384 relations: Abiogenesis, Acetogenesis, Acetyl-CoA, Action potential, Active site, Active transport, Adenine, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Aerobic organism, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alkane, Alkene, Allosteric regulation, Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid, Amino acid, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Ammonia, Amphiphile, Anabolism, Anthropogenic metabolism, Antibiotic, Antibody, Antimetabolite, Antioxidant, Aristotle, Aristotle's biology, Aspartic acid, ATP synthase, Autotroph, Bacteria, Bacterial cell structure, Basal metabolic rate, Benzene, Beta oxidation, Bicarbonate, Biochemistry, Biodegradation, Biogeochemical cycle, Biological membrane, Biomolecular structure, Bioremediation, Biotechnology, Blood sugar level, Bow tie (biology), C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation, Calcium, Calorimetry, ..., Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carboxylic acid, Carotenoid, Catabolism, Catalase, Catalysis, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion, Cell cycle, Cell membrane, Cell signaling, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Chemical reaction, Chemotroph, Chitin, Chloride, Chlorine, Chloroform, Chloroplast, Cholesterol, Chromatography, Citric acid cycle, Classical element, Closed system, Cofactor (biochemistry), Control theory, Coupling (physics), Crassulacean acid metabolism, Cyanobacteria, Cytochrome b6f complex, Cytochrome P450, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, Decarboxylation, Dehydration reaction, Dehydrogenase, Denitrification, Deoxyribose, Diffusion, Digestion, Digestive enzyme, Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, Dissipative system, Disulfide, DNA, DNA microarray, DNA repair, DNA replication, Drug, Ecology, Eduard Buchner, Efficacy, Electrochemical gradient, Electrolyte, Electron microscope, Electron transport chain, Elephant, Endosymbiont, Energy, Entropy, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Enzyme kinetics, Ergosterol, Escherichia coli, Essential amino acid, Ester, Eukaryote, Evolution, Evolutionary history of life, ExPASy, Experiment, Extracellular fluid, Fat, Fatty acid, Fatty acid synthase, Fermentation in food processing, Ferritin, Ferrous, Fluid balance, Flux, Folate, Formate, Formic acid, Friedrich Wöhler, Fructose, Functional group, Futile cycle, Galactose, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene expression, Globular protein, Glucogenic amino acid, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glucose 6-phosphate, Glucuronosyltransferase, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glutathione, Glutathione S-transferase, Glycan, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Glycerol, Glycine, Glycogen, Glycogen synthase, Glycolysis, Glycoside hydrolase, Glycosyltransferase, Glyoxylate cycle, Greek language, Green sulfur bacteria, Growth factor, Guanine, Hans Adolf Krebs, Hans Kornberg, Hemoglobin, Heterocyclic compound, Heterotroph, HIV, Holism, Homeostasis, Hormone, Host (biology), Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrolysis, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hydroxy group, Ibn al-Nafis, Inborn errors of metabolism, Inorganic compound, Inosine, Insulin, Insulin receptor, Ion, Ion channel, Iron, Iron(II) oxide, Iron–sulfur world hypothesis, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, Isoprene, Isothermal microcalorimetry, Isotopic labeling, KEGG, Keto acid, Ketone, Ketone bodies, Lactate dehydrogenase, Lactic acid, Lanosterol, Last universal common ancestor, Laws of thermodynamics, Life, Light-independent reactions, Lipid, Lithotroph, Louis Pasteur, Macromolecule, Magnesium, MANET database, Messenger RNA, Metabolic disorder, Metabolic engineering, Metabolic network, Metabolic pathway, Metabolome, Metallothionein, Methanogen, Mevalonate pathway, Molecular dynamics, Molecule, Monomer, Monosaccharide, Multicellular organism, Muscle, Muscle contraction, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Natural product, Nerve, Network theory, Niacin, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nitrate, Nitrification, Nitrite, Nitrogen, Nitrogenous base, Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, Non-mevalonate pathway, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Nucleic acid, Nucleobase, Nucleoside, Nucleotide, Nutrition, Oligosaccharyltransferase, Open system (systems theory), Organic compound, Organism, Organochloride, Organotroph, Orotic acid, Osmotic pressure, Overflow metabolism, Oxaloacetic acid, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxidative stress, Oxygen, Pancreas, Parasitism, Parts of Animals, Pentose, Pentose phosphate pathway, Peptide bond, Peroxidase, Persistent organic pollutant, PH, Phosphatase, Phosphate, Phospholipid, Phosphorus, Phosphorylase, Phosphorylation, Photosynthesis, Photosynthetic pigment, Photosynthetic reaction centre, Photosystem, Phototroph, Plant, Plastid, Poison, Polymer, Polynucleotide, Polysaccharide, Potassium, Primary nutritional groups, Prokaryote, Protease, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein folding, Protein kinase, Protein purification, Proteomics, Protist, Proton, Purine, Purple bacteria, Pyrimidine, Pyruvic acid, Radioactive tracer, Reactive oxygen species, Reactome, Receptor (biochemistry), Redox, Reducing agent, Reductase, Reductionism, Respirometry, Reverse Krebs cycle, Reverse transcriptase, Rhodopsin, Ribose, Ribosome, Ribozyme, RNA, RNA virus, RNA world, RuBisCO, Salivary gland, Santorio Santorio, Scaffolding, Scleroprotein, Second law of thermodynamics, Second messenger system, Shikimic acid, Sleep, Sodium, Soil fertility, Solvent, Specific dynamic action, Sphingolipid, Sphingosine, Spliceosome, Spontaneous process, Squalene, Starch, Steroid, Stomach, Stream metabolism, Substrate (chemistry), Sulfate, Sulfide, Sulfur, Sulfur metabolism, T-tubule, Terpene, Terpenoid, Theologus Autodidactus, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thiosulfate, Thomas D. Brock, Three-domain system, Thylakoid, Trace element, Transaminase, Transcription (biology), Transfer RNA, Transition metal, Triglyceride, Unicellular organism, Urban metabolism, Urea, Urea cycle, Uridine diphosphate glucose, Vertebrate, Virus, Vitalism, Vitamin, Work (thermodynamics), X-ray crystallography, Xenobiotic, Yeast, Zinc, 1,3-Propanediol, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid. Expand index (334 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Acetogenesis is a process through which acetate is produced from CO2 and an electron source (e.g., H2, CO, formate, etc.) by anaerobic bacteria via the reductive acetyl-CoA or Wood-Ljungdahl pathway.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
α-Ketoglutaric acid (2-oxoglutaric acid) is one of two ketone derivatives of glutaric acid.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Anthropogenic metabolism, also referred to as 'metabolism of the anthroposphere', is a term used in industrial ecology, material flow analysis, and waste management to describe the material and energy turnover of human society.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacteria, despite their simplicity, contain a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of their unique biological structures and pathogenicity.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
In biochemistry and metabolism, beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
In the biological sciences, the term bow tie (so called for its shape) is a recent concept that tries to grasp the essence of some operational and functional structures observed in biological organisms and other kinds of complex and self-organizing systems.
carbon fixation is one of three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation in photosynthesis, along with c4 and CAM.
C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.
In physics, two objects are said to be coupled when they are interacting with each other.
Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
The cytochrome b6f complex (plastoquinol—plastocyanin reductase) is an enzyme found in the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts of plants, cyanobacteria, and green algae, that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from plastoquinol to plastocyanin.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
A dehydrogenase (also called DH or DHase in the literature) is an enzyme belonging to the group of oxidoreductases that oxidizes a substrate by reducing an electron acceptor, usually NAD+/NADP+ or a flavin coenzyme such as FAD or FMN.
Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process where nitrate is reduced and ultimately produces molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP; or alternatively, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP); also isoprenyl pyrophosphate) is an isoprenoid precursor.
A dissipative system is a thermodynamically open system which is operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which it exchanges energy and matter.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Eduard Buchner (20 May 1860 – 13 August 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
ExPASy is a bioinformatics resource portal operated by the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and in particular the SIB Web Team.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FASN gene.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.
In chemistry, ferrous (Fe2+), indicates a divalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation state).
Fluid balance is an aspect of the homeostasis of organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept within healthy ranges.
Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Formate (IUPAC name: methanoate) is the anion derived from formic acid.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
A futile cycle, also known as a substrate cycle, occurs when two metabolic pathways run simultaneously in opposite directions and have no overall effect other than to dissipate energy in the form of heat.
Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Globular proteins or spheroproteins are spherical ("globe-like") proteins and are one of the common protein types (the others being fibrous, disordered and membrane proteins).
A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Robison ester) is a glucose sugar phosphorylated at the hydroxy group on carbon 6.
Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a cytosolic glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a small hydrophobic molecule.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), previously known as ligandins, comprise a family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes best known for their ability to catalyze the conjugation of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) to xenobiotic substrates for the purpose of detoxification.
The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is the metabolite that occurs as an intermediate in several central pathways of all organisms.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycogen synthase (UDP-glucose-glycogen glucosyltransferase) is a key enzyme in glycogenesis, the conversion of glucose into glycogen.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in complex sugars.
Glycosyltransferases (GTFs, Gtfs) are enzymes (EC 2.4) that establish natural glycosidic linkages.
The glyoxylate cycle, a variation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is an anabolic pathway occurring in plants, bacteria, protists, and fungi.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (25 August 1900 – 22 November 1981) was a German-born British physician and biochemist.
Sir Hans Leo Kornberg, FRS (born 14 January 1928) is a German-born British biochemist.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
Inborn errors of metabolism form a large class of genetic diseases involving congenital disorders of metabolism.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The insulin receptor (IR) is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and belongs to the large class of tyrosine kinase receptors.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO.
The iron–sulfur world hypothesis is a set of proposals for the origin of life and the early evolution of life advanced in a series of articles between 1988 and 1992 by Günter Wächtershäuser, a Munich patent lawyer with a degree in chemistry, who had been encouraged and supported by philosopher Karl R. Popper to publish his ideas.
Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate, or IDP) is an isoprenoid precursor.
Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2.
Isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) is a laboratory method for real-time monitoring and dynamic analysis of chemical, physical and biological processes.
Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope (an atom with a detectable variation) through a reaction, metabolic pathway, or cell.
KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes, biological pathways, diseases, drugs, and chemical substances.
Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes).
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid and is the compound from which all animal and fungal steroids are derived.
The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.
The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lithotrophs are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e., ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
--> The Molecular Ancestry Network (MANET) database is a bioinformatics database that maps evolutionary relationships of protein architectures directly onto biological networks.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the cells' production of a certain substance.
A metabolic network is the complete set of metabolic and physical processes that determine the physiological and biochemical properties of a cell.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
The metabolome refers to the complete set of small-molecule chemicals found within a biological sample.
Metallothionein (MT) is a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da) proteins.
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria.
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Network theory is the study of graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or asymmetric relations between discrete objects.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
A nitrogenous base, or nitrogen-containing base, is an organic molecule with a nitrogen atom that has the chemical properties of a base.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but can be described in terms of variables (non-equilibrium state variables) that represent an extrapolation of the variables used to specify the system in thermodynamic equilibrium.
The non-mevalonate pathway—also appearing as the mevalonate-independent pathway and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate/1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (MEP/DOXP) pathway—is an alternative metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP).
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from dolichol to nascent protein.
An open system is a system that has external interactions.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.
An organotroph is an organism that obtains hydrogen or electrons from organic substrates.
Orotic acid is a heterocyclic compound and an acid; it is also known as pyrimidinecarboxylic acid.
Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.
Overflow metabolism refers to the seemingly wasteful strategy in which cells incompletely oxidize their growth substrate (e.g. glucose) instead of using the more energetically-efficient respiratory pathway, even in the presence of oxygen.
Oxaloacetic acid (also known as oxalacetic acid) is a crystalline organic compound with the chemical formula HO2CC(O)CH2CO2H.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Parts of Animals (or On the Parts of Animals; Greek Περὶ ζῴων μορίων; Latin De Partibus Animalium) is one of Aristotle's major texts on biology.
A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms.
The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phosphorylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a phosphate group from an inorganic phosphate (phosphate+hydrogen) to an acceptor.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A photosynthetic pigment (accessory pigment; chloroplast pigment; antenna pigment) is a pigment that is present in chloroplasts or photosynthetic bacteria and captures the light energy necessary for photosynthesis.
A photosynthetic reaction centre is a complex of several proteins, pigments and other co-factors that together execute the primary energy conversion reactions of photosynthesis.
Photosystems are functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis that together carry out the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis: the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons.
Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Primary nutritional groups are groups of organisms, divided in relation to the nutrition mode according to the sources of energy and carbon, needed for living, growth and reproduction.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
Protein purification is a series of processes intended to isolate one or a few proteins from a complex mixture, usually cells, tissues or whole organisms.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, that is, capable of producing their own food via photosynthesis.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Reactome is a free online database of biological pathways.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
A reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
Respirometry is a general term that encompasses a number of techniques for obtaining estimates of the rates of metabolism of vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, tissues, cells, or microorganisms via an indirect measure of heat production (calorimetry).
The reverse Krebs cycle (also known as the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reverse TCA cycle, or the reverse citric acid cycle) is a sequence of chemical reactions that are used by some bacteria to produce carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviations RuBisCO, RuBPCase, or RuBPco, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
Santorio Santorio (29 March 1561 – 22 February 1636), also called Sanctorio Sanctorio, Santorio Santorii, Sanctorius of Padua, Sanctorio Sanctorius and various combinations of these names, was a Venetian physiologist, physician, and professor, who introduced the quantitative approach into medicine.
Scaffolding, also called scaffold or staging, is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man made structures.
Scleroproteins or fibrous proteins constitute one of the three main types of proteins (alongside globular and membrane proteins).
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Shikimic acid, more commonly known as its anionic form shikimate, is a cyclohexene, a cyclitol and a cyclohexanecarboxylic acid.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Specific dynamic action (SDA), also known as Thermic effect of food (TEF) or dietary induced thermogenesis (DIT), is the amount of energy expenditure above the basal metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage.
Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine.
Sphingosine (2-amino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol) is an 18-carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, which forms a primary part of sphingolipids, a class of cell membrane lipids that include sphingomyelin, an important phospholipid.
A spliceosome is a large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the splicing speckles of the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
A spontaneous process is the time-evolution of a system in which it releases free energy and it moves to a lower, more thermodynamically stable energy state.
Squalene is a natural 30-carbon organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil (hence its name, as Squalus is a genus of sharks), although plant sources (primarily vegetable oils) are now used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Stream metabolism, also known as aquatic ecosystem metabolism in lakes, can be expressed as net ecosystem productivity (NEP), the difference between gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER).
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur is metabolized by all organisms, from bacteria and archaea to plants and animals.
Transverse tubules (T-tubules) are extensions of the cell membrane that penetrate into the centre of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
Theologus Autodidactus ("The Self-taught Theologian"), originally titled The Treatise of Kāmil on the Prophet's Biography (الرسالة الكاملية في السيرة النبوية), also known as Risālat Fādil ibn Nātiq ("The Book of Fādil ibn Nātiq"), was the first theological novel, written by Ibn al-Nafis.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
Thiosulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; sometimes thiosulphate in British English) is an oxyanion of sulfur.
Thomas Dale Brock (born September 10, 1926) is an American microbiologist known for his discovery of hyperthermophiles living in hot springs at Yellowstone National Park.
The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.
A trace element is a chemical element whose concentration (or other measure of amount) is very low (a "trace amount").
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
Urban metabolism is a model to facilitate the description and analysis of the flows of the materials and energy within cities, such as undertaken in a material flow analysis of a city.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3).
Uridine diphosphate glucose (uracil-diphosphate glucose, UDP-glucose) is a nucleotide sugar.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
In thermodynamics, work performed by a system is the energy transferred by the system to its surroundings, that is fully accounted for solely by macroscopic forces exerted on the system by factors external to it, that is to say, factors in its surroundings.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
1,3-Propanediol is the organic compound with the formula CH2(CH2OH)2.
3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP).
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