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Cheese

Index Cheese

Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. [1]

243 relations: Acid, Aerosol, Almond, Alps, Amine, Amino acid, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Animal product, Annatto, Apennine Mountains, April Fools' Day, Archaeology, Aristaeus, Assembly line, Australia, Bacteria, Bhutan, Birth defect, Biscuit, Bithynia, Black pepper, Breton language, Brie, Brucellosis, Butter, Butterfat, Calcium, Camembert, Casein, Catalan language, Cattle, Celery, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central Asia, Charlemagne, Charles de Gaulle, Cheddar cheese, Cheese curd, Cheesemaking, Chhurpi, Chicago Tribune, China, Chives, Chutney, Colby cheese, Columbia University Press, Columella, Common Era, Consumer protection, ..., Cottage cheese, Cranberry, Curd, Cyclops, Cynara, Dairy product, Dessert, Domestic yak, Domestication, Dutch cheese markets, Dutch language, Edam cheese, Egypt, Egyptian cheese, Ema datshi, Emmental cheese, Enzyme, Europe, Eyes (cheese), Far Eastern Economic Review, Fat, Fatty acid, Fermentation, Fermentation starter, Feta, Fetus, Fondue, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, Food and Drug Administration, Food browning, Food coloring, France, French language, Fungus, Garlic, Gastrointestinal disease, Gaul, Gel, German language, Glitch, Goat, Goat cheese, Gorgonzola, Gouda cheese, Greece, Greek mythology, Gruyère cheese, Halal, Halloumi, Head cheese, Herb, Homer, Hot dog, Immune system, Immunodeficiency, Indian subcontinent, Infant, Infant mortality, Islam, Italian language, Italy, John Heywood, Judaism, Kosher foods, Kuyavia, Lactic acid, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Lactose, Latin alphabet, Legend, Lemon, Ligures, Limburger, List of Asian cuisines, List of cheese dishes, List of cheeses, List of dairy products, List of microorganisms used in food and beverage preparation, List of Swiss cheeses, Listeria, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeriosis, Low birth weight, Lyrics, Manufacture of cheddar cheese, Mare, Microbiological culture, Microorganism, Middle Ages, Middle East, Middle English, Milk, Milk and meat in Jewish law, Mold, Mouthfeel, Mozzarella, Musical theatre, NASA, Natural History (Pliny), Nîmes, Neonatal infection, Nepal, New York (state), Newsweek, Notker the Stammerer, Occitan language, Odyssey, Old English, Old High German, Online Etymology Dictionary, Ounce, Paneer, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Pasteurization, Pathogen, Phosphorus, Pizza, Pliny the Elder, Poland, Pop music, Port wine, Portuguese language, Pregnancy, Prehistory, Preservative, Preterm birth, Processed cheese, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Protein, Proto-Indo-European language, Provolone, Queso blanco, Raclette, Recombinant DNA, Red Leicester, Reference Daily Intake, Refrigerator, Rennet, Rock music, Romanian language, Rome, New York, Room temperature, Roquefort, Rubing, Rushan cheese, Salmonellosis, Samuel Butler (novelist), Saturated fat, Sbrinz, Sheep, Sheep milk, Sheep milk cheese, Smoked meat, Smoking (cooking), Sodium, Souring, South Sudan, Soybean, Spanish language, Spice, Starch, State legislature, Stilton cheese, Streptococcus, Streptococcus salivarius, Swiss cheese, Symptom, The Moon is made of green cheese, Thermophile, Tonne, Tuberculosis, Tuscan dialect, Types of cheese, Tyrosemiophilia, United Nations, United States dollar, USDA National Nutrient Database, Veganism, Vegetarianism, Vertically transmitted infection, Vinegar, Water buffalo, Welsh rarebit, West Frisian language, West Germanic languages, Whey, Wicker, Wisconsin, World War II, Xinjiang, Yunnan. Expand index (193 more) »

Acid

An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Aerosol

An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.

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Almond

The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Amine

In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Animal product

An animal product is any material derived from the body of an animal.

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Annatto

Annatto is an orange-red condiment and food coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree (Bixa orellana).

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Apennine Mountains

The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.

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April Fools' Day

April Fools' Day is an annual celebration in some European and Western countries commemorated on April 1 by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes.

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Archaeology

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Aristaeus

A minor god in Greek mythology, attested mainly by Athenian writers, Aristaeus (Ἀρισταῖος Aristaios), was the culture hero credited with the discovery of many useful arts, including bee-keeping; he was the son of the huntress Cyrene and Apollo.

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Assembly line

An assembly line is a manufacturing process (often called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bhutan

Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Biscuit

Biscuit is a term used for a variety of primarily flour-based baked food products.

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Bithynia

Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.

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Black pepper

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.

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Breton language

Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.

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Brie

Brie is a soft cow's-milk cheese named after Brie, the French region from which it originated (roughly corresponding to the modern département of Seine-et-Marne).

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Brucellosis

Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.

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Butter

Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.

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Butterfat

Butterfat or milkfat is the fatty portion of milk.

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Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Camembert

Camembert is a moist, soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese.

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Casein

Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Cattle

Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Celery

Celery (Apium graveolens) is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Cheddar cheese

Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard, off-white (or orange if spices such as annatto are added), sometimes sharp-tasting, natural cheese.

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Cheese curd

Cheese curds are the solid pieces of curdled milk either eaten alone as a snack, or used in various regional dishes.

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Cheesemaking

Cheesemaking (or caseiculture) is the craft of making cheese, which dates back at least 5,000 years.

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Chhurpi

Chhurpi (Nepali: छुर्पी) or durkha is a traditional cheese, similar to ricotta, consumed in the Himalayan regions of Nepal, Sikkim, Darjeeling hills, Bhutan, and Tibet.

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Chicago Tribune

The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chives

Chives, scientific name Allium schoenoprasum, is an edible species of the genus Allium.

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Chutney

No description.

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Colby cheese

Colby is a semi-hard cow's milk cheese from the United States.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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Columella

Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (4 – c. 70 AD) was a prominent writer on agriculture in the Roman empire.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Consumer protection

In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.

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Cottage cheese

Cottage cheese is a fresh cheese curd product with a mild flavor.

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Cranberry

Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium.

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Curd

Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling.

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Cyclops

A cyclops (Κύκλωψ, Kyklōps; plural cyclopes; Κύκλωπες, Kyklōpes), in Greek mythology and later Roman mythology, is a member of a primordial race of giants, each with a single eye in the center of his forehead.

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Cynara

Cynara is a genus of thistle-like perennial plants in the sunflower family.

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Dairy product

Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.

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Dessert

Dessert is a confectionery course that concludes a main meal.

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Domestic yak

The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.

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Domestication

Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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Dutch cheese markets

There are five cheese markets operating in the Netherlands.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Edam cheese

Edam (Edammer) is a semi-hard cheese that originated in the Netherlands, and is named after the town of Edam in the province of North Holland.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egyptian cheese

Egyptian cheese (جبنة) has a long history, and continues to be an important part of the Egyptian diet.

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Ema datshi

Ema Datshi (Dzongkha: ཨེ་མ་དར་ཚིལ་; Wylie: e-ma dar-tshil) is among the most famous dishes in Bhutanese cuisine, recognized as a national dish of Bhutan.

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Emmental cheese

Emmental (Emmentaler or Emmenthal) is a yellow, medium-hard Swiss cheese that originated in the area around Emmental, Canton Bern.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Eyes (cheese)

Eyes are the round holes that are a characteristic feature of Swiss-type cheese (e.g. Emmentaler cheese) and some Dutch-type cheeses.

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Far Eastern Economic Review

The Far Eastern Economic Review (also referred to as FEER or The Review) was an English language Asian news magazine started in 1946.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fermentation starter

A fermentation starter (called simply starter within the corresponding context, sometimes called a mother) is a preparation to assist the beginning of the fermentation process in preparation of various foods and fermented drinks.

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Feta

Feta (φέτα, féta, "slice") is a brined curd white cheese made in Greece from sheep's milk or from a mixture of sheep and goat's milk.

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Fetus

A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Fondue

Fondue is a Swiss dish of melted cheese served in a communal pot (caquelon or fondue pot) over a portable stove (réchaud) heated with a candle or spirit lamp, and eaten by dipping bread into the cheese using long-stemmed forks.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database

The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) website disseminates statistical data collected and maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Food browning

Browning is the process of food turning brown due to the chemical reactions that take place within.

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Food coloring

Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Garlic

Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.

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Gastrointestinal disease

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

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Gaul

Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Gel

A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Glitch

A glitch is a short-lived fault in a system, such as a transient fault that corrects itself, making it difficult to troubleshoot.

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Goat

The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Goat cheese

Goat cheese, goats' cheese, or chèvre (or; from the French word for goat), is cheese made from goat's milk.

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Gorgonzola

Gorgonzola is a veined Italian blue cheese, made from unskimmed cow's milk.

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Gouda cheese

Gouda (Goudse kaas "cheese from Gouda"), is a mild, yellow cheese made from cow's milk.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Gruyère cheese

Gruyère (or;, German: Greyerzer) is a hard yellow cheese that originated in the cantons of Fribourg, Vaud, Neuchâtel, Jura, and Bern in Switzerland.

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Halal

Halal (حلال, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law.

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Halloumi

Halloumi (χαλλούμι, challoúmi) or hellim (Turkish) is a semi-hard, unripened, brined cheese made from a mixture of goat's and sheep's milk, and sometimes also cow's milk.

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Head cheese

Head cheese or brawn is a cold cut that originated in Europe.

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Herb

In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.

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Homer

Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Hot dog

A hot dog (also spelled hotdog), also known as a frankfurter (sometimes shortened to frank), dog, or wiener, is a cooked sausage, traditionally grilled or steamed and served in a partially sliced bun.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunodeficiency

Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Infant

An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Infant mortality

Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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John Heywood

John Heywood (c. 1497 – c. 1580) was an English writer known for his plays, poems, and collection of proverbs.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Kosher foods

Kosher foods are those that conform to the Jewish dietary regulations of kashrut (dietary law), primarily derived from Leviticus and Deuteronomy.

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Kuyavia

Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Lactobacillus

Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.

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Lactococcus

Lactococcus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria that were formerly included in the genus Streptococcus Group N1.

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Lactose

Lactose is a disaccharide.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Legend

Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.

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Lemon

The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.

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Ligures

The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.

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Limburger

Limburger (in southern Dutch contexts Rommedoe, and in Belgium Herve cheese) is a cheese that originated in the Herve area of the historical Duchy of Limburg, which had its capital in Limbourg-sur-Vesdre, now in the French-speaking Belgian province of Liège.

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List of Asian cuisines

This is a list of Asian cuisines, by region.

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List of cheese dishes

This is a list of notable cheese dishes in which cheese is used as a primary ingredient or as a significant component of a dish or a food.

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List of cheeses

This is a list of cheeses by place of origin.

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List of dairy products

This is a list of dairy products.

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List of microorganisms used in food and beverage preparation

This is an incomplete list of bacteria and microscopic fungi that are used in preparing food.

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List of Swiss cheeses

Switzerland is home to about over 450 varieties of cheese.

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Listeria

Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies.

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Listeria monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis.

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Listeriosis

Listeriosis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by Listeria monocytogenes, although L. ivanovii and L. grayi have been reported in certain cases.

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Low birth weight

Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.

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Lyrics

Lyrics are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses.

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Manufacture of cheddar cheese

The manufacture of Cheddar cheese includes the process of cheddaring, which makes this cheese unique.

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Mare

A mare is an adult female horse or other equine.

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Microbiological culture

A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.

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Microorganism

A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Milk

Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

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Milk and meat in Jewish law

Mixtures of milk and meat (בשר בחלב, basar bechalav, literally "meat in milk") are prohibited according to Jewish law.

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Mold

A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.

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Mouthfeel

Mouthfeel refers to the physical sensations in the mouth caused by food or drink, as distinct from taste.

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Mozzarella

Mozzarella is a traditionally southern Italian cheese made from Italian buffalo's milk by the pasta filata method.

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Musical theatre

Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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Nîmes

Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes) is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France.

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Neonatal infection

No description.

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Nepal

Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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Newsweek

Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.

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Notker the Stammerer

Notker the Stammerer (Notcerus Balbulus; 840 – 6 April 912 AD), also called Notker I, Notker the Poet or Notker of Saint Gall, was a musician, author, poet, and Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Saint Gall, now in Switzerland.

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Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

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Odyssey

The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Ounce

The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: ℥) is a unit of mass, weight, or volume used in most British derived customary systems of measurement.

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Paneer

Paneer is a fresh cheese common in South Asia, especially in India.

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Parmigiano-Reggiano

Parmigiano-Reggiano is an Italian hard, granular cheese.

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Pasteurization

Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.

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Pathogen

In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Pizza

Pizza is a traditional Italian dish consisting of a yeasted flatbread typically topped with tomato sauce and cheese and baked in an oven.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Pop music

Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.

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Port wine

Port wine (also known as vinho do Porto,, Porto, and usually simply port) is a Portuguese fortified wine produced exclusively in the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Pregnancy

Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Prehistory

Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.

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Preservative

A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.

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Processed cheese

Processed cheese (also known as prepared cheese, cheese product, or cheese singles) is a food product made from cheese (and sometimes other, unfermented, dairy by-product ingredients), plus emulsifiers, saturated vegetable oils, extra salt, food colorings, whey or sugar.

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Propionibacterium freudenreichii

Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a Gram-positive, non-motile bacterium that plays an important role in the creation of Emmental cheese, and to some extent, Jarlsberg cheese, Leerdammer and Maasdam cheese.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Provolone

Provolone is an Italian cheese.

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Queso blanco

Queso blanco, with similar cheeses including queso fresco, is a creamy, soft, and mild unaged white cheese, commonly used in the Iberian Peninsula, several Latin American countries including Mexico, and many parts of the United States.

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Raclette

Raclette is a semi-hard cow's milk cheese that is usually fashioned into a wheel of about 6 kg (13 lb).

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Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

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Red Leicester

Red Leicester (also known simply as Leicester or Leicestershire cheese) is an English cheese, made in a similar manner to Cheddar cheese, although it is crumblier, sold at 3 to 12 months of age.

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Reference Daily Intake

The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.

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Refrigerator

A refrigerator (colloquially fridge, or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room.

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Rennet

Rennet is a complex set of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals.

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Rock music

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Rome, New York

Rome is a city in Oneida County, New York, United States, located in the central part of the state.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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Roquefort

Roquefort (or;; from Occitan ròcafòrt) is a sheep milk cheese from the south of France, and together with Bleu d'Auvergne, Stilton, and Gorgonzola is one of the world's best known blue cheeses.

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Rubing

Rubing is a firm, acid-set, non-melting, fresh goat milk farmer cheese made in the Yunnan Province of China by people of the Bai and Sani (recognized as a branch of the Yi in China) minorities.

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Rushan cheese

Rushan (乳扇; pinyin: rǔshān, literally "milk fan") is a cow's milk cheese of Yunnan, China.

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Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis is a symptomatic infection caused by bacteria of the Salmonella type.

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Samuel Butler (novelist)

Samuel Butler (4 December 1835 – 18 June 1902) was the iconoclastic English author of the Utopian satirical novel Erewhon (1872) and the semi-autobiographical Bildungsroman The Way of All Flesh, published posthumously in 1903.

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Saturated fat

A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.

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Sbrinz

Sbrinz is a very hard cheese produced in central Switzerland.

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Sheep

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.

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Sheep milk

Sheep's milk (or ewes' milk) is the milk of domestic sheep.

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Sheep milk cheese

Sheep milk cheese is a cheese prepared from sheep milk.

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Smoked meat

Smoked meat is a method of preparing red meat (and fish) which originates in prehistory.

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Smoking (cooking)

Smoking is the process of flavoring, browning, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to smoke from burning or smoldering material, most often wood.

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Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Souring

Souring is a cooking technique that uses exposure to an acid to effect a physical and chemical change in food.

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South Sudan

South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.

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Soybean

The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Spice

A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.

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Starch

Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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State legislature

A state legislature is a legislative branch or body of a political subdivision in a federal system.

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Stilton cheese

Stilton is an English cheese, produced in two varieties: Blue, known for its characteristic strong smell and taste, and the lesser-known White.

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Streptococcus

Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).

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Streptococcus salivarius

Streptococcus salivarius is a species of spherical, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria that is both catalase and oxidase negative.

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Swiss cheese

Swiss cheese is a generic name in North America for several related varieties of cheese, mainly of North American manufacture, which resemble Emmental cheese, a yellow, medium-hard cheese that originated in the area around Emmental, in Switzerland.

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Symptom

A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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The Moon is made of green cheese

"The Moon is made of green cheese" is a statement referring to a fanciful belief that the Moon is composed of cheese.

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Thermophile

A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.

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Tonne

The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Tuscan dialect

Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.

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Types of cheese

Types of cheese are grouped or classified according to criteria such as length of fermentating, texture, methods of making, fat content, animal milk, country or region of origin, etc.

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Tyrosemiophilia

Tyrosemiophilia is the hobby of collecting cheese labels.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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USDA National Nutrient Database

The USDA National Nutrient Database is a database produced by the United States Department of Agriculture that provides the nutritional content of many generic and proprietary-branded foods.

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Veganism

Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.

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Vegetarianism

Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.

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Vertically transmitted infection

A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

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Vinegar

Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.

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Water buffalo

The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.

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Welsh rarebit

Welsh rarebit (spelling based on folk etymology) or Welsh rabbit (original spelling) is a dish made with a savoury sauce of melted cheese and various other ingredients and served hot, after being poured over slices (or other pieces) of toasted bread, or the hot cheese sauce may be served in a chafing dish like a fondue, accompanied by sliced, toasted bread.

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West Frisian language

West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).

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Whey

Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained.

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Wicker

Wicker is a technique for making products woven from any one of a variety of cane-like materials, a generic name for the materials used in such manufacture, and a term for the items so produced.

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Wisconsin

Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xinjiang

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Yunnan

Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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CHEESE, Chees, Cheese powder, Cheese wheel, Cheeses, Cheeze, Chese, Coagulated milk curd, Melted cheese, Melted shredded cheese, Powdered cheese, 🧀.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheese

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