883 – 16 March 1961) was a Czech conductor, violinist and pedagogue.
Vítězslav Nezval (26 May 1900 – 6 April 1958) was one of the most prolific avant-garde Czech writers in the first half of the twentieth century and a co-founder of the Surrealist movement in Czechoslovakia.
Vítězslav Novák (5 December 1870 – 18 July 1949) was a Czech composer and pedagogue.
Věra Čáslavská (3 May 1942 – 30 August 2016) was a Czechoslovak artistic gymnast and Czech sports official.
Věra Chytilová (2 February 1929 – 12 March 2014) was an avant-garde Czech film director and pioneer of Czech cinema.
As of the year 2017 there are two different valid systems of vehicle registration plates in the Czech Republic.
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
The Venus of Dolní Věstonice (Věstonická venuše) is a Venus figurine, a ceramic statuette of a nude female figure dated to 29,000–25,000 BCE (Gravettian industry).
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vietcong is a 2003 tactical first-person shooter video game developed by Pterodon in cooperation with Illusion Softworks and published by Gathering of Developers for Microsoft Windows.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic, including residents and citizens, form the largest immigrant community in the country, as well as the third largest ethnic minority overall (after Slovaks and Ukrainians), numbering more than 83,000 people according to 2011 census.
Viktor Dyk (31 December 1877 – 14 May 1931) was a nationalist Czech poet, prose writer, playwright, politician and political writer.
Viktor Ullmann (1 January 1898, in Teschen – 18 October 1944, in KZ Auschwitz-Birkenau) was a Silesia-born Austrian composer, conductor and pianist.
Vilém Flusser (May 12, 1920 – November 27, 1991) was a Czech-born philosopher, writer and journalist.
Vilém Mathesius (3 August 1882, Pardubice – 12 April 1945, Prague) was a Czech linguist, literary historian and co-founder of the Prague Linguistic Circle.
The Villa Müller (Müllerova vila, Haus Müller) is Modernist a villa in Prague, Czech Republic built in 1930.
Villa Tugendhat is a historical building in the wealthy neighbourhood of Černá Pole in Brno, Czech Republic.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
Visa requirements for Czech citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Czech Republic.
The Visa Waiver Program (VWP) is a program of the United States Government which allows citizens of specific countries to travel to the United States for tourism, business, or while in transit for up to 90 days without having to obtain a visa.
The Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four, or V4 is a cultural and political alliance of four Central European statesthe Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, that are members of the European Union (EU)for the purposes of advancing military, cultural, economic and energy cooperation with one another along with furthering their integration in the EU.
Vladimír Šmicer (born 24 May 1973) is a Czech former footballer who played as a midfielder.
Vladimír Špidla (born 22 April 1951) is a Czech politician who served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from July 2002 to June 2004 and as European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities from November 2004 to February 2010.
Vladimír Holan (September 16, 1905 – March 31, 1980) was a Czech poet famous for employing obscure language, dark topics and pessimist views in his poems.
Vladimír Remek (born 26 September 1948) is a Czech politician and diplomat as well as a former cosmonaut and military pilot.
Vlado Milunić (born March 3, 1941) is a Czech architect.
The Vltava (Moldau) is the longest river within the Czech Republic, running southeast along the Bohemian Forest and then north across Bohemia, through Český Krumlov, České Budějovice and Prague, and finally merging with the Elbe at Mělník.
Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications conglomerate, with headquarters in London.
Vojtěch Adalbert Hynais (also Albert; 14 January 1854, Vienna – 22 August 1925, Prague) was a Czech painter, designer and graphics artist.
Vojtěch Jasný (born November 30, 1925) is a Czech director who came to prominence in the sixties.
Vyšší Brod Monastery (Vyšebrodský klášter) or Hohenfurth Abbey is one of the most important historical landmarks of South Bohemia.
Wallenstein Palace (Valdštejnský palác) is a Baroque palace in Malá Strana, Prague, that served as a residence for Imperial Generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein and now houses the Senate of the Czech Republic.
War with the Newts (Válka s mloky in the original Czech), also translated as War with the Salamanders, is a 1936 satirical science fiction novel by Czech author Karel Čapek.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
A water park or waterpark is an amusement park that features water play areas such as swimming pools, water slides, splash pads, water playgrounds, and lazy rivers, as well as areas for bathing, swimming, and other barefoot environments.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
Wenceslas (Václav, or Wenzel) Bojer (23 September 1795 in Řesanice, Bohemia, now Czech Republic – 4 June 1856 in Port Louis, Mauritius) was a notable naturalist and botanist.
Wenceslaus Hajek of Libočan (Václav Hájek z Libočan; Wenzeslaus Hagek von Libotschan; Wenceslai Hagecii, Wenceslai Hagek a Liboczan; died 18 March 1553) was a Bohemian chronicler, author of the Annales Bohemorum (Kronyka Czeská or Kronika Česká in modern Czech).
Václav Hollar (13 July 160725 March 1677), was a Bohemian etcher, known in England as Wenceslaus or Wenceslas and by speakers of German as Wenzel Hollar.
(Saint) Wenceslaus I (Václav; c. 907 – September 28, 935), Wenceslas I or Václav the Good was the duke (kníže) of Bohemia from 921 until his assassination in 935.
Wenceslaus II Přemyslid (Václav II.; Wacław II Czeski; 27 SeptemberK. Charvátová, Václav II. Král český a polský, Prague 2007, p. 18. 1271 – 21 June 1305) was King of Bohemia (1278–1305), Duke of Cracow (1291–1305), and King of Poland (1300–1305).
Wenceslaus III (Václav III., Vencel, Wacław, Václav; 6 October 12894 August 1306) was King of Hungary between 1301 and 1305, and King of Bohemia and Poland from 1305.
The concept of Western betrayal refers to the view that the United Kingdom and France failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish nations during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The palaearctic Western European broadleaf forests is an ecoregion, in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome, that covers a large area in Western Europe including: Switzerland, Austria, France, Germany and Czech Republic.
Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian and later American chess master, and the first undisputed World Chess Champion, from 1886 to 1894.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
A wireless Internet service provider (WISP) is an Internet service provider with a network based on wireless networking.
Wojciech Żywny (Vojtěch Živný; May 13, 1756February 21, 1842) was a Czech-born Polish pianist, violinist, teacher and composer.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
The Zakarpattia Oblast (Закарпатська область, translit.; see other languages) is an administrative oblast (province) located in southwestern Ukraine, coterminous with the historical region of Carpathian Ruthenia.
Zaolzie is the Polish name for an area now in the Czech Republic which was disputed between interwar Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Zdeněk Michael František Burian (February 11, 1905, Kopřivnice, Moravia, Austria-Hungary – July 1, 1981 Prague, Czechoslovakia) was a Czech painter and book illustrator whose work played a central role in the development of palaeontological reconstruction.
Zdeněk Fibich (21 December 1850 – 15 October 1900) was a Czech composer of classical music.
Zdeněk Miler (21 February 1921 – 30 November 2011) was a Czech animator and illustrator best known for his Mole (Krtek or Krteček in original) character and its adventures.
Zdenko Hans Skraup (March 3, 1850 – September 10, 1910) was a Czech-Austrian chemist who discovered the Skraup reaction, the first quinoline synthesis.
Zetor (since January 1, 2007, officially Zetor Tractors a.s.) is a brand of tractors, trademark and Czech manufacturer based in Brno, Líšeň.
Zlín (Zlin) is a city in southeastern Moravia in the Czech Republic, the seat of the Zlín Region, on the Dřevnice River.
Zlín Film Festival, also known as the International Film Festival for Children and Youth (Mezinárodní festival filmů pro děti a mládež) is an annual festival of children's film in Zlín in the Czech Republic.
The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research.
.cz is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Czech Republic.
.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
The meridian 12° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
18 Wheels of Steel is a series of trucking simulators developed by SCS Software and published by ValuSoft from 2002 to 2011.
The 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état (often simply the Czech coup) (Únor 1948, Február 1948, both meaning "February 1948") – in Marxist historiography known as "Victorious February" (Vítězný únor, Víťazný február) – was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, marking the onset of four decades of communist rule in the country.
The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 24 October 1964.
The 1964 World Men's Handball Championship was the fifth team handball World Championship.
The 12th European Athletics Championships were held from 29 August to 3 September 1978 in the Stadion Evžena Rošického in Prague, the capital city of Czechoslovakia (present-day Czech Republic).
The 1990 World Men's Handball Championship was the 12th team handball World Championship.
The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially the, and commonly known as Nagano 1998, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 in Nagano, Japan.
The 1999 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships was the 64th such event hosted by the International Ice Hockey Federation.
The meridian 19° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps (Prvý československý armádny zbor, První československý armádní sbor) was a military formation of the Czechoslovak Army in exile fighting on the Eastern Front alongside the Soviet Red Army in World War II.
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.
The 2013 UEFA Super Cup was the 38th UEFA Super Cup, an annual football match organised by UEFA and contested by the reigning champions of the two main European club competitions, the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League.
The 33rd European Athletics Indoor Championships were held from 5 to 8 March 2015 in the O2 Arena in Prague, Czech Republic.
The 2015 IIHF World Championship was the 79th event hosted by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), held in Prague and Ostrava, Czech Republic, between 1–17 May 2015.
The 2015 UEFA European Under-21 Championship was the 20th edition of the UEFA European Under-21 Championship, a biennial international football competition for men's under-21 national teams organised by UEFA.
2K Czech, s.r.o. (formerly Illusion Softworks, a.s.) was a Czech video game developer based in Brno.
The 48th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 48 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 51st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 51 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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