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Trade

Index Trade

Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. [1]

236 relations: Accounting, Adam Smith, Advertising, Age of Discovery, Agricultural subsidy, Amber Road, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Bachelor of Commerce, Baltic region, Bamber Gascoigne, Banknote, Bankruptcy, Barter, BBC, Bilateral trade, Bitcoin, Boutique, Bretton Woods system, Bristol, Bronze, Business, Cancún, Cape of Good Hope, Capital (economics), Capitalism, Caravan (travellers), Cargo, Chert, China, Chinese economic reform, Christian, Circa, Civilization, Cog (ship), Commercial law, Commodity, Commodity money, Common Era, Comparative advantage, Consumption (economics), Corporation, Cost of goods sold, Credit, Cryptocurrency, Cuba, Currency, Dark Ages (historiography), David Ricardo, Demand, Department store, ..., Developed country, Developing country, Digital currency, Distribution (marketing), Division of labour, Doha, Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement, Douglas Harper, Dutch East India Company, Dutch Republic, E-commerce, Earnings, East Indies, Ebla, Eco commerce, Economic globalization, Economic sanctions, Economic surplus, Economics, Economy, Emporium (antiquity), Environmental movement, European Union, Export, Export-oriented industrialization, Faculty, Fair, Fair trade, Finance, Financial transaction, First World, Fishery, Flint, Foreign Agricultural Service, Foreign exchange controls, France, Free trade, G20, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Geneva, Globalization, Gold, Goods, Goods and services, Great Depression, Gross domestic product, Guinea, Hanseatic League, Harvest, Henry Thomas Riley, Hermes, History of communication, History of Kozhikode, Hulk (ship type), Human rights, Import, Import quota, Indus River, Indus Valley Civilisation, Industrialisation, Industry, Infant industry, Interest, International political economy, International trade, James Mill, Jewellery, Jews, John Bostock (physician), John Stuart Mill, Judeo-Christian, Kassites, Kiosk, Labour economics, Labour law, Laissez-faire, Lapis lazuli, Latin, Lipari, List of trading companies, Mail, Manual labour, Manufacturing, Market (economics), Market power, Market price, Marketing, Marketplace, Marrakesh Agreement, Mass production, Master of Commerce, Mediterranean Sea, Mercantilism, Merchandising, Mesopotamia, Middle English, Middle Low German, Milos, Milton Friedman, Moctezuma II, Money, Monopoly, Most favoured nation, Multinational corporation, Muslim, Non-governmental organization, Non-tariff barriers to trade, North American Free Trade Agreement, Northern Europe, Numismatics, Obsidian, Old English, Old Saxon, On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, Online and offline, Outsourcing, Paris, Pax Romana, Peddler, Peter Watson (intellectual historian), Phoenicia, Piracy, Planned economy, Pliny the Elder, Precious metal, Prehistoric Britain, Prehistory, Price, Price support, Product (business), Productivity, Protectionism, Proto-Germanic language, Qatar, Radhanite, Reciprocity (international relations), Retail, Robert Carr Bosanquet, Robert Torrens, Roman commerce, Roman Empire, Sales, Sar-i Sang, Second World, Self-sustainability, Service (economics), Seventeen Provinces, Silk Road, Slavery, Social issue, Sogdia, South Korea, Soviet Union, Spanish Empire, Special economic zone, Specialization (functional), Spice, Spice trade, Stone Age, Subsidy, Sumer, Suyab, Switzerland, System, Takahito, Prince Mikasa, Taraz, Tariff, Terms of trade, The Wealth of Nations, Third World, Timeline of international trade, Tin, Trade barrier, Trade facilitation, United Kingdom, United States embargo against Cuba, University of Wales Press, Usury, Varangians, Vasco da Gama, Vikings, Western Europe, Wholesaling, World Integrated Trade Solution, World Trade Organization, World War II. Expand index (186 more) »

Accounting

Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Advertising

Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.

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Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

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Agricultural subsidy

An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.

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Amber Road

The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.

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Bachelor of Commerce

A Bachelor of Commerce (baccalaureates commercii, abbreviated B.Com. or B.Comm.) is an undergraduate degree in commerce (or business) and related subjects, usually awarded in Canada, Australia, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa and other Commonwealth countries; however, the degree is no longer offered in the United Kingdom.

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Baltic region

The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

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Bamber Gascoigne

Arthur Bamber Gascoigne, (born 24 January 1935) is a British television presenter and author, best known for being the original quizmaster on University Challenge, which ran from 1962 to 1987.

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Banknote

A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.

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Barter

In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bilateral trade

Bilateral trade or clearing trade is trade exclusively between two states, particularly, barter trade based on bilateral deals between governments, and without using hard currency for payment.

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Bitcoin

Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.

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Boutique

A boutique is "a small store that sells stylish clothing, jewelry, or other usually luxury goods".

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Bretton Woods system

The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.

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Bristol

Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Business

Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).

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Cancún

Cancún is a city in southeastern Mexico on the northeast coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo.

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Cape of Good Hope

The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.

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Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Caravan (travellers)

Caravans A caravan (from کاروان) is a group of people traveling together, often on a trade expedition.

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Cargo

In economics, cargo or freight are goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by water, air or land.

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Chert

Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica, the mineral form of silicon dioxide (SiO2).

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese economic reform

The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Circa

Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.

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Civilization

A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Cog (ship)

A cog is a type of ship that first appeared in the 10th century, and was widely used from around the 12th century on.

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Commercial law

Commercial law, also known as trade law, is the body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales.

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Commodity

In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

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Commodity money

Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Comparative advantage

The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage.

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Consumption (economics)

Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.

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Corporation

A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

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Cost of goods sold

Cost of goods sold (COGS) refers to the carrying value of goods sold during a particular period.

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Credit

Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.

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Cryptocurrency

A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Currency

A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

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Dark Ages (historiography)

The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.

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David Ricardo

David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.

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Demand

In economics, demand is the quantities of a commodity or a service that people are willing and able to buy at various prices, over a given period of time.

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Department store

A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments".

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Digital currency

Digital currency (digital money or electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins).

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Distribution (marketing)

Distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix.

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Division of labour

The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.

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Doha

Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.

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Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement

The Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) is a free trade agreement (legally a treaty under international law, but not under U.S. law).

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Douglas Harper

Douglas A. Harper (born 1948) is an American sociologist and photographer.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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Dutch Republic

The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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E-commerce

E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.

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Earnings

Earnings are the net benefits of a corporation's operation.

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East Indies

The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.

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Ebla

Ebla (إبلا., modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria.

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Eco commerce

Eco commerce is a business, investment, and technology-development model that employs market-based solutions to balancing the world’s energy needs and environmental integrity.

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Economic globalization

Economic globalization is one of the three main dimensions of globalization commonly found in academic literature, with the two others being political globalization and cultural globalization, as well as the general term of globalization.

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Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.

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Economic surplus

In mainstream economics, economic surplus, also known as total welfare or Marshallian surplus (after Alfred Marshall), refers to two related quantities.

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Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Economy

An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Emporium (antiquity)

An emporium refers to a trading post, factory, or market of Classical antiquity, derived from the (empórion), which becomes emporium.

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Environmental movement

The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Export

The term export means sending of goods or services produced in one country to another country.

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Export-oriented industrialization

Export-oriented industrialization (EOI) sometimes called export substitution industrialization (ESI), export led industrialization (ELI) or export-led growth is a trade and economic policy aiming to speed up the industrialization process of a country by exporting goods for which the nation has a comparative advantage.

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Faculty

Faculty may refer to.

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Fair

A fair (archaic: faire or fayre), also known as funfair, is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities.

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Fair trade

Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.

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Finance

Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.

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Financial transaction

A financial transaction is an agreement, or communication, carried out between a buyer and a seller to exchange an asset for payment.

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First World

The concept of First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with NATO and opposed to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

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Fishery

Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.

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Flint

Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.

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Foreign Agricultural Service

The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is the foreign affairs agency with primary responsibility for the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) overseas programs—market development, international trade agreements and negotiations, and the collection of statistics and market information.

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Foreign exchange controls

Foreign exchange controls are various forms of controls imposed by a government on the purchase/sale of foreign currencies by residents or on the purchase/sale of local currency by nonresidents.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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G20

The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

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General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.

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Geneva

Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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Globalization

Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Goods

In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.

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Goods and services

Goods are items that are tangible, such as pens, salt, apples, oganesson, and hats.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Guinea

Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Harvest

Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields.

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Henry Thomas Riley

Henry Thomas Riley (1816–1878) was an English translator, lexicographer, and antiquary.

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Hermes

Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).

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History of communication

Since prehistoric times, significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) have evolved in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power.

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History of Kozhikode

Kozhikode (Malayalam:കോഴിക്കോട്), also known as Calicut, is a city in the southern Indian state of Kerala.

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Hulk (ship type)

A hulk is a ship that is afloat, but incapable of going to sea.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Import

An import is a good brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an external source.

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Import quota

An import quota is a type of trade restriction that sets a physical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Industrialisation

Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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Industry

Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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Infant industry

In economics, an infant industry is a new industry, which in its early stages experiences relative difficulty or is absolutely incapable in competing with established competitors abroad.

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Interest

Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.

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International political economy

International political economy (IPE), also known as global political economy (GPE), refers to either economics or an interdisciplinary academic discipline that analyzes economics and international relations.

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International trade

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.

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James Mill

James Mill (born James Milne, 6 April 1773 – 23 June 1836) was a Scottish historian, economist, political theorist, and philosopher.

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Jewellery

Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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John Bostock (physician)

John Bostock, Jr. MD FRS (baptised 29 June 1773, died 6 August 1846) was an English physician, scientist and geologist from Liverpool.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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Judeo-Christian

Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.

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Kassites

The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).

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Kiosk

A kiosk is a small, separated garden pavilion open on some or all sides.

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Labour economics

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

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Labour law

Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.

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Laissez-faire

Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Lapis lazuli

Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lipari

Lipari (Lìpari, Lipara, Μελιγουνίς Meligounis or Λιπάρα Lipara) is the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy; it is also the name of the island's main town and comune, which is administratively part of the Metropolitan City of Messina.

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List of trading companies

This is a list of trading companies.

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Mail

The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.

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Manual labour

Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.

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Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

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Market (economics)

A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

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Market power

In economics and particularly in industrial organization, market power is the ability of a firm to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost.

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Market price

In economics, market price is the economic price for which a good or service is offered in the marketplace.

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Marketing

Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.

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Marketplace

A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.

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Marrakesh Agreement

The Marrakesh Agreement, manifested by the Marrakesh Declaration, was an agreement signed in Marrakesh, Morocco, by 124 nations on 15 April 1994, marking the culmination of the 8-year-long Uruguay Round and establishing the World Trade Organization, which officially came into being on 1 January 1995.

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Mass production

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.

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Master of Commerce

Master of Commerce (MCom or M Comm; sometimes Magister Commercii) is a postgraduate master's degree focusing on commerce-, accounting-, management- and economics-related subjects.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mercantilism

Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).

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Merchandising

In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Middle Low German

Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.

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Milos

Milos or Melos (Modern Greek: Μήλος; Μῆλος Melos) is a volcanic Greek island in the Aegean Sea, just north of the Sea of Crete.

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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

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Moctezuma II

Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – 29 June 1520), variant spellings include Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, and referred to in full by early Nahuatl texts as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (Moctezuma the Young),moteːkʷˈsoːma ʃoːkoˈjoːtsin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.

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Money

Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.

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Monopoly

A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Most favoured nation

In international economic relations and international politics, "most favoured nation" (MFN) is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade.

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Multinational corporation

A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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Non-tariff barriers to trade

Non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs) or sometimes called "Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs)" are trade barriers that restrict imports or exports of goods or services through mechanisms other than the simple imposition of tariffs.

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North American Free Trade Agreement

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Numismatics

Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.

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Obsidian

Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Saxon

Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).

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On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation

On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (19 April 1817) is a book by David Ricardo on economics.

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Online and offline

In computer technology and telecommunications, online indicates a state of connectivity, and offline indicates a disconnected state.

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Outsourcing

In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Pax Romana

The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the Roman Empire between the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, and the death of Marcus Aurelius, last of the "good emperors".

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Peddler

A peddler, in British English pedlar, also known as a canvasser, chapman, cheapjack, hawker, higler, huckster, monger, or solicitor, is a traveling vendor of goods.

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Peter Watson (intellectual historian)

Peter Watson (born 1943) is an intellectual historian and former journalist, now perhaps best known for his work in the history of ideas.

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Phoenicia

Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Piracy

Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.

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Planned economy

A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Precious metal

A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.

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Prehistoric Britain

Several species of humans have intermittently occupied Britain for almost a million years.

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Prehistory

Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.

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Price

In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.

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Price support

In economics, a price support may be either a subsidy or a price control, both with the intended effect of keeping the market price of a good higher than the competitive equilibrium level.

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Product (business)

In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need.

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Productivity

Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.

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Protectionism

Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Qatar

Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Radhanite

The Radhanites (also Radanites, Arabic الرذنية ar-Raðaniyya; Hebrew sing. רדהני Radhani, pl. רדהנים Radhanim) were medieval Jewish merchants.

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Reciprocity (international relations)

In international relations and treaties, the principle of reciprocity states that favours, benefits, or penalties that are granted by one state to the citizens or legal entities of another, should be returned in kind.

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Retail

Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.

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Robert Carr Bosanquet

Robert Carr Bosanquet (1871–1935) was a British archaeologist, operating in the Aegean and Britain and teaching at the University of Liverpool from 1906 to 1920 as the first holder of the Chair of Classical Archaeology there.

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Robert Torrens

Sir Robert Richard Torrens, (1 July 1814 – 31 August 1884) was the third Premier of South Australia and a pioneer and author of a simplified system of transferring land.

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Roman commerce

The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Sales

Sales is activity related to selling or the amount of goods or services sold in a given time period.

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Sar-i Sang

Sar-i Sang (or Sar-e Sang) is a settlement in the Kuran Wa Munjan District of Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, famous for its ancient lapis lazuli mines producing the world's finest lapis.

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Second World

The Second World is the former industrial socialist states (formally the Eastern Bloc) largely encompassing territories under the influence of the Soviet Union.

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Self-sustainability

Self-sustainability (also called self-sufficiency) is the state of not requiring any aid, support, or interaction for survival; it is a type of personal or collective autonomy.

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Service (economics)

In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.

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Seventeen Provinces

The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Social issue

A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society.

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Sogdia

Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Special economic zone

A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country.

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Specialization (functional)

Specialization (or specialisation) is the separation of tasks within a system.

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Spice

A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.

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Spice trade

The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.

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Stone Age

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

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Subsidy

A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.

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Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Suyab

Suyab (سوی آب), also known as Ordukent (modern-day Ak-Beshim), was an ancient Silk Road city located some 50 km east from Bishkek, and 8 km west southwest from Tokmok, in the Chui River valley, present-day Kyrgyzstan.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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System

A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.

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Takahito, Prince Mikasa

was a member of the Imperial House of Japan.

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Taraz

Taraz (Тараз) (known to Europeans as Talas) is a city and the administrative center of Jambyl Region in Kazakhstan, located on the Talas (Taraz) River in the south of the country near the border with Kyrgyzstan.

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Tariff

A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.

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Terms of trade

The terms of trade (TOT) is the relative price of imports in terms of exports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices.

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The Wealth of Nations

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.

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Third World

The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.

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Timeline of international trade

The history of international trade chronicles notable events that have affected the trade between various countries.

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Tin

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Trade barrier

Trade barriers are government-induced restrictions on international trade.

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Trade facilitation

Trade facilitation looks at how procedures and controls governing the movement of goods across national borders can be improved to reduce associated cost burdens and maximise efficiency while safeguarding legitimate regulatory objectives.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States embargo against Cuba

The United States embargo against Cuba (in Cuba called el bloqueo, "the blockade") is a commercial, economic, and financial embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba.

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University of Wales Press

The University of Wales Press (Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru) was founded in 1922 as a central service of the University of Wales.

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Usury

Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.

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Varangians

The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.

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Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.

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Vikings

Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Wholesaling

Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users; or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.

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World Integrated Trade Solution

The is a trade software provided by the World Bank for users to query several international trade databases.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade

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