400 relations: Acacia, Acid, Adal Sultanate, Aden, Adenosine receptor, Age of Enlightenment, Age of Sail, Albizia, Aleppo, Alfred Peet, Allen Ginsberg, American Birding Association, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, American University, American yellow warbler, Americas, Anorectic, Antioxidant, Apocrypha, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabs, Arbor Day Foundation, Asia, Asia Today, Asian palm civet, Asterids, Atmosphere (unit), Australia, B vitamins, Baba Budan, Balliol College, Oxford, Barista, Battle of Vienna, Bean, Beat Generation, Beetle, Belgium, Berry, Blade grinder, Blueberry, Bob Kaufman, Boma Plateau, Boston, Boston Tea Party, Brazil, Bread, Break (work), Brewed coffee, ..., Burr mill, Business, Café Procope, Cafeteria, Caffè, Caffè Americano, Caffè crema, Caffè macchiato, Caffeine, Caffeine dependence, Cake, Canned coffee, Cappuccino, Caramelization, Cardiovascular disease, Cash crop, Cassia (genus), Casuarina, Catering, Central Africa, Cezve, Charles II of England, Civil service, Climate change, Coffea, Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, Coffea liberica, Coffee and doughnuts, Coffee bean, Coffee borer beetle, Coffee filter, Coffee percolator, Coffee preparation, Coffee production in Brazil, Coffee production in Colombia, Coffee production in Indonesia, Coffee roasting, Coffee root-knot nematode, Coffee vending machine, Coffee wastewater, Coffeehouse, Coffeemaker, Cognitive deficit, Colombia, Commodity market, Commonwealth of Nations, Comoros, Compost, Congo River, Constantinople, Coronary artery disease, Costa Rica, Culture of the Ottoman Empire, Damascus, Decaffeination, Deforestation, Dementia, Denis Diderot, Dervish, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Dictionary of National Biography, Digestive enzyme, Diner, Disease, Drink, Dutch East India Company, Dutch language, East Africa, East India Company, Egypt, Elephant, Elevenses, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Encyclopédie, England, Environmental degradation, Environmental impact of pesticides, Erythrina, Espresso, Espresso machine, Ethiopia, Etymology, European Fair Trade Association, European Food Safety Authority, Evergreen, Exchange-traded fund, Fair trade, Fair trade coffee, Fair trade impact studies, Feces, Federal government of Brazil, Fermentation, Fermentation in food processing, Flat white, Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, Food Network, Frederick the Great, Frederika Charlotte Riedesel, Freeze-drying, French press, Fresh water, Friedrich Adolf Riedesel, Fruit, Futures contract, Gabriel de Clieu, Gaggia, George Poinar Jr., Gliricidia, Global Exchange, Global warming, Google Books, Gordon Bowker, Greek language, Grevillea robusta, Guinea, Gustav III of Sweden's coffee experiment, Gynoecium, Habitat destruction, Haiti, Haitian Revolution, Haram, Harmane, Heart failure, Hemileia vastatrix, Hemiptera, History of coffee, Home roasting coffee, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Howard Schultz, Hypertension, Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, Ibn Sa'd, Iced coffee, Immigration to Brazil, In vitro, India, Indonesia, Infrared, Inga, Intercontinental Exchange, Intercropping, International Coffee Agreement, International Coffee Day, International Coffee Organization, Iran, Irish coffee, James Otis Jr., Java, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jerry Baldwin, Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki, Jews, Johann Sebastian Bach, John Adams, John B. Watson, John Burgoyne, John Evelyn, Joseph Smith, Kahlúa, Kaldi, Kashrut, Kenya, Khat, Kingdom of Kaffa, Kona coffee, Kopi Luwak, Latin America, Latte, Latte art, Legume, Leonhard Rauwolf, Lepidoptera, Leucaena, Linus Pauling Institute, List of coffee drinks, List of countries by coffee production, List of hot drinks, List of lexicographers, Liver, Lomami River, London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange, Long black, Low caffeine coffee, Madagascar, Magnesium, Maize, Mark Pendergrast, Martinique, Massachusetts Historical Society, Mauritius, Max Havelaar, Maxwell House, Mecca, Meta-analysis, Metabolism, Microfoam, Microsome, Middle East, Milan, Mocha, Yemen, Moka pot, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monosaccharide, Mortality rate, Mount Marsabit, Mouthfeel, MSNBC, Mucilage, Mulch, Murad IV, Mycena citricolor, Myocardial infarction, Mysore, National Coffee Association, National Institutes of Health, Near East, Nematode, Nescafé, Netherlands, New Scientist, New York Mercantile Exchange, Niacin, Nordic countries, North Africa, North Beach, San Francisco, NPR, Nutrient, Oregon State University, Organic coffee, Oromo people, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Outcrossing, Oxford, Paraxanthine, Paris, Parkinson's disease, Passover, Pastry, Paul Revere, Peaberry, Peet's Coffee, Pesticide, Petiole (botany), Pike Place Market, Polyphenol, Pope Clement VIII, Procopio Cutò, Protein, Prussia, Qishr, Queen's Lane Coffee House, Radical (chemistry), Rail transport, Rainforest Alliance, Random House, Réunion, Red Sea, Republic of Venice, Riboflavin, Rice, Rio de Janeiro (state), Robusta coffee, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Royal Navy, Rubiaceae, Rufous-capped warbler, Sa'ad ad-Din II, Saint-Domingue, Saratoga campaign, São Paulo, Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht, BWV 211, Seaman, Seattle, Seoul, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Shade (shadow), Shade-grown coffee, Shadhili, Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, Soho, Soil retrogression and degradation, Solvent, Southeast Asia, Spectroscopy, Sri Lanka, Starbucks, Starch, Statistical significance, Stichting Max Havelaar, Stimulant, Stipule, Stoughton, Wisconsin, Stroke, Sucrose, Sudan, Sufism, Sustainable coffee, Systematic review, Tablespoon, Tap water, Tea, Tea (meal), Teahouse, Thailand, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Coffeelands Trust, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Seattle Times, Theobromine, Theophylline, Tia Maria, Time (magazine), Tonne, Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Tropical Africa, Turkey, Turkish coffee, Uganda, Ulama, United Nations, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, United States Department of Agriculture, USDA National Nutrient Database, Used coffee grounds, Vacuum coffee maker, Variety (botany), Vegetative reproduction, Venice, Viennese coffee house, Vietnam, Virtual water, Voltaire, War of 1812, Water footprint, Western Europe, Wet season, Wine, Word of Wisdom, World Brewer's Cup, World Coffee Producers Forum, Worm, Yemen, Zabid, Zeila, Zev Siegl. 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Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The Age of Sail (usually dated as 1571–1862) was a period roughly corresponding to the early modern period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships, lasting from the 16th to the mid-19th century.
Albizia is a genus of about 150 species of mostly fast-growing subtropical and tropical trees and shrubs in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alfred H. Peet (March 10, 1920 – August 29, 2007) was a Dutch-American entrepreneur and the founder of Peet's Coffee & Tea in Berkeley, California, in 1966.
Irwin Allen Ginsberg (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet, philosopher, writer, and activist.
The American Birding Association (ABA) is a non-profit organization, founded in 1969, dedicated to recreational birding in Canada and the United States.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The American University (AU or American) is a private United Methodist-affiliated research university in Washington, D.C., United States.
The yellow warbler (Setophaga petechia, formerly Dendroica petechia) is a New World warbler species.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
An anorectic or anorexic is a drug which reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Arbor Day Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit conservation and education organization founded in 1972 in Nebraska, United States, by John Rosenow.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asia Today was an Asian news programme produced by the BBC and was shown on BBC World News during the Asian morning hours.
The Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) is a small viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia.
In the APG IV system (2016) for the classification of flowering plants, the name asterids denotes a clade (a monophyletic group).
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
Baba Budan was a 16th-century Sufi, revered by both Muslims and Hindus, whose shrine is at Baba Budangiri, Chikkamagalur, Karnataka, India.
Balliol College, founded in 1263,: Graduate Studies Prospectus - Last updated 17 Sep 08 is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
A barista (from the Italian for "bartender") is a person, usually a coffeehouse employee, who prepares and serves espresso-based coffee drinks.
The Battle of Vienna (Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
The Beat Generation was a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-World War II era.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.
A blade grinder (also propeller grinder) is a machine that chops material while mixing it, by means of a high-speed spinning blade.
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries.
prevent transclusion of non-free image at Portal:Nautical--> Robert Garnell Kaufman (April 18, 1925 – January 12, 1986) was an American Beat poet and surrealist inspired by jazz music.
The Boma Plateau is a region in the east of South Sudan, located in the Jonglei and Eastern Equatoria provinces.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
The Boston Tea Party was a political and mercantile protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1773.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
A break at work is a period of time during a shift in which an employee is allowed to take time off from his/her job.
Brewed coffee is made by pouring hot water onto ground coffee beans, then allowing to brew.
A burr mill, or burr grinder, is a mill used to grind hard, small food products between two revolving abrasive surfaces separated by a distance usually set by the user.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
The Café Procope, in rue de l'Ancienne Comédie, 6th arrondissement, is called the oldest restaurant of Paris in continuous operation.
A cafeteria is a type of food service location in which there is little or no waiting staff table service, whether a restaurant or within an institution such as a large office building or school; a school dining location is also referred to as a dining hall or canteen (in British English).
Caffè is the Italian word for coffee and probably originates from "Kaffa" Arabic word qahwa قهوة, the region in Ethiopia where coffee originated.
Caffè Americano or Americano (shortened from caffè americano or American; café americano, literally American coffee) is a type of coffee drink prepared by diluting an espresso with hot water, giving it a similar strength to, but different flavor from traditionally brewed coffee.
Caffè crema (Italian: "cream coffee") refers to two different coffee drinks.
Caffè macchiato, sometimes called espresso macchiato, is an espresso coffee drink with a small amount of milk, usually foamed.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Caffeine is a commonplace central nervous system stimulant drug which occurs in nature as part of the coffee, tea, yerba mate and other plants.
Cake is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked.
is ubiquitous in Japan, with a large number of companies competing fiercely and offering various types for sale.
A cappuccino (Italian plural cappuccini) is an espresso-based coffee drink that originated in Italy, and is traditionally prepared with double espresso, and steamed milk foam.
Caramelization is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.
Cassia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, and the subfamily Caesalpinioideae.
Casuarina is a genus of 17 tree species in the family Casuarinaceae, native to Australia, the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, and islands of the western Pacific Ocean.
Catering is the business of providing food service at a remote site or a site such as a hotel, hospital, pub, aircraft, cruise ship, park, filming site or studio, entertainment site, or event venue.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
A cezve is a small long-handled pot with a pouring lip designed specifically to make Turkish coffee.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Coffea is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make various coffee beverages and products.
Coffea arabica, also known as the Arabian coffee, "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee", or "arabica coffee", is a species of Coffea.
Coffea canephora (syn. Coffea robusta), commonly known as robusta coffee, is a species of coffee that has its origins in central and western sub-Saharan Africa.
Coffea liberica (or Liberian coffee) is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae family.
Coffee and doughnuts is a common food and drink pairing in the United States and Canada.
A coffee bean is a seed of the coffee plant and the source for coffee.
The coffee borer beetle or coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is a small beetle native to Africa.
A coffee filter is a coffee-brewing utensil, usually made of disposable paper.
A coffee percolator is a type of pot used for the brewing of coffee by continually cycling the boiling or nearly boiling brew through the grounds using gravity until the required strength is reached.
Coffee preparation is the process of turning coffee beans into a beverage.
Coffee production in Brazil is responsible for about a third of all coffee, making Brazil by far the world's largest producer, a position the country has held for the last 150 years.
Coffee production in Colombia has a reputation as producing mild, well balanced coffee beans.
Indonesia was the fourth largest producer of coffee in the world in 2014.
Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products.
There are many plant-parasitic species in the root-knot nematode genus (Meloidogyne) that attack coffee such as M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. exigua, M. javanica and M. coffeicola.
The coffee vending machine is a vending machine that dispenses hot coffee and other coffee beverages.
Coffee wastewater, also known as coffee effluent, is a byproduct of coffee processing.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
Coffeemakers or coffee machines are cooking appliances used to brew coffee.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting.
The Congo River (also spelled Kongo River and known as the Zaire River) is the second longest river in Africa after the Nile and the second largest river in the world by discharge volume of water (after the Amazon), and the world's deepest river with measured depths in excess of.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
Ottoman culture evolved over several centuries as the ruling administration of the Turks absorbed, adapted and modified the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Decaffeination is the removal of caffeine from coffee beans, cocoa, tea leaves, and other caffeine-containing materials.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
A dervish or darvesh (from درویش, Darvīsh) is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
A diner is a small restaurant found predominantly in the Northeastern United States and Midwest, as well as in other parts of the US, Canada, and parts of Western Europe.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Elevenses is a short break taken at around 11a.m. to consume a drink or snack of some sort.
The Encyclopaedia Aethiopica (EAe) is a basic Encyclopaedia for Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
The impact of pesticides consists of the effects of pesticides on non-target species.
Erythrina is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae.
Espresso is coffee brewed by expressing or forcing out a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans.
An espresso machine brews coffee by forcing pressurized water near boiling point through a "puck" of ground coffee and a filter in order to produce a thick, concentrated coffee called espresso.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The European Fair Trade Association is a Dutch association established informally in 1987.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is an investment fund traded on stock exchanges, much like stocks.
Fair trade is a social movement whose stated goal is to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions.
Fair Trade coffee is coffee that is certified as having been produced to fair trade standards.
Impact evaluation of fair trade systems, like cost-benefit analysis, start with the premise that any intervention in an economic system has various impacts throughout that system: some significant, many small; some costs, some benefits; some people benefit, others are harmed.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
The federal government of Brazil is the national government of the Federative Republic of Brazil, a republic in South America divided in 26 states and a federal district.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
A flat white is an espresso-based coffee drink consisting of espresso with microfoam (steamed milk with small, fine bubbles with a glossy or velvety consistency).
The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) website disseminates statistical data collected and maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Food Network is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by Television Food Network, G.P., a joint venture and general partnership between Discovery Inc. (which owns 70% of the network) and the Tribune Company (which owns the remaining 30%).
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederika Charlotte Louise von Massow, Baroness (Freifrau) Riedesel zu Eisenbach was the wife of General Friedrich Adolf Riedesel of Brunswick.
Freeze drying, also known as lyophilisation or cryodessication, is a low temperature dehydration process which involves freezing the product, lowering pressure, then removing the ice by sublimation.
A French press, also known as a cafetière, cafetière à piston, Cafeteria, press pot, coffee press, or coffee plunger, is a coffee brewing device patented by Italian designer Attilio Calimani in 1929.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Friedrich Adolf Riedesel, Freiherr zu Eisenbach (3 June 1738 in Lauterbach – 6 January 1800 in Braunschweig) was a German officer who served in the Seven Years' War and American War of Independence.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
Gabriel-Mathieu Francois D'ceus de Clieu (region of Dieppe, France, ca. 1687 – Paris, 29 November 1774), naval officer, was the governor of Guadeloupe from 1737 to 1752 and the founder of Pointe-à-Pitre.
Gaggia is an Italian company that makes coffee machines, especially espresso and cappuccino machines, in addition to small kitchen appliances.
George O. Poinar Jr. (born April 25, 1936) is an American entomologist and writer.
Gliricidia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.
Global Exchange is an advocacy group and non-governmental organization (NGO), based in San Francisco, California, United States.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Gordon Bowker is an American entrepreneur.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grevillea robusta, commonly known as the southern silky oak, silk oak or silky oak, or Australian silver oak, is a flowering plant in the family Proteaceae.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Gustav III of Sweden's coffee experiment was a twin study ordered by the king to study the health effects of coffee.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Haram (حَرَام) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".
Harmane (harman) is a heterocyclic amine found in a variety of foods including coffee, sauces, and cooked meat.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hemileia vastatrix is a fungus of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales) that causes coffee leaf rust (CLR), a disease that is devastating to susceptible coffee plantations.
The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and shield bugs.
The origin and history of coffee date back to the 10th century, and possibly earlier with a number of reports and legends surrounding its first use.
Home roasting is the process of roasting coffee from green coffee beans on a small scale for personal consumption.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Howard Schultz (born July 19, 1953) is an American businessman.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Shibab al-Dīn Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Hajar al-Haytamī al-Makkī al-Ansārī known as Ibn Hajar al-Haytami al-Makki (ابن حجر الهيتمي المكي) was a famousArendonk, C. van; Schacht, J..
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d ibn Manī‘ al-Baṣrī al-Hāshimī kātib al-Wāqidī or simply Ibn Sa'd (ابن سعد) and nicknamed "Scribe of Waqidi" (Katib al-Waqidi), was a scholar and Arabian biographer.
Iced coffee is cold coffee with ice.
Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign persons to reside permanently.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Inga (common name shimbillo) is a genus of small tropical, tough-leaved, nitrogen-fixing treesElkan, Daniel.
Intercontinental Exchange is an American company that owns exchanges for financial and commodity markets, and operates 23 regulated exchanges and marketplaces.
Intercropping is a multiple cropping practice involving growing two or more crops in proximity.
The International Coffee Agreement (ICA) is an international commodity agreement between coffee producing countries and consuming countries.
is an occasion that is used to promote and celebrate coffee as a beverage, with events now occurring in places across the world.
The International Coffee Organization (ICO) was set up in 1963 in London, under the auspices of the United Nations (UN) because of the great economic importance of coffee.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irish coffee (caife Gaelach) is a cocktail consisting of hot coffee, Irish whiskey, and sugar (some recipes specify that brown sugar should be used, specifying brown sugar, and that fresh cream should be floated on top.), stirred, and topped with thick cream.
James Otis Jr. (February 5, 1725 – May 23, 1783) was a lawyer, political activist, pamphleteer and legislator in Boston, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy that led to the American Revolution.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Gerald "Jerry" Baldwin is an American businessman, who along with Gordon Bowker and Zev Siegl founded Starbucks in Seattle in 1971.
Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki of the Sas coat of arms (Georg Franz Kolschitzky, Юрій-Франц Кульчицький, Yuriy Frants Kulchytsky; 1640 – February 19, 1694) was a Polish nobleman and diplomat of Ruthenian (Ukrainian) descent.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.
General John Burgoyne (24 February 1722 – 4 August 1792) was a British army officer, dramatist and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1761 to 1792.
John Evelyn, FRS (31 October 1620 – 27 February 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diarist.
Joseph Smith Jr. (December 23, 1805 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement.
Kahlúa is a coffee-flavored liqueur from Mexico.
Kaldi or Khalid was a legendary Ethiopian Sufi goatherd in Ethiopia who discovered the coffee plant around 850 AD, according to popular legend, after which it entered the Islamic world then the rest of the world.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Khat or qat (Catha edulis, qat from القات) is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Kaffa (c. 1390–1897) was an early modern state located in what is now Ethiopia, with its first capital at Bonga.
Kona coffee is the market name for coffee (Coffea arabica) cultivated on the slopes of Hualalai and Mauna Loa in the North and South Kona Districts of the Big Island of Hawaii.
Kopi luwak, or civet coffee, is coffee that includes part-digested coffee cherries eaten and defecated by the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus).
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
A latte is a coffee drink made with espresso and steamed milk.
Latte art is a method of preparing coffee created by pouring steamed milk into a shot of espresso and resulting in a pattern or design on the surface of the latte.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Leonhard Rauwolf (also spelled Leonhart Rauwolff) (21 June 1535 – 15 September 1596) was a German physician, botanist, and traveller.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
Leucaena is a genus of flowering plants in the mimosoid clade of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the legume family Fabaceae.
The Linus Pauling Institute is a research institute located at the Oregon State University with a focus on health maintenance.
Coffee drinks are made by brewing hot water (or much less commonly, cold water) with ground coffee beans.
The following table lists the total coffee production of coffee exporting countries.
This list of hot drinks comprises drinks that are typically served hot.
This list contains people who contributed to the field of lexicography, the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The Lomami River is a major tributary of the Congo River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange (LIFFE, pronounced 'life') is a futures exchange based in London.
A long black is a style of coffee, commonly found in Australia and New Zealand.
Low caffeine coffee is a term that is used by coffee producers to describe coffee that has not been subjected to a process of decaffeination, but is substantially lower in caffeine than average coffee.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Mark Pendergrast (born 1948) is an American independent scholar and author of fourteen books, including three children's books.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
The Massachusetts Historical Society is a major historical archive specializing in early American, Massachusetts, and New England history.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Max Havelaar: Or the Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company (Max Havelaar, of de koffi-veilingen der Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappy) is an 1860 novel by Multatuli (the pen name of Eduard Douwes Dekker), which played a key role in shaping and modifying Dutch colonial policy in the Dutch East Indies in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Maxwell House is a brand of coffee manufactured by a like-named division of Kraft Heinz.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Microfoam is milk foamed using a steam wand on an espresso machine, used for making espresso-based coffee drinks, particularly those with latte art.
In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Mocha (المخا Yemeni pronunciation) is a port city on the Red Sea coast of Yemen.
The moka pot is a stove-top or electric coffee maker that brews coffee by passing boiling water pressurized by steam through ground coffee.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Marsabit is a 6300 km² basaltic shield volcano in Kenya, located 170 km east of the center of the East African Rift, in Marsabit County near the town of Marsabit.
Mouthfeel refers to the physical sensations in the mouth caused by food or drink, as distinct from taste.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Mucilage is a thick, gluey substance produced by nearly all plants and some microorganisms.
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil.
Murad IV (مراد رابع, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; 26/27 July 1612 – 8 February 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods.
Mycena citricolor is a plant pathogen producing leaf spots on coffee plants.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
The National Coffee Association (NCA) or (National Coffee Association of U.S.A., Inc.), is the main market research, consumer information, and lobbying association for the coffee industry in the United States.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Nescafé is a brand of coffee made by Nestlé.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North Beach is a neighborhood in the northeast of San Francisco adjacent to Chinatown, the Financial District, and Russian Hill.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Oregon State University (OSU) is an international, public research university in the northwest United States, located in Corvallis, Oregon.
Organic coffee is coffee produced without the aid of artificial chemical substances, such as certain additives or some pesticides and herbicides.
The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and parts of Kenya and Somalia.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Out-crossing or out-breeding means that the crossing between different breeds.This is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Paraxanthine, or 1,7-dimethylxanthine, is a dimethyl derivative of xanthine, structurally related to caffeine.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.
Paul Revere (December 21, 1734 O.S.May 10, 1818) was an American silversmith, engraver, early industrialist, and Patriot in the American Revolution.
Peaberry, known in Spanish as caracolillo, is a type of coffee bean.
Peet's Coffee is a San Francisco Bay Area-based specialty coffee roaster and retailer.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.
Pike Place Market is a public market overlooking the Elliott Bay waterfront in Seattle, Washington, United States.
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Pope Clement VIII (Clemens VIII; 24 February 1536 – 5 March 1605), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605.
Procopio Cutò, or Francesco Procopio Cutò or Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli (9 February 1651 - 10 February 1727) was an Italian chef from Sicily.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Qishr (قشر geshir, gishr, kishr) is a Yemeni traditional hot drink made of spiced coffee husks,Dresch, Paul, "A history of modern Yemen" ginger,Hestler, Anna, "Yemen" and sometimes cinnamon.
Queen's Lane Coffee House is a historic coffee house dating from 1654 in Oxford, England.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
The Rainforest Alliance is a non-governmental organization (NGO) working to conserve biodiversity and ensure sustainable livelihoods by transforming land-use practices, business practices and consumer behavior.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil.
Robusta coffee is coffee made from the Coffea canephora plant, a sturdy species of coffee bean with low acidity and high bitterness.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (brand name Kew) is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Rubiaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the coffee, madder, or bedstraw family.
The rufous-capped warbler (Basileuterus rufifrons) is a New World warbler native from Mexico south to much of Central America, rarely occurring as far north as southeastern Arizona and south Texas.
Sa'ad ad-Din II (سعد الدين زنكي) (ruled circa 1400) was a Somali Sultan of the Ifat Sultanate.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
The Saratoga Campaign in 1777 was an attempt by the British high command for North America to gain military control of the strategically important Hudson River valley during the American Revolutionary War.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht (Be still, stop chattering), BWV 211, also known as the Coffee Cantata, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Seaman is a naval rank and is either the lowest or one of the lowest ranks in most navies around the world.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Shade is the blocking of sunlight (in particular direct sunshine) by any object, and also the shadow created by that object.
Shade-grown coffee is a form of the beverage produced from coffee plants grown under a canopy of trees.
The Shadhili Tariqa (الطريقة الشاذلية) is a Sufi order of Sunni Islam founded by Abul Hasan Ali ash-Shadhili of Morocco.
The Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center is dedicated to fostering greater understanding, appreciation, and protection of bird migration.
Soho is an area of the City of Westminster, part of the West End of London.
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Starbucks Corporation is an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.
Stichting Max Havelaar (or the Max Havelaar Foundation in English) is the Dutch member of FLO International, which unites 23 Fairtrade certification producer and labelling initiatives across Europe, Asia, Latin America, North America, Africa, Australia and New Zealand.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In botany, stipule (Latin stipula: straw, stalk) is a term coined by LinnaeusConcise English Dictionary Wordsworth Editions Ltd.
Stoughton is a city in Dane County, Wisconsin, United States.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sustainable coffee is coffee that is grown and marketed for its sustainability.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
A tablespoon is a large spoon used for serving or eating.
Tap water (running water, city water, town water, municipal water, etc.) is water supplied to a tap (valve).
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Tea (in reference to food, rather than the drink) has long been used as an umbrella term for several different meals.
A teahouse is an establishment which primarily serves tea and other light refreshments.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Coffeelands Trust (Coffeelands Landmine Victims' Trust), is a project which provides direct support to victims of conflict who live and work in coffee communities throughout the world.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Seattle Times is a daily newspaper serving Seattle, Washington, United States.
Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
A bottle of ''Tia Maria'' at a grocery store in Argentina Tia Maria is a dark liqueur made originally in Jamaica using Jamaican coffee beans.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
The Tropic of Capricorn (or the Southern Tropic) is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice.
Although tropical Africa is most familiar in the West as depicted by its rain forests, this ecozone of Africa is far more diverse.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish coffee (Türk kahvesi) is a method of preparing very finely ground unfiltered coffee.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The USDA National Nutrient Database is a database produced by the United States Department of Agriculture that provides the nutritional content of many generic and proprietary-branded foods.
Used coffee grounds are the waste product from brewing coffee.
A vacuum coffee maker brews coffee using two chambers where vapor pressure and vacuum produce coffee.
In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The Viennese coffee house (das Wiener Kaffeehaus, des Weana Kafäähaus) is a typical institution of Vienna that played an important part in shaping Viennese culture.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Virtual water trade (also known as trade in embedded or embodied water) refers to the hidden flow of water if food or other commodities are traded from one place to another.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption by people.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
The "Word of Wisdom" is the common name of a section of the Doctrine and Covenants, a book considered by many churches within the Latter Day Saint movement to consist of revelations from God.
The World Brewer's Cup is a competition which showcases the craft and skill of filter coffee brewing by hand, promoting manual coffee brewing and quality of service.
The World Coffee Producers Forum (WCPF) is a not-for-profit organization formed to analyze and address the challenges faced by the coffee value chain, especially in regards to those who grow and produce the raw, un-roasted product.
Worms are many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zabid (زَبِيد) (also spelled Zabīd, Zabeed and Zebid) is a town with an urban population of around 52,590 persons on Yemen's western coastal plain.
Zeila (Saylac, زيلع), also known as Zaila or Zeyla, is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.
Zev Siegl (born December 28, 1942 in Alameda, California) is an American entrepreneur.
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