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Stress (biology)

Index Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. [1]

192 relations: Acute stress reaction, Adaptive behavior, Adaptive immune system, Addison's disease, Adrenal gland, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Aggression, Alcoholism, Allostasis, Allostatic load, Amygdala, Amylase, Angina, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Attention restoration theory, Autonomic nervous system, Behavioral neuroscience, Biochemistry, Biological specificity, Biology, Biopsychosocial model, Birth, Bone marrow, Breakup, Bronchoconstriction, Bronchodilator, Bruce McEwen, Cancer, Catecholamine, Cell-mediated immunity, Central nervous system, Chaim F. Shatan, Child abuse, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Circadian rhythm, Circulatory system, Civilization, Constipation, Coping (psychology), Coronary artery disease, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor, Cortisol, Death, Deception, Decompensation, Defense physiology, Deformation (mechanics), Delusion, ..., Depression (mood), Developmental psychology, Diabetes mellitus, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Disease, Distress (medicine), Divorce, Dopaminergic pathways, Endocrine system, Energy, Euphemism, European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Eustress, Fecal occult blood, Fibromyalgia, Fight-or-flight response, Food, Franklin Institute, Functional somatic syndrome, Glucocorticoid, Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenolysis, Granulocyte, Hans Selye, Hardiness (psychological), Health, Health effects of tobacco, Heuristic, Holmes and Rahe stress scale, Homeostasis, House, Human digestive system, Humoral immunity, Hyperaldosteronism, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypersensitivity, Hypertension, Hypochloremia, Hypoglycemia, Hyponatremia, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamus, Hypovolemia, Immune system, Immunoglobulin A, Immunology, Influenza vaccine, Innate immune system, Interleukin 6, Intermediolateral nucleus, Irritation, Ischemia, Lamina terminalis, Latin, Lawsuit, Learning, Liberty, Life Events and Difficulties Schedule, Limbic system, Lipolysis, Locus coeruleus, Major depressive disorder, Major trauma, Marriage, Medulla oblongata, Melanocortin receptor, Melena, Memory, Metabolism, Midbrain, Middle English, Miosis, Molecule, Monoamine nuclei, Mortality rate, Muscle tone, Mydriasis, Natural killer cell, Nervous system, Neuroanatomy, Neurochemistry, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuropeptide Y, Neurosis, Nipro, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Occupational burnout, Occupational stress, Old French, Osmotic concentration, Over illumination, Pain, Parasympathetic nervous system, Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, Perspiration, Physiology, Pituitary gland, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Poverty, Prefrontal cortex, Psychiatry, Psychological stress, Psychologist, Psychosomatic medicine, Reward system, Risk factor, Self-assessment, Serotonin, Sexual abuse, Shock (circulatory), Sleep, Social defeat, Solitary nucleus, Spleen, Starvation, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Steroid hormone receptor, Strength training, Stress (mechanics), Stress in early childhood, Stress management, Stress testing, Stressor, Stria terminalis, Sympathetic nervous system, Sympathy, T cell, Tachycardia, Test (assessment), Tobacco industry, Trier social stress test, Unemployment, United States Armed Forces, Upper respiratory tract infection, Vasoconstriction, Vasopressin, Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Walter Bradford Cannon, Working memory, Wound healing, Xenohormesis. Expand index (142 more) »

Acute stress reaction

Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event, or witnessing a traumatic event that induces a strong emotional response within the individual.

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Adaptive behavior

Adaptive behavior refers to behavior that enables a person (usually used in the context of children) to get along in his or her environment with greatest success and least conflict with others.

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Adaptive immune system

The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.

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Addison's disease

Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.

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Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.

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Aggression

Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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Alcoholism

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

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Allostasis

Allostasis is the process of achieving stability, or homeostasis, through physiological or behavioral change.

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Allostatic load

Allostatic load is "the wear and tear on the body" that accumulates as an individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress.

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Amygdala

The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Amylase

An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.

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Angina

Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Attention restoration theory

Attention restoration theory (ART) asserts that people can concentrate better after spending time in nature, or even looking at scenes of nature.

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Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.

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Behavioral neuroscience

Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biological specificity

In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biopsychosocial model

The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors (genetic, biochemical, etc), psychological factors (mood, personality, behavior, etc.), and social factors (cultural, familial, socioeconomic, medical, etc.).Santrock, J. W. (2007).

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Birth

Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.

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Bone marrow

Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.

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Breakup

A relationship breakup, often referred to simply as a breakup, is the termination of an intimate relationship by any means other than death.

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Bronchoconstriction

Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

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Bronchodilator

A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.

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Bruce McEwen

Bruce Sherman McEwen (born January 17, 1938) is an American neuroendocrinologist and head of the Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology at Rockefeller University.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Catecholamine

A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.

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Cell-mediated immunity

Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Chaim F. Shatan

Chaim F. Shatan (September 1, 1924 – August 17, 2001) was a Canadian psychiatrist born in Włocławek, Poland.

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Child abuse

Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.

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Chronic fatigue syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a medical condition characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms that limit a person's ability to carry out ordinary daily activities.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Civilization

A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Constipation

Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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Coping (psychology)

Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.

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Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor

Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors (CRHRs), also known as corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRFRs) are a G protein-coupled receptor family that binds corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).

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Cortisol

Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Death

Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Deception

Deception is the act of propagating a belief that is not true, or is not the whole truth (as in half-truths or omission).

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Decompensation

In medicine, decompensation is the functional deterioration of a structure or system that had been previously working with the help of allostatic compensation.

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Defense physiology

Defense physiology is a term used to refer to the symphony of body function (physiology) changes which occur in response to a stress or threat.

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Deformation (mechanics)

Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.

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Delusion

A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Developmental psychology

Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Distress (medicine)

In medicine, distress is an aversive state in which a person is unable to completely adapt to stressors and their resulting stress and shows maladaptive behaviors.

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Divorce

Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.

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Dopaminergic pathways

Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.

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Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.

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Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Euphemism

A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.

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European Agency for Safety and Health at Work

The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) is a decentralised agency of the European Union with the task of collecting, analysing and disseminating relevant information that can serve the needs of people involved in safety and health at work.

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Eustress

Eustress means beneficial stress—either psychological, physical (e.g. exercise), or biochemical/radiological (hormesis).

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Fecal occult blood

Fecal occult blood (FOB) refers to blood in the feces that is not visibly apparent (unlike other types of blood in stool such as melena or hematochezia).

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Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.

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Fight-or-flight response

The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

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Food

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Franklin Institute

The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Functional somatic syndrome

Functional somatic syndrome is a term used to refer to physical symptoms that are poorly explained.

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Glucocorticoid

Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

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Glycogenolysis

Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).

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Granulocyte

Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.

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Hans Selye

János Hugo Bruno "Hans" Selye (Selye János; January 26, 1907 – October 16, 1982), was a pioneering Hungarian-Canadian endocrinologist of Hungarian origin.

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Hardiness (psychological)

Psychological hardiness, alternatively referred to as personality hardiness or cognitive hardiness in the literature, is a personality style first introduced by Suzanne C. Kobasa in 1979.

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Health

Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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Health effects of tobacco

Tobacco use has predominantly negative effects on human health and concern about health effects of tobacco has a long history.

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Heuristic

A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.

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Holmes and Rahe stress scale

The Holmes and Rahe stress scale is a list of 43 stressful life events that can contribute to illness.

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Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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House

A house is a building that functions as a home.

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Human digestive system

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).

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Humoral immunity

Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.

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Hyperaldosteronism

Hyperaldosteronism, also aldosteronism, is a medical condition wherein too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, which can lead to lowered levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) and increased hydrogen ion excretion (alkalosis).

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Hypercholesterolemia

Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.

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Hypertension

Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypochloremia

Hypochloremia (or Hypochloraemia) is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally low level of the chloride ion in the blood.

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Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.

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Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.

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Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

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Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Hypovolemia

Hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunoglobulin A

Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.

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Immunology

Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

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Influenza vaccine

Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.

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Innate immune system

The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.

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Interleukin 6

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.

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Intermediolateral nucleus

The intermediolateral nucleus (IML) is a region of grey matter found in one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord, the lateral grey column.

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Irritation

Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.

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Ischemia

Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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Lamina terminalis

The median portion of the wall of the forebrain consists of a thin lamina, the lamina terminalis, which stretches from the Interventricular foramen (Foramen of Monro) to the recess at the base of the optic stalk and contains the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, which regulates the osmotic concentration of the blood.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lawsuit

A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.

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Learning

Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

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Liberty

Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.

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Life Events and Difficulties Schedule

The Life Events and Difficulties Schedule is a psychological measurement of the stressfulness of life events.

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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Lipolysis

Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.

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Locus coeruleus

The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Major trauma

Major trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.

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Marriage

Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).

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Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.

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Melanocortin receptor

Melanocortin receptors are members of the rhodopsin family of 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors.

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Melena

Melena or melæna refers to the dark black, tarry feces that are associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

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Memory

Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Midbrain

The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Miosis

Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Monoamine nuclei

Monoamine nuclei are clusters of cells that primarily use monoamine neurotransmitters to communicate.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Muscle tone

In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.

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Mydriasis

Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.

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Natural killer cell

Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neuroanatomy

Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system.

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Neurochemistry

Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.

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Neuroendocrine cell

Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.

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Neuropeptide Y

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

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Neurosis

Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving chronic distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations.

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Nipro

is a Japanese medical equipment manufacturing company.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Occupational burnout

Occupational burnout is thought to result from long-term, unresolvable job stress.

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Occupational stress

Occupational stress is stress related to one's job.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Osmotic concentration

Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).

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Over illumination

Over illumination is the presence of lighting intensity higher than that which is appropriate for a specific activity.

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Pain

Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.

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Parasympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.

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Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN, PVA, or PVH) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus.

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Perspiration

Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.

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Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Pituitary gland

An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Poverty

Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Psychiatry

Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychological stress

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.

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Psychologist

A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.

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Psychosomatic medicine

Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field exploring the relationships among social, psychological, and behavioral factors on bodily processes and quality of life in humans and animals.

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Reward system

The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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Self-assessment

In social psychology, self-assessment is the process of looking at oneself in order to assess aspects that are important to one's identity.

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Serotonin

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Sexual abuse

Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is usually undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another.

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Shock (circulatory)

Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.

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Sleep

Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.

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Social defeat

Social defeat refers to losing a confrontation among conspecific animals, or any kind of hostile dispute among humans, in either a dyadic or in a group-individual context, potentially generating very significant practical and psychological consequences in terms of control over resources, access to mates and social positions.

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Solitary nucleus

In the human brainstem, the solitary nucleus (SN) (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii) is a series of purely sensory nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata.

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Spleen

The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.

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Starvation

Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

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Steroid

A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Steroid hormone

A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.

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Steroid hormone receptor

Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.

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Strength training

Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.

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Stress (mechanics)

In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.

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Stress in early childhood

Early childhood is a critical period in a child’s life that includes ages from conception to five years old.

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Stress management

Stress management is a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.

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Stress testing

Stress testing (sometimes called torture testing) is a form of deliberately intense or thorough testing used to determine the stability of a given system or entity.

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Stressor

A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.

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Stria terminalis

The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Sympathy

Sympathy (from the Greek words syn "together" and pathos "feeling" which means "fellow-feeling") is the perception, understanding, and reaction to the distress or need of another life form.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Tachycardia

Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Test (assessment)

A test or examination (informally, exam or evaluation) is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs).

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Tobacco industry

The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products.

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Trier social stress test

The Trier social stress test (TSST) is a laboratory procedure used to reliably induce stress in human research participants.

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Unemployment

Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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Upper respiratory tract infection

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx.

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Vasoconstriction

Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Vasopressin

Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.

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Vietnam Veterans Against the War

Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is an American tax-exempt non-profit organization and corporation founded in 1967 to oppose the United States policy and participation in the Vietnam War.

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Walter Bradford Cannon

Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.

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Working memory

Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.

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Wound healing

Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury.

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Xenohormesis

Xenohormesis explains how certain molecules such as plant polyphenols, which indicate stress in the plants, can have a longevity-conferring effect in consumers of plant (i.e. mammals).

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Adversity, Biological stress, Emotional stress, Environmental stress, Environmental stresses, General Adaptation Response, General Adaptation Syndrome, General adaptation response syndrome, General adaptation syndrome, General adaptative syndrome, Medical stress, Mental stress, Physiological stress, Stress (Physiology), Stress (biological), Stress (medecine), Stress (medical), Stress (medicine), Stress (mental), Stress (physiology), Stress in humans, Stress out, Stress syndrome.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_(biology)

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