315 relations: Acetic acid, Acid anhydride, Air dryer, Air freshener, Air ioniser, Air purifier, Air quality index, Airliner, Aldehyde, Alkali metal, Alkene, Allotropes of oxygen, Allotropy, Alternative medicine, Aluminium, American Cancer Society, American Geophysical Union, Americium, Ammonia, Ammonium nitrate, Anhydrous, Anode, Antichlor, Antimicrobial, Antiozonant, Antiseptic, Aqueous solution, Arc suppression, Arc welding, Arsenic, Asthma, Atheronals, Atherosclerosis, Atlantic halibut, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Beaumont, California, Bleach, Bleaching of wood pulp, Bond order, Bromate, Bromide, Bronchitis, Brush (electric), Bulletin for the History of Chemistry, Calcium, California, California Polytechnic State University, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, ..., Carbon dioxide equivalent, Carbon tetrachloride, Carbonyl group, Carboxylic acid, Cardiovascular disease, Catalysis, Catatumbo lightning, Catatumbo River, Cathode, Chemical formula, Chemiluminescence, Chlorine, Chlorine dioxide, Chlorofluorocarbon, Christian Friedrich Schönbein, Clean Air Act (United States), Climate change, Combustion, Commutator (electric), Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Concentration, Corona discharge, Critical point (thermodynamics), Cryptosporidium, Cyanate, Cyanide, Cyclic ozone, Death, Debye, Deflagration, Diamagnetism, Diatomic molecule, Dichloromethane, Dicyanoacetylene, Dielectric barrier discharge, Diketone, Dimer (chemistry), Dimethyl sulfide, Dipole, Direct current, Disinfectant, Disulfur monoxide, Dobson unit, Double bond, Earth, Electric arc, Electric current, Electric motor, Electric power, Electrical equipment, Electricity, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electromagnetic radiation, Electroshock weapon, Embrittlement, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, European Union, Federal Aviation Administration, Flocculation, Food additive, Food and Drug Administration, Fossil fuel, Fruit, Fuel line, Gasket, Giardia lamblia, Glass, Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars, Global warming, Global warming potential, Goddard Space Flight Center, Gold, Greek language, Greenhouse gas, Haddock, Half-cell, Half-life, Haloalkane, Halogen, Health effect, Hemoglobin, Henry Henshaw, High voltage, Hot tub, Houston, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydroxyl radical, Hypalon, Hypobromous acid, Hypochlorite, Immune system, Indoor air quality, Industrial Revolution, Inflammation, Infrared, Insulator (electricity), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Internal combustion engine, International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodine, Ion-exchange resin, IPCC Third Assessment Report, Iridium, Iron, Jacques-Louis Soret, James Dewar, John Gray McKendrick, Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, Laser printing, Lead, Lead dioxide, Lead(II) sulfate, Lead(II) sulfide, Leonard Hill (physiologist), Lightning, Liquid, Manganese, Martin Flack, Martin van Marum, Mass fraction (chemistry), Medication, Metal, Methane, Mexico, Mexico City, Microwave spectroscopy, Mining, Molar concentration, Mole fraction, Molecular symmetry, Molecule, Montreal Protocol, Mucous membrane, Myocardial infarction, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural rubber, Neon-sign transformer, Nine-volt battery, Nitrate, Nitric oxide, Nitrile rubber, Nitrite, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, Nitronium perchlorate, NOx, O-ring, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Organic compound, Organic Reactions, Organochloride, Overpotential, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Oxygen concentrator, Ozone Action Day, Ozone cracking, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Ozone therapy, Ozone–oxygen cycle, Ozoneweb, Ozonide, Ozonolysis, Paper, Paramagnetism, Perchloric acid, Peroxyacyl nitrates, Pesticide, Phase (matter), Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Photocopier, Photodissociation, Photon, Photosynthesis, Phytoplankton, Plasma (physics), Platinum, Plutonium, Polymer, Polymer degradation, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Polyvinylidene fluoride, Potassium hydroxide, Precipitation (chemistry), Preferred IUPAC name, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Pungency, Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital, Radiative forcing, Radical (chemistry), Reagent, Redox, Reduction potential, Resonance (chemistry), Respiratory disease, Respiratory system, Room temperature, Safe Drinking Water Act, Salt (chemistry), Schumann–Runge bands, Scripps Research Institute, Silicone rubber, Silver, Single bond, Singlet oxygen, Smog, Sodium hypochlorite, Solea senegalensis, Solid, Solubility, Spa, Spark gap, Spore, Stainless steel, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standard electrode potential (data page), Sterilization (microbiology), Stratosphere, Styrene-butadiene, Sulfate, Sulfide, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Sulfurous acid, Superoxide, Synthetic oil, Tagetes, Textile conservator, Tin(II) chloride, Titanium, Triatomic molecule, Trioxidane, Trisulfur, Trivial name, Tropospheric ozone, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of Zulia, Urea, Vegetable, Venezuela, Victorian era, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Viton, Volatile organic compound, Volt, Voltage, Water, White blood cell, World Health Organization, World Heritage site, World War I, Zinc. 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Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
An acid anhydride is formed when two acid structures combine with loss of a water molecule.
See Also: Compressed air dryer A compressed air dryer is used for removing water vapor from compressed air.
Air fresheners are consumer products used in homes, or commercial products used in restrooms, that typically emit fragrance.
An air ioniser (or negative ion generator or Chizhevsky's chandelier) is a device that uses high voltage to ionise (electrically charge) air molecules.
An air purifier or air cleaner is a device which removes contaminants from the air in a room.
An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air currently is or how polluted it is forecast to become.
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
There are several known allotropes of oxygen.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound, the nitrate salt of the ammonium cation.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
An antichlor is a substance used to decompose residual hypochlorite or chlorine after chlorine-based bleaching, in order to prevent ongoing reactions with, and therefore damage to, the material that has been bleached.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
An antiozonant, also known as anti-ozonant, is an organic compound that prevents or retards the degradation of material caused by ozone (ozone cracking).
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Arc suppression is the reduction of sparks formed when current-carrying contacts are separated.
Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atheronals are biologically relevant oxysterols formed in the reaction of cholesterol with ozone.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
The Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Beaumont is a city in Riverside County, California, United States located at a half mile elevation in the pass area south of Southern California's highest peak, San Gorgonio Mountain, and north of San Jacinto Peak.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
Bleaching of wood pulp is the chemical processing of wood pulp to lighten its color and whiten the pulp.
Bond order is the number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms.
The bromate anion, BrO, is a bromine-based oxoanion.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.
A brush is a device which conducts current between stationary wires and moving parts, most commonly in a rotating shaft.
The Bulletin for the History of Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles on the history of chemistry.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
California Polytechnic State University (also known as California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, or Cal Poly) is a public university located in San Luis Obispo, California. It is one of two polytechnics in the California State University system. The university is organized into six colleges offering 64 bachelor's and 32 master's degrees. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo primarily focuses on undergraduate education with 20,425 undergraduate and 881 graduate students.. The university is located in San Luis Obispo, California often noted as one of the happiest cities in the United States, with many alumni in Silicon Valley. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo is known for its "learn by doing" philosophy that encourages students to combine theory with practice to solve real-world problems. The university participates in the Big West Conference in athletics.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon dioxide equivalent (CDE) and equivalent carbon dioxide (e and eq) are two related but distinct measures for describing how much global warming a given type and amount of greenhouse gas may cause, using the functionally equivalent amount or concentration of carbon dioxide as the reference.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Catatumbo lightning (Relámpago del Catatumbo) is an atmospheric phenomenon in Venezuela.
The Catatumbo River (Río Catatumbo) is a river rising in northern Colombia, flowing into Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemiluminescence (also chemoluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Prof Christian Friedrich Schönbein HFRSE(18 October 1799 – 29 August 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is best known for inventing the fuel cell (1838) at the same time as William Robert Grove and his discoveries of guncotton and ozone.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A commutator is a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electrical generators that periodically reverses the current direction between the rotor and the external circuit.
Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (English: Proceedings of the Academy of sciences), or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged.
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.
Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasitic alveolates that can cause a respiratory and gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) that primarily involves watery diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) with or without a persistent cough (respiratory cryptosporidiosis) in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient humans.
The cyanate ion is an anion with the chemical formula written as − or −. In aqueous solution it acts as a base, forming isocyanic acid, HNCO.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyclic ozone is a theoretically predicted form of ozone.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.
Dicyanoacetylene, also called carbon subnitride or but-2-ynedinitrile (IUPAC), is a compound of carbon and nitrogen with chemical formula C4N2.
Dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) is the electrical discharge between two electrodes separated by an insulating dielectric barrier.
A diketone or dione is a molecule containing two ketone groups.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or methylthiomethane is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2S.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Disulfur monoxide or sulfur suboxide is an inorganic compound with formula S2O.
The Dobson unit (DU) is a unit of measurement of the amount of a trace gas in a vertical column through the Earth's atmosphere.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
Electrical equipment includes any machine powered by electricity.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
An electroshock weapon is an incapacitating weapon.
Embrittlement is a loss of ductility of a material, making it brittle.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A fuel line is a hose used to bring fuel from one point in a vehicle to another or from a storage tank to a vehicle.
gasket A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression.
Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis, is a flagellated parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), is an instrument on board the European satellite Envisat launched 1 March 2002.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is a saltwater fish from the family Gadidae, the true cods, it is the only species in the monotypic genus Melanogrammus.
A half-cell is a structure that contains a conductive electrode and a surrounding conductive electrolyte separated by a naturally occurring Helmholtz double layer.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Health effects (or health impacts) are changes in health resulting from exposure to a source.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Henry Wetherbee Henshaw (March 3, 1850 – August 1, 1930) was an American ornithologist.
The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.
A hot tub is a large tub or small pool full of water used for hydrotherapy, relaxation or pleasure.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).
In polymer science, Hypalon is a trademark for chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) synthetic rubber (CSM) noted for its resistance to chemicals, temperature extremes, and ultraviolet light.
Hypobromous acid is a very weak and unstable acid with chemical formula of HOBr.
In chemistry, hypochlorite is an ion with the chemical formula ClO−.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
September 16 was designated by the United Nations General Assembly as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange.
The IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR), Climate Change 2001, is an assessment of available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change by the IPCC.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Jacques-Louis Soret (30 June 1827 – 13 May 1890) was a Swiss chemist who in 1878, along with Marc Delafontaine, first observed holmium spectroscopically.
Sir James Dewar FRS FRSE (20 September 1842 – 27 March 1923) was a Scottish chemist and physicist.
Prof John Gray McKendrick FRS FRSE FRCPE LLD (12 August 1841 – 2 January 1926) was a distinguished Scottish Physiologist.
The Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1956 by the American Chemical Society.
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead(IV) oxide, commonly called lead dioxide or plumbic oxide or anhydrous plumbic acid (sometimes wrongly called lead peroxide) is a chemical compound with the formula PbO2.
Lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4) is a white solid, which appears white in microcrystalline form.
Lead(II) sulfide (also spelled sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the formula PbS.
Sir Leonard Erskine Hill FRS (2 June 1866, in Bruce Castle, Tottenham – 30 March 1952, in Corton, Suffolk) was a British physiologist.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Martin William Flack (20 March 1882 – 16 August 1931) was a British physiologist who co-discovered the sinoatrial node with Sir Arthur Keith in 1907.
Martin(us) van Marum (20 March 1750, Delft – 26 December 1837, Haarlem) was a Dutch physician, inventor, scientist and teacher, who studied medicine and philosophy in Groningen.
In chemistry, the mass fraction w_i is the ratio of one substance with mass m_i to the mass of the total mixture m_\text, defined as The symbol Y_i is also used to denote mass fraction.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Microwave spectroscopy is the spectroscopy method that employs microwaves, i.e. electromagnetic radiation at GHz frequencies, for the study of matter.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).
Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of molecules according to their symmetry.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, pronounced \'naks\) are standards for harmful pollutants.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
A neon-sign transformer (NST) is a transformer made for the purpose of powering a neon sign.
The nine-volt battery, or 9-volt battery, is a common size of battery that was introduced for the early transistor radios.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrile rubber, also known as NBR, Buna-N, and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, is a synthetic rubber copolymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitronium perchlorate, NO2ClO4, also known as nitryl perchlorate and nitroxyl perchlorate, is an inorganic chemical, the salt of the perchlorate anion and the nitronium cation.
In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.
An O-ring, also known as a packing, or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a round cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic Reactions is a secondary reference which synthesizes the organic chemistry literature around particular chemical transformations.
An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.
In electrochemistry, overpotential is the potential difference (voltage) between a half-reaction's thermodynamically determined reduction potential and the potential at which the redox event is experimentally observed.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
An oxygen concentrator is a device which concentrates the oxygen from a gas supply (typically ambient air) to supply an oxygen-enriched gas stream.
An Ozone Action Day, which can be declared by a local municipality, country or state, is observed at certain times during the summer months, when weather conditions (such as heat, humidity, and air stagnation) run the risk of causing health problems.
Cracks can be formed in many different elastomers by ozone attack, and the characteristic form of attack of vulnerable rubbers is known as ozone cracking.
Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
Ozone therapy is a form of alternative medicine treatment that purports to increase the amount of oxygen in the body through the introduction of ozone.
The ozone–oxygen cycle is the process by which ozone is continually regenerated in Earth's stratosphere, converting ultraviolet radiation (UV) into heat.
Ozoneweb is an EEA website on near real-time ozone.
Ozonide is the unstable, reactive polyatomic anion analog of ozone or any of several classes of organic organic peroxide compounds similar formed by the reaction of ozone with an unsaturated compound.
Ozonolysis is an organic reaction where the unsaturated bonds of alkenes, alkynes, or azo compounds are cleaved with ozone.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.
Peroxyacyl nitrates (also known as Acyl peroxy nitrates, APN or PANs) are powerful respiratory and eye irritants present in photochemical smog.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine) is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polymer degradation is a change in the properties—tensile strength, color, shape, etc.—of a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals such as acids, alkalis and some salts.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC nomenclature.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
Pungency is the condition of having a strong, sharp smell or flavor that is often so strong that it is unpleasant.
The Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital (Millbank) (QAMH) opened in July 1905.
Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
The Schumann–Runge bands are a set of absorption bands of molecular oxygen that occur at wavelengths between 176 and 192.6 nanometres.
The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is a nonprofit American medical research facility that focuses on research and education in the biomedical sciences.
Silicone rubber is an elastomer (rubber-like material) composed of silicone—itself a polymer—containing silicon together with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
In chemistry, a single bond is a chemical bond between two atoms involving two valence electrons.
Singlet oxygen, systematically named dioxygen(singlet) and dioxidene, is a gaseous inorganic chemical with the formula O.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
Solea senegalensis, the Senegalese sole, is a species of flatfish from the family of the true soles, the Soleidae, from the eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring water (and sometimes seawater) is used to give medicinal baths.
A spark gap consists of an arrangement of two conducting electrodes separated by a gap usually filled with a gas such as air, designed to allow an electric spark to pass between the conductors.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
The data values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below, in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, and are for the following conditions.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
Styrene-butadiene or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) describe families of synthetic rubbers derived from styrene and butadiene (the version developed by Goodyear is called Neolite).
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sulfurous acid (also sulphurous acid) is the chemical compound with the formula H2SO3.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
Synthetic oil is a lubricant consisting of chemical compounds that are artificially made.
Tagetes is a genusSoule, J. A. 1996.
A textile conservator is a conservator-restorer charged with the care, treatment, research, and preservation of textiles.
Tin(II) chloride, also known as stannous chloride, is a white crystalline solid with the formula 2.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Triatomic molecules are molecules composed of three atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements.
Trioxidane (also systematically named μ-trioxidanediidodihydrogen), also called hydrogen trioxide or dihydrogen trioxide, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written as or). It is one of the unstable hydrogen polyoxides (and therefore hydrogen chalcogenides).
The molecule or trisulfur or sulfur trimer or thiozone or triatomic sulfur is an allotrope of sulfur.
In chemistry, a trivial name is a nonsystematic name for a chemical substance.
Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer).
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The University of Zulia (La Universidad del Zulia, also known as LUZ literally meaning "light" in Spanish), is a public university whose main campus is located in the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Viton is a brand of FKM, a synthetic rubber and fluoropolymer elastomer commonly used in O-rings, chemical-resistant gloves, and other molded or extruded goods.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Activated Oxygen, Activated oxygen, Electric smell, Electricity smell, Oxygen 3, Oxygen dioxide, Ozonation, Ozonator, Ozone Chemical, Ozone generator, Ozone in water, Ozoneator, Ozonizer, O₃, Smell of electricity, Triatomic oxygen, Trioxygen.