761 relations: 's-Hertogenbosch, Abertay University, Acts of the Apostles, Adam Weisweiler, Adolf Loos, Adriaen Brouwer, Adriaen de Vries, Aeschylus, Aestheticism, Agostino Busti, Agostino Carlini, Agostino di Duccio, Agra, AL A, Albert Memorial, Albert, Prince Consort, Albertopolis, Albrecht Dürer, Aldwych tube station, Alessandro Algardi, Alessandro Vittoria, Alexander Cooper, Alexander Dyce, Alexander McQueen, Alexandra of Denmark, Alfred Drury, Alfred Gilbert, Alfred Stevens (sculptor), Alfred Waterhouse, Alhambra, Alick Horsnell, Alonso Berruguete, Alphonse Legros, Amanda Levete, Ambika (Jainism), Ancient Egypt, Ando Cloisonné Company, André Charles Boulle, Andrea Brustolon, Andrea del Verrocchio, Andrea della Robbia, Andrea Palladio, Andrea Riccio, Andrew Grima, Angelica Kauffman, Anglicanism, Anglo-Saxons, Anna Sui, Anthony van Dyck, Anton Raphael Mengs, ..., Antonio Calcagni, Antonio Canova, Antonio Corradini, Antonio Lombardo (sculptor), Antonio Rossellino, Antonio Stradivari, Antonio Verrio, Antonio Visentini, Antwerp City Hall, Apollo (magazine), Apsley House, Architectural drawing, Ardabil Carpet, Aristotle, Art Fund, Art Nouveau, Arts and Crafts movement, Aston Webb, Aubrey Beardsley, Audrey Hepburn, Auguste Rodin, Augustus Pugin, Automaton, Émile Gallé, İznik, Baillie Scott, Baltimore Museum of Art, Baroque, Bartolomeo Ammannati, Bartolomeo Bellano, Bartolomeo Bon, Bashaw (Matthew Cotes Wyatt), Basilica of St Denis, Beatrix Potter, Beauvais Manufactory, Becket Casket, Benjamin Brecknell Turner, Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy, Benjamin West, Benvenuto Cellini, Bernard Leach, Bernard Palissy, Bernardino Fungai, Bernardo Buontalenti, Bess of Hardwick, Bethnal Green, Bill Brandt, Bishopsgate, Blackpool, Blythe House, Board of Trade, Bohemian glass, Bologna, Book of hours, Brian Clarke (artist), Britain Can Make It, British Museum, Brompton, London, Bruges, Brussels tapestry, Bryan Davies, Baron Davies of Oldham, Buddhism, Burghley Nef, Bust of Thomas Baker, Byzantine Empire, C.F.A. 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's-Hertogenbosch (literally "The Duke's Forest" in English, and historically in French: Bois-le-Duc), colloquially known as Den Bosch (literally "The Forest" in English), is a city and municipality in the Southern Netherlands with a population of 152,968.
Abertay University, operating name for the University of Abertay Dundee since 2014, is one of two public universities in the city of Dundee, Scotland.
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
Adam Weisweiler (c.1750 — after 1810) was a pre-eminent French master cabinetmaker (ébéniste) in the Louis XVI period, working in Paris.
Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austrian and Czech architect and influential European theorist of modern architecture.
Adriaen Brouwer (Oudenaarde, c. 1605 – Antwerp, January 1638) was a Flemish painter active in Flanders and the Dutch Republic in the first half of the 17th century.
Adriaen de Vries (c.1556–1626) was a Northern Mannerist sculptor born in the Netherlands, whose international style crossed the threshold to the Baroque; he excelled in refined modelling and bronze casting and in the manipulation of patina and became the most famous European sculptor of his generation.
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
Aestheticism (also the Aesthetic Movement) is an intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts.
Agostino Busti (or Bambaia) (c. 1483 – 11 June 1548) was a High Renaissance Italian sculptor.
Augostino Carlini or Agostino Carlini (c. 1718 – 15 August 1790) was an Italian sculptor and painter, who was born in Genoa but settled in England.
Agostino di Duccio (1418 &ndash) was an early Renaissance Italian sculptor.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
AL_A, formerly known as Amanda Levete Architects, is a London-based practice formed in 2009 by Stirling Prize-winning architect Amanda Levete CBE.
The Albert Memorial is situated in Kensington Gardens, London, directly to the north of the Royal Albert Hall.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.
Albertopolis is the nickname given to the area centred on Exhibition Road in London, named after Prince Albert, spouse of Queen Victoria.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
Aldwych is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in Central London.
Alessandro Algardi (31 July 159810 June 1654) was an Italian high-Baroque sculptor active almost exclusively in Rome, where for the latter decades of his life, he was, along with Francesco Borromini and Pietro da Cortona, one of the major rivals of Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
Alessandro Vittoria funerary monument - San Zaccaria, Venice Alessandro Vittoria (1525–1608) was an Italian Mannerist sculptor of the Venetian school, "one of the main representatives of the Venetian classical style" and rivalling Giambologna as the foremost sculptors of the late 16th century in Italy.
Alexander Cooper (11 December 16091660) was an English Baroque miniature painter.
Alexander Dyce (30 June 1798 – 15 May 1869) was a Scottish dramatic editor and literary historian.
Lee Alexander McQueen, CBE (17 March 1969 – 11 February 2010) was a British fashion designer and couturier.
Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King Edward VII.
(Edward) Alfred Briscoe Drury (11 November 1856 – 24 December 1944) was an English architectural sculptor and figure in the New Sculpture movement.
Sir Alfred Gilbert (12 August 18544 November 1934) was an English sculptor and goldsmith who enthusiastically experimented with metallurgical innovations.
Alfred George Stevens (30 December 18171 May 1875), was a British sculptor.
Alfred Waterhouse (19 July 1830 – 22 August 1905) was an English architect, particularly associated with the Victorian Gothic Revival architecture.
The Alhambra (الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrā, lit. "The Red One",The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is normally given the definite articleالْحَمْرَاء, trans.; literally "the red one", feminine; in colloquial Arabic: the complete Arabic form of which was Qalat Al-Hamra)الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ, trans.
Alick Horsnell (1881–1916) was an architect, draughtsmen and artist working in London during the early years of the 20th Century.
Alonso González de Berruguete (Alonso Berruguete) (c. 1488 – 1561) was a Spanish painter, sculptor and architect.
Alphonse Legros (8 May 1837 – 8 December 1911) was a French painter, etcher, sculptor, and medallist.
Amanda Jane Levete CBE (born 17 November 1955) is a Stirling Prize-winning British architect, and principal of AL_A.
In Jainism, Ambika (अम्बिका, "Mother") or Ambika Devi (अम्बिका देवी "the Goddess-Mother") is the Yakṣi "dedicated attendant deity" or "protector goddess" of the 22nd Tirthankara, Neminatha.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
is a Japanese cloisonné making company located in Sakae, Nagoya, central Japan.
André-Charles Boulle (11 November 164229 February 1732), le joailler du meuble (the "marquetry jeweller"), is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry, also known as "Inlay".
Andrea Brustolon (20 July 1662 – 25 October 1732) was an Italian sculptor in wood.
Andrea del Verrocchio (1435 – 1488), born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was an Italian painter, sculptor, and goldsmith who was a master of an important workshop in Florence.
Andrea della Robbia (October 24, 1435August 4, 1525) was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, especially in ceramics.
Andrea Palladio (30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580) was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice.
Andrea Riccio (1532) was an Italian sculptor and occasional architect, whose real name was Andrea Briosco, but is usually known by his sobriquet meaning "curly"; he is also known as Il Riccio and Andrea Crispus ("curly" in Latin).
Andrew Grima (31 May 1921 – 26 December 2007) was an Anglo-Italian designer who became known as the doyen of modern jewellery design in Britain.
Maria Anna Angelika Kauffmann (30 October 1741 – 5 November 1807), usually known in English as Angelica Kauffman, was a Swiss Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Anna Sui (Traditional Chinese: 蕭志美, Simplified: 萧志美, pinyin: Xiāo Zhìměi, Japanese: アナスイ) (born August 4, 1952) is an American fashion designer from Detroit.
Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and the Southern Netherlands.
Anton Raphael Mengs (March 22, 1728 – June 29, 1779) was a German Bohemian painter, active in Rome, Madrid and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting.
Antonio Calcagni (Recanati, 1538–1593) is an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance period.
Antonio Canova (1 November 1757 – 13 October 1822) was an Italian Neoclassical sculptor, famous for his marble sculptures.
Antonio Corradini (19 October 1688, Venice – 12 August 1752, Naples) was an Italian Rococo sculptor.
Antonio Lombardo (c.1458–1516) was an Italian Renaissance sculptor.
Antonio Gamberelli (1427–1479),Janson, H.W. (1995) History of Art.
Antonio Stradivari; (1644 – December 18, 1737) was an Italian luthier and a crafter of string instruments such as violins, cellos, guitars, violas and harps.
The Italian-born Antonio Verrio (c. 1636 – 15 June 1707) was responsible for introducing Baroque mural painting into England and served the Crown over a thirty-year period.
View of Piazza San Marco in Venice, by Antonio Visentini (1742). Antonio Visentini (21 November 1688 – 26 June 1782) was an Italian architectural designer, painter and engraver, known for his architectural fantasies and ''capricci'', the author of treatises on perspective and a professor at the Venetian Academy.
The Stadhuis (City Hall) of Antwerp, Belgium, stands on the western side of Antwerp's Grote Markt (Great Market Square).
Apollo is an English-language monthly magazine covering visual arts of all periods, from antiquity to the present day.
Apsley House is the London townhouse of the Dukes of Wellington.
An architectural drawing or architect's drawing is a technical drawing of a building (or building project) that falls within the definition of architecture.
The Ardabil Carpets (Ardebil Carpets) are a pair of famous Iranian carpets in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Art Fund (formerly the National Art Collections Fund) is an independent membership-based British charity, which raises funds to aid the acquisition of artworks for the nation.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
The Arts and Crafts movement was an international movement in the decorative and fine arts that began in Britain and flourished in Europe and North America between about 1880 and 1920, emerging in Japan (the Mingei movement) in the 1920s.
Sir Aston Webb (22 May 1849 – 21 August 1930) was an English architect who designed the principal facade of Buckingham Palace and the main building of the Victoria and Albert Museum, among other major works around England, many of them in partnership with Ingress Bell.
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 187216 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author.
Audrey Hepburn (born Audrey Kathleen Ruston; 4 May 192920 January 1993) was a British actress, model, dancer and humanitarian.
François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917), known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor.
Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1 March 181214 September 1852) was an English architect, designer, artist, and critic who is principally remembered for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style of architecture.
An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.
Émile Gallé (8 May 1846 in Nancy – 23 September 1904 in Nancy) was a French artist who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey.
Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott (23 October 1865 – 10 February 1945) was an English architect and artist.
The Baltimore Museum of Art (BMA), located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, is an art museum that was founded in 1914.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Bartolomeo Ammannati (18 June 151113 April 1592) was an Italian architect and sculptor, born at Settignano, near Florence.
Bartolomeo Bellano, also known as Bartolomeo Vellano, was an Italian renaissance sculptor and architect who was born in Padua in 1437 or 1438.
Bartolomeo Bon (also spelled Buon; died after 1464) was an Italian sculptor and architect from Campione d'Italia.
Bashaw, a Newfoundland dog, sat some fifty times for his portrait.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
Helen Beatrix Potter (British English, North American English also, 28 July 186622 December 1943) was an English writer, illustrator, natural scientist, and conservationist best known for her children's books featuring animals, such as those in The Tale of Peter Rabbit.
The Beauvais tapestry manufacture was the second in importance, after the Gobelins tapestry, of French tapestry workshops that were established under the general direction of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the finance minister of Louis XIV.
The Becket Casket is a reliquary in Limoges enamel now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
Benjamin Brecknell Turner (1815–1894) was one of Britain's first photographers and a founding-member of the Photographic Society of London which was formed in 1853.
Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy (25 January 1780 – 8 January 1854) was a clockmaker, active in 18th and 19th century Britain.
Benjamin West (October 10, 1738 – March 11, 1820) was an Anglo-American history painter around and after the time of the American War of Independence and the Seven Years' War.
Benvenuto Cellini (3 November 150013 February 1571) was an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, soldier, musician, and artist who also wrote a famous autobiography and poetry.
Bernard Howell Leach (5 January 1887 – 6 May 1979), was a British studio potter and art teacher.
Bernard Palissy (c. 1510c. 1589) was a French Huguenot potter, hydraulics engineer and craftsman, famous for having struggled for sixteen years to imitate Chinese porcelain.
Bernardino Fungai (1460– c. 1516) was an Italian painter whose work marks the transition from late Gothic painting to the early Renaissance in the Sienese school.
Bernardo Buontalenti, byname of Bernardo Delle Girandole (c. 1531 – 25 or 26 June 1608), was an Italian stage designer, architect, theatrical designer, military engineer and artist.
Elizabeth Cavendish, later Elizabeth Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury (c. 1527–1608), known as Bess of Hardwick (neé Elizabeth Hardwick), of Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire, was a notable figure of Elizabethan English society.
Bethnal Green is a district in Greater London, England, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and part of the historic East End in East London.
Bill Brandt (born Hermann Wilhelm Brandt; 2 May 1904 – 20 December 1983)Paul Delany,.
Bishopsgate is one of the 25 wards of the City of London and also the name of a major road (part of the A10) between Gracechurch Street and Norton Folgate in the northeast corner of London's main financial district.
Blackpool is a seaside resort on the Lancashire coast in North West England.
Blythe House is a listed building located at 23 Blythe Road, West Kensington, London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, UK.
The Board of Trade is a British government department concerned with commerce and industry, currently within the Department for International Trade.
Bohemian glass, chiefly referred to as Bohemia crystal, is glass produced in the regions of Bohemia and Silesia, now parts of the Czech Republic.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The book of hours is a Christian devotional book popular in the Middle Ages.
Brian Clarke (born 2 July 1953), Debrett's is a British artist; a painter and architectural stained glass designer who has, most notably, worked in stained glass.
Britain Can Make It was an exhibition of industrial and product design held at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London in 1946.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Brompton is an area located near the district of Knightsbridge in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Brussels tapestry workshops produced tapestry from at least the 15th century, but the city's early production in the Late Gothic International style was eclipsed by the more prominent tapestry-weaving workshops based in Arras and Tournai.
Bryan Davies, Baron Davies of Oldham, PC (born 9 November 1939) is a Labour member of the House of Lords.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Burghley Nef is a silver-gilt salt cellar made in Paris in 1527–28 (or possibly earlier).
The bust of Thomas Baker is a 1638 marble portrait sculpture created by the Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini, with much of the bust undertaken by a pupil of Bernini, probably Andrea Bolgi.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Charles Francis Annesley Voysey (commonly referred to as C.F.A. Voysey, 28 May 1857 – 12 February 1941) was an English architect and furniture and textile designer.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630–1700) was a Danish sculptor, who enjoyed great success in England, and was the father of the actor, author and poet laureate Colley Cibber.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Giovanni Antonio Canal (18 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), better known as Canaletto, was an Italian painter of city views or vedute, of Venice, Rome, and London.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
Carlo Crivelli (Venice c. 1430 – Ascoli Piceno 1495) was an Italian Renaissance painter of conservative Late Gothic decorative sensibility, who spent his early years in the Veneto, where he absorbed influences from the Vivarini, Squarcione and Mantegna.
Baron Carlo (Charles) Marochetti (4 January 1805 – 29 December 1867) was an Italian-born French sculptor.
A cassone (plural cassoni) or marriage chest is a rich and showy Italian type of chest, which may be inlaid or carved, prepared with gesso ground then painted and gilded.
The Cast Courts (originally called the Architectural CourtsWilliamson 1996, p. 182.) of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England, comprise two large halls.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (born Catherine Elizabeth Middleton; 9 January 1982) is a member of the British royal family.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cecil Balmond OBE is a Sri Lankan–British designer, artist, and writer.
Sir Cecil Walter Hardy Beaton CBE (14 January 1904 – 18 January 1980) was an English fashion, portrait and war photographer, diarist, painter, interior designer and an Oscar–winning stage and costume designer for films and the theatre.
A censer, incense burner or perfume burner (these may be hyphenated) is a vessel made for burning incense or perfume in some solid form.
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.
The chambered nautilus, Nautilus pompilius, also called the pearly nautilus, is the best-known species of nautilus.
Charles Ormond Eames, Jr. (1907–1978) and Bernice Alexandra "Ray" Kaiser Eames (1912–1988) were an American design married couple who made significant historical contributions to the development of modern architecture and furniture.
Sir Charles Barry (23 May 1795 – 12 May 1860) was an English architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster (also known as the Houses of Parliament) in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Charles Heathcote Tatham (8 February 1772 in Westminster, London – 10 April 1842 in London), was an English architect of the early nineteenth century.
Charles Henry Holden Litt.D, FRIBA, MRTPI, RDI (12 May 1875 – 1 May 1960) was a Bolton-born English architect best known for designing many London Underground stations during the 1920s and 1930s, for Bristol Central Library, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London's headquarters at 55 Broadway and for the University of London's Senate House.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (7 June 1868 – 10 December 1928) was a Scottish architect, designer, water colourist and artist.
Charles Robert Ashbee (17 May 1863 – 23 May 1942) was an English architect and designer who was a prime mover of the Arts and Crafts movement that took its craft ethic from the works of John Ruskin and its co-operative structure from the socialism of William Morris.
Charles Robert Cockerell (27 April 1788 – 17 September 1863) was an English architect, archaeologist, and writer.
Chauncy Hare Townshend, whose surname was spelt by his parents as Townsend (10 April 1798, Godalming, Surrey – 25 February 1868), was a 19th-century English poet, clergyman, mesmerist, collector, dilettante and hypochondriac.
The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45) is the first important porcelain manufactory in England; its earliest soft-paste porcelain, aimed at the aristocratic market—cream jugs in the form of two seated goats—are dated 1745.
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
This carved lacquerware table in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London is from the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
Chinoiserie (loanword from French chinoiserie, from chinois, "Chinese") is the European interpretation and imitation of Chinese and East Asian artistic traditions, especially in the decorative arts, garden design, architecture, literature, theatre, and music.
Chintz (from the plural of chint) was originally glazed calico textiles, initially specifically those imported from India, printed with designs featuring flowers and other patterns in different colours, typically on a light plain background.
Christopher Robert Smith, Baron Smith of Finsbury, PC (born 24 July 1951) is a British politician and a peer; a former Member of Parliament (MP) and Cabinet Minister; and former chairman of the Environment Agency.
Christian Dior (21 January 1905 – 24 October 1957) was a French fashion designer, best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses, also called Christian Dior, which is now owned by Groupe Arnault.
Christian Friedrich Zincke (1683-5 – 24 March 1767) was a German miniature painter active in England in the 18th century.
Christian Marie Marc Lacroix (born 16 May 1951) is a French fashion designer.
Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS (–) was an English anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist, as well as one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas is based upon cultural regions, geography, and linguistics.
Claude Michel (December 20, 1738 – March 29, 1814), known as Clodion, was a French sculptor in the Rococo style, especially noted for his works in terracotta.
Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (21 March 1736 – 18 November 1806) was one of the earliest exponents of French Neoclassical architecture.
Clementina Maude, Viscountess Hawarden, née Clementina Elphinstone Fleeming (1 June 1822 – 19 January 1865), commonly known as Lady Clementina Hawarden, was a noted English portrait amateur photographer of the Victorian Era, producing over 800 photographs mostly of her adolescent daughters.
Cloisonné is an ancient technique for decorating metalwork objects.
The Cloth of St Gereon is a mural tapestry of a repeat pattern with a decorative motif of a bull being attacked by a griffin, a fantastic creature with the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle.
Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel (19 August 1883 – 10 January 1971) was a French fashion designer and a business woman.
A commode is any of several pieces of furniture.
Constantine Alexander Ionides (14 May 1833 in Manchester – 29 June 1900 in Brighton, Κωνσταντίνος Αλέξανδρος Ιωνίδης) was a British art patron and collector, of Greek ancestry.
The cornett, cornetto, or zink is an early wind instrument that dates from the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods, popular from 1500 to 1650.
Costume is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects their class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch.
Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane.
Cristóbal Balenciaga Eizaguirre (January 21, 1895 – March 23, 1972) was a Spanish Basque fashion designer and the founder of the Balenciaga fashion house.
Cromwell Road is a major London road in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, designated as part of the A4.
The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history.
The people are of the Maghreb and the Sahara speak various dialects of Berber and Arabic, and almost exclusively follow Islam.
Edwin Curtis Moffat (October 11, 1887 – 1949), better known as Curtis Moffat, was a London-based American abstract photographer, painter and modernist interior designer.
Dale Chihuly (born September 20, 1941) is an American glass sculptor and entrepreneur.
Daniel Libeskind (born May 12, 1946) is a Polish-American architect, artist, professor and set designer.
Daniel Marot (1661–1752) was a French Protestant, an architect, furniture designer and engraver at the forefront of the classicizing Late Baroque "Louis XIV" style.
Danny Lane (born 27 January 1955) is an American artist, best known for his glass and steel sculpture.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti, was a British poet, illustrator, painter and translator, and a member of the Rossetti family.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
David is the title of two statues of the biblical hero David by the Italian early Renaissance sculptor Donatello.
David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created in marble between 1501 and 1504 by the Italian artist Michelangelo.
Andrea del Verrocchio's bronze statue of David was most likely made between 1473 and 1475.
David Royston Bailey, CBE (born 2 January 1938) is an English fashion and portrait photographer.
David Hockney, (born 9 July 1937) is an English painter, draftsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer.
David Roentgen (1743 in HerrnhaagFebruary 12, 1807), was a famous German cabinetmaker of the eighteenth century, famed throughout Europe for his marquetry and his secret drawers and mechanical fittings.
Sir David Wilkie (18 November 1785 – 1 June 1841) was a Scottish painter, especially known for his genre scenes.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Delftware or Delft pottery, also known as Delft Blue (Delfts blauw), is blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century.
The Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet.
The Design Council, formerly the Council of Industrial Design, is a United Kingdom charity incorporated by Royal Charter.
A desk or bureau is a piece of furniture with a flat table-style work surface used in a school, office, home or the like for academic, professional or domestic activities such as reading, writing, or using equipment such as a computer.
Devonshire House in Piccadilly was the London residence of the Dukes of Devonshire in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Devonshire Hunting Tapestries are a group of four magnificent Flemish tapestries dating from the mid-fifteenth century.
The Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum is the head of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, a post currently held by Tristram Hunt, who succeeded Martin Roth, who died in August 2017, months after he announced he would resign in January.
Domenico di Pace Beccafumi (1486May 18, 1551) was an Italian Renaissance-Mannerist painter active predominantly in Siena.
Sir Donald McCullin, CBE, Hon FRPS (born 9 October 1935), is a British photojournalist, particularly recognized for his war photography and images of urban strife.
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence.
Donato Bramante (1444 – 11 April 1514), born as Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio and also known as Bramante Lazzari, was an Italian architect.
Eadweard Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism.
Edgar Degas (or; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas,; 19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings.
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet (28 August 183317 June 1898) was a British artist and designer closely associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who worked closely with William Morris on a wide range of decorative arts as a founding partner in Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co.
Edward Hodges Baily (18 March 1788 in Bristol22 May 1867 in London; sometimes misspelled Bailey) was an English sculptor who was born in Downend in Bristol.
Edward Lear (12 May 1812 – 29 January 1888) was an English artist, illustrator, musician, author and poet, and is known now mostly for his literary nonsense in poetry and prose and especially his limericks, a form he popularised.
Sir Edward Brantwood Maufe, RA, FRIBA (12 December 1882 – 12 December 1974) was an English architect and designer.
Sir Edward John Poynter, 1st Baronet (20 March 1836 in Paris – 26 July 1919 in London) was an English painter, designer, and draughtsman who served as President of the Royal Academy.
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
Edward William Godwin (26 May 1833, Bristol – 6 October 1886 London) was a progressive English architect-designer, who began his career working in the strongly polychromatic "Ruskinian Gothic" style of mid-Victorian Britain, inspired by The Stones of Venice, then moved on to provide designs in the "Anglo-Japanese taste" of the Aesthetic Movement and Whistler's circle in the 1870s.
Sir Edwin Henry Landseer RA (7 March 1802 – 1 October 1873) was an English painter and sculptor, well known for his paintings of animals — particularly horses, dogs, and stags.
Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era.
Eileen Gray (born Kathleen Eileen Moray Smith; 9 August 1878 – 31 October 1976) was an Irish-born French-based architect and furniture designer and a pioneer of the Modern Movement in architecture.
Eleanor Coade (3 June 1733 – 16 November 1821), Oxford National Dictionary of Biography was a British businesswoman known for manufacturing Neoclassical statues, architectural decorations and garden ornaments made of Lithodipyra or Coade stone for over 50 years from 1769 until her death.
Dame Elizabeth Anne Loosemore Esteve-Coll (née Kingdon; born 14 October 1938) is a British academic and former museum director and librarian.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
Elspeth Gibson (born 1963 in Nottingham) is a British fashion designer, known for her feminine style of design.
Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn.
Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was an English sculptor, typeface designer, and printmaker, who was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement.
Ernest William Gimson (21 December 1864 – 12 August 1919) was an English furniture designer and architect.
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.
Eva Jiřičná CBE RA (born 3 March 1939) is a Czech architect and designer, active in London and Prague.
Exhibition Road is a street in South Kensington, London which is home to several major museums and academic establishments, including the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum.
The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next.
Fatimid art refers to Islamic artifacts and architecture from the Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171), principally in Egypt and North Africa.
The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition and fair that reached millions of visitors throughout the United Kingdom in the summer of 1951.
The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, comprising the de Young Museum in Golden Gate Park and the Legion of Honor in Lincoln Park, is the largest public arts institution in the city of San Francisco and one of the largest art museums in California, United States.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Floriano or Fioravante Ferramola (c. 1478 - 3 July 1528) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance period, active mainly in Brescia.
Fontignano is a frazione of the comune of Perugia, Italy, located near Lake Trasimeno.
François Boucher (29 September 1703 – 30 May 1770) was a French painter, draughtsman and etcher, who worked in the Rococo style.
François Clouet (c. 1510 – 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist and painter, particularly known for his detailed portraits of the French ruling family.
François Girardon (10 March 1628 – 1 September 1715) was a French sculptor.
François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
Francesco Fanelli (c. 1590–1653) was an Italian sculptor, born in Florence, who spent most of his career in England.
Francesco I Sforza (23 July 1401 – 8 March 1466) was an Italian condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan, Italy, and was the fourth Duke of Milan from 1450 until his death.
Francis Danby (16 November 1793 – 9 February 1861) was an Irish painter of the Romantic era.
Francis Fowke RE (7 July 1823 – 4 December 1865) was a British engineer and architect, and a Captain in the Corps of Royal Engineers.
Francis Hayman (1708 – 2 February 1776) was an English painter and illustrator who became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, and later its first librarian.
Sir Francis Leg(g)att Chantrey (7 April 1781 – 25 November 1841) was an English sculptor.
Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alençon (Hercule François; 18 March 1555 – 10 June 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.
Harold Frank Hoar, FRIBA (13 September 1907 – 3 October 1976), was a British architect, artist, academic and architectural historian.
Frank Lloyd Wright (born Frank Lincoln Wright, June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed.
Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton, (3 December 1830 – 25 January 1896), known as Sir Frederic Leighton between 1878 and 1896, was an English painter and sculptor.
Frederick Hollyer (17 June 1838 – 21 November 1933) was an English photographer and engraver known for his photographic reproductions of paintings and drawings, particularly those of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and for portraits of literary and artistic figures of late Victorian and Edwardian London.
In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.
Gareth Dale Hoskins OBE (15 April 1967 – 9 January 2016) was a Scottish architect.
Gaspard Dughet (15 June 1615 – 27 May 1675), also known as Gaspard Poussin, was a French painter born in Rome.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gebrüder Thonet or the Thonet Brothers was a European furniture manufacturer.
George Edmund Street (20 June 1824 – 18 December 1881), also known as G. E. Street, was an English architect, born at Woodford in Essex.
George Engleheart (1750–1829) was one of the greatest English painters of portrait miniatures, and a contemporary of Richard Cosway, John Smart, William Wood, and Richard Crosse.
Sir George James Frampton, RA (18 June 1860 – 21 May 1928) was a notable British sculptor and leading member of the New Sculpture movement.
Louis-François Roubiliac's statue of George Frideric Handel is a work of 1738 in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Sir George Gilbert Scott (13 July 1811 – 27 March 1878), styled Sir Gilbert Scott, was a prolific English Gothic revival architect, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches and cathedrals, although he started his career as a leading designer of workhouses.
George Wallis (1811–1891) was an artist, museum curator and art educator.
The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to, named eponymously after kings George I, George II, George III and George IV.
Gesso ("chalk", from the gypsum, from γύψος) is a white paint mixture consisting of a binder mixed with chalk, gypsum, pigment, or any combination of these.
Giacomo della Porta (1532–1602) was an Italian architect and sculptor, who worked on many important buildings in Rome, including St. Peter's Basilica.
Giambologna (1529 – 13 August 1608) — born Jean Boulogne (and incorrectly known as Giovanni da Bologna or Giovanni Bologna) — was a Flemish sculptor based in Italy, celebrated for his marble and bronze statuary in a late Renaissance or Mannerist style.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini (also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian sculptor and architect.
Gianfranco Ferré (15 August 1944 – 17 June 2007) was an Italian fashion designer also known as "the architect of fashion" for his background and his original attitude toward creating fashion design.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gijs Bakker (Amersfoort, 1942) is a Dutch jewellery and industrial-designer, educated at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and the Konstfackskolan in Stockholm, Sweden.
Gilbert William Bayes (4 April 1872 – 10 July 1953) was an English sculptor.
Gilles Joubert (1689–1775) was a Parisian ébéniste who worked for the Garde-Meuble of Louis XV for two and a half decades, beginning in 1748, earning the title ébéniste ordinaire du Garde-Meuble in 1758, and finally that of ébéniste du roi ("royal cabinet-maker") on the death of Jean-François Oeben in 1763.
Giovanni "Gio" Ponti (18 November 1891 – 16 September 1979) was an Italian architect, industrial designer, furniture designer, artist, and publisher.
Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces.
Giovanni Battista Borra (27 December 1713 - November 1770) was an Italian architect, engineer and architectural draughtsman.
Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Foggini (25 April 1652 – 12 April 1725) was an Italian sculptor active in Florence, renowned mainly for small bronze statuary.
Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista or Piranesi) (4 October 1720 – 9 November 1778) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" (Le Carceri d'Invenzione).
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 – March 27, 1770), also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo, was an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice.
Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (baptized 23 March 16095 May 1664) was an Italian Baroque artist, painter, printmaker and draftsman, of the Genoese school.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo (August 30, 1727March 3, 1804) was an Italian painter and printmaker in etching.
Giovanni Pisano (c. 1250 – c. 1315) was an Italian sculptor, painter and architect, who worked in the cities of Pisa, Siena and Pistoia.
Giudecca is an island in the Venetian Lagoon, in northern Italy.
Giuliano da Sangallo (c. 1445 – 1516) was an Italian sculptor, architect and military engineer active during the Italian Renaissance.
Gloria Guinness (born Gloria Rubio Alatorre; August 27, 1913, findagrave.com; accessed June 15, 2017. – November 9, 1980) was a socialite and fashion icon, as well as a contributing editor to Harper's Bazaar from 1963-71.
The Gloucester Candlestick is an elaborately decorated English Romanesque gilt-bronze candlestick, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
The Manufacture des Gobelins is a tapestry factory located in Paris, France, at 42 avenue des Gobelins, near the Les Gobelins métro station in the 13th arrondissement.
Godfrey Sykes (born Malton, North Yorkshire, 1824 – died London 28 February 1866) was an English designer and painter.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
Gottfried Semper (29 November 1803 – 15 May 1879) was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Opera House in Dresden between 1838 and 1841.
Graham Vivian Sutherland OM (24 August 1903 – 17 February 1980) was an English artist who is notable for his work in glass, fabrics, prints and portraits.
The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperon, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old).
A grandfather clock (also a longcase clock, tall-case clock, or floor clock) is a tall, freestanding, weight-driven pendulum clock with the pendulum held inside the tower or waist of the case.
The Great Bed of Ware is an extremely large oak four poster bed, carved with marquetry, that was originally housed in the White Hart Inn in Ware, England.
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 of September 1666.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
Grinling Gibbons (4 April 1648 – 3 August 1721) was a Dutch-British sculptor and wood carver known for his work in England, including Windsor Castle and Hampton Court Palace, St.
Gryphon are a British progressive rock band formed in the 1970s, best known for their unusual medieval and Renaissance sound and instrumentation.
Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement in 19th-century French painting.
Jean-Baptiste Gustave Le Gray (30 August, 1820 – 30 July, 1884)Le Corre, Florence.
Guy Laroche was a French fashion designer (16 July 1921 in La Rochelle, France – 17 February 1989 in Paris) and founder of the eponymous company.
Hans Daucher (1486, Augsburg – 1538, Stuttgart) was a German Renaissance wood carver, sculptor and medal designer.
Hans Holbein the Younger (Hans Holbein der Jüngere) (– between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century.
Hans Vredeman de Vries (1527 – c. 1607) was a Dutch Renaissance architect, painter, and engineer.
Sir Edwin Hardy Amies, KCVO (17 July 1909 – 5 March 2003), known as Hardy Amies, was an English fashion designer, founder of the Hardy Amies label and best known for his official title as dressmaker for Queen Elizabeth II, from her accession to the throne 1952 until his retirement in 1989.
Harrods is a luxury department store located on Brompton Road in Knightsbridge, London.
Harry Clarke (17 March 1889 – 6 January 1931) was an Irish stained-glass artist and book illustrator.
Helen Chadwick (18 May 1953 – 15 March 1996) was a British sculptor, photographer and installation artist.
Hemmerle is a Munich-based jeweller founded in 1893 by brothers Joseph and Anton Hemmerle.
Hendrick de Keyser (15 May 1565 – 15 May 1621) was a Dutch sculptor and architect born in Utrecht, Netherlands, who was instrumental in establishing a late Renaissance form of Mannerism in Amsterdam.
Henri Cartier-Bresson (August 22, 1908 – August 3, 2004) was a French humanist photographer considered a master of candid photography, and an early user of 35 mm film.
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
Sir Henry Cole (15 July 1808 – 18 April 1882) was a British civil servant and inventor who facilitated many innovations in commerce and education in 19th century in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Henry Flitcroft (30 August 1697 – 25 February 1769) was a major English architect in the second generation of Palladianism.
William Henry Fox Talbot FRS (11 February 180017 September 1877) was a British scientist, inventor and photography pioneer who invented the salted paper and calotype processes, precursors to photographic processes of the later 19th and 20th centuries.
Henry Fuseli (German: Johann Heinrich Füssli; 7 February 1741 – 17 April 1825) was a Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain.
Henry Holland (20 July 1745 – 17 June 1806) was an architect to the English nobility.
Henry Spencer Moore (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986) was an English artist.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
Henry VIII's writing desk is a portable writing desk, made in about 1525-6 for Henry VIII.
Henry Young Darracott Scott RE (1822–1883) was an English Major-General in the Corps of Royal Engineers, best known for the construction of London's Royal Albert Hall.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
The current Hereford Cathedral, located at Hereford in England, dates from 1079.
The Hereford Screen is a great choir screen designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott (1811–1878) and made by Coventry metalworking firm Skidmore & Co.
The Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) distributes a share of National Lottery funding, supporting a wide range of heritage projects across the United Kingdom.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Utagawa Hiroshige (歌川 広重), also Andō Hiroshige (安藤 広重; 1797 – 12 October 1858), was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist, considered the last great master of that tradition.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
Wood carving is one of the oldest arts of humankind.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), also known as Horace Walpole, was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
The Horniman Museum and Gardens is a museum in Forest Hill, London, England.
Hortense Eugénie Cécile Bonaparte (née de Beauharnais) (10 April 1783 – 5 October 1837), Queen consort of Holland, was the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoléon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
Count Hubert James Marcel Taffin de Givenchy (pronounced; 20 February 1927 – 10 March 2018) was a French fashion designer who founded the house of Givenchy in 1952.
Hubert Le Sueur (c. 1580 – 1658) was a French sculptor with the contemporaneous reputation of having trained in Giambologna's Florentine workshop.
Hugh Douglas Hamilton (c. 1740 – 10 February 1808) was an Irish portrait-painter.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
Ilse Bing (23 March 1899 – 10 March 1998) was a German avant-garde and commercial photographer who produced pioneering monochrome images during the inter-war era.
is a type of traditionally made in the town of Arita, in the former Hizen Province, northwestern Kyūshū.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian Arts consists of a variety of art forms, including plastic arts (e.g., pottery sculpture), visual arts (e.g., paintings), and textile arts (e.g., woven silk).
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Inigo Jones (15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant English architect (of Welsh ancestry) in the early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings.
Innocenzo Spinazzi (1726–1798) was an Italian sculptor of the Rococo period active in Rome and Florence.
An (plural the same) is a traditional Japanese case for holding small objects, suspended from the obi (sash) worn around the waist.
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.
Princess Irene Galitzine (ირინა გალიცინი; Ирен Голицына; 22 July 1916 in Tbilisi, Georgia – 20 October 2006 in Rome, Italy) was a Russian-Georgian fashion designer whose most renowned creation was the "palazzo pyjama".
Ironwork is any weapon, artwork, utensil or architectural feature made of iron especially used for decoration.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isaac Oliver (c. 1565 – bur. 2 October 1617) or Olivier was a French-born English portrait miniature painter.
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.
Sir Jacob Epstein (10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was an American-British sculptor who helped pioneer modern sculpture.
Jacopo della Quercia (20 October 1438) was an Italian sculptor of the Italian Renaissance, a contemporary of Brunelleschi, Ghiberti and Donatello.
Jacopo d'Antonio Sansovino (2 July 1486 – 27 November 1570) was an Italian sculptor and architect, known best for his works around the Piazza San Marco in Venice.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
A jali or jaali, (Urdu: جالی Hindi:जाली jālī, meaning "net") is the term for a perforated stone or latticed screen, usually with an ornamental pattern constructed through the use of calligraphy and geometry.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 10, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American artist, active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom.
James Barry (11 October 1741 – 22 February 1806) was an Irish painter, best remembered for his six-part series of paintings entitled The Progress of Human Culture in the Great Room of the Royal Society of Arts in London.
James Gibbs (23 December 1682 – 5 August 1754) was one of Britain's most influential architects.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James Lafayette was the pseudonym of James Stack Lauder (1853-1923).
James Rivière (pseudonym of Vincenzo Teora Rivière) (born 1949) is an Italian artist, designer, and sculptor.
James "Athenian" Stuart (1713 – 2 February 1788) was a Scottish archaeologist, architect and artist, best known for his central role in pioneering Neoclassicism.
Sir James Thornhill (25 July 1675 or 1676 – 4 May 1734) was an English painter of historical subjects working in the Italian baroque tradition.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
James William Wild (9 March 1814 – 7 November 1892) was a British architect.
James Wyatt (3 August 1746 – 4 September 1813) was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the neoclassical style and neo-Gothic style.
Jan Brueghel the Elder (also Breughel;; 1568 – 13 January 1625) was a Flemish painter and draughtsman.
Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture, ink painting and calligraphy on silk and paper, ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints, ceramics, origami, and more recently manga—modern Japanese cartooning and comics—along with a myriad of other types.
(also 焼きもの yakimono, or 陶芸 tōgei), is one of the oldest Japanese crafts and art forms, dating back to the Neolithic period.
Japanning is a type of finish that originated as a European imitation of Asian lacquerwork.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jean Bourdichon (1457 or 1459 – 1521) was a French miniature painter and manuscript illuminator at the court of France between the end of the 15th century and the start of the 16th century, in the reigns of Louis XI of France, Charles VIII of France, Louis XII of France and Francis I of France.
Jean François de Troy (27 January 1679, Paris – 26 January 1752, Rome) was a French Rococo easel and fresco painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer.
Jean-Henri Riesener (Johann Heinrich Riesener) (4 July 1734 – 6 January 1806) was the French royal ébéniste, working in Paris, whose work exemplified the early neoclassical "Louis XVI style".
Jean Elizabeth Muir, CBE, FCSD (17 July 1928 – 28 May 1995) was a British fashion designer.
Jean Petitot (July 12, 1607 – April 3, 1691) was a French-Genevan enamel painter.
Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 163921 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition.
Jean Michel Schlumberger (June 24, 1907 – August 29, 1987) was a French jewelry designer especially well known for his work at Tiffany & Co.
Jean Simeon Rousseau de la Rottière (1747–1820) was a French decorative painter.
Jean Tijou was a French Huguenot ironworker.
Jean-Antoine Houdon (25 March 1741 – 15 July 1828) was a French neoclassical sculptor.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.
Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (11 May 1827 – 12 October 1875) was a French sculptor and painter during the Second Empire under Napoleon III.
Jean-Baptiste Pater (December 29, 1695 – July 25, 1736) was a French rococo painter.
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching.
Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France.
Jean-François Oeben, or Johann Franz Oeben (9 October 1721 Heinsberg near Aachen – Paris 21 January 1763) was a French ébéniste (cabinetmaker) whose career was spent in Paris.
Jean-Paul Gaultier (born 24 April 1952) is a French haute couture and prêt-à-porter fashion designer.
Jeffrey Koons (born January 21, 1955) is an American artist known for working with popular culture subjects and his reproductions of banal objects—such as balloon animals produced in stainless steel with mirror-finish surfaces.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
— Jim Lee (born 20 November 1945) is a London-based photographer and film director.
Dame Joan Evans, (22 June 1893 – 14 July 1977) was a British historian of French and English mediaeval art, especially Early Modern and medieval jewellery.
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
Joe Colombo, born Cesare Colombo (30 July 1930 – 30 July 1971) was an Italian industrial designer.
Johann Joachim Kändler (June 15, 1706 – May 18, 1775) was the most important modeller of the Meissen porcelain manufactury.
John Constable, (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English landscape painter in the naturalistic tradition.
John Evelyn's cabinet is a highly decorated storage box in the collection of the Victoria & Albert Museum in London.
Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
John Flaxman R.A. (6 July 1755 – 7 December 1826) was a British sculptor and draughtsman, and a leading figure in British and European Neoclassicism.
John Forster (2 April 1812 – 2 February 1876), was an English biographer and critic and a friend of author Charles Dickens.
John Gibson (19 June 1790 – 27 January 1866) was a Welsh Neoclassical sculptor who studied in Rome under Canova.
John Loughborough Pearson (5 July 1817 – 11 December 1897) was a Gothic Revival architect renowned for his work on churches and cathedrals.
Sir John Robert Madejski, (born Robert John Hurst; 28 April 1941) is an English businessman, with commercial interests spanning property, broadcast media, hotels, restaurants, publishing and football.
John Martin (19 July 1789 – 17 February 1854) was an English Romantic painter, engraver and illustrator.
Johannes Michel or John Michael Rysbrack, original name Jan Michiel Rijsbrack (27 June 1694 – 8 January 1770), was an 18th-century Flemish sculptor.
John Nash (18 January 1752 – 13 May 1835) was an English architect responsible for much of the layout of Regency London under the patronage of the Prince Regent, and during his reign as George IV.
John Egerton Christmas Piper CH (13 December 1903 – 28 June 1992) was an English painter, printmaker and designer of stained-glass windows and both opera and theatre sets.
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.
John Russell RA (29 March 1745 – 20 April 1806) was an English painter renowned for his portrait work in oils and pastels, and as a writer and teacher of painting techniques.
John Sell Cotman (16 May 1782 – 24 July 1842) was an English marine and landscape painter, etcher, illustrator, author and a leading member of the Norwich school of artists.
John Sheepshanks (1787–1863), British manufacturer and art collector, was born in Leeds, and became a partner in his father's business as a cloth manufacturer.
John Smart (c. 1740–1811), was an English painter of portrait miniatures.
Sir John Soane (né Soan; 10 September 1753 – 20 January 1837) was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style.
Sir John Taylor, KCB, FRIBA (15 November 1833 in Warkworth, Northumberland – 30 April 1912 in Surbiton Hill, Surrey) was a British architect.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
John Thomson (14 June 1837 – 29 September 1921) was a pioneering Scottish photographer, geographer, and traveller.
Sir John Vanbrugh (24 January 1664 (baptised) – 26 March 1726) was an English architect and dramatist, perhaps best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard.
John Ward (1798–1849)Harbron, Dudley.
Joseph Baumhauer (died 22 March 1772) was a prominent Parisian ébéniste, one of several of German extraction.
Joseph Nollekens R.A. (11 August 1737 – 23 April 1823) was a sculptor from London generally considered to be the finest British sculptor of the late 18th century.
Joseph Wilton (16 July 1722 – 25 November 1803) was an English sculptor.
Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter and entrepreneur.
Aimé-Jules Dalou (31 December 1838, in Paris15 April 1902, in Paris) was a French sculptor, recognized as one of the most brilliant virtuosos of nineteenth-century France, admired for his perceptiveness, execution, and unpretentious realism.
Julia Margaret Cameron (née Pattle; 11 June 1815 Calcutta – 26 January 1879 Kalutara, Ceylon) was a British photographer.
is a style of Japanese porcelain, with overglaze decoration called "enameled" ceramics.
is one of the leaders in Japanese Contemporary fashion, in particular during the 1970s and 1980s.
Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781 – 9 October 1841) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets.
Historically, were one of the traditionally made that were used by the samurai of ancient and feudal Japan.
is a common masculine Japanese given name.
The is a traditional Japanese garment.
Krazy Kat (also known as Krazy & Ignatz in some reprints and compilations) is an American newspaper comic strip by cartoonist George Herriman (1880–1944), which ran from 1913 to 1944.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
Lace is a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open weblike pattern, made by machine or by hand.
The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glabrous (smooth and hairless) leaves, in the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.
Caroline Lee Radziwill, formerly Princess Caroline Lee Radziwill, (née Bouvier, formerly Bouvier Canfield and Ross; born March 3, 1933) is an American socialite, public relations executive and interior decorator.
The Leighton Frescoes were commissioned in 1868 as the central feature of the elaborate decorations of the Victoria and Albert Museum's South Court.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Limoges enamel has been produced at Limoges, in south-western France, over several centuries up to the present.
Linoleum, also called Lino, is a floor covering made from materials such as solidified linseed oil (linoxyn), pine rosin, ground cork dust, wood flour, and mineral fillers such as calcium carbonate, most commonly on a burlap or canvas backing.
American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), also known as American storax, hazel pine, bilsted, redgum, satin-walnut, star-leaved gum, alligatorwood, or simply sweetgum, is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar native to warm temperate areas of eastern North America and tropical montane regions of Mexico and Central America.
This list of largest art museums in the world ranks art museums and other museums that contain mostly pieces of art by the best available estimates of total exhibition space.
This article lists the most visited art museums in the world, as listed by Art Newspaper Review Visitor Figures Survey (April 2018) and the Museum Index of the Themed Entertainment Association (TEA) and engineering firm (AECOM).
This article lists the most visited museums in the United Kingdom (including art galleries).
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
A loggia is an architectural feature which is a covered exterior gallery or corridor usually on an upper level, or sometimes ground level.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or cire perdue in French) is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture.
Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass.
Louis Laguerre (1663 – 20 April 1721) was a French decorative painter mainly working in England.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
Louis-François Roubiliac (or Roubilliac, or Roubillac) (31 August 1702 – 11 January 1762) was a French sculptor who worked in England, one of the four most prominent sculptors in London working in the rococo style, He was described by Margaret Whinney as "probably the most accomplished sculptor ever to work in England".
Luca Carlevarijs or Carlevaris (20 January 1663 – 12 February 1730) was an Italian painter and engraver working mainly in Venice.
Luca della Robbia (1399/1400–1482) was an Italian sculptor from Florence.
Lucas Horenbout, often called Hornebolte in England (c.1490/1495–1544), was a Flemish artist who moved to England in the mid-1520s and worked there as "King's Painter" and court miniaturist to King Henry VIII from 1525 until his death.
Lucian Michael Freud (8 December 1922 – 20 July 2011) was a British painter and draftsman, specializing in figurative art, and is known as one of the foremost 20th-century portraitists.
The "Luck of Edenhall" is a glass beaker that was made in Syria or Egypt in the middle of the 14th century, elegantly decorated with arabesques in blue, green, red and white enamel with gilding.
Lucy Christiana, Lady Duff-Gordon (née Sutherland) (13 June 1863 – 20 April 1935) was a leading British fashion designer in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who worked under the professional name of Lucile.
Ludovico (or Lodovico) Carracci (21 April 1555 – 13 November 1619) was an Italian, early-Baroque painter, etcher, and printmaker born in Bologna.
Ludovico Maria Sforza (also known as Ludovico il Moro; 27 July 1452 – 27 May 1508), was Duke of Milan from 1494, following the death of his nephew Gian Galeazzo Sforza, until 1499.
Luisa Ignacia Roldán (8 September 1652 – 10 January 1706), called La Roldana, was a Spanish female sculptor of the Baroque Era.
Sir Samuel Luke Fildes (3 October 1843 – 28 February 1927) was an English painter and illustrator born in Liverpool and trained at the South Kensington and Royal Academy schools.
Lusterware or Lustreware (respectively the US and all other English spellings) is a type of pottery or porcelain with a metallic glaze that gives the effect of iridescence, produced by metallic oxides in an overglaze finish, which is given a second firing at a lower temperature in a "muffle kiln", reduction kiln, which excludes oxygen.
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), commonly known as Madame de Pompadour, was a member of the French court and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to 1751, and remained influential as court favourite until her death.
Maiolica, also called Majolica is Italian tin-glazed pottery dating from the Renaissance period.
Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in France.
The manufacture nationale de Sèvres is one of the principal European porcelain manufactories.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Marcel Lajos Breuer (21 May 1902 – 1 July 1981), was a Hungarian-born modernist, architect, and furniture designer.
Marcus Gheeraerts (also written as Gerards or Geerards) (Bruges, 1561/62 – 19 January 1636) was a Flemish artist working at the Tudor court, described as "the most important artist of quality to work in England in large-scale between Eworth and Van Dyck"Strong 1969, p. 22 He was brought to England as a child by his father Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder, also a painter.
Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution.
Marion Victoria Dorn also known as Marion Dorn Kauffer (born in Menlo Park, California on December 25, 1896—died in Tangier, Morocco on January 28, 1964) was a textile designer primarily in the form of wall hangings, carpeting and rugs, however she is also known to have produced wallpaper, graphics, and illustrations.
Marlborough House, a Grade I listed mansion in St James's (City of Westminster, Inner London), is the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations and the seat of the Commonwealth Secretariat.
Marquetry (also spelled as marqueterie; from the French marqueter, to varigate) is the art and craft of applying pieces of veneer to a structure to form decorative patterns, designs or pictures.
Martin Carlin (ca 1730 – 1785) was a Parisian ébéniste, born at Freiburg, who was received master at Paris in 1766.
Dame Barbara Mary Quant, Mrs Plunket Greene, DBE, FCSD, RDI (born 11 February 1930) is a Welsh fashion designer and British fashion icon.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
Massimiliano Soldani-Benzi or Massimiliano Soldani (15 July 1656 – 23 February 1740) was an Italian sculptor and medallist, mainly active in Florence.
Matthew Boulton (3 September 1728 – 17 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.
Matthew Brettingham (1699 – 19 August 1769), sometimes called Matthew Brettingham the Elder, was an 18th-century Englishman who rose from humble origins to supervise the construction of Holkham Hall, and become one of the country's best-known architects of his generation.
Matthias Lock was an English 18th century furniture designer and cabinet-maker.
The Möllendorff Dinner Service of Meissen porcelain was designed in about 1762 by Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia (1712–86), in collaboration with Karl Jacob Christian Klipfel, a Meissen artist and musician.
In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.
Meissen porcelain or Meissen china was the first European hard-paste porcelain.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Metaphor is a London-based, global design firm that was founded in 2000 by Stephen Greenberg and Rachel Morris.
Sir Michael Hintze, (born 27 July 1953) is a British-Australian businessman, philanthropist and Conservative Party patron, based in the United Kingdom.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
Michelozzo di Bartolomeo Michelozzi (1396–1472) was an Italian architect and sculptor.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Egypt (Misr al-Wista) is the section of land between Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta) and Upper Egypt, stretching upstream from Asyut in the south to Memphis in the north.
Mila Schön (September 28, 1916 – September 5, 2008) was an Italian fashion designer.
Millefleur, millefleurs or mille-fleur (French mille-fleurs, literally "thousand flowers") refers to a background style of many different small flowers and plants, usually shown on a green ground, as though growing in grass.
The Millennium Gallery is an art gallery and museum in the centre of Sheffield, England.
A minbar (but pronounced mimbar, also romanized as mimber) is a pulpit in the mosque where the imam (prayer leader) stands to deliver sermons (خطبة, khutbah) or in the Hussainia where the speaker sits and lectures the congregation.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mintons was a major ceramics manufacturing company, originated with Thomas Minton (1765–1836) the founder of "Thomas Minton and Sons", who established his pottery factory in Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, England, in 1793, producing earthenware.
A missal is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year.
Missoni is a high-end Italian fashion house based in Varese, and known for its colorful knitwear designs.
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.
Montacute House is a late Elizabethan mansion with garden in Montacute, South Somerset.
Mortlake is a suburban district of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames on the south bank of the River Thames between Kew and Barnes.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fifth largest museum in the United States.
The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), located in the Houston Museum District, Houston, is one of the largest museums in the United States.
Museum With No Frontiers (MWNF) is an international non-profit organisation founded on the initiative of Eva Schubert in 1995 in the context of the Barcelona Process Euro-Mediterranean Partnership relaunched as the Union for the Mediterranean). MWNF provides a platform that enables all partners to interact productively and contribute to a transnational presentation of history, art and culture based on equal voices and the equal visibility of all concerned. For that purpose, MWNF develops exhibition formats that do not require moving the artworks, but instead, artefacts in museums, monuments and archaeological sites are presented in situ (Exhibition Trails) trail exhibit (photos by: Sherif Sonbol) or in a virtual environment (the MWNF Virtual Museum).
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Muslin, also mousseline, is a cotton fabric of plain weave.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act (1988).
National Galleries of Scotland (Gailearaidhean Nàiseanta na h-Alba) is the executive non-departmental public body that controls the three national galleries of Scotland and two partner galleries, forming one of the National Collections of Scotland.
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London.
The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.
The Natural History Museum in London is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history.
The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves.
In photography, a negative is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
Neptune and Triton is an early sculpture by the Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
are miniature sculptures that were invented in 17th-century Japan to serve a practical function (the two Japanese characters ne+tsuke mean "root" and "to attach").
Sir Nicholas Grimshaw, CBE, PPRA (born 9 October 1939) is a prominent English architect, particularly noted for several modernist buildings, including London's Waterloo International railway station and the Eden Project in Cornwall.
Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 – 25 March 1736) was an English architect.
Nicholas Hilliard (c. 1547 – 7 January 1619) was an English goldsmith and limner best known for his portrait miniatures of members of the courts of Elizabeth I and James I of England.
Nicholas Stone (1586/87 – 24 August 1647) was an English sculptor and architect.
Nicolas Lancret (22 January 1690 – 14 September 1743), French painter, was born in Paris, and became a brilliant depicter of light comedy which reflected the tastes and manners of French society under the regent Orleans.
In the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, Treasury, the Scottish Government and the Northern Ireland Executive to quangos (quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisations).
Norfolk House, at 31 St James's Square, Westminster, was built in 1722 for Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk.
Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect whose company, Foster + Partners, maintains an international design practice famous for high-tech architecture.
Sir Norman Bishop Hartnell, KCVO (12 June 1901 – 8 June 1979) was a leading British fashion designer, best known for his work for the ladies of the Royal Family.
Norman David Levinson (April 20, 1900 – October 25, 1972) known professionally as Norman Norell, was an American fashion designer famed for his elegant gowns, suits, and tailored silhouettes.
Northumberland House (also known as Suffolk House when owned by the Earls of Suffolk) was a large Jacobean townhouse in London, which was so called because for most of its history it was the London residence of the Percy family, who were the Earls and later Dukes of Northumberland, and one of England's richest and most prominent aristocratic dynasties for many centuries.
Nottingham alabaster is a term used to refer to the English sculpture industry, mostly of relatively small religious carvings, which flourished from the fourteenth century until the early sixteenth century.
Oboes are a family of double reed woodwind instruments.
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder.
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition.
An online petition (or Internet petition, or e-petition) is a form of petition which is signed online, usually through a form on a website.
Opus Anglicanum or English work is fine needlework of Medieval England done for ecclesiastical or secular use on clothing, hangings or other textiles, often using gold and silver threads on rich velvet or linen grounds.
Ormolu (from French or moulu, signifying ground or pounded gold) is an English term, used since the 18th century for the gilding technique of applying finely ground, high-carat gold–mercury amalgam to an object of bronze, and for objects finished in this way.
Otto Koloman Wagner (13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austrian architect and urban planner, known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he contributed many landmarks.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Owen Jones (15 February 1809 – 19 April 1874) was an English-born Welsh architect.
Oxburgh Hall ("OX bru") is a moated country house in Oxborough, Norfolk, England, today in the hands of the National Trust.
The Oxburgh Hangings are needlework hangings that are held in Oxburgh Hall, made by Mary, Queen of Scots and Bess of Hardwick.
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Parshvanatha, also known as Parshva, was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras (ford-maker, teacher) of Jainism.
A pastel is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.
Patrick Reyntiens, OBE, (born 1925) is an English stained glass artist, described as the "leading practitioner of stained glass in this country." Andrew Lambirth (14 December 2013), The Spectator.
Paul Cézanne (or;; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.
Paul de Lamerie (9 April 1688 – 1 August 1751) was a London-based silversmith.
Paul Delaroche (Paris, 17 July 1797 – 4 November 1856) was a French painter who achieved his greater successes painting history.
Paul Nash (11 May 1889 – 11 July 1946) was a British surrealist painter and war artist, as well as a photographer, writer and designer of applied art.
Sir Paul Pindar (1565–1650) was a merchant and, from 1611 to 1620, was Ambassador of King James I of England to the Ottoman Empire.
Paul Sandby (1731 – 9 November 1809) was an English map-maker turned landscape painter in watercolours, who, along with his older brother Thomas, became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768.
Paul Storr (baptised 28 October 1770 in London – 18 March 1844 in London) was an English goldsmith and silversmith working in the Neoclassical style during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
A pediment is an architectural element found particularly in classical, neoclassical and baroque architecture, and its derivatives, consisting of a gable, usually of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns.
Percival Ball (17 February 1845 – 4 April 1900) was an English sculptor active in Australia.
A Persian carpet or Persian rug (Persian: قالی ايرانى qālī-ye īranī),Savory, R., Carpets,(Encyclopaedia Iranica); accessed January 30, 2007.
Perugia (Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia.
Peter Carl Fabergé, also known as Karl Gustavovich Fabergé (Карл Гу́ставович Фаберже́, Karl Gustavovich Faberzhe; 30 May 1846 – 24 September 1920), was a Russian jeweller best known for the famous Fabergé eggs made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than more mundane materials.
Peter De Wint (21 January 1784 – 30 January 1849) was an English landscape painter.
Peter Flötner, also Flatner, Flettner, or Floetner (born around 1490 in Thurgau, died 23 October 1546 in Nuremberg) was a German designer, sculptor, and printmaker.
Peter Oliver (1594 – December 1648) was an English miniaturist.
Peter Scheemakers or Pieter Scheemaeckers II or the Younger (16 January 1691 – 12 September 1781) was a Flemish sculptor who worked for most of his life in London, Great Britain where his public and church sculptures in a classicist style had an important influence on the development of sculpture.
Philip James de Loutherbourg RA (31 October 174011 March 1812), whose name is sometimes given in the French form of Philippe-Jacques, the German form of Philipp Jakob, or with the English-language epithet of the Younger, was a Franco-British painter who became known for his large naval works, his elaborate set designs for London theatres, and his invention of a mechanical theatre called the "Eidophusikon".
Philip Speakman Webb (12 January 1831 – 17 April 1915) was an English architect sometimes called the Father of Arts and Crafts Architecture.
Philippa Jane Glanville, OBE, FSA (born 16 August 1943), formerly chief curator of the metal, silver and jewellery department of the Victoria and Albert Museum, is an English art historian who is an authority on silver and the history of dining.
A photogram is a photographic image made without a camera by placing objects directly onto the surface of a light-sensitive material such as photographic paper and then exposing it to light.
Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi (c. 1460–1528), called L'Antico by his contemporaries for the refined interpretation of the Antique they recognized in his work, was a 16th-century North Italian sculptor, known for his finely detailed small bronzes all'Antica—coolly classicizing, often with gilded details, and silver-inlaid eyes, a refinement that is found in some classical and Hellenistic Greek bronzes.
Pierre Camille Cartier (March 10, 1878October 27, 1964) was a French jeweler.
Pierre Cardin, born Pietro Cardin; 2 July 1922) is a French fashion designer. Cardin is known for his avant-garde style and his Space Age designs. He prefers geometric shapes and motifs, often ignoring the female form. He advanced into unisex fashions, sometimes experimental, and not always practical. He founded his fashion house in 1950 and introduced the "bubble dress" in 1954. He was designated UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador in 1991. On 16 October 2009, Cardin was nominated Goodwill Ambassador of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.
Pietro Perugino (c. 1446/1452 – 1523), born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance.
Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus; c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.
A plaster cast is a copy made in plaster of another 3-dimensional form.
Politics in the Dundee City (Mòr-bhaile Dhùn Dèagh in Gaelic) council area are evident in the deliberations and decisions of Dundee City Council, in elections to the council, and in elections to the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood) and the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster).
Pompeo Girolamo Batoni (25 January 1708 – 4 February 1787) was an Italian painter who displayed a solid technical knowledge in his portrait work and in his numerous allegorical and mythological pictures.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset.
A portrait miniature is a miniature portrait painting, usually executed in gouache, watercolour, or enamel.
The Portrait of Smeralda Brandini is a tempera on panel painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli of about 1475, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (museum no. CAI.100).
A print room is either a room or industrial building where printing takes place, or a room in an art gallery or museum, where a collection of old master and modern prints, usually together with drawings, watercolours and photographs, are held and viewed.
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper.
A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms, often with other devotional material bound in as well, such as a liturgical calendar and litany of the Saints.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Quilting is the process of sewing two or more layers of fabric together to make a thicker padded material, usually to create a quilt or quilted garment.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Raffaele Monti (1818–1881) was an Italian sculptor, author and poet born in Milan.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
The Raphael Cartoons are seven large cartoons for tapestries, belonging to the British Royal Collection but since 1865 on loan to the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, designed by the High Renaissance painter Raphael in 1515–16 and showing scenes from the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles.
Raymond Sackler (February 16, 1920 – July 17, 2017) was an American physician, billionaire entrepreneur, and philanthropist.
Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi in India.
The Regency in Great Britain was a period when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
René Jules Lalique (6 April 1860, Ay, Marne – 1 May 1945, Paris) was a French glass designer known for his creations of glass art, perfume bottles, vases, jewellery, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments.
Repoussé or repoussage (respectively) is a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
A retable is a structure or element placed either on or immediately behind and above the altar or communion table of a church.
Richard Cosway (5 November 1742 – 4 July 1821) was a leading English portrait painter of the Regency era, noted for his miniatures.
Richard Norman Shaw RA (7 May 1831 – 17 November 1912), sometimes known as Norman Shaw, was a Scottish architect who worked from the 1870s to the 1900s, known for his country houses and for commercial buildings.
Richard Parkes Bonington (25 October 1802 – 23 September 1828) was an English Romantic landscape painter, who moved to France at the age of 14 and can also be considered as a French artist, and an intermediary bringing aspects of English style to France.
Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside (born 23 July 1933) is a British architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs in high-tech architecture.
Richard Wilson (1 August 1714 – 15 May 1782) was an influential Welsh landscape painter, who worked in Britain and Italy.
Rushabhanatha or Rishabhanatha (also, Rushabhadeva, Rishabhadeva, or which literally means "bull") is the first Tirthankara (ford maker) in Jainism.
Robert Adam (3 July 1728 – 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer.
Robert Priseman (born in Spondon. Derbyshire 1965) is a British artist, collector, writer, curator and publisher who lives and works in Essex, England.
Robin Day, OBE, FCSD (25 May 1915 – 9 November 2010): Lesley Jackson, ‘Robin Day: Designer best known for his Polypropylene stacking chair’, The Independent, Friday, 19 November 2010 was one of the most significant British furniture designers of the 20th century, enjoying a long career spanning seven decades.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
The Rococo Revival style emerged in Second Empire France and then was adapted in England.
Roger Fenton (28 March 1819 – 8 August 1869) was a British photographer, noted as one of the first war photographers.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Ron Arad (Hebrew: רון ארד; born 24 April 1951) is an Israeli industrial designer, artist, and architect.
The rood screen (also choir screen, chancel screen, or jube) is a common feature in late medieval church architecture.
Rosalba Carriera (12 January 1673 – 15 April 1757) was a Venetian Rococo painter.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Sir Roy Colin Strong, (born 23 August 1935) is an English art historian, museum curator, writer, broadcaster and landscape designer.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall on the northern edge of South Kensington, London, which has held the Proms concerts annually each summer since 1941.
The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (RBKC) is an inner London borough of royal status.
The Royal College of Art (RCA) is a public research university in London, in the United Kingdom.
The Royal College of Science was a higher education institution located in South Kensington; it was a constituent college of Imperial College London from 1907 until it was wholly absorbed by Imperial in 2002.
Royal Doulton was an English ceramic manufacturing company producing tableware and collectables, dating from 1815.
The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.
The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally, founded for the advancement of architecture under its charter granted in 1837 and Supplemental Charter granted in 1971.
The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, Musée royal de l'Ontario) is a museum of art, world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Royal Worcester is believed to be the oldest or second oldest remaining English porcelain brand still in existence today, established in 1751 (this is disputed by Royal Crown Derby, which claims 1750 as its year of establishment).
Ruth Ford (July 7, 1911, Brookhaven, Mississippi – August 12, 2009, New York City) was an American model and stage and film actress.
The sack-back gown or robe à la française was a women's fashion of the 18th century.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
The Sainte-Chapelle (Holy Chapel) is a royal chapel in the Gothic style, within the medieval Palais de la Cité, the residence of the Kings of France until the 14th century, on the Île de la Cité in the River Seine in Paris, France.
Salisbury Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is an Anglican cathedral in Salisbury, England, and one of the leading examples of Early English architecture.
A salt cellar (also called a salt and a salt pig) is an article of tableware for holding and dispensing salt.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
The sculpture of Samson Slaying a Philistine is the earliest of the great marble groups by Giambologna, sculptor to the Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany, and the only substantial work by the artist to have left Italy.
Samuel Bourne (30 October 1834 – 24 April 1912) was a British photographer known for his prolific seven years' work in India, from 1863 to 1870.
Samuel Cooper (16095 May 1672), sometimes spelt as Samuel Cowper, was an English miniature painter, and younger brother of Alexander Cooper.
Samuel Palmer (27 January 1805 – 24 May 1881) was a British landscape painter, etcher and printmaker.
The Basilica of San Petronio is the main church of Bologna, Emilia Romagna, northern Italy.
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Spanish and Galician: Catedral de Santiago de Compostela) is part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela and is an integral component of the Santiago de Compostela World Heritage Site in Galicia, Spain.
Sébastien Slodtz (1655–1726) was a French sculptor, the father of a trio of brothers who helped shape official French sculpture between the Baroque and the Rococo.
The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London.
The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots Govrenment) is the executive of the devolved Scottish Parliament.
Serge Ivan Chermayeff (born Sergei Ivanovich Issakovich; Сергей Ива́нович Иссако́вич; 8 October 1900 – 8 May 1996) was a Russian-born British architect, industrial designer, writer, and co-founder of several architectural societies, including the American Society of Planners and Architects.
The serpent is a bass wind instrument, descended from the cornett, and a distant ancestor of the tuba, with a mouthpiece like a brass instrument but side holes like a woodwind.
Sgraffito (plural: sgraffiti; sometimes spelled scraffito) is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface, or in pottery, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers of contrasting slip or glaze, and then in either case scratching so as to reveal parts of the underlying layer.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
Sheffield Galleries and Museums Trust, known as Museums Sheffield is a charity created in 1998 to run Sheffield City Council’s non-industrial museums and galleries.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
This sideboard was designed by Edward William Godwin (1833–86), who was one of the most important exponents of Victorian Japonisme, the appropriation of Japanese artistic styles.
Simon Marmion (born c. 1425 at Amiens, France, died 24 or 25 December 1489, Valenciennes) was a French or Burgundian Early Netherlandish painter of panels and illuminated manuscripts.
The Sistine Chapel (Sacellum Sixtinum; Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City.
Somerset House is a large Neoclassical building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo Bridge.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
South Kensington is a London Underground station in the district of Kensington, south west London.
A spinet is a smaller type of harpsichord or other keyboard instrument, such as a piano or organ.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
Sir Stanley Spencer CBE RA (30 June 1891 – 14 December 1959) was an English painter.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The Survey of London is a research project to produce a comprehensive architectural survey of the former County of London.
Talbot Hughes (1869–1942) was a British painter (of genre, history and landscape), a collector of historical costumes and miniature portraits, and writer on fine art and costume design.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom.
Tate Britain (known from 1897 to 1932 as the National Gallery of British Art and from 1932 to 2000 as the Tate Gallery) is an art museum on Millbank in the City of Westminster in London.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
Étienne Pierre Théodore Rousseau (April 15, 1812 – December 22, 1867) was a French painter of the Barbizon school.
The Art Newspaper is an online and paper publication founded in 1990 and based in London and New York City.
The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851.
The Hay Wain is a painting by John Constable, finished in 1821, which depicts a rural scene on the River Stour between the English counties of Suffolk and Essex.
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published.
The School of Athens (Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael.
Antonio Canova’s statue The Three Graces is a Neoclassical sculpture, in marble, of the mythological three charites, daughters of Zeus – identified on some engravings of the statue as, from left to right, Euphrosyne, Aglaea and Thalia - who were said to represent youth/beauty (Thalia), mirth (Euphrosyne), and elegance (Aglaea).
The Theatre Museum in the Covent Garden district of London, England, was the United Kingdom's national museum of the performing arts.
Thomas Banks (29 December 1735 – 2 February 1805) was an important 18th-century English sculptor.
Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.
Sir Thomas Brock (Worcester 1 March 1847 – 22 August 1922 London) was an English sculptor, and medallist, whose works include the monument to Queen Victoria in front of Buckingham Palace.
Thomas Chippendale (1718 – 1779) was born in Otley in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England in June 1718.
Thomas Flatman (21 February 1635 – 8 December 1688) was an English poet and miniature painter.
Thomas Gainsborough FRSA (14 May 1727 (baptised) – 2 August 1788) was an English portrait and landscape painter, draughtsman, and printmaker.
Thomas Girtin (18 February 1775 – 9 November 1802) was an English painter and etcher.
Thomas Hope (30 August 1769 – 3 February 1830/1831) was a Dutch and British merchant banker, author, philosopher and art collector, best known for his novel Anastasius, a work which many experts considered a rival to the writings of Lord Byron.
Thomas Hopper (1776–1856) was an English architect of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, much favoured by King George IV, and particularly notable for his work on country houses across southern England, with occasional forays further afield, into Wales and Northern Ireland.
Sir Thomas Lawrence PRA FRS (13 April 1769 – 7 January 1830) was a leading English portrait painter and the fourth president of the Royal Academy. Lawrence was a child prodigy. He was born in Bristol and began drawing in Devizes, where his father was an innkeeper. At the age of ten, having moved to Bath, he was supporting his family with his pastel portraits. At eighteen he went to London and soon established his reputation as a portrait painter in oils, receiving his first royal commission, a portrait of Queen Charlotte, in 1790. He stayed at the top of his profession until his death, aged 60, in 1830. Self-taught, he was a brilliant draughtsman and known for his gift of capturing a likeness, as well as his virtuoso handling of paint. He became an associate of the Royal Academy in 1791, a full member in 1794, and president in 1820. In 1810 he acquired the generous patronage of the Prince Regent, was sent abroad to paint portraits of allied leaders for the Waterloo chamber at Windsor Castle, and is particularly remembered as the Romantic portraitist of the Regency. Lawrence's love affairs were not happy (his tortuous relationships with Sally and Maria Siddons became the subject of several books) and, in spite of his success, he spent most of life deep in debt. He never married. At his death, Lawrence was the most fashionable portrait painter in Europe. His reputation waned during Victorian times, but has since been partially restored.
Thomas Rowlandson (13 July 1756 – 21 April 1827) was an English artist and caricaturist of the Georgian Era, noted for his political satire and social observation.
Thomas Tompion (1639–1713) was an English clockmaker, watchmaker and mechanician who is still regarded to this day as the Father of English Clockmaking.
Tilman Riemenschneider (c. 1460 – 7 July 1531) was a German sculptor and woodcarver active in Würzburg from 1483.
Tintoretto (born Jacopo Comin, late September or early October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
Tipu's Tiger or Tippu's Tiger is an eighteenth-century automaton or mechanical toy created for Tipu Sultan, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in India.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
Tiziano Aspetti (1557/1559 – 1606) was an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance.
, commonly known as Toshiba, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Tournai (Latin: Tornacum, Picard: Tornai), known in Dutch as Doornik and historically as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt.
Trajan's Column (Colonna Traiana, COLVMNA·TRAIANI) is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars.
The Tristan Quilt, sometimes called the Tristan and Isolde Quilt or the Guicciardini Quilt, is one of the earliest surviving quilts in the world.
Tristram Julian William Hunt is a British historian, broadcast journalist and former Labour Party politician who served as the Member of Parliament for Stoke-on-Trent Central from 2010 to 2017.
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603.
The University of Dundee (abbreviated as Dund. for post-nominals) is a public research university based in the city and royal burgh of Dundee on the east coast of the central Lowlands of Scotland.
Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482.
V&A Digital Futures is a series of events organized by the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in the area of digital art.
The V&A Museum of Childhood in Bethnal Green in the East End of London is a branch of the Victoria and Albert Museum (the "V&A"), which is the United Kingdom's national museum of applied arts.
The V&A Rotunda Chandelier (often known as V&A Chandelier and originally called Ice Blue and Spring Green Chandelier) is a glass sculpture by Dale Chihuly.
The V&A Village Fete is an annual event held at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
Valentino Clemente Ludovico Garavani (born 11 May 1932), best known as Valentino, is an Italian fashion designer and founder of the Valentino SpA brand and company.
Veit Stoss (also: Veit Stoß; Wit Stwosz; before 1450 – about 20 September 1533) was a leading German sculptor, mostly in wood, whose career covered the transition between the late Gothic and the Northern Renaissance.
Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, Italy, primarily on the island of Murano.
Verner Panton (13 February 1926 – 5 September 1998) is considered one of Denmark's most influential 20th-century furniture and interior designers.
Veronica Mary Whall (1887–1967) was an English illustrator, painter and successful stained glass artist.
Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Church and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans.
The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.3 million objects.
The Victoria and Albert Museum Spiral (or V&A Spiral, or The Spiral) was a proposed extension to the 19th-century London building which houses the Victoria and Albert Museum, the world's largest museum of decorative arts.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
The Vincennes porcelain manufactory was established in 1740 in the disused royal Château de Vincennes, in Vincennes, east of Paris, which was from the start the main market for its wares.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
The virginals or virginal is a keyboard instrument of the harpsichord family.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
Vivienne Isabel Westwood (née Swire; born 8 April 1941) is a British fashion designer and businesswoman, largely responsible for bringing modern punk and new wave fashions into the mainstream.
Watercolor (American English) or watercolour (British English; see spelling differences), also aquarelle (French, diminutive of Latin aqua "water"), is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution.
Wells Wintemute Coates OBE (December 17, 1895 – June 17, 1958) was an architect, designer and writer.
Wendy Ramshaw RDI CBE (born 1939) is a British ceramicist, Jeweller and sculptor.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
William Burges (2 December 1827 – 20 April 1881) was an English architect and designer.
Sir William Chambers (23 February 1723 – 10 March 1796) was a Scottish-Swedish architect, based in London.
Sir William Charles Ross (3 June 1794 – 20 Jan 1860) was an English portrait and portrait miniature painter of Scottish descent; early in his career, he was known for historical paintings.
William Frend De Morgan (16 November 1839 – 15 January 1917) was an English potter, tile designer and novelist.
William Etty (10 March 1787 – 13 November 1849) was an English artist best known for his history paintings containing nude figures.
William Gilpin (4 June 1724 – 5 April 1804) was an English artist, Anglican cleric, schoolmaster and author, best known as one of the originators of the idea of the picturesque.
William Hogarth FRSA (10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist.
William Kent (c. 1685 – 12 April 1748) was an eminent English architect, landscape architect and furniture designer of the early 18th century.
William Kilburn (1745–1818) was an illustrator for William Curtis' Flora Londinensis, as well as a leading designer and printer of calico.
William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist.
William Mulready (1 April 1786 – 7 July 1863) was an Irish genre painter living in London.
Sir William Newzam Prior Nicholson (5 February 1872 – 16 May 1949) was a British painter of still-life, landscape and portraits.
William Powell Frith (19 January 1819 – 9 November 1909) was an English painter specialising in genre subjects and panoramic narrative works of life in the Victorian era.
William Thomas Beckford (1 October 1760 – 2 May 1844) was an English novelist, a profligate and consummately knowledgeable art collector and patron of works of decorative art, a critic, travel writer and sometime politician, reputed at one stage in his life to be the richest commoner in England.
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.
The wine cup of Shah Jahan is a wine cup of white nephrite jade that was made for the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).
Percy Wyndham Lewis (18 November 1882 – 7 March 1957) was an English writer, painter and critic (he dropped the name "Percy", which he disliked).
The Xuande Emperor (16 March 1399 31 January 1435), personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China, ruling from 1425 to 1435.
Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent (1 August 1936 – 1 June 2008), professionally known as Yves Saint-Laurent, was a French fashion designer who, in 1961, founded his eponymous fashion label.
Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid (زها حديد Zahā Ḥadīd; 31 October 1950 – 31 March 2016) was an Iraqi-British architect.
Dame Zandra Lindsey Rhodes, (born 19 September 1940), is an English fashion designer.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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