198 relations: Adam Smith, Agent (economics), Agriculture, Amschel Mayer Rothschild, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient history, Anthropology, Antwerp, Applied science, Babylonia, Babysitting, Balance of trade, Bank, Barley, Barter, Biodiversity loss, Black market, Board of chosen freeholders, Business administration, Business ethics, Capital (economics), Capitalism, Car, Child labour, Christopher Columbus, Citizenship, City-state, Coal, Colony, Commerce, Commodity money, Company, Competition, Consumer spending, Consumerism, Consumption (economics), Credit, Currency, Customs, Debits and credits, Debt, Debt bondage, Demand, Developing country, Distribution (economics), Division of labour, Ecological economics, Econometrics, Economic anthropology, ..., Economic equilibrium, Economic geography, Economic growth, Economic history, Economic sector, Economic sociology, Economic system, Economic union, Economics, Economics education, Economist, Economy, Ecosystem services, Engineering, English language, Europe, Exchange rate, Extensive farming, Factor price, Film, Finance, France, Free trade, Friedrich Hayek, Geography, Gift economy, Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, Globalization, Goods, Goods and services, Government debt, Great Britain, Great Depression, Greek language, Green economy, Gross domestic product, Gross national product, History, History of money, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Human overpopulation, Industrial relations, Industrial Revolution, Industry, Inflation, Information economy, Infrastructure, Innovation, Interest rate, Internet, Investment, Iron, Jakob Fugger, John Kenneth Galbraith, John Maynard Keynes, Keynesian economics, Knowledge economy, List of economists, List of free-trade agreements, List of multilateral free-trade agreements, Lists of countries by GDP per capita, Low-carbon economy, Macroeconomics, Maize, Management, Manufacturing, Marco Polo, Market (economics), Market economy, Mass production, Medium of exchange, Mercantilism, Merchant, Mesopotamia, Metric (mathematics), Microeconomics, Middle Ages, Milton Friedman, Mining, Monoculture, Nation state, Neoliberalism, Netherlands, New World, Nobility, North America, Physiocracy, Planned economy, Portugal, Post-industrial society, Postmodernism, Primary sector of the economy, Private sector, Product (business), Production (economics), Profession, Protectionism, Public interest, Public sector, Quaternary sector of the economy, Raw material, Real gross domestic product, Real versus nominal value (economics), Research, Revolutions of 1989, Saving, Scarcity, Secondary sector of the economy, Secretary of state, Secularization, Service (economics), Shekel, Social group, Social market economy, Social science, Socialism, Sociology, Spain, Stock exchange, Stock market, Subsistence agriculture, Subsistence economy, Sumer, Supply (economics), Supply and demand, Technology, Tertiary sector of the economy, Textile, The Affluent Society, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The Wall Street Journal, Thermoeconomics, Thomas Robert Malthus, Three-sector theory, Trade, Transport, Unemployment, United Kingdom, Universal access to education, Value (economics), Vasco da Gama, Venture capital, Voluntary sector, Wirtschaftswunder, Wood, World, World economy, World war. Expand index (148 more) » « Shrink index
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
In economics, an agent is an actor and more specifically a decision maker in a model of some aspect of the economy.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Baron Amschel Mayer von Rothschild (12 June 1773 – 6 December 1855) was a German Jewish banker of the wealthy Rothschild family.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Babysitting is temporarily caring for a child.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
In New Jersey, a board of chosen freeholders is the county legislature in each of the state's 21 counties.
Business administration is management of a business.
Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.
A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.
Consumer spending, consumption, or consumption expenditure is the acquisition of goods and services by individuals or families.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.
Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country.
In double entry bookkeeping, debits and credits (abbreviated Dr and Cr, respectively) are entries made in account ledgers to record changes in value resulting from business transactions.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
Debt bondage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is a person's pledge of labour or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where there is no hope of actually repaying the debt.
In economics, demand is the quantities of a commodity or a service that people are willing and able to buy at various prices, over a given period of time.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
In economics, distribution is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital).
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.
Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data and is described as the branch of economics that aims to give empirical content to economic relations.
Economic anthropology is a field that attempts to explain human economic behavior in its widest historic, geographic and cultural scope.
In economics, economic equilibrium is a state where economic forces such as supply and demand are balanced and in the absence of external influences the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change.
Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.
One classical breakdown of economic activity distinguishes three sectors.
Economic sociology is the study of the social cause and effect of various economic phenomena.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
An economic union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a common market with a customs union.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Economics education or economic education is a field within economics that focuses on two main themes: 1) the current state of, and efforts to improve, the economics curriculum, materials and pedagogical techniques used to teach economics at all educational levels; and 2) research into the effectiveness of alternative instructional techniques in economics, the level of economic literacy of various groups, and factors that influence the level of economic literacy. Economics education is distinct from economics of education, which focuses on the economics of the institution of education.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
Extensive farming or extensive agriculture (as opposed to intensive farming) is an agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labor, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed.
In economic theory, the price of a finished item affects the factors of production, the various costs and incentives of producing it, so as to 'attract' it toward a theoretical Factor price.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards.
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (c. 1360 – 20/28 February 1429) was an Italian banker and founder of the Medici Bank.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.
Goods are items that are tangible, such as pens, salt, apples, oganesson, and hats.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The green economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of money concerns the development of means of carrying out transactions involving a medium of exchange.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Information economy is an economy with an increased emphasis on informational activities and information industry.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Jakob Fugger of the Lily (Jakob Fugger von der Lilie) (6 March 1459 – 30 December 1525), also known as Jakob Fugger the Rich or sometimes Jakob II, was a major German merchant, mining entrepreneur and banker.
John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.
This is an incomplete alphabetical list by surname of notable economists, experts in the social science of economics, past and present.
The List of free-trade agreements has been split into.
This is a list of multilateral free-trade agreements, between several countries all treated equally.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
A low-carbon economy (LCE), low-fossil-fuel economy (LFFE), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the biosphere, but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
A medium of exchange is a tradeable entity used to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system.
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
In mathematics, a metric or distance function is a function that defines a distance between each pair of elements of a set.
Microeconomics (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Physiocracy (from the Greek for "government of nature") is an economic theory developed by a group of 18th century Enlightenment French economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development" and that agricultural products should be highly priced.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need.
Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output).
A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
Public interest is "the welfare or well-being of the general public".
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
The quaternary sector of the economy is a way to describe a knowledge-based part of the economy, which typically includes services such as information technology, information-generation and -sharing, media, and research and development, as well as knowledge-based services like consultation, education, financial planning, blogging, and designing.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
Real Gross Domestic Product (real GDP) is a macroeconomic measure of the value of economic output adjusted for price changes (i.e., inflation or deflation).
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Saving is income not spent, or deferred consumption.
Scarcity refers to the limited availability of a commodity, which may be in demand in the market.
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
Shekel (Akkadian: šiqlu or siqlu; שקל,. shekels or sheqalim) is any of several ancient units of weight or of currency.
In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.
The social market economy (SOME; soziale Marktwirtschaft), also called Rhine capitalism, is a socioeconomic model combining a free market capitalist economic system alongside social policies which establish both fair competition within the market and a welfare state.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
In economics, supply is the amount of something that firms, consumers, labourers, providers of financial assets, or other economic agents are willing to provide to the marketplace.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Affluent Society is a 1958 (4th edition revised 1984) book by Harvard economist John Kenneth Galbraith.
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Thermoeconomics, also referred to as biophysical economics, is a school of heterodox economics that applies the laws of statistical mechanics to economic theory.
Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.
The three-sector theory is an economic theory which divides economies into three sectors of activity: extraction of raw materials (primary), manufacturing (secondary), and services (tertiary).
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Universal access to education is the ability of all people to have equal opportunity in education, regardless of their social class, gender, ethnicity background or physical and mental disabilities.
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Venture capital (VC) is a type of private equity, a form of financing that is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth (in terms of number of employees, annual revenue, or both).
The voluntary sector or community sector (also non-profit sector or not-for-profit sector) is the duty of social activity undertaken by organizations that are not-for-profit and non-governmental.
The term Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle"), also known as The Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an Ordoliberalism-based social market economy).
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.