730 relations: Aberdeen Bay Wind Farm, Academies Act 2010, Academy (English school), Accident Compensation Corporation, Act of Parliament, Adam Smith, Adolf A. Berle, Affordability of housing in the United Kingdom, Agricultural Holdings Act 1948, Airports Act 1986, Albany International BV v Stichting Bedrijfspensioenfonds Textielindustrie, Albert O. Hirschman, Aldi, Amazon (company), Aneurin Bevan, Apache, Area health authority, Armed Forces Act 2006, Arriva, Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Arts and Humanities Research Council, Asda, Asset management, Asymmetric digital subscriber line, Autoclenz Ltd v Belcher, BAE Systems, Balcombe, Bank Charter Act 1844, Bank of England, Bank of England Act 1694, Bank of England Act 1716, Bank of England Act 1946, Bank Restriction Act 1797, Bank run, Banking Act 1979, Banking Act 2009, Barings Bank, Baron Reith, Basel III, BBC, Beatrice Webb, Beveridge Report, Bill of rights, Bioenergy, Board of directors, Bocardo SA v Star Energy UK Onshore Ltd, Bond (finance), Boris Johnson, ..., Borough Market, BP, Breast cancer, Bristol City Council, Bristol Energy, British Aerospace, British Airways, British Coal, British Empire, British Gas, British Gas plc, British Investment Bank, British Leyland, British Library, British Overseas Airways Corporation, British Rail, British Steel (1967–1999), British Telecommunications Act 1981, British Transport Commission, Britoil, Broadcasting Code, Browne Review, BT Group, Buckland v Bournemouth University Higher Education Corp, Budget of the United Kingdom, Building society, Business rates in England, Business rates in Scotland, Cable & Wireless plc, Cambridge University Act 1856, Cambridge Water Co Ltd v Eastern Counties Leather plc, Cambridge Water Company, Canadian Natural Resources, Capital Requirements Regulation 2013, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Car, Carafano v. Metrosplash.com, Inc., Carbon dioxide, Carbon tax, Care Quality Commission, Care Standards Act 2000, Central Electricity Generating Board, Charities Act 2006, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Children Act 1989, Cholera, CJEU, Clarendon Commission, Clark v University of Lincolnshire and Humberside, Clean Air Act 1956, Climate Change Act 2008, Climate Change Levy, Clinical commissioning group, Co-determination, Co-production (public services), Coal, Coal Authority, Coal Commission, Coal Industry Commission Act 1919, Coal Industry Nationalisation Act 1946, Cockerton Judgement, Collective bargaining, Commercial aviation, Commission v Austria, Commission v Germany (2007), Committee, Common land, Commons Registration Act 1965, Communications Act 2003, Community health center, Companies Act 2006, Competition, Competition Act 1998, Competition and Markets Authority, Competition Appeal Tribunal, Competition Commission, Competition law, Comprehensive school (England and Wales), Conflict of interest, Consolidated Fund, Consumer Council for Water, Consumer Credit Act 1974, Consumer Protection Act 1987, Consumer Rights Act 2015, Consumers' co-operative, Continental Shelf Act 1964 (United Kingdom), Contract for difference, Corporation Tax Act 2010, Council Tax, Countries of the United Kingdom, Court of Justice of the European Union, Covent Garden, Credit, Credit Institutions Directive 2013, Cuadrilla Resources, Daily Mail, Das Kapital, David Neuberger, Baron Neuberger of Abbotsbury, Dearing Report, Debt, Debt capital, Decarbonisation measures in proposed UK electricity market reform, Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, Department for Employment and Learning, Deutsche Telekom, Deutsche Telekom AG v Commission, Devolution in the United Kingdom, Directive on the energy performance of buildings, Director General of Fair Trading v First National Bank plc, Discounting, Donald Trump, Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016, Dortmund, Drinking Water Directive 1998, Drinking Water Inspectorate, E.ON, East Coast (train operating company), East Coast Main Line, EBay, Economic and Social Research Council, Economic inequality, EDF Energy, Education (Administrative Provisions) Act 1907, Education (Provision of Meals) Act 1906, Education Act 1902, Education Act 1918, Education Act 1944, Education Act 1962, Education Act 1996, Education Act 2002, Education Act 2005, Education and Inspections Act 2006, Education Reform Act 1988, Edward Lawrence Wheelwright, EE Limited, EE Ltd v Office of Communications, Effects of global warming, Electricity, Electricity Act 1947, Electricity Act 1989, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electronic Commerce Directive 2000, Electronic Commerce Regulations 2002, Elementary Education Act 1870, Emily Jackson, Employment, Employment Act 2008, Energy Act 2008, Energy Act 2011, Energy Act 2013, Energy Act 2016, Energy policy of the United Kingdom, English contract law, English criminal law, English land law, 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system, HIV/AIDS, HM Treasury, Horace Cutler, Household Waste Recycling Act 2003, Housing Act 1930, Housing Act 1980, Housing Act 1996, Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890, Housing, Town Planning, &c. 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Aberdeen Bay Wind Farm is an offshore wind farm located around 3 kilometres off the east coast of Aberdeenshire, in the North Sea, Scotland.
The Academies Act 2010 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Academy schools are state-funded schools in England which are directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control.
The Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) (Te Kaporeihana Āwhina Hunga Whara) is a New Zealand Crown entity responsible for administering the country's universal no-fault accidental injury scheme.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. (January 27, 1895 – February 17, 1971) was a lawyer, educator, author, and U.S. diplomat.
Affordability of housing in the UK reflects the ability to rent or buy property.
The Agricultural Holdings Act 1948 was an Act of Parliament passed in the United Kingdom by the Labour government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee.
The Airports Act 1986 (c. 31) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Albany International BV v Stichting Bedrijfspensioenfonds Textielindustrie (1999) is an EU law case, concerning the boundary between European labour law and European competition law in the European Union.
Albert Otto Hirschman (born Otto-Albert Hirschmann; April 7, 1915 – December 10, 2012) was an influential economist and the author of several books on political economy and political ideology.
Aldi (stylised as ALDI) is the common brand of two German discount supermarket chains with over 10,000 stores in 20 countries, and an estimated combined turnover of more than €50 billion.
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.
Aneurin Bevan (15 November 1897 – 6 July 1960), often known as Nye Bevan, was a Welsh Labour Party politician who was the Minister for Health in the post-war Attlee ministry from 1945-51.
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.
Area health authorities were 90 bodies responsible for administering the National Health Service, established in England by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 in 1974.
The Armed Forces Act 2006 (c 52) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Arriva is a multinational public transport company headquartered in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom.
Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights provides the right to freedom of expression and information, subject to certain restrictions that are "in accordance with law" and "necessary in a democratic society".
Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (formerly Article 82 of the Treaty establishing the European Community) is aimed at preventing undertakings who hold a dominant position in a market from abusing that position.
Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights prohibits torture, and "inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment".
The Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) was established in April 2005 as successor to the Arts and Humanities Research Board and is a British Research Council; non-departmental public body that provides approximately £102 million from the government to support research and postgraduate study in the arts and humanities, from languages and law, archaeology and English literature to design and creative and performing arts.
Asda Stores Ltd. trading as Asda, is a British supermarket retailer, headquartered in Leeds, West Yorkshire.
Asset management, broadly defined, refers to any system that monitors and maintains things of value to an entity or group.
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide.
Autoclenz Ltd v Belcher is a landmark UK labour law and English contract law case decided by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, concerning the scope of statutory protection of rights for working individuals.
BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company.
Balcombe is a village and civil parish in the Mid Sussex district of West Sussex, England.
The Bank Charter Act 1844 (7 & 8 Vict. c. 32), sometimes referred to as the Peel Banking Act of 1844, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed under the government of Robert Peel, which restricted the powers of British banks and gave exclusive note-issuing powers to the central Bank of England.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Bank of England Act 1694 (5 & 6 Will & Mar c 20), sometimes referred to as the Tonnage Act 1694, is an Act of the Parliament of England.
The Bank of England Act 1716 (3 Geo. 1 c. 8) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
The Bank of England Act 1946 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which came into force on 14 February 1946.
The Bank Restriction Act 1797 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (37 Geo. III. c. 45) which removed the requirement for the Bank of England to convert banknotes into gold.
A bank run (also known as a run on the bank) occurs when a large number of people withdraw their money from a bank, because they believe the bank may cease to function in the near future.
The Banking Act 1979 (c 37) is (or was) an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom enacted in the wake of the Secondary banking crisis of 1973–1975 to extend the Bank of England's regulatory powers over lenders (banks) and to provide protections for their depositors.
The Banking Act 2009 (c 1) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that entered into force in part on the 21 February 2009 in order, amongst other things, to replace the Banking (Special Provisions) Act 2008.
Barings Bank was a British merchant bank based in London, and the world's second oldest merchant bank (after Berenberg Bank).
Baron Reith, of Stonehaven in the County of Kincardine, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Basel III (or the Third Basel Accord or Basel Standards) is a global, voluntary regulatory framework on bank capital adequacy, stress testing, and market liquidity risk.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Martha Beatrice Webb, Baroness Passfield, (née Potter; 22 January 1858 – 30 April 1943), was an English sociologist, economist, socialist, labour historian and social reformer.
The Beveridge Report, officially entitled Social Insurance and Allied Services, is a government report, published in November 1942, influential in the founding of the welfare state in the United Kingdom.
A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country.
Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources.
A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.
Bocardo SA v Star Energy UK Onshore Ltd is a UK enterprise law case, concerning oil and gas.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), best known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, popular historian and journalist serving as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015.
Borough Market is a wholesale and retail food market in Southwark, London, England.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Bristol City Council is the local authority of Bristol, England.
Bristol Energy is a municipally owned energy company founded in 2015 by Bristol City Council.
British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a British aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer.
British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size, or the second largest, behind easyJet, when measured by passengers carried.
The British Coal Corporation was a nationalised corporation responsible for the mining of coal in the United Kingdom.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British Gas is an energy and home services provider in the United Kingdom.
British Gas plc was an energy and home services provider in the United Kingdom.
The British Investment Bank was a proposed public bank designed to finance projects of national interest.
British Leyland was an automotive engineering and manufacturing conglomerate formed in the United Kingdom in 1968 as British Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd (BLMC), following the merger of Leyland Motors and British Motor Holdings.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was the British state-owned airline created in 1940 by the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd.
British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997.
British Steel plc was a major British steel producer.
The British Telecommunications Act 1981 (1981 c.38) is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that transferred the state-owned telephone network from the Post office to a new statutory corporation, British Telecommunications, branded as "British Telecom".
The British Transport Commission (BTC) was created by Clement Attlee's post-war Labour government as a part of its nationalisation programme, to oversee railways, canals and road freight transport in Great Britain (Northern Ireland had the separate Ulster Transport Authority).
Britoil was originally a privatised British oil company operating in the North Sea.
The Broadcasting Code is a code of practice issued by the Office of Communications in the UK that requires standards of good conduct for broadcasters.
The Browne Review or Independent Review of Higher Education Funding and Student Finance was a review to consider the future direction of higher education funding in England.
BT Group plc (trading as BT and formerly British Telecom) is a British multinational telecommunications holding company with head offices in London, United Kingdom.
Buckland v Bournemouth University is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal, now governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996.
The Autumn Budget of the British Government is an annual budget set by HM Treasury for the following financial year, with the revenues to be gathered by HM Revenue and Customs and the expenditures of the public sector, in compliance with government policy.
A building society is a financial institution owned by its members as a mutual organization.
Business rates is the commonly used name in England of non-domestic rates, a tax on the occupation of non-domestic property (National Non-Domestic Rates – NNDR).
Business rates is the commonly used name of Non-Domestic Rates in Scotland, a tax on occupation of non-domestic property.
Cable & Wireless plc was a British telecommunications company.
The Cambridge University Act 1856 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which regulates corporate governance at the University of Cambridge.
Cambridge Water Co Ltd v Eastern Counties Leather plc 1 All ER 53 is a case in English tort law that established the principle that claims under nuisance and Rylands v Fletcher must include a requirement that the damage be foreseeable; it also suggested that Rylands was a sub-set of nuisance rather than an independent tort, a debate eventually laid to rest in Transco plc v Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council.
The Cambridge Water Company is a water supply utility company serving Cambridge and the surrounding area.
Canadian Natural Resources Limited, or CNRL or Canadian Natural, is a Canadian oil and gas exploration, development and production company, with its corporate head office in Calgary, Alberta.
The Capital Requirements Regulation is an EU law that aims to decrease the likelihood that banks go insolvent.
Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy is a book on economics (and in other levels, on sociology and history) by Joseph Schumpeter, arguably the most (or one of the most) famous, debated and important book by Schumpeter, and one of the most famous, debated and important books on social theory, social sciences and economics, in which he deals with capitalism, socialism and creative destruction.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carafano v. Metrosplash.com, Inc., 339 F.3d 1119 (9th Cir. 2003), is an American legal case dealing with the protection provided an internet service provider under the Communications Decency Act (CDA) United States Code Title 47 section 230(c)(1).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.
The Care Quality Commission (CQC) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health and Social Care of the United Kingdom.
Care Standards Act 2000 (CSA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which provides for the administration of a variety of care institutions, including children's homes, independent hospitals, nursing homes and residential care homes.
The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) was the cornerstone of the British electricity industry for almost forty years, from 1957 to privatisation in the 1990s.
The Charities Act 2006 (c 50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to alter the regulatory framework in which charities operate, partly by amending the Charities Act 1993.
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political, social, and economic rights for European Union (EU) citizens and residents into EU law.
The Children Act 1989 allocates duties to local authorities, courts, parents, and other agencies in the United Kingdom, to ensure children are safeguarded and their welfare is promoted.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
CJEU is a Canadian radio station licensed to broadcast a French language children's radio format at AM 1670 in Gatineau, Quebec.
The Clarendon Commission was a Royal Commission established in 1861 to investigate the state of nine leading schools in England, in the wake of complaints about the finances, buildings and management of Eton College.
Clark v University of Lincolnshire and Humberside is a UK enterprise law case, concerning the regulation of education.
The Clean Air Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in response to London's Great Smog of 1952.
The Climate Change Act 2008 (c 27) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Climate Change Levy (CCL) is a tax on energy delivered to non-domestic users in the United Kingdom.
Clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) are NHS organisations set up by the Health and Social Care Act 2012 to organise the delivery of NHS services in England.
Codetermination (also "copartnership" or "worker participation") is the practice of workers of an enterprise having the right to vote for representatives on the board of directors in a company.
Co-production is a practice in the delivery of public services in which citizens are involved in the creation of public policies and services.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Coal Authority is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government.
The Coal Commission was a United Kingdom government agency, created to own and manage coal reserves.
The Coal Industry Commission Act 1919 (c 1) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which set up a commission, led by Mr Justice Sankey (and so known as the "Sankey Commission"), to consider joint management or nationalisation of the coal mines.
The Coal Industry Nationalisation Act of 1946 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Cockerton Judgement of 1899, determined that it was unlawful for the London School Board to spend money raised in the rates to fund higher-grade classes in science and art, thus limiting them to providing education for the under 12s.
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.
Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline services) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or multiple loads of cargo.
Commission v Austria (2005) C-147/03 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
Commission v Germany (2007) is an EU law case, relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning European company law.
A committee (or "commission") is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly.
Common land is land owned collectively by a number of persons, or by one person, but over which other people have certain traditional rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect wood, or to cut turf for fuel.
The Commons Registration Act 1965 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom enacted in 1965 that concerns the registration of rights to common land, town greens, and village greens in England and Wales.
The Communications Act 2003 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
A healthcare center, health center, or community health center is one of a network of clinics staffed by a group of general practitioners and nurses providing healthcare services to people in a certain area.
The Companies Act 2006 (c 46) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which forms the primary source of UK company law.
Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.
The Competition Act 1998 is the current major source of competition law in the United Kingdom, along with the Enterprise Act 2002.
The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) is a non-ministerial government department in the United Kingdom, responsible for strengthening business competition and preventing and reducing anti-competitive activities.
The Competition Appeal Tribunal (CAT) of the United Kingdom was created by Section 12 and Schedule 2 to the Enterprise Act 2002 which came into force on 1 April 2003.
The Competition Commission was a non-departmental public body responsible for investigating mergers, markets and other enquiries related to regulated industries under competition law in the United Kingdom.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
In England and Wales, a comprehensive school is a type of secondary school that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude or the wealth of the parents of the children it accepts.
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
"Consolidated fund" or "consolidated revenue fund" is a term used in many countries with political systems derived from the Westminster system to describe the main bank account of the government.
The Consumer Council for Water (CCWater) is a non-departmental public body that represents water and sewerage consumers in England and Wales.
The Consumer Credit Act 1974 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that significantly reformed the law relating to consumer credit within the United Kingdom.
The Consumer Protection Act 1987 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that made important changes to the consumer law of the United Kingdom.
The Consumer Rights Act 2015 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that consolidates existing consumer protection law legislation and also gives consumers a number of new rights and remedies.
Consumers' co-operatives are enterprises owned by consumers and managed democratically which aim at fulfilling the needs and aspirations of their members.
The Continental Shelf Act 1964 is a UK Act of Parliament that governs the drilling for oil on the continental shelf around the British Isles.
In finance, a contract for difference (CFD) is a contract between two parties, typically described as "buyer" and "seller", stipulating that the seller will pay to the buyer the difference between the current value of an asset and its value at contract time (if the difference is negative, then the buyer pays instead to the seller).
The Corporation Tax Act 2010 (c.4) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that received Royal Assent on 3 March 2010.
Council Tax is a local taxation system used in England, Scotland and Wales.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.
Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane.
Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.
The Credit Institutions Directive is an EU law that aims to ensure banks are run prudently, and do not go insolvent.
Cuadrilla Resources is a controversial oil and gas exploration and production company founded in 2007.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
David Edmond Neuberger, Baron Neuberger of Abbotsbury, (born 10 January 1948) is an English judge.
The Dearing Report, formally known as the reports of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education, is a series of major reports into the future of Higher Education in the United Kingdom, published in 1997.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
Debt capital is the capital that a business raises by taking out a loan.
The United Kingdom is committed to legally binding greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets of 34% by 2020 and 80% by 2050, compared to 1990 levels, as set out in the Climate Change Act 2008.
The Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) is a government department, which was created by Theresa May on 14 July 2016 following her appointment as Prime Minister, created as a result of a merger between the Department of Energy and Climate Change and Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
The Department for Employment and Learning (DEL), (An Roinn Fostaíochta agus Foghlama; Ulster Scots: Depairtment for Employ an Learnin), was a devolved Northern Ireland government department in the Northern Ireland Executive.
Deutsche Telekom AG (short form in writing only: DT) is a German telecommunications company headquartered in Bonn and by revenue the largest telecommunications provider in Europe.
Deutsche Telekom AG v Commission (2010) is a European competition law case relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning telecommunications.
In the United Kingdom, devolution (fèin-riaghlaidh, datganoli; Irish: Dílárú) refers to the statutory granting of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the London Assembly and to their associated executive bodies the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, the Northern Ireland Executive and in England, the Greater London Authority and combined authorities.
The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) is the European Union's’s main legislative instrument aiming to promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the Community.
Director General of Fair Trading v First National Bank plc is the leading case on the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999.
Discounting is a financial mechanism in which a debtor obtains the right to delay payments to a creditor, for a defined period of time, in exchange for a charge or fee.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
The 2016 presidential campaign of Donald Trump was formally launched on June 16, 2015, at Trump Tower in New York City.
Dortmund (Düörpm:; Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Drinking Water Directive concerns the quality of water intended for human consumption and forms part of the regulation of Water supply and sanitation in the European Union.
The Drinking Water Inspectorate is a section of Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) set up to regulate the public water supply companies in England and Wales.
E.ON SE (marketed with an interpunct as E·ON) is a European holding company based in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
East Coast, the trading name of the East Coast Main Line Company, was a British train operating company running the InterCity East Coast franchise on the East Coast Main Line between London, Yorkshire, North East England, and Scotland.
The East Coast Main Line (ECML) is a major railway link between London and Edinburgh via Peterborough, Doncaster, York, Darlington, Durham and Newcastle; it is presently electrified along the whole route.
eBay Inc. is a multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website.
The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) is one of the seven Research Councils in the United Kingdom.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
EDF Energy is an integrated energy company in the United Kingdom, with operations spanning electricity generation and the sale of gas and electricity to homes and businesses throughout the United Kingdom.
The 1907 Education (Administrative Provisions) Act (7 Edw. VII) was an Act of Parliament passed by the Liberal government as part of their Liberal reforms package of welfare reforms.
The Education (Provision of Meals) Act 1906 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom Margaret McMillan and Fred Jowett were members of the School Board which introduced free school meals in Bradford.
The Education Act 1902 (2 Edw. VII), also known as the Balfour Act, was a highly controversial Act of Parliament that set the pattern of elementary education in England and Wales for four decades.
Education Act 1918 (8 & 9 Geo. V c. 39), often known as the Fisher Act, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Education Act 1944 (7 and 8 Geo 6 c. 31) made numerous major changes in the provision and governance of secondary schools in England and Wales.
The Education Act 1962 gave local education authorities in the United Kingdom a mandate to pay the tuition of students attending full-time first degree (or comparable) courses and to provide them with a maintenance grant.
The Education Act 1996 is Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Education Act 2002 (c.32) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave schools greater autonomy to implement experimental teaching methods.
The Education Act 2005 (c 18) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Education and Inspections Act 2006 (c 40) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Education Reform Act 1988 is widely regarded as the most important single piece of education legislation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland since the 'Butler' Education Act 1944.
Edward Lawrence (Ted) Wheelwright (1921–2007) was a notable Australian economist, radio host and anti-war activist who taught at the University of Sydney from 1952 until 1986.
EE (formerly Everything Everywhere) is a British mobile network operator, internet service provider and a division of BT Group.
EE Ltd v Office of Communications is a UK enterprise law, concerning telecommunications.
The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
The Electricity Act 1947 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that nationalised 505 separate electricity generation and supply organizations in Great Britain on 1 April 1948, both privately owned and state owned, and consolidated them into 14 area electricity boards of the new Central Electricity Authority that the Act created (also known as the British Electricity Authority), which subsequently became the Central Electricity Generating Board.
The Electricity Act 1989 provided for the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Great Britain, replacing the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales and in Scotland by the South of Scotland Electricity Board and the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
The Electronic Commerce Directive is a European Union Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council from 8 June 2000.
The Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002, SI 2002/2013, incorporates the EU Electronic Commerce Directive 2000/31/EC into the law of the United Kingdom.
The Elementary Education Act 1870, commonly known as Forster's Education Act, set the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales.
Emily Meg Jackson, (born 28 December 1966) is a British legal scholar who specialises in medical law.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
The Employment Act 2008 (c 24) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which reformed a wide range of different provisions of UK labour law.
The Energy Act 2008 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Energy Act 2011 is a UK Act of Parliament relating to UK enterprise law and energy in the UK.
The Energy Act 2013 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, relating to the energy sector.
The Energy Act 2016 is a UK Act of Parliament relating to UK enterprise law and energy in the UK.
The current energy policy of the United Kingdom is set out in the Energy White Paper of May 2007 and Low Carbon Transition Plan of July 2009, building on previous work including the 2003 Energy White Paper and the Energy Review Report in 2006.
English contract law is a body of law regulating contracts in England and Wales.
English criminal law refers to the body of law in the jurisdiction of England and Wales which deals with crimes and their consequences, and which is complementary to the civil law of England and Wales.
English land law is the law of real property in England and Wales.
English tort law is the law governing implicit civil responsibilities that people have to one another, as opposed to those responsibilities laid out in contracts.
English trust law concerns the creation and protection of asset funds, which are usually held by one party for another's benefit.
The Enterprise Act 2002 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made major changes to UK competition law with respect to mergers and also changed the law governing insolvency bankruptcy.
Entick v Carrington, is a leading case in English law and UK constitutional law establishing the civil liberties of individuals and limiting the scope of executive power.
The Environment Agency (EA) is a non-departmental public body, established in 1995 and sponsored by the United Kingdom government's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), with responsibilities relating to the protection and enhancement of the environment in England (and until 2013 also Wales).
The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive 2011 is an EU Directive relevant for European environmental law.
The Environmental Protection Act 1990 (initialism: EPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that defines, within England and Wales and Scotland, the fundamental structure and authority for waste management and control of emissions into the environment.
The Equality Act 2010 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, and has the same goals as the four major EU Equal Treatment Directives, whose provisions it mirrors and implements.
In accounting, equity (or owner's equity) is the difference between the value of the assets and the value of the liabilities of something owned.
The Erection of Cottages Act 1588 was an Act of the Parliament of England that prohibited the construction - in most parts of England—of any dwelling that did not have at least assigned to it out of the freehold or other heritable land belonging to the person responsible for its construction.
Essent NV, based in 's-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands, is an energy company.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European Social Charter is a Council of Europe treaty which was opened for signature on October 18, 1961 and initially became effective on February 26, 1965, after West Germany had become the fifth of the 13 signing nations to ratify it.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European competition law is the competition law in use within the European Union.
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
The Roaming Regulation 2012 (sometimes called the Eurotariff) regulate the imposition of roaming charges within the European Economic Area (EEA), which consists of the member states of the European Union, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.
The Factory Acts were a series of UK labour law Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to regulate the conditions of industrial employment.
Fake news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate misinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions.
The Federal Reserve Act (ch. 6,, enacted December 23, 1913) is an Act of Congress that created and established the Federal Reserve System (the central banking system of the United States), and which created the authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (commonly known as the US Dollar) as legal tender.
A feed-in tariff (FIT, FiT, standard offer contract, Couture, T., Cory, K., Kreycik, C., Williams, E., (2010). National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy advanced renewable tariff, or renewable energy payments) is a policy mechanism designed to accelerate investment in renewable energy technologies.
Feed-in tariffs in the United Kingdom were announced in October 2008 and took effect from April 2010.
The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) is a financial regulatory body in the United Kingdom, but operates independently of the UK Government, and is financed by charging fees to members of the financial services industry.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that created the Financial Services Authority (FSA) as a regulator for insurance, investment business and banking, and the Financial Ombudsman Service to resolve disputes as a free alternative to the courts.
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland.
In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy.
Foley v Hill (1848) 2 HLC 28, 9 ER 1002 is a judicial decision of the House of Lords in relation to the fundamental nature of a bank account.
The United Kingdom,The United Kingdom (sometimes abbreviated to UK) is a political unit (specifically a country), the British Isles is a geographical unit (the archipelago lying off the northwest coast of Europe), and Great Britain is the name of the largest of those islands.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Foster v British Gas plc (1990) is a leading EU law concerning the definition of the "state", for the purpose of determining which organisations in the private or public sector can be regarded as an organ of the state.
The fourth railway package is a set of changes to rail transport regulation in the European Union law.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France Telecom SA v Commission (2009) is a European competition law case relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning telecommunications.
Sir Francis Geoffrey Jacobs (born 8 June 1939), is a British jurist who served as Advocate General at the Court of Justice of the European Communities from October 1988 to January 2006.
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
A household is said to be in fuel poverty when its members cannot afford to keep adequately warm at a reasonable cost, given their income.
The Fuel Price Escalator (later Fuel Duty Stabiliser), a fuel duty policy in the United Kingdom ahead of inflation, was introduced in March 1993 as a measure to stem the increase in pollution from road transport and cut the need for new road building at a time of major road protests, at Twyford Down and other locations.
Full employment means that everyone who wants a job have all the hours of work they need on "fair wages".
The Further and Higher Education Act 1992 made changes in the funding and administration of further education and higher education within England and Wales with consequential effects on associated matters in Scotland which had previously been governed by the same legislation as England and Wales.
Gauweiler v Deutscher Bundestag (2015) is an EU law case relevant for banking law which approved outright monetary transactions that were needed to save the Eurozone from financial turmoil.
The General Post Office (GPO) was officially established in England in 1660 by Charles II and it eventually grew to combine the functions of state postal system and telecommunications carrier.
In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
The General Teaching Council for England (GTCE) was the professional body for teaching in England between 2000 and 2012.
Geographical segregation exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space.
The Renewable Energy Sources Act or EEG (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz) is a series of German laws that originally provided a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme to encourage the generation of renewable electricity.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gifford Hall is a grade II* listed house on the Common at Broughton Gifford, Wiltshire, England.
National Girobank was a British public sector financial institution run by the General Post Office that opened for business in October 1968.
A golden share is a nominal share which is able to outvote all other shares in certain specified circumstances, often held by a government organization, in a government company undergoing the process of privatization and transformation into a stock-company.
Governance in higher education is the means by which institutions for higher education (tertiary or post-secondary education) are formally organized and managed (though often there is a distinction between definitions of management and governance).
A government bond or sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government, generally with a promise to pay periodic interest payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Government procurement or public procurement is the procurement of goods, services or constructions on behalf of a public authority, such as a government agency.
The Governor of the Bank of England is the most senior position in the Bank of England.
Govia is a transport company based in the United Kingdom.
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic Secondary Modern Schools.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 of September 1666.
Great North Eastern Railway, often referred to as GNER, was a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by Sea Containers that operated the InterCity East Coast franchise from April 1996 until December 2007, when Sea Containers was stripped of the franchise due to poor financial management.
Great North Eastern Railway Ltd v Office of Rail Regulation EWHC 1942 (Admin) is a UK enterprise law case, concerning railways in the UK.
The Great Smog of London, or Great Smog of 1952, was a severe air-pollution event that affected the British capital of London in early December 1952.
The Great Stink was an event in central London in July and August 1858 during which the hot weather exacerbated the smell of untreated human waste and industrial effluent that was present on the banks of the River Thames.
Greater Anglia (legal name Abellio East Anglia Limited) is a train operating company in Great Britain owned as a joint venture by Abellio, the international arm of the state-owned Dutch national rail operator Nederlandse Spoorwegen, and the Japanese company Mitsui.
The Greater London Authority Act 1999 (c. 29) is the Act of Parliament that established the Greater London Authority, the London Assembly and the Mayor of London.
The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
In British research policy, the Haldane principle is the idea that decisions about what to spend research funds on should be made by researchers rather than politicians.
Harry Kenneth Woolf, Baron Woolf, (born 2 May 1933) is a British life peer, and retired barrister and judge.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Hatfield rail crash was a railway accident on 17 October 2000, at Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK.
The Health and Safety at Work etc.
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the body responsible for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare, and for research into occupational risks in Great Britain.
The Health and Social Care (Community Health and Standards) Act 2003 enabled the creation of NHS Foundation Trusts.
The Health and Social Care Act 2008 (c 14) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Health and Social Care Act 2012 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland (HSC) is the designation of the publicly funded service which provides public health and other social care services in Northern Ireland.
The Health Authorities Act 1995 was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which reorganised the governance of the National Health Service in England.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance.
Health care in the United States is provided by many distinct organizations.
A health department or health ministry is a part of government which focuses on issues related to the general health of the citizenry.
A health minister is the member of a country's government typically responsible for protecting and promoting public health and providing welfare and other social security services.
The central government plays a relatively limited role in health care in Denmark.
Germany has a universal multi-payer health care system paid for by a combination of statutory health insurance (Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung) officially called "sickness funds" (Krankenkassen) and private health insurance (Private Krankenversicherung), colloquially also called "(private) sickness funds".
The logo of the Ministry for Health and Social Solidarity. Healthcare in Greece consists of a universal health care system provided through national health insurance, and private health care.
The Swedish health care system is mainly government-funded and decentralized, although private health care also exists.
Healthwatch England is a body established under the Health and Social Care Act 2012, which took effect in April 2013.
Heathrow Airport Holdings Limited, formerly BAA is the United Kingdom-based operator of Heathrow Airport.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Her Majesty's Prison Service is a part of Her Majesty's Prison and Probation Service (formerly the National Offender Management Service), which is the part of Her Majesty's Government tasked with managing most of the prisons within England and Wales.
Her Majesty's Young Offender Institution (or HMYOI) is a type of prison in Great Britain, intended for offenders aged between 18 and 20, although some prisons (particularly Ashfield and Huntercombe) cater for younger offenders from ages 15 to 17, who are classed as juvenile offenders.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
HICL Infrastructure Company (formerly HSBC Infrastructure Company Ltd) is a large British investment company dedicated to infrastructure investments.
High Speed 2 (HS2) is a planned high-speed railway in the United Kingdom, directly linking London, Birmingham, the East Midlands, Leeds and Manchester.
The Higher Education Act 2004 (c 8) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced several changes to the higher education system in the United Kingdom, the most important and controversial being a major change to the funding of universities, and the operation of tuition fees, which affects England and Wales.
The Higher Education and Research Act 2017 (c. 29) was enacted into law in the United Kingdom by the Houses of Parliament on 27 April 2017.
The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom, which was responsible for the distribution of funding for higher education to universities and further education colleges in England since 1992.
The Higher Education Funding Council for Wales (HEFCW) is the Welsh Government Sponsored Body responsible for funding the higher education sector.
The Highways Act 1555 (2 & 3 Ph. & Mary, c. 8), sometimes the First Statute of Highways, was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of England passed in 1555 (and extended by the Highways Act 1562).
The Highways Act 1562 (5 Eliz.1 c.13), sometimes the Second Statute of Highways, was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of England passed in 1563.
The Highways Act 1980 (1980 c.66) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom dealing with the management and operation of the road network in England and Wales.
Hinkley Point C nuclear power station (HPC) is a project to construct a 3,200 MWe nuclear power station with two EPR reactors in Somerset, England.
Hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a prosthetic implant, that is, a hip prosthesis.
The history of law enforcement in the United Kingdom charts the development of law enforcement in the United Kingdom.
The British canal system of water transport played a vital role in the United Kingdom's Industrial Revolution at a time when roads were only just emerging from the medieval mud and long trains of packhorses were the only means of "mass" transit by road of raw materials and finished products.
The history of the English fiscal system affords the best known example of continuous financial development in terms of both institutions and methods.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
Sir Horace Walter Cutler, OBE, JP (28 July 1912 – 2 March 1997) was a British Conservative politician and Leader of the Greater London Council from 1977 to 1981.
The Household Waste Recycling Act 2003 (c 29) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Housing Act 1930 otherwise known as the Greenwood Act, is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom.It encouraged mass slum clearance and councils to set to work to demolish poor quality housing and replace it with new build.
The Housing Act 1980 was an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom that gave five million council house tenants in England and Wales the Right to Buy their house from their local authority.
The Housing Act 1996 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom.
The Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890 (53 & 54 Vict. c. 70) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Housing, Town Planning, &c.
The Human Right to Water and Sanitation (HRWS) was recognised as a human right by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly on 28 July 2010.
Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
The Hydrocarbons Licensing Directive Regulations 1995 (SI 1995/1434) is a UK Statutory Instrument that implements the Hydrocarbons Directive 94/22/EC.
As of 2012, hydroelectric power stations in the United Kingdom accounted for 1.65 GW of installed electrical generating capacity, being 1.8% of the UK's total generating capacity and 18% of UK's renewable energy generating capacity.
The Inclosure Acts were a series of Acts of Parliament that empowered enclosure of open fields and common land in England and Wales, creating legal property rights to land that was previously held in common.
In terms of global poverty criteria, the United Kingdom is a wealthy country, with virtually no people living on less than £4 a day.
The Income Tax (Earnings and Pensions) Act 2003 (c 1) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Income Tax (Trading and Other Income) Act 2005 (c 5) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Income Tax Act 2007 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) was a non-departmental public body in England and Wales responsible for overseeing the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and Wales.
In the United Kingdom, independent schools (also private schools) are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools.
Industrial Democracy (1st edn 1897; 9th edn 1926) is a book written by British socialist reformers Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb, concerning the organisation of trade unions and collective bargaining.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
In law, economics and the social sciences, inequality of bargaining power is where one party to a "bargain", contract or agreement, has more and better alternatives than the other party.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The Infrastructure Act 2015 is a wide-ranging piece of planning and infrastructure legislation passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom during David Cameron's administration.
Innisfree Ltd is a fund management company based in the United Kingdom which manages substantial interests in private finance initiative (PFI) schemes in the UK, Canada, Sweden and Holland.
The Insolvency Act 1986 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that provides the legal platform for all matters relating to personal and corporate insolvency in the UK.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and came in force from 3 January 1976.
Foreign students are those who travel to a country different from their own for the purpose of tertiary study.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
An Internet Bot, also known as web robot, WWW robot or simply -bot-, is a software application that runs automated tasks (scripts) over the Internet.
The Ipswich Market Act 2004 (c.iii) is a local Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom allowing a market in Ipswich to take place on Butter Market, Cornhill, King Street, Lion Street, Lloyds Avenue, Princes Street, Queen Street, Thoroughfare and Westgate Street.
James Meek (born 1962) is a British novelist and journalist, author of The People's Act of Love.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
John Edward Parkinson (19 March 1955 – 19 February 2004) was Professor of Law at Bristol University and a key member of the Company Law Review Steering Group which worked towards the Companies Act 2006.
Sir John Grant McKenzie Laws PC (born 10 May 1945), is a former Lord Justice of Appeal.
John Rogers Commons (October 13, 1862 – May 11, 1945) was an American institutional economist, Georgist, progressive and labor historian at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Jonathan Charles Gaunt (born 3 March 1961 in Coventry) is an English radio talk show presenter, TV personality, newspaper columnist, social commentator and spokesman.
Jonathan Philip Chadwick Sumption, Lord Sumption (born 9 December 1948), is a British judge, author and medieval historian.
Sir Joseph William Bazalgette, CB (28 March 181915 March 1891) was a 19th-century English civil engineer.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency in charge of the administration of justice.
Karl Johann Kautsky (16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945) is an English politician who served as the Leader of the Greater London Council (GLC) from 1981 until the council was abolished in 1986, and as Mayor of London from the creation of the office in 2000 until 2008.
King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
The Landfill Directive, more formally Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 is a European Union directive that regulates waste management of landfills in the European Union.
Law enforcement in the United Kingdom is organised separately in each of the legal systems of the United Kingdom: England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland.
The Learning and Skills Act 2000 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Leonard Hubert "Lennie" Hoffmann, Baron Hoffmann PC GBS (born 8 May 1934) is a retired senior South African-British judge.
Leslie Hannah is a professor of business history, most closely associated with the London School of Economics.
Lidl Stiftung & Co.
There are currently 8 active coal fired power stations operating in the United Kingdom which have a total generating capacity of 14GW.
This is a list of countries by level of military equipment, including naval ships, fighter aircraft and nuclear weapons.
A district health authority was an administrative unit of the National Health Service in England and Wales from 1982 to 2000.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
Regional hospital boards were established in 1947 by the National Health Service Act 1946 to administer hospital and specialist services of the National Health Service in England and Wales.
List of prisons in the United Kingdom is a list of all 150 current and a number of historical prisons in England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland.
The following is a list of British universities ordered by their financial endowments, expressed in pounds sterling at fair value.
A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, Cadw in Wales, and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency in Northern Ireland.
Local boards or local boards of health were local authorities in urban areas of England and Wales from 1848 to 1894.
Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction.
The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. c.41) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which established county councils and county borough councils in England and Wales.
The pattern of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to the local arrangements.
In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network.
A local planning authority (LPA) is the local authority or council that is empowered by law to exercise statutory town planning functions for a particular area of the United Kingdom.
The Locomotive Acts (or Red Flag Acts) were a series of Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom regulating the use of mechanically propelled vehicles on British public highways during the latter part of the 19th century.
The London Regional Transport Act 1984 (1984 c. 32) was an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament which created the statutory corporation named London Regional Transport.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London, England.
The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.
The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
A low-carbon economy (LCE), low-fossil-fuel economy (LFFE), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the biosphere, but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Majesty (abbreviation HM, oral address Your Majesty) is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin maiestas, meaning greatness, and used as a style by many monarchs, usually kings or sultanss.
Manchester Ship Canal Co Ltd v United Utilities Water plc is a UK enterprise law case, concerning water in the UK.
Marcic v Thames Water plc is a UK enterprise law and English tort law case, concerning water in the UK.
Mark Joseph Carney, (born March 16, 1965) is a Canadian economist and the Governor of the Bank of England and Chairman of the G20's Financial Stability Board.
Marks & Spencer Group plc (also known as M&S) is a major British multinational retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London.
Medical malpractice is a legal cause of action that occurs when a medical or health care professional deviates from standards in his or her profession, thereby causing injury to a patient.
The Medical Research Council (MRC) is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom.
Metronet Rail was one of two infrastructure companies (the other being Tube Lines Ltd) in a public-private partnership with London Underground.
The Metropolitan Police Act 1829 (10 Geo.4, c.44) was an Act of Parliament introduced by Sir Robert Peel.
The Metropolitan Police Act 1839 (2 & 3 Vict c 47) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a committee of the Bank of England, which meets for three and a half days, eight times a year, to decide the official interest rate in the United Kingdom (the Bank of England Base Rate).
The Museums Act 1845 (8 & 9 Vict c. 43) was an act of the United Kingdom Parliament which gave the town councils of larger municipal boroughs the power to establish museums.
Myeloid leukemia is a type of leukemia affecting myeloid tissue.
N v United Kingdom is a UK enterprise law case, concerning health care in the UK.
The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.
The National Coal Board (NCB) was the statutory corporation created to run the nationalised coal mining industry in the United Kingdom.
The National Employment Savings Trust (NEST) is a defined contribution workplace pension scheme in the United Kingdom.
The National Enterprise Board (NEB) was a United Kingdom government body.
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in which the Court upheld Congress' power to enact most provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), commonly called Obamacare, and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (HCERA), including a requirement for most Americans to have health insurance by 2014.
National health insurance (NHI) – sometimes called statutory health insurance (SHI) – is a system of health insurance that insures a national population against the costs of health care.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Health Service (Private Finance) Act 1997 enabled NHS trusts to borrow money or rent out property in loan agreements with the private sector, to expand their facilities or build new buildings.
The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948 and created the National Health Service in England and Wales.
National Health Service Act 2006 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990 introduced an internal market into the supply of healthcare, making the state an 'enabler' rather than a supplier of health and social care provision.
The National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
National Insurance (NI) is a tax system in the United Kingdom paid by workers and employers for funding state benefits.
The National Insurance Act 1911 created National Insurance, originally a system of health insurance for industrial workers in Great Britain based on contributions from employers, the government, and the workers themselves.
The National Telephone Company (NTC) was a British telephone company from 1881 until 1911 which brought together smaller local companies in the early years of the telephone.
The National Trust, formally the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom.
National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers v United Kingdom is a UK labour law case, concerning collective action and the right to take secondary action under ECHR article 11.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.
Netherlands v Essent NV (2013) is an EU law case relevant for UK enterprise law on electricity generation governance.
Network Rail is the owner (via its subsidiary Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd, which was known as Railtrack plc before 2002) and infrastructure manager of most of the rail network in England, Scotland and Wales.
The New Towns Act 1946 (9 & 10 Geo. VI c. 68) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which allowed the government to designate areas as new towns, and passing development control functions to a Development Corporation.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The NHS Constitution for England is a document that sets out the objectives of the National Health Service, the rights and responsibilities of the various parties involved in health care, (patients, staff, trust boards) and the guiding principles which govern the service.
NHS England is an executive non-departmental public body (NDPB) of the Department of Health and Social Care.
The National Health Service Executive (NHS Executive) was part of the British Department of Health established in 1996.
NHS foundation trusts are semi-autonomous organisational units within the National Health Service in England.
A primary care trust (PCT) was part of the National Health Service in England from 2001 to 2013.
NHS Scotland, sometimes styled NHSScotland is the publicly funded healthcare system in Scotland.
A National Health Service trust is an organisation within the English NHS generally serving either a geographical area or a specialised function (such as an ambulance service).
NHS Wales (GIG Cymru) is the official corporate name of the Welsh National Health Service (Gwasanaeth Iechyd Gwladol Cymru), a publicly funded healthcare system which is the responsibility of the Welsh Government.
The Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) is an international financial institution founded in the mid-1970s by the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Nottingham City Council is the non-metropolitan district council for the unitary authority of Nottingham in Nottinghamshire.
Npower Limited (trading as npower) is an electricity generator and supplier of gas and electricity to homes and businesses which is based in the United Kingdom, formerly known as Innogy plc.
Nuclear power in the United Kingdom generates around a quarter of the country's electricity as of 2016, projected to rise to a third by 2035.
Nuisance (from archaic nocence, through Fr. noisance, nuisance, from Lat. nocere, "to hurt") is a common law tort.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Office of Communications (Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
The Office for Students (OfS) is the government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the higher education sector in England from 1 April 2018.
is a judicial decision of the United Kingdom Supreme Court relating to bank charges in the United Kingdom, with reference to the situation where a bank account holder goes into unplanned overdraft.
The Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem), supporting the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority (GEMA), is the government regulator for the electricity and downstream natural gas markets in Great Britain.
The Office of Rail and Road (ORR) is a non-ministerial government department responsible for the economic and safety regulation of Britain's railways, and the economic monitoring of Highways England.
The Water Services Regulation Authority, or Ofwat, is the body responsible for economic regulation of the privatised water and sewerage industry in England and Wales.
The Oil and Gas Authority’s role is to regulate, influence and promote the UK oil and gas industry in order to achieve their statutory principal objective of maximising the economic recovery of the UK’s oil and gas resources.
The Oil Taxation Act 1975 (c 22) is a UK Act of Parliament relevant for UK enterprise law that was intended to ensure that oil and gas extraction companies operating in British territories and waters paid their fair share of tax.
The Old-Age Pensions Act 1908 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1908.
Oliver Eaton Williamson (born September 27, 1932) is an American economist, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, which he shared with Elinor Ostrom.
An open market operation (OMO) is an activity by a central bank to give (or take) liquidity in its currency to (or from) a bank or a group of banks.
Open-pit coal mining in the United Kingdom is in decline.
Openreach is a functional division of telecommunications company BT plc, that owns and maintains the telephone wires, ducts, cabinets and exchanges that connect nearly all homes and businesses in the United Kingdom to the national broadband and telephone network.
An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realms.
An orphanage is a residential institution devoted to the care of orphans—children whose biological parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to take care of them.
Outright Monetary Transactions ("OMT") is a program of the European Central Bank under which the bank makes purchases ("outright transactions") in secondary, sovereign bond markets, under certain conditions, of bonds issued by Eurozone member-states.
Overend, Gurney & Company was a London wholesale discount bank, known as "the bankers' bank", which collapsed in 1866 owing about £11 million, equivalent to £ million in.
Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property.
The Oxford University Act 1854 (17 & 18 Vict c81) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which regulates corporate governance at the University of Oxford, England.
The Oyster card is a form of electronic ticket used on public transport in Greater London in the United Kingdom. It is promoted by Transport for London and is valid on travel modes across London including London Underground, London Buses, the Docklands Light Railway (DLR), London Overground, Tramlink, some river boat services, and most National Rail services within the London fare zones. Since its introduction in June 2003, more than 86 million cards have been used. A standard Oyster card is a blue credit-card-sized stored-value contactless smartcard that can hold single tickets, period tickets and travel permits, which must be added to the card before travel. Passengers touch it on an electronic reader when entering and leaving the transport system in order to validate it or deduct funds. Cards may be "topped-up" by recurring payment authority, by online purchase, at credit card terminals or by cash, the last two methods at stations or ticket offices. The card is designed to reduce the number of transactions at ticket offices and the number of paper tickets. Usage is encouraged by offering substantially cheaper fares than with cash though the acceptance of cash is being phased out. On London buses, cash is no longer accepted. The card was first issued to the public on 30 June 2003, with a limited range of features and there continues to be a phased introduction of further functions. By June 2012, over 43 million Oyster cards had been issued and more than 80% of all journeys on public transport in London were made using the card. Since 2014, the use of Oyster cards has been supplemented by contactless credit and debit cards as part of TfL's "Future Ticketing Programme". TfL was the first public transport provider in the world to accept payment by contactless bank cards, and the widespread adoption of contactless in London has been credited to this. TfL is now one of Europe's largest contactless merchants, with around 1 in 10 contactless transactions in the UK taking place on the TfL network.
The Panopticon is a type of institutional building and a system of control designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often shortened to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or nicknamed Obamacare, is a United States federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010.
The Pensions Act 2004 (c 35) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to improve the running of pension schemes.
Pensions in the United Kingdom fall into three major divisions and 7 sub-divisions, including both defined-benefit and defined-contribution.
A personal ordinariate, sometimes called a "personal ordinariate for former Anglicans" or more informally an "Anglican ordinariate", is a canonical structure within the Catholic Church established in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of 4 November 2009 and its complementary norms.
The Petroleum Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Petroleum Licensing (Production) (Seaward Areas) Regulations 2008 are a group of regulations passed for the Petroleum Act 1998 that set out model clauses of a petroleum licence agreement, as amended by SI 2009/3283.
Petroleum Revenue Tax (PRT) is a direct tax collected in the United Kingdom.
Petticoat Lane Market is a fashion and clothing market in the East End of London.
Planning permission or developmental approval refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion (including significant renovation) in some jurisdictions.
The Police Act 1996 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which defined the current police areas in England and Wales, constituted the current police authorities for those areas, and set out the relationship between the Home Secretary and the English and Welsh territorial police forces.
The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) (1984 c. 60) is an Act of Parliament which instituted a legislative framework for the powers of police officers in England and Wales to combat crime, and provided codes of practice for the exercise of those powers.
The Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (c. 41) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that sets out how political parties, elections and referendums are to be regulated in the United Kingdom.
In environmental law, the polluter pays principle is enacted to make the party responsible for producing pollution responsible for paying for the damage done to the natural environment.
The Port of London Act 1908 (8 Edw 7, c 68) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which regulated corporate governance at the Port of London.
The Postal Services Act 2000 (c.26) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, relating to the postal industry.
The Postal Services Act 2011 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Postal Services Commission, known as Postcomm, was a non-ministerial department of the Government of the United Kingdom charged with overseeing the quality and universal service of post in the United Kingdom.
There have been four railway accidents in Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, England, one in 1898, one in 1899, one in 1946 and the latest in 2002.
Predatory pricing, also known as undercutting, is a pricing strategy in which a product or service is set at a very low price with the intention to drive competitors out of the market or to create barriers to entry for potential new competitors.
In the English NHS charges are made for prescription drugs, and the majority of adults (though not a majority of patients) are required to pay them.
PreussenElektra AG v Schleswag AG (2001) is a UK enterprise law case, electricity generation.
Price-cap regulation is a form of regulation.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
Principles of Political Economy (1848) by John Stuart Mill was one of the most important economics or political economy textbooks of the mid-nineteenth century.
The Prison Act 1877 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to alter the way in which British prisons were operated.
In British and Irish company law, a company limited by guarantee (LBG) is an alternative type of corporation used primarily for non-profit organisations that require legal personality.
The private finance initiative (PFI) is a way of creating "public–private partnerships" (PPPs) where private firms are contracted to complete and manage public projects.
The Privatisation of British Rail was the process by which ownership and operation of the railways of Great Britain passed from government control into private hands.
The privatisation of London bus services was the process of the transfer of operation of London Buses from public bodies to private companies.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.
The Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) is a United Kingdom financial services regulatory body, formed as one of the successors to the Financial Services Authority (FSA).
Public economics (or economics of the public sector) is the study of government policy through the lens of economic efficiency and equity.
In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
The Public Health (London) Act 1891 (54 & 55 Vict c 76) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which extended access to Metropolitan Asylums Board hospitals to those who were not eligible for poor relief.
The Public Health Act 1866 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom.
The Public Health Act 1875 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, one of the Public Health Acts, and a significant step in the advance of public health in Britain.
The Public Health Act 1961 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Public Health Service Act is a United States federal law enacted in 1944.
The Public Libraries Act 1850 (13 & 14 Vict c.65) was an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament which first gave local boroughs the power to establish free public libraries.
A public school in England and Wales is a long-established, student-selective, fee-charging independent secondary school that caters primarily for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18, and whose head teacher is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC).
The Public Schools Act 1868 was enacted by the British Parliament to reform and regulate seven of the leading English boys' schools of the time, most of which had grown out of ancient charity schools for the education of a certain number of poor scholars, but were then, as they do today, also educating many sons of the English upper and upper-middle classes on a fee-paying basis.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
Public service law in the United States is the body of law, primarily based on a multitude of statutes, which establishes and organizes the delivery of public services in the United States.
A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature.
R (Ann Marie Rogers) v Swindon Primary Care Trust is a UK enterprise law case, concerning health care in the UK.
R (B) v Cambridge Health Authority is a UK enterprise law case, concerning health care in the UK.
R (Bidar) v London Borough of Ealing, SS for Education and Skills (2005) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
R (Coughlan) v North and East Devon Health Authority is a UK enterprise law case, concerning health care in the UK.
R (Frack Free Balcombe Residents Association) v West Sussex CC is a UK enterprise law case, concerning oil and gas.
Gerber v Wiltshire Council is a UK enterprise law case relating to planning permission for electricity generation.
R (HS2 Action Alliance Ltd) v Secretary of State for Transport is a UK constitutional law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
R (Save Our Railways) v Director of Passenger Rail Franchising CLC 596 is a UK enterprise law case, concerning railways in the UK.
R (Vodafone Ltd) v Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (2010) is an EU law case relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning telecommunications.
R (Watts) v Bedford Primary Care Trust (2006) is a UK enterprise law case, concerning health care in the UK.
R v Anglian Water Services Ltd EWCA Crim 2243 is a UK enterprise law case, concerning water in the UK.
The Rail Passenger Rights Regulation 2007 (EC) gives railway passengers basic rights in EU law to refunds and minimum levels of service.
The Rail Regulator was a statutory office, created with effect from 1 December 1993 by section 1 of the Railways Act 1993, for the independent economic regulation of the British railway industry.
Railtrack was a group of companies that owned the track, signalling, tunnels, bridges, level crossings and all but a handful of the stations of the British railway system from 1994 until 2002.
Railway Mania was an instance of speculative frenzy in Britain in the 1840s.
The Railways Act 1921 (c. 55), also known as the Grouping Act, was an Act of Parliament enacted by the British government and intended to stem the losses being made by many of the country's 120 railway companies, move the railways away from internal competition and retain some of the benefits which the country had derived from a government-controlled railway during and after the Great War of 1914–1918.
The Railways Act 1993 was introduced by John Major's Conservative government and passed on 5 November 1993.
The Railways Act 2005 (c 14) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom concerning the regulatory structure for railways in the United Kingdom.
The Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003 (c 10) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American political activist, author, lecturer, and attorney, noted for his involvement in consumer protection, environmentalism and government reform causes.
was a UK company law decision of House of Lords which settled a number of outstanding legal issues relating to floating charges and recharacterisation risk under the English common law.
The Regent House is the name given to the official governing body of the University of Cambridge.
Fourteen regional health authorities were established in England by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 in 1974, replacing the English regional hospital boards.
Regional water authorities came into existence in England and Wales in April 1974, as a result of the passing of the Water Act 1973.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Remuneration is considered the pay or other compensation provided in exchange for the services performed; not to be confused with giving (away), or donating, or the act of providing to.
The Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC is a European Union directive which mandates levels of renewable energy use within the European Union.
Renewable energy in the United Kingdom can be divided into the generation of renewable electricity, the generation of renewable heat and renewable energy use in the transport sector.
A renewable portfolio standard (RPS) is a regulation that requires the increased production of energy from renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal.
The Renewables Obligation (RO) is designed to encourage generation of electricity from eligible renewable sources in the United Kingdom.
A repurchase agreement, also known as a repo, RP, or sale and repurchase agreement, is a transaction concluded on a deal date tD between two parties A and B: If positive interest rates are assumed, the repurchase price PF can be expected to be greater than the original sale price PN.
Research Councils UK, known as RCUK, was a non-departmental public body which coordinated science policy in the United Kingdom.
Research Funding in the UK is divided mainly among two groups of Non-Departmental Government Bodies, the 'UK Research Councils' and 'Higher Education Funding Bodies'.
The Reserve Forces Act 1996 is a piece of British legislation that provides for the maintenance and composition of the British military's Reserve Forces.
In the United Kingdom, the retail prices index or retail price index (RPI) is a measure of inflation published monthly by the Office for National Statistics.
The Right to Buy scheme is a policy in the United Kingdom (with the exception of Scotland since August 1, 2016) which gives secure tenants of councils and some housing associations the legal right to buy, at a large discount, the council house they are living in.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
The Road Traffic Act 1988 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, concerning licensing of vehicles, insurance and road regulation.
The Robbins Report (the report of the Committee on Higher Education, chaired by Lord Robbins) was commissioned by the British government and published in 1963.
Robin Hood Energy is a Not for Profit Energy Company launched in September 2015 by Nottingham City Council as a competitor to the Big Six Energy Suppliers (UK).
Roman roads in Britannia were initially designed for military use, created by the Roman Army during the nearly four centuries (43 – 410 AD) that Britannia was a province of the Roman Empire.
Sir Ross Frederick Cranston (born 23 July 1948 in Brisbane, Australia) is a professor of law at London School of Economics and a retired High Court judge, formerly a British Labour Party politician.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
Royal Mail plc (Post Brenhinol; a' Phuist Rìoghail) is a postal service and courier company in the United Kingdom, originally established in 1516.
Sadiq Aman Khan (born 8 October 1970) is a British politician serving as Mayor of London since 2016.
Sainsbury's is the second largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, with a 16.9% share of the supermarket sector in the United Kingdom.
The Sale of Goods Act 1979 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which regulated English contract law and UK commercial law in respect of goods that are sold and bought.
Eugen Schmidberger, Internationale Transporte und Planzüge v Austria (2003) C-112/00 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
A school meal or school lunch (also known as hot lunch, a school dinner, or school breakfast) is a meal provided to students at school, typically in the middle or beginning of the school day.
The School Standards and Framework Act 1998 was the major education legislation passed by the incoming Labour government led by Tony Blair.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Scotland Act 1998 (c. 46) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which established the devolved Scottish Parliament with tax varying powers and the Scottish Government (then Scottish Executive).
The Scottish Funding Council (Scottish Gaelic:; SFC), referred to more formally as the Scottish Further and Higher Education Funding Council, is the non-departmental public body charged with funding Scotland's further and higher education institutions, including its 25 colleges and 19 universities.
Scottish Insurance Corp Ltd v Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd AC 462 is a UK company law case concerning shares.
ScottishPower Ltd. is a vertically integrated energy company with its headquarters in Glasgow, Scotland.
Scottish Water is a statutory corporation that provides water and sewerage services across Scotland.
The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Health and Social Care (Secretary of State for Health until 8 January 2018) is a UK cabinet position responsible for the National Health Service (NHS).
Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.
Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, (13 July 1859 – 13 October 1947) was a British socialist, economist, reformer and a co-founder of the London School of Economics.
Simon Deakin (born 26 March 1961) is Professor of Law at the Faculty of Law, Cambridge, and a Fellow of Peterhouse College, Cambridge.
The Single European Railway Directive 2012 is an EU Directive that regulates railway networks in EU law.
A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.
Social care in England is defined as the provision of social work, personal care, protection or social support services to children or adults in need or at risk, or adults with needs arising from illness, disability, old age or poverty.
Social care in Scotland encompasses social work; care home services in the community for adults, children and young people; and services for young children, including nurseries and after-school care clubs.
Social care in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, so England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales each have their own separate systems of private and publicly funded social care.
The Social Security Contributions and Benefits Act 1992 is the primary legislation concerning the state retirement provision, accident insurance, statutory sick pay and maternity pay in the United Kingdom.
Social security in Germany is codified on the Sozialgesetzbuch, or the "Social Code", contains 12 main parts, including the following,.
Solar Century Holdings Ltd v SS for Energy and Climate Change is a UK enterprise law case, on electricity generation by solar power.
Solar power represented a very small part of electricity production in United Kingdom until 2011.
The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing) was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt.
Sovereign immunity, or crown immunity, is a legal doctrine by which the sovereign or state cannot commit a legal wrong and is immune from civil suit or criminal prosecution.
The specialist schools programme was a UK government initiative which encouraged secondary schools in England to specialise in certain areas of the curriculum to boost achievement.
SSE plc (formerly Scottish and Southern Energy plc) is a Scottish energy company headquartered in Perth, Scotland, United Kingdom.
State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Strategic health authorities (SHA) were part of the structure of the National Health Service in England between 2002 and 2013.
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.
The Student Loans Company (SLC) is a not for profit company in the United Kingdom that provides student loans.
Student loans and grants in the United Kingdom are primarily provided by the government through the Student Loans Company (SLC), a non-departmental public body.
The subdivisions of England constitute a hierarchy of administrative divisions and non-administrative ceremonial areas.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
Tabloid journalism is a style of journalism that emphasizes sensational crime stories, gossip columns about celebrities and sports stars, extreme political views from one perspective, junk food news, and astrology.
A talisman is an object that someone believes holds magical properties that bring good luck to the possessor or protect the possessor from evil or harm.
Talksport (styled as talkSPORT), owned by Wireless Group, is a sports radio station and the Global Audio Partner of the Premier League.
TalkTalk Telecom Group plc (commonly known as TalkTalk Group, trading as TalkTalk) is a company which provides pay television, telecommunications, Internet access, and mobile network services to businesses and consumers in the United Kingdom.
TalkTalk Telecom Group Plc v Office of Communications is an EU law case relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning telecommunications.
The Abu Dhabi National Energy Company, PJSC (TAQA) is a government controlled energy holding company of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Tax policy is the choice by a government as to what taxes to levy, in what amounts, and on whom.
Taxation in the United Kingdom may involve payments to a minimum of three different levels of government: the central government (Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs), devolved governments and local government.
The Taxation of Chargeable Gains Act 1992 is an Act of Parliament which governs the levying of capital gains tax in the United Kingdom.
The Teaching and Higher Education Act 1998 was enacted by the United Kingdom Parliament on 16 July 1998.
The Telecommunications Act 1984 (c 12) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was the first significant overhaul of telecommunications law in more than sixty years, amending the Communications Act of 1934.
Telefónica, S.A. is a Spanish multinational broadband and telecommunications provider with operations in Europe, Asia, and North, Central and South America.
Telefónica SA v Commission (2014) is a European competition law case relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning telecommunications.
Telefonica O2 UK Ltd v British Telecommunications plc is a UK enterprise law, concerning telecommunications.
The Telegraph Act 1868 (31 & 32 Vict. c.110) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (as it then was).
Telereal Trillium Ltd is a commercial property management and investment company, headquartered in central London.
A television licence or broadcast receiving licence is a payment required in many countries for the reception of television broadcasts, or the possession of a television set where some broadcasts are funded in full or in part by the licence fee paid.
Tesco plc, trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom.
Tetraplegia, also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms.
Thames Water Utilities Ltd, known as Thames Water, is the monopoly private utility company responsible for the public water supply and waste water treatment in large parts of Greater London, Luton, the Thames Valley, Surrey, Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Kent, and some other areas of the United Kingdom.
The common land of Ashdown Forest in East Sussex, England, a former royal hunting forest created soon after the Norman conquest of England, covers some 6,400 acres.
The Companies (Model Articles) Regulations 2008 are the default company constitution for limited companies under UK company law.
The Constitution of Liberty is a book by Austrian economist and Nobel Prize recipient Friedrich A. Hayek.
The History of Trade Unionism (1894, new edition 1920) is a book by Sidney and Beatrice Webb on the British trade union movement's development before 1920.
The Sun is a tabloid newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
Thomas Henry Bingham, Baron Bingham of Cornhill (called Tom; 13 October 193311 September 2010), was an eminent British judge and jurist who served as Master of the Rolls, Lord Chief Justice and Senior Law Lord.
Anthony Peter Clarke, Baron Clarke of Stone-cum-Ebony (called Tony; born 13 May 1943) is a British lawyer.
Tony Prosser FBA is professor of public law at the University of Bristol, having previously been John Millar Professor of Law, at the University of Glasgow.
The Town and Country Planning Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo. VI c. 51) was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom passed by the Labour government led by Clement Attlee.
The Town and Country Planning Act 1990 is an act of the United Kingdom Parliament regulating the development of land in England and Wales.
Town and country planning in the United Kingdom is the part of English land law which concerns land use planning.
The Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 is a UK Act of Parliament which regulates British labour law.
The Transport Act 1947 (c. 49) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Transport Act 1985 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom.
The Transport Act 2000 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Transport for London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for the transport system in Greater London, England.
Trastuzumab, sold under the brand name Herceptin among others, is a monoclonal antibody used to treat breast cancer.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
Trump International Golf Club Scotland Ltd v Scotland is a 2015 judgment of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom on the authority of the Scottish government to allow windfarm applications, under the Electricity Act 1989.
The Trustee Savings Bank (TSB) was a British financial institution.
Tuition fees were first introduced across the entire United Kingdom in September 1998 under the Labour government as a means of funding tuition to undergraduate and postgraduate certificate students at universities, with students being required to pay up to £1,000 a year for tuition.
Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services.
Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by individual acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal roads in Britain from the 17th but especially during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The UK Corporate Governance Code (from here on referred to as "the Code") is a part of UK company law with a set of principles of good corporate governance aimed at companies listed on the London Stock Exchange.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
United Kingdom commercial law is the law which regulates the sale and purchase of goods and services, when doing business in the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom company law regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act 2006.
United Kingdom competition law is affected by both British and European elements.
United Kingdom constitutional law concerns the political governance of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
United Kingdom environmental law concerns the protection of the environment in the United Kingdom.
United Kingdom insolvency law regulates companies in the United Kingdom which are unable to repay their debts.
United Kingdom labour law regulates the relations between workers, employers and trade unions.
The United Kingdom National Debt is the total quantity of money borrowed by the Government of the United Kingdom at any time through the issue of securities by the British Treasury and other government agencies.
Water supply and sanitation in the United Kingdom is provided by a number of water and sewerage companies.
United States corporate law regulates the governance, finance and power of corporations in US law.
United Utilities Group plc (UU), the United Kingdom's largest listed water company, was founded in 1995 as a result of the merger of North West Water and NORWEB.
Universal Credit is a social security benefit in the United Kingdom introduced in 2013 to replace six means-tested benefits and tax credits: income based Jobseeker's Allowance, Housing Benefit, Working Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit, income based Employment and Support Allowance and Income Support.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Universal service is an economic, legal and business term used mostly in regulated industries, referring to the practice of providing a baseline level of services to every resident of a country.
The Universal Service Directive or formally Directive 2002/22/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 March 2002 on universal service and users' rights relating to electronic communications networks and services addresses so called universal service obligations and users' rights related to telecommunications in the European Union.
The Universal Service Fund (USF) is a system of telecommunications subsidies and fees managed by the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) intended to promote universal access to telecommunications services in the United States.
Universities in the United Kingdom have generally been instituted by Royal Charter, Papal Bull, Act of Parliament or an instrument of government under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992.
The Universities Tests Act 1871 in the United Kingdom abolished the communion "Tests" and allowed Roman Catholics, non-conformists and non-Christians to take up fellowships at the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, London and Durham.
Universities UK is an advocacy organisation for universities in the United Kingdom.
The University and College Union (UCU) is a British trade union.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The Utilities Act 2000 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that deals with the gas and electrical markets in the UK.
The Value Added Tax Act 1994 is a UK tax law, concerning taxation of goods and services that fall within the scope of Value Added Tax (VAT).
Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time.
Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications conglomerate, with headquarters in London.
Vodafone Ltd v British Telecommunications Plc is an EU law case relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning telecommunications.
Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.
Waitrose is a chain of British supermarkets, which forms the food retail division of Britain's largest employee-owned retailer, the John Lewis Partnership.
Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.
Greater London has a number of waste disposal authorities, responsible for waste collection and disposal.
The Waste Framework Directive (WFD) is a European Union Directive of 17 June 2008.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The Water Act 1945 (8 & 9 Geo. VI c. 42) was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, introduced by the coalition government and intended to expand and support the national water supply in England and Wales.
The Water Act 1973 (1973 c.37) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reorganised the water, sewage and river management industry in England and Wales.
The Water Act 1989 (1989 c.15) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reorganised the bodies responsible for all aspects of water within England and Wales.
The Water Act 2003 (c 37) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Water Framework Directive is an EU directive which commits European Union member states to achieve good qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies (including marine waters up to one nautical mile from shore) by 2015.
The Water Industry Act 1991 (c. 56) is an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament consolidating previous enactments relating to the water supply and the provision of wastewater services in England and Wales.
The Water Industry Commission for Scotland (WICS) is the economic regulator of the water and sewerage industry in Scotland.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
The Water Resources Act 1991 (WRA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that regulates water resources, water quality and pollution, and flood defence.
The Water Supply Water Quality Regulations 1989 (SI No. 1147) are regulations imposed on the England and Wales Water industry by Statutory Instrument.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Weir v Secretary of State for Transport is a UK enterprise law case, concerning railways in the UK.
The West Indian Prisons Act 1838 (1 & 2 Vict. c. 67) was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, signed into law on 4 August 1838.
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.
Wiltshire Council is a unitary authority in South West of England, created in 2009.
The United Kingdom is one of the best locations for wind power in the world and is considered to be the best in Europe.
Wireless telegraphy is the transmission of telegraphy signals from one point to another by means of an electromagnetic, electrostatic or magnetic field, or by electrical current through the earth or water.
The Wireless Telegraphy Act 2006 (c 36) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
The Broad Street cholera outbreak (or Golden Square outbreak) was a severe outbreak of cholera that occurred in 1854 near Broad Street (now Broadwick Street) in the Soho district of London, England.
The Banking Act of 1933 was a statute enacted by the United States Congress that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and imposed various other banking reforms.
Public Service law in the UK, Public service law in the United Kingdom, Public services law in the UK, UK enterprise law, UK public service law, UK public services, UK public services law, Uk ent, Uk enterprise, Uk public sector law, United Kingdom public service law.