321 relations: ABC-CLIO, Acadians, Acronym, Acrylamide, Ají (sauce), Akvavit, Alkaloid, Allier, Aloo gosht, Alpha-Carotene, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Jews, American Journal of Botany, Americas, Amflora, Amylopectin, Amylose, Ancon (archaeological site), Andes, Anthocyanin, Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, Anton Mauve, AOL, Aphid, Argentina, Atropa belladonna, Aymara people, Bacillus thuringiensis, Baked potato, Bangers and mash, Baseball (ball), BASF, Batata vada, Bauernfrühstück, Bavaria, Beet leafhopper, Belarus, Belarusian cuisine, Beta-Carotene, Biodegradation, Biological pigment, Boiling, Boise Weekly, Bolivia, Boxty, Brown sugar, Bryndzové halušky, Bubble and squeak, Bumblebee, Burger King, ..., Canarian wrinkly potatoes, Canary Islands, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carl Linnaeus, Carotenoid, Central New York, Cepelinai, Chaconine, Champ (food), Cheese curd, Cherry tomato, Chile, Chiloé Archipelago, Chives, Chlorophyll, Chromosome, Chuño, Chutney, Colcannon, Colorado potato beetle, Columbian Exchange, Conquest of Chile, Cook's Illustrated, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, Copper pesticide, Cornell University, Cramp, Crop, Crop rotation, Cultivar, Curanto, Curd, Curry, Daily Mail, Degree (angle), Diarrhea, Dill, Dow Jones & Company, Dumpling, EBSCO Industries, Ecuador, Egg as food, Eggplant, Environmental Working Group, European Cultivated Potato Database, False etymology, Fat, Fish and chips, Fodder, Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, Food security, Freeze-drying, French fries, Frito-Lay, Friuli, Frost, Garden fork, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified food, Genetically modified organism, German cuisine, German fries, Germplasm, Glycemic index, Glycoalkaloid, Gnocchi, Gratin, Great Famine (Ireland), Ground meat, Hachis Parmentier, Hanukkah, Harrow (tool), Hasbro, Hash browns, Haworth Press, Hectare, Home fries, Hyoscyamus niger, Idaho, Indigenous (ecology), Indigenous peoples in Chile, International Organization for Standardization, International Potato Center, Iowa State University, Ireland, Irish potato candy, Jean-François Millet, Jewish cuisine, John Gerard, Kale, King Edward potato, Knödel, Kugel, Kugelis, Lancashire, Larco Museum, Leaf, Legume, Lemon battery, Lenape potato, Lima, Limousin, List of potato cultivars, List of potato museums, Lithuania, Lithuanian cuisine, Liverpool, Livestock, Lomo saltado, Low-carbohydrate diet, Loy (spade), Luxembourg, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Maine, Maize, Mario Pei, MarketWatch, Masala dosa, Mashed potato, McDonald's, Mentha, Michigan State University, Microwave oven, Mite, Moche culture, Monsanto, Mr. Potato Head, Mulch, Myzus persicae, National Health Service, NDP-glucose—starch glucosyltransferase, Nematode, New Brunswick, New England, New World crops, New Zealand, New Zealand English, Nicotiana, Northern Europe, Nutrient, Old World, Oomycete, Organic food, Pakistan, Papa a la Huancaína, Papa rellena, Parts-per notation, Patatas bravas, Pathogen, Pâté aux pommes de terre, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Perennial plant, Peru, Peruvian cuisine, Pest (organism), Photosynthesis, Phthorimaea operculella, Phytochemical, Phytophthora infestans, Pickled herring, Plant breeding, Plant senescence, Plastic wrap, Plough, Poitín, Pollination, Polylactic acid, Polyphenol, Polyploid, Potato, Potato babka, Potato chip, Potato cyst nematode, Potato harvester, Potato leafroll virus, Potato pancake, Potato Parcel, Potato ricer, Potato salad, Potato scone, Potato starch, Potato virus Y, Potatoes of Chiloé, Poutine, Powdery mildew, Powdery scab, Pre-Columbian era, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Procter & Gamble, Protein, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Quebec, Quechua people, Quechuan languages, Raspeball, Rösti, Reference Daily Intake, Relative humidity, Reuters, Rhizoctonia, Rice, RNA interference, Roasting, Royal Spanish Academy, Russet Burbank, Salt potatoes, Samosa, Scandinavia, Sclerotinia, Scotland, Scottish Agricultural Science Agency, Scottish Highlands, Seed, Selective breeding, Sense (molecular biology), Shepherd's pie, Silage, Simplot, Slovakia, Soil, Soil Association, Solanaceae, Solanine, Solanum brevicaule, Solanum bulbocastanum, South Asia, Soybean, Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, Spanish omelette, Springer Science+Business Media, Stamen, Stamppot, Staple food, Starch, Steaming, Stew, Stolon, Sunday roast, Sweet potato, Taíno language, Tapas, The Potato Eaters, Thrips, Tomato, Tonne, Tuber, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Maine, University of Manchester, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Upland and lowland, Vada pav, Variety (botany), Vegetative reproduction, Vichyssoise, Vincent van Gogh, Vitamin A, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vodka, Waxy potato starch, Wheat, Willem Witsen, Yogurt, Yukon Gold potato, 5 A Day. 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ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
The Acadians (Acadiens) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO.
Ají is a spicy sauce that often contains tomatoes, cilantro (coriander), ají pepper, onions, and water.
Akvavit or aquavit (also akevitt in Norwegian) is a distilled spirit that is principally produced in Scandinavia, where it has been produced since the 15th century.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Allier; is a French department located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of central France named after the river Allier.
Aloo gosht (آلو گوشت, আলু গোস্ত) is a meat curry, originating from the Indian subcontinent, and popular in Pakistani, Bangladeshi and North Indian cuisine.
α-Carotene is a form of carotene with a β-ionone ring at one end and an α-ionone ring at the opposite end.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.
The American Journal of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of plant biology.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amflora (also known as EH92-527-1) is a genetically modified potato cultivar developed by BASF Plant Science.
Amylopectin is a water-soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants.
Amylose is a polysaccharide made of α-D-glucose units, bonded to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds.
Ancon (archaeological site) is located in the north of the Bay of Ancon, in the Ancón District, on the central coast of Peru.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
Antoine-Augustin Parmentier (Montdidier 12 August 1737 – 13 December 1813) is remembered as a vocal promoter of the potato as a food source for humans in France and throughout Europe.
Anthonij (Anton) Rudolf Mauve (18 September 18385 February 1888) was a Dutch realist painter who was a leading member of the Hague School.
AOL (formerly a company known as AOL Inc., originally known as America Online, and stylized as Aol.) is a web portal and online service provider based in New York.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.
The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.
A baked potato, or jacket potato, is a potato that has been baked for eating.
Bangers and mash, also known as sausages and mash, is a traditional dish of Great Britain and Ireland comprising sausages served with mashed potatoes.
A baseball is a ball used in the sport of the same name.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
Batata Vada (बटाटा वडा) is a popular Indian vegetarian fast food in Maharashtra, India.
Bauernfrühstück (literally Farmer's breakfast) is a warm German dish made from fried potatoes, eggs, onions, leeks or chives, and bacon or ham.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus), also sometimes known as Neoaliturus tenellus, is a species of leafhopper which belongs to the family Cicadellidae in the order Hemiptera.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian cuisine shares many similarities with cuisines of other Eastern, Central and Northeastern European countries, basing predominantly based on meat and various vegetables typical for the region.
β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.
Boise Weekly is a newspaper in Boise, Idaho, United States.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Boxty (bacstaí) is a traditional Irish potato pancake.
Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.
Bryndzové Halušky (English: potato dumplings with sheep cheese) is one of the national dishes in Slovakia.
Bubble and squeak is a traditional British breakfast made from boiled potatoes and cabbage.
A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.
Burger King (BK) is an American global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants.
Papas arrugadas ("wrinkly potatoes") is a traditional boiled potato dish eaten in the Canary Islands.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Central New York is the central region of New York State, roughly including the following counties and cities: Under this definition, the region has a population of about 1,177,073, and includes the Syracuse metropolitan area.
Cepelinai ('zeppelins'; singular: cepelinas) or didžkukuliai is a traditional Lithuanian dish of stuffed potato dumplings.
α-Chaconine is a steroidal glycoalkaloid that occurs in plants of the Solanaceae family.
Champ (brúitín in Irish) is an Irish dish, made by combining mashed potatoes and chopped spring onion with butter, milk, cheese and optionally, salt and pepper.
Cheese curds are the solid pieces of curdled milk either eaten alone as a snack, or used in various regional dishes.
A cherry tomato is a rounded, small fruited tomato believed to be an intermediate genetic admixture between wild currant-type tomatoes and domesticated garden tomatoes.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Chiloé Archipelago (Archipiélago de Chiloé) is a group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.
Chives, scientific name Allium schoenoprasum, is an edible species of the genus Allium.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Bolivia and Peru, and is known in various countries of South America, including Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru.
Colcannon is a traditional Irish dish of mashed potatoes with kale or cabbage — as well as the name of a song about the dish.
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), also known as the Colorado beetle, the ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle or the potato bug, is a major pest of potato crops.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
The Conquest of Chile is a period in Chilean historiography that starts with the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile in 1541 and ends with the death of Martín García Óñez de Loyola in the Battle of Curalaba in 1598, and the destruction of the Seven Cities in 1600 in the Araucanía region.
Cook's Illustrated is an American cooking magazine published every two months by the America's Test Kitchen company in Brookline, Massachusetts.
The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) is an agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), part of the executive branch of the federal government.
A copper pesticide is a copper compound used as a pesticide or fungicide.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
A cramp is a sudden, involuntary muscle contraction or over-shortening; while generally temporary and non-damaging, they can cause significant pain, and a paralysis-like immobility of the affected muscle.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Curanto is a traditional food of Chiloé Archipelago that has spread to the southern areas of Chile and Argentina, whose remains dated back about 11,525 ± 90 uncalibrated years before present.
Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling.
Curry (sometimes, plural curries) is an umbrella term referring to a number of dishes originating in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dill (Anethum graveolens) is an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae.
Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm that has been owned by News Corp. since 2007.
Dumpling is a broad classification for a dish that consists of pieces of dough (made from a variety of starch sources) wrapped around a filling or of dough with no filling.
EBSCO Industries is an American company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
The Environmental Working Group (EWG) is an American environmental organization that specializes in research and advocacy in the areas of toxic chemicals, agricultural subsidies, public lands, and corporate accountability.
The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions.
A false etymology (popular etymology, etymythology, pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the last term is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Fish and chips is a hot dish of English origin consisting of fried battered fish and hot potato chips.
Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.
The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) website disseminates statistical data collected and maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Freeze drying, also known as lyophilisation or cryodessication, is a low temperature dehydration process which involves freezing the product, lowering pressure, then removing the ice by sublimation.
French fries (North American English), chips (British and Commonwealth English), finger chips (Indian English), or French-fried potatoes are ''batonnet'' or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes.
Frito-Lay, Inc. is an American subsidiary of PepsiCo that manufactures, markets, and sells corn chips, potato chips, and other snack foods.
Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity.
Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.
A garden fork, spading fork, digging fork or graip is a gardening implement, with a handle and several (usually four) short, sturdy tines.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
The cuisine of Germany has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region.
German fries (also referred to as German fried potatoes) is a name for fries or a preparation of fries in which potatoes are sliced into any sizes and shapes, fried or deep-fried, and sometimes prepared with additional cooked ingredients such as onion, green pepper and bacon.
Germplasm are living genetic resources such as seeds or tissues that are maintained for the purpose of animal and plant breeding, preservation, and other research uses.
The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with the carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.
Glycoalkaloids are a family of chemical compounds derived from alkaloids in which sugar groups are appended.
Gnocchi (singular gnocco) are various thick, small, and soft dough dumplings that may be made from semolina, ordinary wheat flour, egg, cheese, potato, breadcrumbs, cornmeal, or similar ingredients, with or without flavourings of herbs, vegetables, cocoa, or prunes.
Gratin is a widespread culinary technique in which an ingredient is topped with a browned crust, often using breadcrumbs, grated cheese, egg and/or butter.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
Ground meat (called mince or minced meat outside North America) is meat finely chopped by a meat grinder or a chopping knife.
In haute cuisine, hachis Parmentier is a dish made with mashed, baked potato, combined with diced meat and sauce lyonnaise and served in the potato shells.
Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled rtl, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.
In agriculture, a harrow (often called a set of harrows in a plurale tantum sense) is an implement for breaking up and smoothing out the surface of the soil.
Hasbro, Inc. (an abbreviation of its original name, Hassenfeld Brothers) is an American multinational toy and board game company, It is the largest toy maker in the world in terms of stock market value, and third largest with revenues of approximately $5.12 billion.
Hash browns or hashed browns are a simple preparation in which potatoes are pan-fried after being shredded, diced, julienned or riced, in the style of a Swiss Rösti.
Haworth Press was a publisher of scholarly, academic and trade books, and approximately 200 peer-reviewed academic journals.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
Home fries (US), house fries (US), American fries (US), fried potatoes (UK and regional US) or bistro potatoes (southeastern US) are a type of basic potato dish made by pan- or skillet-frying chunked, sliced, wedged or diced potatoes that are sometimes unpeeled and may have been par-cooked by boiling, baking, steaming, or microwaving.
Hyoscyamus niger, commonly known as henbane, black henbane or stinking nightshade, is a poisonous plant in the family Solanaceae.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
In biogeography, a species is defined as indigenous to a given region or ecosystem if its presence in that region is the result of only natural process, with no human intervention.
Indigenous peoples in Chile, or Native Chileans, form about 10% of the total population of Chile (2,000,000 self-identified persons of indigenous origins (according to the 2012 census) While many Chileans are of partially indigenous descent, typically the term and its legal ramifications are reserved to those who self-identify with and are accepted within one or more indigenous group. The Mapuches, from the south, accounted for approximately 85% of this number. There were also small populations of Aymara, Quechua, Atacameño, Kolla, Diaguita, Yaghan, Rapa Nui, and Kawaskhar in other parts of the country,. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (March 6, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. as well as many other extinct cultures such as Cacahue, Chango, Picunche, Chono, Tehuelche, Cunco and Selknam.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Potato Center (known as CIP from its Spanish-language name Centro Internacional de la Papa) is a research facility based in Lima, Peru, that seeks to reduce poverty and achieve food security on a sustained basis in developing countries through scientific research and related activities on potato, sweet potato, other root and tuber crops, and on the improved management of natural resources in the Andes and other mountain areas.
Iowa State University of Science and Technology, generally referred to as Iowa State, is a public flagship land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, Iowa, United States.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Irish potato candy is a traditional Philadelphia confection that, despite its name, is not from Ireland, and does not usually contain any potato.
Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France.
Jewish cuisine is a diverse collection of cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide.
John Gerard (also John Gerarde, c. 1545–1612) was an English botanist with a large herbal garden in London.
Kale or leaf cabbage are certain cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown for their edible leaves.
King Edward is a potato variety grown in the UK since 1902, making it one of the oldest varieties still grown commercially.
Knödel, or Klöße are boiled dumplings commonly found in Central European and East European cuisine.
Kugel (קוגל kugl, pronounced) is a baked pudding or casserole, most commonly made from egg noodles (Lokshen kugel) or potato.
Kugelis, also known as bulvių plokštainis, is a potato dish from Lithuania.
Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
The Museo Larco (English: Larco Museum) or Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera is a privately owned museum of pre-Columbian art, located in the Pueblo Libre District of Lima, Peru.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
A lemon battery is a simple battery often made for the purpose of education.
Lenape (B5141-6) is a potato cultivar first released in 1967 and named after the Lenape Native American tribe.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
Limousin (Lemosin) is a former administrative region of France.
This is a list of potato varieties or cultivars.
A potato museum is a museum about potatoes.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian cuisine features products suited to the cool and moist northern climate of Lithuania: barley, potatoes, rye, beets, greens, berries, and mushrooms are locally grown, and dairy products are one of its specialties.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Lomo saltado is a popular, traditional Peruvian dish, a stir fry that typically combines marinated strips of sirloin (or other beef steak) with onions, tomatoes, french fries, and other ingredients; and is typically served with rice.
Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption.
A loy is an early Irish spade with a long heavy handle made of ash, a narrow steel plate on the face and a single footrest.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the potato aphid, is a sap-sucking pest insect in the family Aphididae.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Mario Andrew Pei (1901–1978) was an Italian-American linguist and polyglot who wrote a number of popular books known for their accessibility to readers without a professional background in linguistics.
MarketWatch operates a financial information website that provides business news, analysis, and stock market data.
Masala dosa or masale dose is a variation of the popular South Indian food dosa, which has its origins in Tuluva Mangalorean cuisine.
Mashed potato (British English) or mashed potatoes (American English and Canadian English), colloquially known as mash, is a dish prepared by mashing boiled potatoes.
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.
Mentha (also known as mint, from Greek, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family).
Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
A microwave oven (also commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil.
Myzus persicae, known as the green peach aphid or the peach-potato aphid, is a small green aphid.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
In enzymology, a NDP-glucose—starch glucosyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are NDP-glucose and (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n, whereas its two products are NDP and (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The phrase "New World crops" is usually used to describe crops that were native to North and South America before 1492 and not found anywhere else in the world at that time.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.
Nicotiana is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.
Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Papa a la Huancaína (literally, Huancayo style potatoes) is a Peruvian appetizer of boiled yellow potatoes (similar to the Yukon Gold potatoes) in a spicy, creamy sauce called Huancaína sauce.
Papas rellenas (English: stuffed potatoes) are the most popular type of croquettes in Latin American countries such as Chile, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Colombia, Peru, and the Caribbean.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Patatas bravas, also called patatas a la brava or papas bravas, is a dish native to Spain, often served as a ''tapa'' in bars.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
The pâté aux pommes de terre,, or pâté de pommes de terre is a speciality of the Limousin and the Allier (Bourbonnais) regions in Central France.
Pectobacterium carotovorum is a bacterium of the family Enterobacteriaceae; it used to be a member of the genus Erwinia.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients—including influences from the indigenous population including the Inca and cuisines brought in with immigrants from Europe (Spanish cuisine, Italian cuisine, German cuisine), Asia (Chinese cuisine and Japanese cuisine) and West Africa.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phthorimaea operculella, also known as the potato tuber moth or tobacco splitworm, is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens.
Phytophthora infestans is an oomycete or water mold, a microorganism which causes the serious potato and tomato disease known as late blight or potato blight.
Pickled herring is a delicacy in Europe, and has become a part of Baltic (marineeritud heeringas, marinēta siļķe, marinuota silkė), inlagd sill, silli, zure haring, Bismarckhering, zavináč, śledzie w occie, Eastern Slavic, Scottish, and Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine.
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
Plant senescence is the process of aging in plants.
Plastic wrap, cling film, shrink wrap, Saran wrap, cling wrap, food wrap, or pliofilm is a thin plastic film typically used for sealing food items in containers to keep them fresh over a longer period of time.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Poitín, anglicized as potcheen, poteen or potheen, is a traditional Irish distilled beverage (40%–90% ABV).
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States and Canada), cassava roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world).
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Potato babka is a savoury dish, popular especially in Belarus and Poland, where it is known as babka ziemniaczana.
Potato chips or crisps are thin slices of potato that have been deep fried or baked until crunchy.
Potato root nematodes or potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are 1-mm long roundworms belonging to the genus Globodera, which comprises around 12 species.
Potato harvesters are machines that harvest potatoes.
Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) is a member of the genus Polerovirus and family Luteoviridae.
Potato pancakes, latkes, deruny or boxties are shallow-fried pancakes of grated or ground potato, flour and egg, often flavored with grated garlic or onion and seasoning.
Potato Parcel (or PotatoParcel.com) is an American company and website for delivering potatoes with personalized messages, which are limited to 140 characters or one picture.
A potato ricer (also called a ricer) is a kitchen implement used to process potatoes or other food by forcing it through a sheet of small holes, which are typically about the diameter of a grain of rice.
Potato salad is a dish made from boiled potatoes and a variety of other ingredients.
A potato scone or tattie scone (tottie scone in some parts of Scotland) is a regional variant of the savoury griddle scone which is especially popular in Scotland.
Potato starch is starch extracted from potatoes.
Potato virus Y (PVY) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae, and one of the most important plant viruses affecting potato production.
The Chiloé Archipelago is home to a wide variety of potatoes.
Poutine (Quebec French) is a dish originating from the Canadian province of Quebec consisting of French fries and cheese curds topped with a brown gravy.
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants.
Powdery scab is a disease of potato tubers.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1837 by British American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The Quarterly Journal of Economics is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Oxford University Press.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Raspeball, also known in some areas as klubb, kumle, komle, kompe or potetball is a potato dumpling, a traditional Norwegian dish.
Rösti or röschti is a Swiss dish consisting mainly of potatoes, in the style of a fritter.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rhizoctonia is a genus of anamorphic fungi in the order Cantharellales.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.
Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat where hot air envelops the food, cooking it evenly on all sides with temperatures of at least 150 °C (~300 °F) from an open flame, oven, or other heat source.
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
Russet Burbank is a potato cultivar with dark brown skin and few eyes that is the most widely grown potato in North America.
Salt potatoes are a regional dish of Syracuse, New York, typically served in the summer when the young potatoes are first harvested.
A samosa, sambusa, or samboksa is a fried or baked dish with a savoury filling, such as spiced potatoes, onions, peas, or lentils.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Sclerotinia is a genus of fungi in the family Sclerotiniaceae.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Scottish Agricultural Science Agency (SASA) was an executive agency of the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department.
The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
In molecular biology and genetics, the sense of nucleic acid molecules (often DNA or RNA) is the nature of their roles and their complementary molecules' nucleic acid units' roles in specifying amino acids.
Shepherd's pie or cottage pie is a meat pie with a crust of mashed potato.
Silage is fermented, high-moisture stored fodder which can be fed to cattle, sheep and other such ruminants (cud-chewing animals) or used as a biofuel feedstock for anaerobic digesters.
The J. R. Simplot Company (commonly referred to as Simplot) was founded in 1929 by 20-year-old John Richard Simplot near the small agricultural community of Declo in south central Idaho, USA.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
The Soil Association is a charity based in the United Kingdom.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
Solanine is a glycoalkaloid poison found in species of the nightshade family within the genus Solanum, such as the potato (Solanum tuberosum), the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and the eggplant (Solanum melongena).
Solanum brevicaule is a tuberous perennial of the Solanaceae family.
Solanum bulbocastanum, the ornamental nightshade, is a plant in the Solanaceae family, native to Mexico and parts of the U.S. Southwest.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Spanish omelette is the English name for a traditional dish from Spanish cuisine called tortilla española, tortilla de patatas or tortilla de papas.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
Stamppot (English: Mash pot) is a traditional Dutch dish made from a combination of potatoes mashed with one or several vegetables or sometimes fruits.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Steaming is a method of cooking using steam.
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.
In biology, stolons (from Latin stolō "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms.
The Sunday roast is a traditional British main meal that is typically served on Sunday (hence the name), consisting of roasted meat, roast potato, and accompaniments such as Yorkshire pudding, stuffing, vegetables and gravy.
The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.
Taíno is an extinct and poorly-attested Arawakan language that was spoken by the Taíno people of the Caribbean.
A tapa is an appetizer or snack in Spanish cuisine and translates to small portion of any kind of Spanish cuisine.
The Potato Eaters (De Aardappeleters) is an oil painting by Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh painted in April 1885 in Nuenen, Netherlands.
Thrips (order Thysanoptera) are minute (most are 1 mm long or less), slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
The University of Maine (also referred to as UMaine, Maine or UMO) is a public research university in Orono, Maine, United States.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Upland and lowland are conditional descriptions of a plain based on elevation above sea level.
Vada Pav, alternatively spelt Vada Pao, Wada Pav, or Wada Pao, is a vegetarian fast food dish native to the Indian state of Maharashtra.
In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
Vichyssoise is a thick soup made of boiled and puréed leeks, onions, potatoes, cream, and chicken stock.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
Waxy potato starch is a variety of commercially available starch comprised almost entirely of amylopectin molecules, extracted from new potato varieties.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Willem Witsen (13 August 1860, Amsterdam - 13 April 1923, Amsterdam) was a Dutch painter and photographer associated with the Amsterdam Impressionism movement.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
Yukon Gold is a large cultivar of potato most distinctly characterized by its thin, smooth eye-free skin and yellow-tinged flesh.
5 A Day is any of various national campaigns in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany, to encourage the consumption of at least five portions of fruit and vegetables each day, following a recommendation by the World Health Organization that individuals consume "a minimum of 400g of fruit and vegetables per day (excluding potatoes and other starchy tubers)." A meta-analysis of the many studies of this issue was published in 2017 and found that consumption of double the minimum recommendation – 800g or 10 a day – provided an increased protection against all forms of mortality.
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