216 relations: Abzyme, Acetic acid, Acid, Acid catalysis, Acrylamide, Acrylonitrile, ACS Nano, Activated carbon, Activation energy, Adsorption, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alkane, Alkene, Alkylation, Alkyne, Aluminium oxide, Ammonia, Amount of substance, Applied science, Argonne National Laboratory, Aspirin, Atmosphere of Earth, Autocatalysis, Barium sulfate, BIG-NSE, Biocatalysis, Biodiesel, Biological membrane, Biology, Calcium carbonate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonyl group, Carbonylation, Carboxylic acid, Catabolism, Catalysis, Catalysis Letters, Catalysis Science & Technology, Catalyst poisoning, Catalyst support, Catalytic converter, Catalytic heater, Catalytic reforming, Chemical & Engineering News, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical kinetics, Chemical reaction, ..., Chemisorption, Chirality (chemistry), Chlorine, Chlorofluorocarbon, Coking, Concentration, Concurrent tandem catalysis, Contact process, Coordination complex, Döbereiner's lamp, Deoxyribozyme, Desorption, Diffusion, Dihydroxylation, Disproportionation, Dissociation (chemistry), Duncan's paradox, Dye-sensitized solar cell, Effervescence, Eilhard Mitscherlich, Electrochemistry, Electrode, Elementary reaction, Elizabeth Fulhame, Enantioselective synthesis, Energy profile (chemistry), Environmental factor, Environmental science, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Enzyme unit, Epicatalysis, Ester, Ethylene, Fine chemical, Fischer–Tropsch process, Fluid catalytic cracking, Formaldehyde, Friedel–Crafts reaction, Fuel cell, Gas, Gibbs free energy, Gold, Greek language, Green chemistry, Haber process, Half-reaction, Heck reaction, Heterogeneous catalysis, High-fructose corn syrup, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Humphry Davy, Hydrocarbon, Hydroformylation, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogenation, Hydrogenolysis, Hydrolysis, Hydroxide, Induction period, Industrial catalysts, Iridium, Iron, Isocyanate, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, Katal, Kelvin probe force microscope, Lead(II) acetate, Leipzig University, Lighter, Limiting reagent, Liquid, Manganese dioxide, Margarine, Materials science, Metabolism, Metal, Methanol, Methyl acetate, Mole (unit), Mole fraction, Molecular binding, Monoclonal antibody, Monsanto process, Nanomaterial-based catalyst, Nanoparticle, Nickel, Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Organometallic chemistry, Osmium tetroxide, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozone depletion, Palladium, Peroxidase, Perpetual motion, Petroleum, Petroleum naphtha, Pharmaceutic adjuvant, Phase (matter), Phase-boundary catalysis, Phase-transfer catalyst, Photocatalysis, Platinum, Polycarbonate, Polymer, Polyol, Polyurethane, Product (chemistry), Proline, Propene, Radiation, Radical (chemistry), Raney nickel, Rate equation, Rate-determining step, Reaction inhibitor, Reaction intermediate, Reaction rate, Reactions on surfaces, Reagent, Redox, Rhodium, Ribozyme, Ruthenium, Scanning tunneling microscope, Second law of thermodynamics, SI derived unit, Silicon dioxide, Singlet oxygen, Solid, Steam reforming, Stoichiometry, Substrate (chemistry), Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur trioxide, Sulfuric acid, SUMO enzymes, Syngas, Temperature-programmed reduction, Terephthalic acid, Thermal desorption spectroscopy, Thermodynamic free energy, Thermodynamics, Thiourea organocatalysis, Titanium dioxide, Transition metal, Transition state, Triple bond, Turnover number, Ultraviolet, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of Minnesota, Vanadium(V) oxide, Water dimer, Water-gas shift reaction, Wilhelm Ostwald, Wilkinson's catalyst, Zeolite, Ziegler–Natta catalyst, 4-Dimethylaminopyridine. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
An abzyme (from antibody and enzyme), also called catmab (from catalytic monoclonal antibody), and most often called catalytic antibody, is a monoclonal antibody with catalytic activity.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an acid or a base.
Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO.
Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN.
ACS Nano is a monthly, peer-reviewed, scientific journal, first published in August 2007 by the American Chemical Society.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amount of substance (symbol for the quantity is 'n') is a standard-defined quantity that measures the size of an ensemble of elementary entities, such as atoms, molecules, electrons, and other particles.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
A single chemical reaction is said to be autocatalytic if one of the reaction products is also a catalyst for the same or a coupled reaction.
Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4.
The Berlin Graduate School of Natural Sciences and Engineering (BIG-NSE) is part of the Cluster of Excellence "Unifying Concepts in Catalysis" (UniCat) founded in November 2007 by the Technical University of Berlin and five further institutions in the Berlin area within the framework of the German government‘s Excellence Initiative.
Biocatalysis is catalysis in living (biological) systems.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Carbonylation refers to reactions that introduce carbon monoxide into organic and inorganic substrates.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Catalysis Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on catalysis in a wide range of sub-disciplines such as homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis.
Catalysis Science & Technology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published monthly by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Catalyst poisoning refers to the partial or total deactivation of a catalyst.
In chemistry, a catalyst support is the material, usually a solid with a high surface area, to which a catalyst is affixed.
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).
A catalytic heater is a type of heater which relies on catalyzed chemical reactions to break down molecules and produce heat.
Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil (typically having low octane ratings) into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline.
Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemisorption is a kind of adsorption which involves a chemical reaction between the surface and the adsorbate.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Coking is the deposition of carbon-rich solids.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Concurrent tandem catalysis (CTC) is a technique in chemistry which uses multiple catalysts on a single molecule in a one-pot reaction to produce a product otherwise not accessible by a single catalyst.
The contact process is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Döbereiner's lamp, also called a "tinderbox" ("Feuerzeug"), is a lighter invented in 1823 by the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner; the lighter is based on the Fürstenberger lighter and was in production until ca.
Deoxyribozymes, also called DNA enzymes, DNAzymes, or catalytic DNA, are DNA oligonucleotides that are capable of performing a specific chemical reaction, often but not always catalytic.
Desorption is a phenomenon whereby a substance is released from or through a surface.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dihydroxylation is the process by which an alkene is converted into a vicinal diol.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Duncan's paradox is a thermodynamic thought experiment proposed by T. Duncan in 2000 that has connections to the second law of thermodynamics and catalysis.
A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, DSC, DYSC or Grätzel cell) is a low-cost solar cell belonging to the group of thin film solar cells.
Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release.
Eilhard Mitscherlich (7 January 1794 – 28 August 1863) was a German chemist, who is perhaps best remembered today for his discovery of the phenomenon of isomorphism (crystallography) in 1819.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
An elementary reaction is a chemical reaction in which one or more chemical species react directly to form products in a single reaction step and with a single transition state.
Elizabeth Fulhame (fl. 1794) was a Scottish chemist who invented the concept of catalysis and discovered photoreduction.
Enantioselective synthesis, also called asymmetric synthesis, is a form of chemical synthesis.
For a chemical reaction or process an energy profile (or reaction coordinate diagram) is a theoretical representation of a single energetic pathway, along the reaction coordinate, as the reactants are transformed into products.
Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
The enzyme unit (symbol U or sometimes EU) is a unit for the amount of a particular enzyme.
Epicatalysis is a newly identified class of gas-surface heterogeneous catalysis in which specific gas-surface reactions shift gas phase species concentrations away from those normally associated with gas-phase equilibrium.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Fine chemicals are complex, single, pure chemical substances, produced in limited quantities in multipurpose plants by multistep batch chemical or biotechnological processes.
The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.
The Friedel–Crafts reactions are a set of reactions developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877 to attach substituents to an aromatic ring.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
A half reaction is either the oxidation or reduction reaction component of a redox reaction.
The Heck reaction (also called the Mizoroki-Heck reaction) is the chemical reaction of an unsaturated halide (or triflate) with an alkene in the presence of a base and a palladium catalyst (or palladium nanomaterial-based catalyst) to form a substituted alkene.
In chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis refers to the form of catalysis where the phase of the catalyst differs from that of the reactants.
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from alkenes.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydrogenolysis is a chemical reaction whereby a carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom single bond is cleaved or undergoes lysis (breakdown) by hydrogen.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
An induction period in chemical kinetics is an initial slow stage of a chemical reaction; after the induction period, the reaction accelerates.
Th first time a catalyst was used in the industry was in 1746 by J. Roebuck in the manufacture of lead chamber sulfuric acid.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isocyanate is the functional group with the formula R–N.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (13 December 1780 – 24 March 1849) was a German chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements and inventing the first lighter, which was known as the Döbereiner's lamp.
The katal (symbol: kat) is the SI unit of catalytic activity.
Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), also known as surface potential microscopy, is a noncontact variant of atomic force microscopy (AFM).
Lead(II) acetate (Pb(CH3COO)2), also known as lead acetate, lead diacetate, plumbous acetate, sugar of lead, lead sugar, salt of Saturn, or Goulard's powder, is a white crystalline chemical compound with a sweetish taste.
Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig), in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany.
A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame, and to ignite a variety of combustible materials, such as cigars, gas stoves, fireworks, candles or cigarettes.
The limiting reagent (or limiting reactant, LR) in a chemical reaction is the substance that is totally consumed when the chemical reaction is complete.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Manganese(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.
Margarine is an imitation butter spread used for flavoring, baking, and cooking.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Methyl acetate, also known as MeOAc, acetic acid methyl ester or methyl ethanoate, is a carboxylate ester with the formula CH3COOCH3.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).
Molecular binding is an attractive interaction between two molecules that results in a stable association in which the molecules are in close proximity to each other.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
The Monsanto process is an industrial method for the manufacture of acetic acid by catalytic carbonylation of methanol.
Nanomaterial-based catalysts are usually heterogeneous catalysts broken up into metal nanoparticles in order to speed up the catalytic process.
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Osmium tetroxide (also osmium(VIII) oxide) is the chemical compound with the formula OsO4.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.
Perpetual motion is motion of bodies that continues indefinitely.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Petroleum naphtha is an intermediate hydrocarbon liquid stream derived from the refining of crude oil with CAS-no 64742-48-9.
In pharmacology, adjuvants are drugs that have few or no pharmacological effects by themselves, but may increase the efficacy or potency of other drugs when given at the same time.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
In chemistry, phase-boundary catalysis (PBC) is a type of heterogeneous catalytic system which facilitates the chemical reaction of a particular chemical component in an immiscible phase to react on a catalytic active site located at a phase boundary.
In chemistry, a phase-transfer catalyst or PTC is a catalyst that facilitates the migration of a reactant from one phase into another phase where reaction occurs.
In chemistry, photocatalysis is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
A polyol is an organic compound containing multiple hydroxyl groups.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Propene, also known as propylene or methyl ethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Raney nickel, also called spongy nickel, is a fine-grained solid composed mostly of nickel derived from a nickel-aluminium alloy.
The rate law or rate equation for a chemical reaction is an equation that links the reaction rate with the concentrations or pressures of the reactants and constant parameters (normally rate coefficients and partial reaction orders).
In chemical kinetics, the overall rate of a reaction is often approximately determined by the slowest step, known as the rate-determining step (RDS) or rate-limiting step.
A reaction inhibitor is a substance that decreases the rate of, or prevents, a chemical reaction.
A reaction intermediate or an intermediate is a molecular entity that is formed from the reactants (or preceding intermediates) and reacts further to give the directly observed products of a chemical reaction.
The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products.
Reactions on surfaces are reactions in which at least one of the steps of the reaction mechanism is the adsorption of one or more reactants.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
SI derived units are units of measurement derived from the seven base units specified by the International System of Units (SI).
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Singlet oxygen, systematically named dioxygen(singlet) and dioxidene, is a gaseous inorganic chemical with the formula O.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Steam reforming is a method for producing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or other useful products from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
SUMO enzymatic cascade catalyzes the dynamic posttranslational modification process of sumoylation (i.e. transfer of SUMO protein to other proteins).
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) is a technique for the characterization of solid materials and is often used in the field of heterogeneous catalysis to find the most efficient reduction conditions, an oxidized catalyst precursor is submitted to a programmed temperature rise while a reducing gas mixture is flowed over it.
Terephthalic acid is an organic compound with formula C6H4(CO2H)2.
Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), also known as temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is the method of observing desorbed molecules from a surface when the surface temperature is increased.
The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Within the area of organocatalysis, (thio)urea organocatalysis describes the use of ureas and thioureas to accelerate and stereochemically alter organic transformations.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
Turnover number has two different meanings: In enzymology, turnover number (also termed kcat) is defined as the maximum number of chemical conversions of substrate molecules per second that a single catalytic site will execute for a given enzyme concentration.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
Vanadium(V) oxide (vanadia) is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O5.
The water dimer consists of two water molecules loosely bound by a hydrogen bond.
The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (2 September 1853 – 4 April 1932) was a German chemist.
Wilkinson's catalyst, is the common name for chloridotris(triphenylphosphane)rhodium(I), a coordination complex of rhodium with the formula RhCl(PPh3)3 (Ph.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins).
4-Dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) is a derivative of pyridine with the chemical formula (CH3)2NC5H4N.
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