718 relations: Abstraction, Acquis communautaire, Acte clair, Acts of Supremacy, Adolf A. Berle, Advocate General, Ageism, Aharon Barak, Aktiengesellschaft, Alarm device, Alexander the Great, Alpine Investments BV v Minister van Financiën, Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive 2011, Altice Portugal, Amministrazione delle Finanze dello Stato v Simmenthal SpA, Angonese v Cassa di Risparmio di Bolzano SpA, Annual leave, Appellate court, Arbitration, Area of freedom, security and justice, Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Asset management, Asset stripping, Association de médiation sociale v Union locale des syndicats CGT, Austerity, Aziz v Caixa d'Estalvis de Catalunya, Åland Islands, Überseering BV v Nordic Construction Company Baumanagement GmbH, Banco Español de Crédito SA v Camino, Barber, Bargaining power, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Béla Balassa, Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, BCE Inc v 1976 Debentureholders, Belgian nationality law, Belgians, Berlin, Berlin Wall, Bhagavan, Bill of Rights 1689, Black Wednesday, Bolzano, Bonn, Bosman ruling, Boston, Lincolnshire, Brasserie du Pêcheur v Germany, Brenner Autobahn, Bretton Woods Conference, British Gas plc, ..., Brusse v Jahani BV, Canary Islands, Cannabis, Capital (economics), Capital control, Capital gains tax, Capital Requirements Directives, Carl Otto Lenz, Cartel, Cartesio Oktató és Szolgáltató bt, Cattle, Cavendish Square Holding BV v Talal El Makdessi, Centros Ltd v Erhvervs- og Selskabsstyrelsen, Chandler v Cape plc, Charles de Gaulle, Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Chess endgame, Child support, CIA Security International SA v Signalson SA and Securitel SPRL, Citizens’ Rights Directive, Citizenship of the European Union, Civil code, Civil Procedure Rules, Civil society, CJEU, Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, Clementine, Co-determination, Cocoa butter, Coffeehouse, Cold calling, Collective action, Collective agreement, Collective bargaining, Collective Redundancies Directive 1998, Commission v Austria, Commission v Council, Commission v Edith Cresson, Commission v France (1997), Commission v Germany (2007), Commission v Ireland (1982), Commission v Italy (1972), Commission v Italy (2003), Commission v Italy (2009), Commission v Italy (2011), Commission v Portugal, Commodity, Common Agricultural Policy, Common Fisheries Policy, Common Foreign and Security Policy, Commonwealth of Nations, Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers, Comparative advantage, Competition law, Conciliation, Conflict of interest, Conflict of laws, Conservative Party (UK), Constitutional Court of Italy, Constitutional law, Consumer Bill of Rights, Consumer protection, Consumer Rights Directive 2011, Consumption (economics), Copyright Directive, Copyright Duration Directive, Corporate law, Corporate tax, Corpus Juris, Costa v ENEL, Council, Council of Europe, Council of Ministers, Council of the European Union, Courage Ltd v Crehan, Court of Justice of the European Union, Court of Labour (Belgium), Crème de cassis, Creditor, Crofter Hand Woven Harris Tweed Co Ltd v Veitch, Cube, Cuius regio, eius religio, Currency union, Customs union, Cut throat competition, CVCE.eu, Daily Mail, Daily Mail and General Trust, Damages, Danish krone, Dano v Jobcenter Leipzig, Data Protection Directive, Data Retention Directive, Database Directive, David Ricardo, Defrenne v Sabena (No 2), Delaware, Delors Commission, Demir and Baykara v Turkey, Democratic deficit, Derivative (finance), Derivative suit, Deutsche Post, Deutsche Post v Commission, Deutsches Weintor eG v Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Dialogue, Dignity, Direct effect of European Union law, Directive (European Union), Directive on the re-use of public sector information, Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Donald Tusk, Draft Fifth Company Law Directive, Dublin, Dutch European Constitution referendum, 2005, Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, Economic, social and cultural rights, Elections to the European Parliament, Electronic Commerce Directive 2000, Employee Involvement Directive 2001, Employment Information Directive 1991, Employment tribunal, Enel, Energy policy of the European Union, Enerji Yapi-Yol Sen v Turkey, English Civil War, Enterprise liability, Environmental crime, Environmental Liability Directive 2004, Environmental policy of the European Union, Equal opportunity, Equal Treatment Directive 2006, Equal Treatment in Goods and Services Directive 2004, Equality before the law, Equality Framework Directive 2000, Ernst B. 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Kraemer, Shops Act 1950 (Great Britain), Simon Deakin, Single European Act, Single European Railway Directive 2012, Single market, Single transferable vote, Sirop de Picon, Small business, Social equality, Social market economy, Social progress, Social security, Société anonyme Cimenteries CBR Cementsbedrijven NV v Commission, Societas Europaea, Solange II, Solidarity, Solvency II Directive 2009, Solvent, Sorrow (emotion), Soviet Union, Spaak Report, Specific performance, Srl CILFIT v Ministry of Health, Stakeholder (corporate), Standard form contract, Standing (law), State ownership, Statute for a European Company Regulation 2001, Statute of the Council of Europe, Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union, Stauder v City of Ulm, Stavros Dimas, Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Stockholm, Strasbourg, Strawberry, Strict liability, Strike action, Structural adjustment, Stuttgart, Subprime mortgage crisis, Subsidiarity, Subsidy, Supermajority, Supervisory board, Supreme Court of Israel, Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Swiss executive pay referendum, 2013, Tachograph, Takeover, Tank, Tax evasion, Telecoms Package, Temporary Agency Work Directive 2008, The Communist Manifesto, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, The English Constitution, The Modern Corporation and Private Property, The Price of Inequality, Third railway package, Thirty Years' War, Three Rivers DC v Governor of the Bank of England, Thucydides, Tobacco Products Directive, Toleration, Tom Denning, Baron Denning, Tort, Trade Marks Directive, Transaction cost, Transfers of Undertakings Directive 2001, Treaty, Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Treaty Establishing the European Stability Mechanism, Treaty of Amsterdam, Treaty of Lisbon, Treaty of Nice, Treaty of Paris (1951), Treaty of Rome, Treaty of Utrecht, Treaty of Versailles, Trojani v Centre public d'aide sociale de Bruxelles, Uncodified constitution, Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities Directive 2009, Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 2005, Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Directive 1993, Unión de Pequeños Agricultores, Unitary patent, United Kingdom company law, United Kingdom constitutional law, United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, 1975, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United Kingdom general election, 1945, United Kingdom general election, 1997, United Nations Charter, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council resolution, United States of Europe, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Universal Service Directive 2002, University College London, Urea-formaldehyde, USL Dunkerque, Vaassen v Beambtenfonds Mijnbedrijf, Value-added tax, Van Binsbergen v Bestuur van de Bedrijfvereniging voor de Metaalnijverheid, Van Duyn v Home Office, Van Gend & Loos, Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen, Varnish, Vegetable oil, Victor Hugo, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Vivian Murray, Volkswagen Act, Von Colson v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, Votes, Voting, Voting in the Council of the European Union, Wage regulation, Walter Rau Lebensmittelwerke v De Smedt PVBA, Walter Van Gerven, War of the Spanish Succession, Weddel & Co BV v Commission, Weigel v Finanzlandesdirektion für Vorarlberg, Welfare state, William III of England, William Penn, Wilson and Palmer v United Kingdom, Wilson v St Helens BC, Winston Churchill, Wittenberg, Workforce, Working Time Directive 2003, Working Time Regulations 1998, Workplace Health and Safety Directive, Works council, World Bank, World peace, World Trade Center (1973–2001), World Trade Organization, World War I, World War I reparations, World War II, 2006 Ivory Coast toxic waste dump. 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Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
The Community acquis or acquis communautaire, sometimes called the EU acquis and often shortened to acquis, is the accumulated legislation, legal acts, and court decisions which constitute the body of European Union law.
Acte clair is a doctrine of European Union law, which states that if a judgment or rule of law is clear enough, then a member state has no duty to refer a question for preliminary ruling to the Court of Justice of the European Union.
The Acts of Supremacy are two acts of the Parliament of England passed in 1534 and 1559 which established King Henry VIII of England and subsequent monarchs as the supreme head of the Church of England.
Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. (January 27, 1895 – February 17, 1971) was a lawyer, educator, author, and U.S. diplomat.
An advocate general is a senior officer of the law.
Ageism (also spelled "agism") is stereotyping of and discrimination against individuals or groups on the basis of their age.
Aharon Barak (אהרן ברק, born Aharon Brick, 16 September 1936) is a Professor of Law at the Interdisciplinary Center in Herzliya and a lecturer in law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Yale Law School, Central European University, Georgetown University Law Center, and the University of Toronto Faculty of Law.
Aktiengesellschaft (abbreviated AG) is a German word for a corporation limited by share ownership (i.e. one which is owned by its shareholders) and may be traded on a stock market.
An alarm device or system of alarm devices gives an audible, visual or other form of alarm signal about a problem or condition.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alpine Investments BV v Minister van Financiën (1995) C-384/93 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
The Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (or "AIFMD" for short) is an EU law on the financial regulation of hedge funds, private equity, real estate funds, and other "Alternative Investment Fund Managers" (AIFMs) in the European Union.
Altice Portugal (formerly known as Portugal Telecom or PT) is the largest telecommunications service provider in Portugal.
Amministrazione delle Finanze v Simmenthal SpA (1978) Case 106/77 is an EU law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
Roman Angonese v Cassa di Risparmio di Bolzano S.p.A. (2000) C-281/98 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
Annual leave is paid time off work granted by employers to employees to be used for whatever the employee wishes.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a way to resolve disputes outside the courts.
The area of freedom, security and justice (AFSJ) is a collection of home affairs and justice policies designed to ensure security, rights and free movement within the European Union (EU).
Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (formerly Article 82 of the Treaty establishing the European Community) is aimed at preventing undertakings who hold a dominant position in a market from abusing that position.
Asset management, broadly defined, refers to any system that monitors and maintains things of value to an entity or group.
Asset stripping is a term used to refer to the practice of selling off a company's assets in order to improve returns for equity investors.
Association de médiation sociale v Union locale des syndicats CGT (2014) is an EU law case, concerning the protection of human rights in the European Union.
Austerity is a political-economic term referring to policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both.
Aziz v Caixa d'Estalvis de Catalunya (2013) Case C-415/11 is an EU law and consumer protection case, concerning the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Directive.
The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.
Überseering BV v Nordic Construction Company Baumanagement GmbH (2002) is a European company law case, concerning the right of freedom of establishment.
Banco Español de Crédito SA v Camino (2012) is a case relevant for European contract law concerning the scope of consumer protection in the Unfair Terms Directive under EU law.
A barber (from the Latin barba, "beard") is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress, groom, style and shave men’s and boys' hair.
Bargaining power is the relative ability of parties in a situation to exert influence over each other.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Béla Alexander Balassa (6 April 1928 – 10 May 1991) was a Hungarian economist and professor at Johns Hopkins University and a consultant for the World Bank.
The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, abbreviated BGB, is the civil code of Germany.
BCE Inc v 1976 Debentureholders, 2008 SCC 69 (CanLII), 3 SCR 560 is a leading decision of the Supreme Court of Canada on the nature of the duties of corporate directors to act in the best interests of the corporation, "viewed as a good corporate citizen".
Belgian citizenship is based on a mixture of the principles of jus sanguinis and jus soli.
Belgians (Belgen, Belges, Belgier) are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Bhagavān (Sanskrit: भगवान्) is an epithet for deity, particularly for Krishna and other avatars of Vishnu in Vaishnavism, as well as for Shiva in the Shaivism tradition of Hinduism,James Lochtefeld (2000), "Bhagavan", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
Black Wednesday occurred in the United Kingdom on 16 September 1992, when John Major's Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after it was unable to keep the pound above its agreed lower limit in the ERM.
Bolzano (or; German: Bozen (formerly Botzen),; Balsan or Bulsan; Bauzanum) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Union Royale Belge des Sociétés de Football Association ASBL v Jean-Marc Bosman (1995) C-415/93 (known as the Bosman ruling) is a 1995 European Court of Justice decision concerning freedom of movement for workers, freedom of association, and direct effect of article 39 (now article 45 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) of the TEC.
Boston is a town and small port in Lincolnshire, on the east coast of England, approximately 100 miles (160 km) north of London.
Brasserie du Pêcheur v Germany and R (Factortame) v SS for Transport (No 3) (1996) C-46/93 and C-48/93 is a joined EU law case, concerning state liability for breach of the law in the European Union.
The Brenner Autobahn (Autostrada del Brennero or AutoBrennero, Brenner Motorway) refers to a major European truck route, which connects Innsbruck in Austria to Modena in northern Italy.
The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.
British Gas plc was an energy and home services provider in the United Kingdom.
Brusse v Jahani BV (2013) C-488/11 is an EU law and consumer protection case, concerning the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Directive.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Capital controls are residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or outright prohibitions that a nation's government can use to regulate flows from capital markets into and out of the country's capital account.
A capital gains tax (CGT) is a tax on capital gains, the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset that was greater than the amount realized on the sale.
The Capital Requirements Directives (CRD) for the financial services industry have introduced a supervisory framework in the European Union which reflects the Basel II and Basel III rules on capital measurement and capital standards.
Carl Otto Lenz (born 5 June 1930 in Berlin) is a German lawyer, member of the German Bundestag (1965–1984) for the CDU and Advocate General at the European Court of Justice (1984–1997).
A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.
Cartesio Oktató és Szolgáltató bt (2008) is a European company law case concerning the right of freedom of establishment.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
, together with its companion case ParkingEye Ltd v Beavis, are English contract law cases concerning the validity of penalty clauses and (in relation to ParkingEye Ltd v Beavis) the application of the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Directive.
Centros Ltd v Erhvervs- og Selskabsstyrelsen (1999) is a European company law case, concerning the right of freedom of establishment.
Chandler v Cape plc is a decision of the Court of Appeal which addresses the availability of damages for a tort victim from a parent company, in circumstances where the victim suffered industrial injury during employment by a subsidiary company.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles-Irénée Castel, abbé de Saint-Pierre (18 February 1658 – 29 April 1743) was a French author whose ideas were novel for his times.
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political, social, and economic rights for European Union (EU) citizens and residents into EU law.
In chess and chess-like games, the endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when few pieces are left on the board.
In family law and public policy, child support (or child maintenance) is an ongoing, periodic payment made by a parent for the financial benefit of a child (or parent, caregiver, guardian, or state) following the end of a marriage or other relationship.
CIA Security v Signalson and Securitel (1996) is an EU law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
The Citizens’ Rights Directive 2004/38/EC (also sometimes called the "Free Movement Directive") defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the member states of the European Union (EU) and the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein.
Citizenship of the European Union (EU) is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states.
A civil code is a systematic collection of laws designed to deal with the core areas of private law such as for dealing with business and negligence lawsuits and practices.
The Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) are the rules of civil procedure used by the Court of Appeal, High Court of Justice, and County Courts in civil cases in England and Wales.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
CJEU is a Canadian radio station licensed to broadcast a French language children's radio format at AM 1670 in Gatineau, Quebec.
The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 (codified at), was a part of United States antitrust law with the goal of adding further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime; the Clayton Act sought to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency.
A clementine (Citrus × clementina) is a tangor, a hybrid between a willowleaf mandarin orange (''C.'' × ''deliciosa'') and a sweet orange (C. × sinensis), so named in 1902.
Codetermination (also "copartnership" or "worker participation") is the practice of workers of an enterprise having the right to vote for representatives on the board of directors in a company.
Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
Cold calling is defined as the solicitation of business from potential customers who have had no prior contact with the salesperson conducting the call.
Collective action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal is to enhance their status and achieve a common objective.
A collective agreement, collective labour agreement (CLA) or collective bargaining agreement (CBA) is a special type of commercial agreement, usually as one negotiated "collectively" between management (on behalf of the company) and trade unions (on behalf of employees).
Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.
The Collective Redundancies Directive is an EU Directive concerning the procedures and warnings that any employer is under a duty to its workforce to follow if it finds it necessary to make more than 20 employees over 90 days (or 10 to 30 employees depending on firm size over 30 days if the member state chooses this option).
Commission v Austria (2005) C-147/03 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
Commission v Council (1971) is an EU law case, concerning the legality of legislative acts in the European Union.
Commission v Edith Cresson (2006) is an EU law case, concerning the constitutional framework in the European Union.
Commission v France (1997) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Commission v Germany (2007) is an EU law case, relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning European company law.
Commission v Ireland (1982) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Commission v Italy (1972) is an EU law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
Commission v Italy (2003) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Commission v Italy (2009) C-110/05 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Commission v Italy (2011) is an EU law case, concerning the freedom of establishment in the European Union.
Commission v Portugal (2010) is an EU law case, relevant for UK enterprise law, concerning European company law.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union (EU).
The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers (9 December 1989) is a principles-based charter of human rights that apply specifically to the workforce in the European Union.
The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
Conciliation is an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) process whereby the parties to a dispute use a conciliator, who meets with the parties both separately and together in an attempt to resolve their differences.
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
Conflict of laws concerns relations across different legal jurisdictions between natural persons, companies, corporations and other legal entities, their legal obligations and the appropriate forum and procedure for resolving disputes between them.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The Constitutional Court of the Italian Republic (Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana) is the highest court of Italy in matters of constitutional law.
Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.
On March 15, 1962, President John F. Kennedy presented a speech to the United States Congress in which he extolled four basic consumer rights, later called the Consumer Bill of Rights.
In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.
The Consumer Rights Directive is a consumer protection measure in EU law.
Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.
The Copyright Directive (officially the Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, also known as the Information Society Directive or the InfoSoc Directive), is a directive of the European Union enacted to implement the WIPO Copyright Treaty and to harmonise aspects of copyright law across Europe, such as copyright exceptions. The directive was enacted under the internal market provisions of the Treaty of Rome. The directive was subject to unprecedented lobbying and has been cited as a success for copyright industries. The directive gives EU Member States significant freedom in certain aspects of transposition. Member States had until 22 December 2002 to implement the directive into their national laws. However, only Greece and Denmark met the deadline and the European Commission eventually initiated enforcement action against six Member States for non-implementation.
Council Directive 93/98/EEC of 29 October 1993 harmonising the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights is a European Union directive in the field of copyright law, made under the internal market provisions of the Treaty of Rome.
Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.
A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed by a jurisdiction on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities.
The legal term Corpus Juris means "body of law".
Flaminio Costa v ENEL (1964) Case 6/64 was a landmark decision of the European Court of Justice which established the primacy of European Union law (then Community law) over the laws of its member states'.
A council is a group of people who come together to consult, deliberate, or make decisions.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
"Council of Ministers" is the name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
Courage Ltd v Crehan and Inntrepreneur Pub Company v Crehan (2001) are a series of EU competition law and English contract law cases, concerning the validity of beer tie agreements.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.
The Court of Labour (Arbeidshof, Cour du travail, Arbeitsgerichtshof) in Belgium is a court which hears appeals against decisions of the Labour Court (Arbeidsrechtbank, Tribunal du travail, Arbeitsgericht).
Crème de cassis (also known as Cassis Liqueur) is a sweet, dark red liqueur made from blackcurrants.
A creditor is a party (for example, person, organization, company, or government) that has a claim on the services of a second party.
Crofter Hand Woven Harris Tweed Co Ltd v Veitch is a landmark UK labour law case on the right to take part in collective bargaining.
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
Cuius regio, eius religio is a Latin phrase which literally means "Whose realm, his religion", meaning that the religion of the ruler was to dictate the religion of those ruled.
A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market).
A customs union was defined by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff.
Cut throat competition is a term that was widely used to describe the reason for consumer protection regulation, labour law, and enforcement of competition law or antitrust, in the late 19th and early 20th century.
The Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance de l'Europe (CVCE) is an interdisciplinary research and documentation centre dedicated to the European integration process.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
Daily Mail and General Trust plc is a British media company, the owner of The Daily Mail and several other titles.
In law, damages are an award, typically of money, to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.
The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.
Dano v Jobcenter Leipzig (2014) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
The Data Protection Directive (officially Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data (PII (US)) and on the free movement of such data) was a European Union directive adopted in 1995 which regulates the processing of personal data within the European Union.
The Data Retention Directive, more formally "Directive 2006/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and amending Directive 2002/58/EC" was a Directive issued by the European Union and related to telecommunications data retention.
The Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases is a directive of the European Union in the field of copyright law, made under the internal market provisions of the Treaty of Rome.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.
Defrenne v Sabena (No 2) (1976) is a foundational European Union law case, concerning direct effect and the European Social Charter in the European Union.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
The Delors Commission was the administration of Jacques Delors, the eighth President of the European Commission.
Demir and Baykara v Turkey is a landmark European Court of Human Rights case concerning Article 11 ECHR and the right to engage in collective bargaining.
A democratic deficit (or democracy deficit) occurs when ostensibly democratic organizations or institutions (particularly governments) fall short of fulfilling the principles of democracy in their practices or operation where representative and linked parliamentary integrity becomes widely discussed.
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
A shareholder derivative suit is a lawsuit brought by a shareholder on behalf of a corporation against a third party.
The Deutsche Post AG, operating under the trade name Deutsche Post DHL Group, is a German postal service and international courier service company, the world's largest.
Deutsche Post v Commission (2011) C-463/10P is an EU law case, concerning judicial review in the European Union.
Deutsches Weintor eG v Land Rheinland-Pfalz (2012) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.
In European Union law, direct effect is the principle that Union law may, if appropriately framed, confer rights on individuals which the courts of member states of the European Union are bound to recognise and enforce.
A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.
Directive 2003/98/EC on the re-use of public sector information, otherwise known as the PSI Directive, Accessed: 2010-01-21 Accessed: 2010-01-21 is an EU directive that encourages EU member states to make as much public sector information available for re-use as possible.
The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (commonly referred to as Dodd–Frank) was signed into United States federal law by US President Barack Obama on July 21, 2010.
Donald Franciszek Tusk (Polish:; born 22 April 1957) is a Polish politician who has been the President of the European Council since 2014.
The Draft Fifth Company Law Directive (1972–1988) is a European Union proposal for a Directive, primarily aimed to implement a right of employees to vote for the boards of directors in large companies.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
A consultative referendum on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was held in the Netherlands on 1 June 2005 to decide whether the government should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union.
The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages.
Economic, social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights, such as the right to education, right to housing, right to adequate standard of living, right to health and the right to science and culture.
Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
The Electronic Commerce Directive is a European Union Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council from 8 June 2000.
The Employee Involvement Directive is an EU Directive concerning the right of workers to elect members of the board of directors in a European Company.
The Employment Information Directive is an EU Directive which regulates European labour law for the purpose of making workers' contracts transparent.
Employment tribunals are tribunal public bodies in England and Wales and Scotland which have statutory jurisdiction to hear many kinds of disputes between employers and employees.
Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European Union energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the informal European Council on 27 October 2005 at Hampton Court.
Enerji Yapi-Yol Sen v Turkey is a European labour law case, relevant for UK labour law concerning the right to strike.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
Enterprise liability is a legal doctrine under which individual entities (for example, otherwise legally unrelated corporations or people) can be held jointly liable for some action on the basis of being part of a shared enterprise.
Environmental crime is an illegal act which directly harms the environment.
The Environmental Liability Directive 2004/35/EC is an EU law Directive on enforcement of claims to improve the environment.
The European Union (EU) is considered by some to have the most extensive environmental laws of any international organisation.
Equal opportunity arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.
The Equal Treatment Directive is an Act of the European Union, which implements the principle of equal treatment between men and women in EU labour law.
The Equal Treatment in Goods and Services Directive 2004 of 13 December 2004 is a directive which prohibits both direct and indirect sexual discrimination in the provision of goods and services in the European Union.
Equality before the law, also known as: equality under the law, equality in the eyes of the law, or legal equality, is the principle that each independent being must be treated equally by the law (principle of isonomy) and that all are subject to the same laws of justice (due process).
Council Directive 2000/78/EC, called Employment Equality Framework Directive, is an EU Directive, and a major part of EU labour law which aims to combat discrimination on grounds of disability, sexual orientation, religion or belief and age in the workplace.
Ernst Bernard Haas (1924 – March 6, 2003) was a German-American political scientist who made numerous contributions to theoretical discussions in the field of international relations.
Estoppel is a judicial device in common law legal systems whereby a court may prevent, or "estop" (a person who performs this is estopped) a person from making assertions or from going back on his or her word.
EudraLex is the collection of rules and regulations governing medicinal products in the European Union.
Eur-Lex (stylized EUR-Lex) is an official website of European Union law and other public documents of the European Union (EU), published in 24 official languages of the EU.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
A eurobond is an international bond that is denominated in a currency not native to the country where it is issued.
Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.
The European Anti-Fraud Office (commonly known as OLAF, from the Office européen de lutte antifraude.) is a body mandated by the European Union (EU) with protecting the Union's financial interests.
The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe; developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.
The European Banking Authority (EBA) is a regulatory agency of the European Union headquartered in London.
The European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) is an identifier for case law in Europe, implemented by the European Union Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights, the European Patent Office and several EU Member States.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European civil code (ECC) is a proposed harmonisation of private law across the European Union.
The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The Commissioner for Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality is a post in the European Commission.
The Commissioner for the Environment is the member of the European Commission responsible for EU environmental policy.
The European Communities Act 1972 (c. 68) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made legal provision for the accession of the United Kingdom to the three European Communities, namely the EEC (or "Common Market"), Euratom, and the (now defunct) Coal & Steel Community.
European consumer law concerns consumer protection within Europe, particularly through European Union law and the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
European corporate law is a part of European Union law, which concerns the formation, operation and insolvency of corporations in the European Union.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
The Court of Auditors (European Court of Auditors, ECA) (French: Cour des comptes européenne) is the fifth institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 13 March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency, the euro, which took place on 1 January 1999.
The Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union; also referred to as TSCG or more plainly the Fiscal Stability Treaty is an intergovernmental treaty introduced as a new stricter version of the Stability and Growth Pact, signed on 2 March 2012 by all member states of the European Union (EU), except the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom.
The European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) is a European Union financial regulatory institution that replaced the Committee of European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Supervisors (CEIOPS).
European labour law regulates basic transnational standards of employment and partnership at work in the European Union and countries adhering to the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Legislation Identifier (ELI) provides, among others, a solution to uniquely identify and access national and European legislation online.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European People's Party (EPP) is a conservative and Christian democratic European political party.
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) is a European Union financial regulatory institution and European Supervisory Authority, located in Paris.
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European Social Charter is a Council of Europe treaty which was opened for signature on October 18, 1961 and initially became effective on February 26, 1965, after West Germany had become the fifth of the 13 signing nations to ratify it.
The European Stability Mechanism (ESM) is an intergovernmental organization located in Luxembourg City, which operates under public international law for all eurozone Member States having ratified a special ESM intergovernmental treaty.
The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) consists of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 28 member states of the European Union (EU).
The European System of Financial Supervision (ESFS) is the framework for financial supervision in the European Union in operation since 2011.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union Civil Service Tribunal was a specialised court within the Court of Justice of the European Union.
European competition law is the competition law in use within the European Union.
The European Union financial transaction tax (EU FTT) is a proposal made by the European Commission to introduce a financial transaction tax (FTT) within some of the member states of the European Union initially by 1 January 2014, later postponed to 1 January 2016, then to the middle of 2016 and then to September 2016.
The European Union adopts legislation through a variety of legislative procedures.
European Union merger law is a part of the law of the European Union which regulates whether firms can merge with one another and under what conditions.
The European Union Referendum Act 2015 (c. 36) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that made legal provision for a non-binding referendum to be held in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Gibraltar, on whether it should remain a member state of the European Union or leave it.
The European Union value added tax (or EU VAT) is a value added tax on goods and services within the European Union (EU).
The so-called European Union withholding tax is a withholding tax which is deducted from interest earned by European Union residents on their investments made in another member state, by the state in which the investment is held.
The European Works Council Directive (or sometimes the "Transnational Works Council Directive") is a European Union Directive on the establishment of works councils, for the purpose of information and consultation, in companies that operate transnationally within the EU.
In competition law, exclusive dealing refers to an arrangement whereby a retailer or wholesaler is ‘tied’ to purchase from a supplier on the understanding that no other distributor will be appointed or receive supplies in a given area.
Exit, Voice, and Loyalty (1970) is a treatise written by Albert O. Hirschman (1915—2012).
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
Paola Faccini Dori v Recreb Srl (1994) C-91/92 is an EU law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
In economics, factors of production, resources, or inputs are which is used in the production process to produce output—that is, finished goods and services.
Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
The Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof, BGH) in Karlsruhe is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction (ordentliche Gerichtsbarkeit) in Germany.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Federica Maria Mogherini (born 16 June 1973) is an Italian politician who has served as High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy since November 2014.
FINA or Fédération internationale de natation (English: International Swimming Federation) is the international federation recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for administering international competition in water sports.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties.
A financial transaction tax is a levy on a specific type of financial transaction for a particular purpose.
Finanzamt Köln Altstadt v Schumacker (1995) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
The Fixed-term Work Directive is one of three EU Directives that regulate atypical work.
FNV Kunsten Informatie en Media v Staat der Nederlanden (2014) is a European labour law case, concerning European competition law.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Foster v British Gas plc (1990) is a leading EU law concerning the definition of the "state", for the purpose of determining which organisations in the private or public sector can be regarded as an organ of the state.
The fourth railway package is a set of changes to rail transport regulation in the European Union law.
Sir Francis Geoffrey Jacobs (born 8 June 1939), is a British jurist who served as Advocate General at the Court of Justice of the European Communities from October 1988 to January 2006.
Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957 in Rome) is an Italian politician, twice foreign minister of the Berlusconi cabinets (in 2002-2004 and 2008-2011) and once European Commissioner in the first Barroso Commission (2004-2008).
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Francovich v Italy (1991) C-6/90 was a decision of the European Court of Justice which established that European Union member states could be liable to pay compensation to individuals who suffered a loss by reason of the member state's failure to transpose an EU directive into national law.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The Free Movement of Workers Regulation No.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
The Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention (1948) is an International Labour Organization Convention, and one of eight conventions that form the core of international labour law, as interpreted by the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communautaire of the European Union.
The French referendum on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was held on 29 May 2005 to decide whether France should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union.
French labour law is the system of labour law operating in France.
Friedrich "Fritz" Kessler (August 25, 1901 – January 21, 1998) was an American law professor who taught at Yale Law School (1935–1938, 1947–1970), University of Chicago Law School, and University of California, Berkeley School of Law.
Full employment means that everyone who wants a job have all the hours of work they need on "fair wages".
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
Gardiner Coit Means (June 8, 1896 in Windham, Connecticut – February 15, 1988 in Vienna, Virginia) was an American economist who worked at Harvard University, where he met lawyer-diplomat Adolf Berle.
Gauweiler v Deutscher Bundestag (2015) is an EU law case relevant for banking law which approved outright monetary transactions that were needed to save the Eurozone from financial turmoil.
Gebhard v Consiglio dell'Ordine degli Avvocati e Procuratori di Milano (1995) is an EU law case, concerning the freedom of establishment in the European Union.
The General Court (EGC) is a constituent court of the Court of Justice of the European Union.
The general principles of European Union law are general principles of law which are applied by the European Court of Justice and the national courts of the member states when determining the lawfulness of legislative and administrative measures within the European Union.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
Geraets-Smits v Stichting Ziekenfonds and Peerbooms v Stichting CZ Groep Zorgverzekeringen (2001) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
German contract law is found in the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, in both the "Allgemeine Teil" and the chapter on "Schuldrecht".
Geven v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen (2007) C-213/05 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.
A golden share is a nominal share which is able to outvote all other shares in certain specified circumstances, often held by a government organization, in a government company undergoing the process of privatization and transformation into a stock-company.
Good faith (bona fides), in human interactions, is a sincere intention to be fair, open, and honest, regardless of the outcome of the interaction.
Gordon Slynn, Baron Slynn of Hadley (17 February 1930 – 7 April 2009) was a British jurist specialising in European and International Law, and a former judge of the European Court of Justice and Lord of Appeal in Ordinary.
Government procurement or public procurement is undertaken by the public authorities of the European Union (EU) and its member states in order to award contracts for public works and for the purchase of goods and services in accordance with the principles underlying the Treaties of the European Union.
Groener v Minister for Education (1989) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
Gunnar Beck is a German EU and constitutional lawyer, legal philosopher and publicist.
Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart, FBA (18 July 1907 – 19 December 1992), usually cited as H. L. A. Hart, was a British legal philosopher, and a major figure in political and legal philosophy.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Höfner and Elser v Macrotron GmbH (1991) was a significant EU competition law case, concerning the definition of an "undertaking" and abuse of a dominant position.
A hedge fund is an investment fund that pools capital from accredited individuals or institutional investors and invests in a variety of assets, often with complex portfolio-construction and risk-management techniques.
Hendrix v Raad van Bestuur van het Uitvoeringsinstituut Werknemersverzekeringen (2007) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
High court usually refers to the superior court (or supreme court) of a country or state.
The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (abbreviated HR or HR/VP, the latter reflecting the vice presidency of the Commission) is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) within the European Union (EU).
The history of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus Christ and His teachings (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30), and the Catholic Church is a continuation of the early Christian community established by Jesus.
The history of the papacy, the office held by the pope as head of the Roman Catholic Church, according to Catholic doctrine, spans from the time of Peter to the present day.
The History of the Peloponnesian War (Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens).
Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised), 1970 is an International Labour Organization Convention.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Home state regulation is a principle in the law of the European Union for resolving conflict of laws between Member States when dealing with cross-border selling or marketing of goods and services.
Hugh Collins FBA (born 21 June 1953) is the Vinerian Professor of English Law at the University of Oxford and a fellow of All Souls College.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Hugo Sinzheimer (12 April 1875 – 16 September 1945) was a German legal scholar, and author of the Weimar Constitution.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human development is the science that seeks to understand how and why the people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Humiliation is the abasement of pride, which creates mortification or leads to a state of being humbled or reduced to lowliness or submission.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
I Can't Believe It's Not Butter! is a spread brand produced by Unilever.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Incidental effect is a concept in European Union law that allows the use of indirect effect of EU directives in private legal actions.
Indirect effect is a principle of European Union (EU) law, whereby national courts of the member states of the EU are required to interpret national law in line with provisions of EU law.
In law, economics and the social sciences, inequality of bargaining power is where one party to a "bargain", contract or agreement, has more and better alternatives than the other party.
Information and Consultation of Employees Directive is a european Labour Law that requires undertakings to inform and consult employees on significant changes to businesses in a standing procedure, typically called a work council.
In contract theory and economics, information asymmetry deals with the study of decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other.
An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts.
Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent.
The Insolvency Protection Directive is an EU Directive concerning the protection of employees in the event of insolvency of an employer.
The Insolvency Regulation is an EU Regulation concerning the rules of jurisdiction for opening insolvency proceedings in the European Union.
An institutional investor is an entity which pools money to purchase securities, real property, and other investment assets or originate loans.
Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision Directive is a European Union Directive designed to create an internal market for occupational retirement provision.
The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision making bodies of the European Union (EU).
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
International Business Machines Corporation v Commission (1981) is an EU law case, concerning judicial review in the European Union.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
International labour law is the body of rules spanning public and private international law which concern the rights and duties of employees, employers, trade unions and governments in regulating the workplace.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
International Peace Congress, or International Congress of the Friends of Peace, was the name of a series of international meetings of representatives from peace societies from throughout the world held in various places in Europe from 1843 to 1853.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
The Rosella or International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP (2007) is an EU law case, relevant to all labour law within the European Union, including UK labour law, which held that there is a positive right to strike.
Internationale Handelsgesellschaft mbH v Einfuhr- und Vorratsstelle für Getreide und Futtermittel (1970) is an EU law case and German constitutional law case, also known as "Solange I", concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami v Parliament and Council (2013) C-583/11 is an EU law case, concerning judicial review in the European Union.
An investment fund is a way of investing money alongside other investors in order to benefit from the inherent advantages of working as part of a group.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (9 November 1888 – 16 March 1979) was a French political economist and diplomat.
Jean-Claude Juncker (born 9 December 1954) is a Luxembourgish politician serving as President of the European Commission since 2014.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jean-Marc Bosman (born 30 October 1964) is a Belgian former professional footballer, whose judicial challenge of the football transfer rules led to the Bosman ruling in 1995.
Job security is the probability that an individual will keep their job; a job with a high level of job security is such that a person with the job would have a small chance of becoming unemployed.
John Dalli (born 5 October 1948) is a former Maltese politician who served as Cabinet Minister in various Maltese governments between 1987 and 2010.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Josemans v Burgemeester van Maastricht (2010) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Joseph Halevi Horowitz Weiler (born 2 September 1951) is a South African-American academic, currently serving as European Union Jean Monnet Chair at New York University Law School and Senior Fellow of the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, Harvard.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
The just price is a theory of ethics in economics that attempts to set standards of fairness in transactions.
Kadi and Al Barakaat International Foundation v Council and Commission (2008) C-402/05 is an EU law case, concerning the hierarchy between international law and general principles of EU law.
Kamer van Koophandel en Fabrieken voor Amsterdam v Inspire Art Ltd (2003) C-167/01 is a leading corporate law case, concerning the EU law of freedom of establishment for companies.
Köbler v Austria (2003) is an EU law case, concerning the preliminary ruling procedure in the European Union.
Kücükdeveci v Swedex GmbH & Co KG (2010) is a leading EU labour law case, which held that there is a general principle of law in all European Union member states, against discrimination, and in favour of equal treatment.
Reference for a Preliminary Ruling in the Criminal Proceedings against Bernard Keck and Daniel Mithouard (1993) C-267/91 is an EU law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
Keith D. Ewing (born 1955) is Professor of Public Law at King's College London and co-author of two of Britain's leading textbooks in constitutional and administrative law, and labour law.
Criminal proceedings against Kenny Roland Lyckeskog (2002) is an EU law case, concerning preliminary references to the Court of Justice of the European Union.
Klopp is a German surname.
Konsumentombudsmannen v De Agostini (1997) C-34/95 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Konsumentombudsmannen v Gourmet AB (2001) C-405/98 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Kušionová v SMART Capital a.s. (2014) Case C-34/13 is an EU law and consumer protection case, concerning the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Directive.
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law.
"Laboratories of democracy" is a phrase popularized by U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis in New State Ice Co. v. Liebmann to describe how a "state may, if its citizens choose, serve as a laboratory; and try novel social and economic experiments without risk to the rest of the country." Brandeis was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.
"Labour is not a commodity" is the principle expressed in the preamble to the International Labour Organization's founding documents.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).
The Late Payment Directive, 2011/7/EU is a Directive of the European Union concerning commercial late payments.
Laval un Partneri Ltd v Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet (2007) is an EU law case, relevant to all labour law within the European Union, which held that there is a positive right to strike.
Law's Empire is a 1986 text in legal philosophy by the late Oxford scholar Ronald Dworkin which continues his criticism of the philosophy of legal positivism as promoted by H.L.A. Hart during the middle to late 20th century.
Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg (1986) was a European Union law case about the free movement of workers within the territory of the European Union.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Legal certainty is a principle in national and international law which holds that the law must provide those subject to it with the ability to regulate their conduct.
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
Legal pluralism is the existence of multiple legal systems within one (human) population and/or geographic area.
Lepik or Leppik is a common Estonian surname (meaning "alder forest"), with notable bearers including.
Lex mercatoria (from the Latin for "merchant law"), often referred to as "the Law Merchant" in English, is the body of commercial law used by merchants throughout Europe during the medieval period.
Liga Portuguesa de Futebol Profissional and Bwin International Ltd v Departamento de Jogos da Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa (2009) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
In a limited company, the liability of members or subscribers of the company is limited to what they have invested or guaranteed to the company.
The following is a list of notable judgments of the European Court of Justice.
The list of International Labour Organization Conventions totals 190 laws which aim to improve the labour standards of people around the world.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.
Louis K. Liggett Co.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Lubbe v Cape Plc is a conflict of laws case, which is also highly significant for the question of lifting the corporate veil in relation to tort victims.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.
The Luxembourg Compromise (or "Luxembourg Accord") was an agreement reached in January 1966 to resolve the "empty chair crisis" which had caused a stalemate within European Economic Community.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Macarthys Ltd v Smith (1980) is an EU law, UK constitutional law and UK labour law case, concerning the construction of a sex discrimination statute, and its compatibility with European treaties, now in the European Union.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Mangold v Helm (2005) was a case before the European Court of Justice (ECJ).
Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.
Margarine is an imitation butter spread used for flavoring, baking, and cooking.
Market access for goods means the conditions, tariff and Non-tariff measures (NTMs), set by countries for the entry of specific goods into their markets.
The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (known as "MiFID") as subsequently amended is a European Union law that provides harmonised regulation for investment services across the 31 member states of the European Economic Area (the 28 EU member states plus Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein).
Marleasing SA v La Comercial Internacional de Alimentacion SA (1990) was a decision of the European Court of Justice concerning the indirect effect of European Union law.
Marshall v Southampton and South West Hampshire Area Health Authority (1986) is an EU law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
Master of European Law (LL.M. Eur) is a specialized Master of Laws (LL.M.) degree, awarded after successful completion of a course of study in the law of the European Union and preparation of subsequent master's thesis within this field.
Maximum harmonisation is a term used in European Union law.
The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
The Merger Treaty (or Brussels Treaty) was a European treaty which combined the three executive bodies of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC) into a single institutional structure.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
Merrill Lynch Wealth Management is a wealth management division of Bank of America.
Metock v Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform (2008) is an EU law case, significant in Ireland and Denmark, on the Citizens Rights Directive and family unification rules for migrant citizens.
Michael J. Trebilcock (born 1941) is a distinguished university professor and professor of law at the University of Toronto, specializing in law and economics.
Miguel Poiares Maduro (born 3 January 1967) is a Portuguese academic and politician.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography Milanes, Meneghin) is the central dialect of the Western variety of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its metropolitan city, and the northernmost part of the province of Pavia.
Miles v European Schools (2011) is an EU law case, concerning preliminary references to the Court of Justice of the European Union.
Minimum capital is a concept used in corporate law and banking regulation to stipulate what assets the organisation must hold as a minimum requirement.
Minimum harmonisation is a term used in European Union law.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Municipality of Differdange v Commission (1984) is an EU law case, concerning judicial review in the European Union.
A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities.
A mutual recognition agreement (MRA) is an international agreement by which two or more countries agree to recognize one another's conformity assessments.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services for each constituent country of the United Kingdom.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
Nemo auditur propriam turpitudinem allegans is a civil law maxim which may be translated into English as "no one can be heard to invoke his own turpitude" or "no one shall be heard, who invokes his own guilt".
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Although the Kingdom of Norway is not a member state of the European Union (EU), it is closely associated with the Union through its membership in the European Economic Area (EEA), by virtue of being a founding member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), one of the historically two dominant western European trade blocs.
A referendum on whether Norway should join the European Community was held on 25 September 1972.
A referendum on joining the European Union was held in Norway on 27 and 28 November 1994.
The Ohlin Report was a report drafted by a group of experts of the International Labour Organization led by Bertil Ohlin in 1956.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Omega Spielhallen und Automatenaufstellungs-GmbH v Oberbürgermeisterin der Bundesstadt Bonn (2004) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях», «O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.
On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (19 April 1817) is a book by David Ricardo on economics.
Opinion 2/13 (2014) is an EU law case, concerning the accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights, and the power struggle of the Court of Justice to maintain its perceived preeminence.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
Other People's Money And How the Bankers Use It (1914) is a collection of essays written by Louis Brandeis first published as a book in 1914, and reissued in 1933.
Sir Otto Kahn-Freund QC (17 November 1900 – 16 August 1979) was a scholar of labour law and comparative law.
Otto Friedrich von Gierke (11 January 1841 – October 10, 1921) was a German legal scholar and historian.
Outright Monetary Transactions case (2014) is an EU law case, concerning preliminary references to the Court of Justice of the European Union.
An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.
The Parental Leave Directive is a European Union Directive, which concerns the basic rights of all parents to leave in the European Union.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
Part-time Work Directive is one of three EU Directives that regulate atypical work.
Parti écologiste “Les Verts” v European Parliament (1986) is an EU law case, concerning the constitutional framework, and party political funding, in the European Union.
The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a social-democratic European political party.
Paul P. Craig (born 27 September 1951) is currently Professor of English Law at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of St John's College.
The Payment Services Directive (PSD, Directive 2007/64/EC, replaced by PSD 2, Directive (EU) 2015/2366) is an EU Directive, administered by the European Commission (Directorate General Internal Market) to regulate payment services and payment service providers throughout the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA).
The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (the predecessor of Ferdinand I) and the Schmalkaldic League, signed in September 1555 at the imperial city of Augsburg.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
The Pensions Act 2004 (c 35) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to improve the running of pension schemes.
A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens; Latin for "compelling law") is a fundamental principle of international law that is accepted by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.
"Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch" (Zum ewigen Frieden.) is a 1795 essay by Immanuel Kant.
The Perpetual Union is a feature of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, which established the United States of America as a national entity.
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.
Pfeiffer v Deutsches Rotes Kreuz, Kreisverband Waldshut eV (2005) is an EU law and European labour law case concerning the Working Time Directive.
Philosophical Investigations (Philosophische Untersuchungen) is a work by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, first published, posthumously, in 1953, in which Wittgenstein discusses numerous problems and puzzles in the fields of semantics, logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of action, and philosophy of mind.
Piercing the corporate veil or lifting the corporate veil is a legal decision to treat the rights or duties of a corporation as the rights or liabilities of its shareholders.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Piraiki-Patraiki v Commission (1985) is an EU law case, concerning judicial review in the European Union.
Plaumann & Co v Commission (1963) is an EU law case, concerning judicial review in the European Union.
Classical pluralism is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government, but that many non-governmental groups use their resources to exert influence.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
Positive laws (ius positum) are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
A pre-emption right, or right of pre-emption, is a contractual right to acquire certain property newly coming into existence before it can be offered to any other person or entity.
The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.
The Pregnant Workers Directive is a European Union Directive.
A preliminary ruling is a decision of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on the interpretation of European Union law, made at the request of a court or tribunal of a European Union member state.
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.
PreussenElektra AG v Schleswag AG (2001) is a UK enterprise law case, electricity generation.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
Price discrimination is a microeconomic pricing strategy where identical or largely similar goods or services are transacted at different prices by the same provider in different markets.
Price fixing is an agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market conditions such that the price is maintained at a given level by controlling supply and demand.
Price stability is a goal of monetary and fiscal policy aiming to support sustainable rates of economic activity.
The primacy of European Union law (sometimes referred to as supremacy) is an EU law principle that when there is conflict between European law and the law of Member States, European law prevails; the norms of national law have to be set aside.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The Principles of European Contract Law (PECL) is a set of model rules drawn up by leading contract law academics in Europe.
The Principles of European Tort Law (PETL) are a compilation of guidelines by the European Group on Tort Law aiming at the harmonization of European tort law.
Pringle v Government of Ireland (2012) is an EU law case, which held the European Stability Mechanism was lawful.
Privacy and Electronic Communications Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications, otherwise known as ePrivacy Directive (ePD), is an EU directive on data protection and privacy in the digital age.
Private equity typically refers to investment funds organized as limited partnerships that are not publicly traded and whose investors are typically large institutional investors, university endowments, or wealthy individuals.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Procureur du Roi v Benoît and Gustave Dassonville (1974) Case 8/74 is an EU law case of the European Court of Justice, in which a 'distinctly applicable measure of equivalent effect' to a quantitative restriction of trade in the European Union was held to exist on a Scotch whisky imported from France.
The Product Liability Directive is a directive of the Council of the European Union that created a regime of strict liability for defective products.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Proportionality is a general principle in law which covers several special (although related) concepts.
Proposed directive on criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights
The European Union (EU) directive on criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights (2005/0127/COD) was a proposal from the European Commission for a directive aimed "to supplement Directive 2004/48/EC of 29 April 2004 on the enforcement of intellectual property rights (Civil enforcement)" (Source: Justification for the proposal, COM(2005) 276 final, July 12, 2005).
Pubblico Ministero v Ratti (1979) is an EU law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings.
A public limited company (legally abbreviated to plc) is a type of public company under the United Kingdom company law, some Commonwealth jurisdictions, and the Republic of Ireland.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
R (Bidar) v London Borough of Ealing, SS for Education and Skills (2005) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
R (Daily Mail and General Trust plc) v HM Treasury and Commissioners of Inland Revenue (1988) is an EU law case, concerning the freedom of establishment in the European Union.
R (Factortame Ltd) v Secretary of State for Transport was a judicial review case taken against the United Kingdom government by a company of Spanish fishermen who claimed that the United Kingdom had breached European Union law by requiring ships to have a majority of British owners if they were to be registered in the UK.
R (HS2 Action Alliance Ltd) v Secretary of State for Transport is a UK constitutional law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
R (Secretary of State for the Home Department) v Immigration Appeal Tribunal and Surinder Singh 3 CMLR 358 is a UK immigration law and EU law case involving the right of entry and residence into a nation state.
R (Seymour-Smith) v Secretary of State for Employment and (1999) is a landmark case in UK labour law and European labour law on the qualifying period of work before an employee accrues unfair dismissal rights.
The Race Equality Directive is an Act of the European Union, concerning European labour law.
The race to the bottom is a socio-economic phrase which is used to describe government deregulation of the business environment, or reduction in tax rates, in order to attract or retain economic activity in their jurisdictions.
A rapporteur is a person who is appointed by an organization to report on the proceedings of its meetings.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Rechtsstaat is a doctrine in continental European legal thinking, originating in German jurisprudence.
Reference Re Secession of Quebec, is a landmark judgment of the Supreme Court of Canada regarding the legality, under both Canadian and international law, of a unilateral secession of Quebec from Canada.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
A regulation is a legal act of the European Union that becomes immediately enforceable as law in all member states simultaneously.
Regulatory competition, also called competitive governance or policy competition, is a phenomenon in law, economics and politics concerning the desire of law makers to compete with one another in the kinds of law offered in order to attract businesses or other actors to operate in their jurisdiction.
The Reinheitsgebot (literally "purity order"), sometimes called the "German Beer Purity Law" in English, is a series of regulations limiting the ingredients in beer in Germany and the states of the former Holy Roman Empire.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC is a European Union directive which mandates levels of renewable energy use within the European Union.
The law of restitution is the law of gains-based recovery.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Rewe-Zentral v Bundesmonopolverwaltung für Branntwein (1979) Case 120/78, popularly known as Cassis de Dijon after its subject matter, is an EU law decision of the European Court of Justice.
Reyners v Belgium (1974) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Royal Football Club de Liège (RFC Liège) is a Belgian football club from the city of Liège.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
A trial which is observed by trial judge or by jury without being partial is a fair trial.
The right to housing is the economic, social and cultural right to adequate housing and shelter.
Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman (29 June 18864 September 1963) was a Luxembourg-born French statesman.
Roger Grenfell Toulson, Lord Toulson (23 September 1946 – 27 June 2017) was a British lawyer and judge who served as a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Rome I Regulation (Regulation (EC) No of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable to contractual obligations) is a regulation which governs the choice of law in the European Union.
The Rome II Regulation (EC) No is a European Union Regulation regarding the conflict of laws on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The Rules of Procedure of the Court of Justice are a part of EU law concerning how the Court of Justice of the European Union should function.
RWE AG, until 1990: Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk AG (Rhenish-Westphalian Power Plant), is a German electric utilities company based in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia.
RWE Vertrieb AG v Verbraucherzentrale Nordrhein-Westfalen eV (2013) C-92/11 is an EU law and consumer protection case, concerning the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Directive.
S.A. (and variants) designates a type of corporation in countries that mostly employ civil law.
SA Roquette Frères v Council (1980) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
Sala v Freistaat Bayern (1998) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of citizens in the European Union.
Salling Group A/S (formerly Dansk Supermarked A/S) is Denmark's largest retailer, with a market share of 34.9%.
The Santer Commission was the European Commission in office between 23 January 1995 and 15 March 1999.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
Eugen Schmidberger, Internationale Transporte und Planzüge v Austria (2003) C-112/00 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Scotch whisky (often simply called Scotch) is malt whisky or grain whisky made in Scotland.
The Second Railway Package is a group of European Union legislation which promote common standards and open access, working towards an integrated European railway area.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Services in the Internal Market Directive (also called the "Bolkestein Directive") is an EU law aiming at establishing a single market for services within the European Union (EU).
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
In financial markets, a share is a unit used as mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts.
A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation.
The Shareholder Rights Directive, amended by the establishes requirements in relation to the exercise of certain shareholder rights attached to EU listed companies.
Shelley v. Kraemer, (1948) is a landmark United States Supreme Court case holding that the State-Action Doctrine includes the enforcement of private contracts, the Equal Protection Clause prohibits racially restrictive housing covenants, and that such covenants are unenforceable in court.
The Shops Act 1950 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which was repealed on 1 December 1994 by the Deregulation and Contracting Out Act 1994.
Simon Deakin (born 26 March 1961) is Professor of Law at the Faculty of Law, Cambridge, and a Fellow of Peterhouse College, Cambridge.
The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The Single European Railway Directive 2012 is an EU Directive that regulates railway networks in EU law.
A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
Picon is a caramel-coloured, flavoured bitters drunk as an apéritif, which traditionally accompanies beer in the east and north of France.
Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation.
Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.
The social market economy (SOME; soziale Marktwirtschaft), also called Rhine capitalism, is a socioeconomic model combining a free market capitalist economic system alongside social policies which establish both fair competition within the market and a welfare state.
Social progress is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Société anonyme Cimenteries CBR Cementsbedrijven NV v Commission (1967) is an EU law case, concerning judicial review in the European Union.
A societas Europaea (SE; Latin: European society or company; plural: societates Europaeae) is a public company registered in accordance with the corporate law of the European Union (EU), introduced in 2004 with the Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Company.
Re Wünsche Handelsgesellschaft (22 October 1986) BVerfGE is a German constitutional law and EU law case, popularly known as Solange II, concerning the conflict of law between the German national legal system and European Union law.
Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.
The Solvency II Directive is a Directive in European Union law that codifies and harmonises the EU insurance regulation.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Sorrow is an emotion, feeling, or sentiment.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spaak Report or Brussels Report on the General Common Market is the report drafted by the Spaak Committee in 1956.
Specific performance is an equitable remedy in the law of contract, whereby a court issues an order requiring a party to perform a specific act, such to complete performance of the contract.
Srl CILFIT v Ministry of Health (1982) is an EU law case, concerning preliminary references to the Court of Justice of the European Union.
In a corporation, as defined in its first usage in a 1963 internal memorandum at the Stanford Research Institute, a stakeholder is a member of the "groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist".
A standard form contract (sometimes referred to as a contract of adhesion, a leonine contract, a take-it-or-leave-it contract, or a boilerplate contract) is a contract between two parties, where the terms and conditions of the contract are set by one of the parties, and the other party has little or no ability to negotiate more favorable terms and is thus placed in a "take it or leave it" position.
In law, standing or locus standi is the term for the ability of a party to demonstrate to the court sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action challenged to support that party's participation in the case.
State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.
Council Regulation (EC) No 2157/2001 of 8 October 2001 on the Statute for a European company (SE) is an EU law requiring member states to recognise the European Company as capable of being registered in each member state.
The Statute of the Council of Europe (also known as the Treaty of London (1949)) is a treaty that was signed on 5 May 1949, which created the Council of Europe.
The Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union contains the main EU law rules on how the Court of Justice of the European Union should function.
Stauder v City of Ulm (1969) is an EU law case, concerning the protection of human rights in the European Union.
Stavros Dimas (Σταύρος Δήμας,; born 30 April 1941) is a Greek politician who was European Commissioner for the Environment from 2004 to 2009.
Udo Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie (1988) is a European Union law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
In criminal and civil law, strict liability is a standard of liability under which a person is legally responsible for the consequences flowing from an activity even in the absence of fault or criminal intent on the part of the defendant.
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
Structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) consist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experienced economic crises.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
The United States subprime mortgage crisis was a nationwide banking emergency, occurring between 2007 and 2010, that contributed to the U.S. recession of December 2007 – June 2009.
Subsidiarity is a principle of social organization that holds that social and political issues should be dealt with at the most immediate (or local) level that is consistent with their resolution.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
A supervisory board or supervisory committee, often called board of directors, is a group of individuals chosen by the stockholders of a company to promote their interests through the governance of the company and to hire and supervise the executive directors and CEO.
The Supreme Court (בית המשפט העליון, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) is the highest court in Israel.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
The federal popular initiative "against rip-off salaries" of 2013 was a successful popular initiative in Switzerland to control executive pay of companies listed on the stock market, and to increase shareholders' say in corporate governance.
A tachograph is a device fitted to a vehicle that automatically records its speed and distance, together with the driver's activity selected from a choice of modes.
In business, a takeover is the purchase of one company (the target) by another (the acquirer, or bidder).
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.
The Telecoms Package was the review of the European Union Telecommunications Framework from 2007 – 2009.
The Temporary Agency Work Directive is an EU Directive agreed in November 2008 which seeks to guarantee those working through employment agencies equal pay and conditions with employees in the same business who do the same work.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919) is a book written and published by the British economist John Maynard Keynes.
The English Constitution is a book by Walter Bagehot.
The Modern Corporation and Private Property is a book written by Adolf Berle and Gardiner Means published in 1932 regarding the foundations of United States corporate law.
The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future is a 2012 book by Joseph Stiglitz that deals with income inequality in the United States.
The third railway package is a collection of European Union legislation, intended to revitalise railways across Europe and open up passenger services to competition.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Three Rivers DC v Governor of the Bank of England is a UK banking law and EU law case, concerning government liability for the protection of depositors, and the preliminary ruling procedure in the European Union.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
The Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) or European Tobacco Products Directive (EUTPD) (2014/40/EU) is a directive of the European Union which places limits on the sale and merchandising of tobacco and tobacco related products in the EU.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
Alfred Thompson “Tom” Denning, Baron Denning, (23 January 1899 – 5 March 1999) was an English lawyer and judge.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
Council Directive No.
In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost in making any economic trade when participating in a market.
The Transfers of Undertakings Directive is a European Union law that protects the contracts of employment of people working in businesses that are transferred between owners.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE; commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty) was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU).
The Treaty Establishing the European Stability Mechanism was signed by the member states of the eurozone to found the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), an international organisation located in Luxembourg, to act as a permanent source of financial assistance for member states in financial difficulty, with a maximum lending capacity of €500 billion.
The Treaty of Amsterdam, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999; it made substantial changes to the Treaty of Maastricht, which had been signed in 1992.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The Treaty of Nice was signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001 and came into force on 1 February 2003.
The Treaty of Paris (formally the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community) was signed on 18 April 1951 between France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands), establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Trojani v Centre public d'aide sociale de Bruxelles (2004) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of persons and citizenship in the European Union.
An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.
The Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities Directive is a consolidated EU Directive, that allows collective investment schemes to operate freely throughout the EU on the basis of a single authorisation from one member state.
The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive regulates unfair business practices in EU law, as part of European consumer law.
The Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Directive is a European Union directive (then called European Economic Community directive) governing the use of surprising or onerous terms used by business in deals with consumers.
Unión de Pequeños Agricultores v Council of the European Union (2002) C-50/00 P is an EU law case, concerning judicial review in the European Union.
The European patent with unitary effect (EPUE), more commonly known as the unitary patent, is a new type of European patent in advanced stage of adoption which would be valid in participating member states of the European Union.
The United Kingdom company law regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act 2006.
United Kingdom constitutional law concerns the political governance of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, also known as the Referendum on the European Community (Common Market), the Common Market referendum and EEC membership referendum took place on 5 June 1975 in the United Kingdom to gauge support for the country's continued membership of the European Communities (EC)—often known at the time as the "European Community” and the "Common Market" which it had entered on 1 January 1973 under the Conservative government of Edward Heath under the provisions of the Referendum Act 1975.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The 1945 United Kingdom general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.
The 1997 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 1 May 1997, five years after the previous election on 9 April 1992, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
A United Nations Security Council resolution is a UN resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council; the UN body charged with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".
The United States of Europe, the European state, the European superstate, the European federation and Federal Europe are names used to refer to several similar hypothetical scenarios of the unification of Europe as a single sovereign federation of states (hence superstate), similar to the United States of America, both as projected by writers of speculative fiction and science fiction and by political scientists, politicians, geographers, historians and futurologists.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The Universal Service Directive or formally Directive 2002/22/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 March 2002 on universal service and users' rights relating to electronic communications networks and services addresses so called universal service obligations and users' rights related to telecommunications in the European Union.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Urea-formaldehyde, also known as urea-methanal, so named for its common synthesis pathway and overall structure, is a non-transparent thermosetting resin or polymer.
USL Dunkerque (Union Sportive du Littoral de Dunkerque) is a French football club based in the commune of Dunkirk.
Vaassen v Beambtenfonds Mijnbedrijf (1966) is an EU law case, concerning preliminary references to the Court of Justice of the European Union.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
Van Binsbergen v Bestuur van de Bedrijfvereniging voor de Metaalnijverheid (1974) Case 33/74 is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of services in the European Union.
Van Duyn v Home Office (1974) C-41/74 was a case of the European Court of Justice concerning the free movement of workers between member states.
Van Gend & Loos was a Dutch distribution company.
Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen (1963) Case 26/62 was a landmark case of the European Court of Justice which established that provisions of the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community were capable of creating legal rights which could be enforced by both natural and legal persons before the courts of the Community's member states.
Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film that is primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) is a treaty concerning the international law on treaties between states.
Vivian Murray (22 July 1932 – 6 March 2009) was an Irish businessman.
The Volkswagen Act is a set of German federal laws enacted in 1960, regulating the privatization of Volkswagenwerk GmbH into Volkswagen AG.
Von Colson v Land Nordrhein-Westfalen (1984) is an EU law case, concerning the conflict of law between a national legal system and European Union law.
Votes, sometimes also Vods (vađđalaizõd) are a Finnic ethic group native to Votia in Ingria, the part of modern-day northwestern Russia that is roughly southwest of Saint Petersburg and east of the Estonian border-town of Narva.
Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.
The procedures for voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the European Union.
Wage regulation refers to attempts by a government to regulate wages paid to citizens.
Walter Rau Lebensmittelwerke v De Smedt PVBA (1983) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of goods in the European Union.
Walter Van Gerven (11 May 1935 – 8 July 2015) was a Belgian lawyer and law professor.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
Weddel & Co BV v Commission (1992) is an EU law case, concerning the Commission of the European Union's official exercise of power.
Weigel v Finanzlandesdirektion für Vorarlberg (2004) is an EU law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania.
Wilson v United Kingdom is a UK labour law and European labour law case concerning discrimination by employers against their workers who join and take action through trade unions.
Wilson v St Helens Borough Council 2 AC 52 is a UK labour law case concerning transfers of undertakings, and the job security rights of employees.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
The Working Time Directive, is a Directive of the European Union.
The Working Time Regulations 1998 is the United Kingdom statutory instrument which implements the EU Working Time Directive 93/104/EC.
The Safety and Health at Work Directive is a European Union directive that sets out general principles for protection of workers' Occupational safety and health.
A works council (very rarely called "work council") is a "shop-floor" organization representing workers that functions as a local/firm-level complement to trade unions but is independent of these at least in some countries.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal state of happiness, freedom and peace within and among all people and nations on earth.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 2006 Ivory Coast toxic waste dump was a health crisis in Ivory Coast in which a ship registered in Panama, the Probo Koala, chartered by the Singaporean-based oil and commodity shipping company Trafigura Beheer BV, offloaded toxic waste to an Ivorian waste handling company which disposed of it at the port of Abidjan.
Az Europai Unio Szocial Politikaja, Az Európai Unió Szociál Politikája, Common law for the EU, Community Law, Community obligation, EC Law, EC law, ELS degree, EU Law, EU framework law, EU law, EU laws, EU legislation, Eu law, European Community Law, European Community law, European Law, European Union Law, European Union constitutional law, European Union laws, European Union opinion, European community law, European law, Law of the EU, Law of the European Union, Union law.