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Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 2 TGV is a major passenger railway station in Tremblay-en-France, France.
The Abeille Liberté is an emergency tow vessel (salvage tug) based in Cherbourg, France.
The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
An administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located.
In Greek mythology, Aeolus (Αἴολος, Aiolos, Modern Greek: "quick-moving, nimble") is a name shared by three mythical characters.
Agave is a genus of monocots native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States.
Air charter is the business of renting an entire aircraft (i.e., chartering) as opposed to individual aircraft seats (i.e., purchasing a ticket through a traditional airline).
Albert Dupontel (born 11 January 1964) is a French actor, film director and screenwriter.
Albert François Lebrun (29 August 1871 – 6 March 1950) was a French politician, President of France from 1932 to 1940.
Alcatel-Lucent S.A. was a French global telecommunications equipment company, headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, France.
Alençon is a commune in Normandy, France, capital of the Orne department.
Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.
Alexis Salatko (Alexis Wladimir Marie Salatko-Petryszcze) (born 1 January 1959 in Suresnes) is a French writer of Ukrainian origin.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
An allotment garden (British English), often called simply an allotment, or a community garden (North America) is a plot of land made available for individual, non-commercial gardening or growing food plants.
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican churches.
Amaël Moinard (born 2 February 1982 in Cherbourg) is a French professional road bicycle racer for UCI Professional Continental team.
Amable Gilles Troude (Cherbourg, 1 June 1762 – Brest, 1 February 1824) was a French Navy officer, hero of the Napoleonic Wars.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
André Juillard (born 9 June 1948) is a French comic book creator.
The Annales de Géographie is a French journal devoted to geography, first published in 1891.
Anne-Hilarion de Costentin, Comte de Tourville (24 November 1642, Paris – 23 May 1701) was a French naval commander who served under King Louis XIV.
Annie Saumont (1927 – 31 January 2017) was a French short story writer and English to French translator.
The Antilles (Antilles in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch and Antilhas in Portuguese) is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east.
The Antonine Itinerary (Itinerarium Antonini Augusti, "The Itinerary of the Emperor Antoninus") is a famous itinerarium, a register of the stations and distances along various roads.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
The appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC;; "protected designation of origin") is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut national des appellations d'origine, now called Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité (INAO).
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
In heraldry, argent is the tincture of silver, and belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals." It is very frequently depicted as white and usually considered interchangeable with it.
Aristide Cavaillé-Coll (4 February 1811 – 13 October 1899), was a French organ builder.
Arkose is a detrital sedimentary rock, specifically a type of sandstone containing at least 25% feldspar.
Clément Armand Fallières (6 November 1841 – 22 June 1931) was a French statesman, President of France from 1906 to 1913.
Armand Le Véel (1821–1905) was a French statue sculptor.
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast.
The Armorican Massif (Massif armoricain) is a geologic massif that covers a large area in the northwest of France, including Brittany, the western part of Normandy and the Pays de la Loire.
The arrondissement of Cherbourg is an arrondissement of France in the Manche department in the Normandy region.
The arrondissement of Montbéliard is an arrondissement of France in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.
The 4 arrondissements of the Manche department are.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
AS Cherbourg or the Association Sportive de Cherbourg Football is a French football club currently playing in the division supérieure régionale (DSR), which is the seventh division in France.
The Assemblies of God (AG), officially the World Assemblies of God Fellowship, is a group of over 140 autonomous but loosely associated national groupings of churches which together form the world's largest Pentecostal denomination.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Assyriology (from Greek Ἀσσυρίᾱ, Assyriā; and -λογία, -logia) is the archaeological, historical, and linguistic study of not just Assyria, but the entirety of ancient Mesopotamia (a region encompassing what is today modern Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey, and north western and south western Iran) and of related cultures that used cuneiform writing.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.
Groupe Auchan SA is a French international retail group and multinational corporation headquartered in Croix, France.
Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy FRS FRSE (21 August 178923 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including: mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds.
Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
The International Film School of Paris (French: École Internationale de Création Audiovisuelle et de Réalisation, EICAR) is a private film school founded in 1972 by Jean-Paul Vuillin, producer and director of film.
Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.
Électricité de France S.A. (EDF; Electricity of France) is a French electric utility company, largely owned by the French state.
Élisabeth Ballet (born 1956), is a French sculptor.
Élodie Godin (born 5 July 1985 in Cherbourg) is a French basketball center currently playing for Famila Basket Schio in Italy's Serie A and the Euroleague.
Émilie Loit (born 9 June 1979) is a retired professional female tennis player from France.
Équeurdreville-Hainneville is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Jean Marie Maurice Schérer or Maurice Henri Joseph Schérer, known as Éric Rohmer (21 March 192011 January 2010), was a French film director, film critic, journalist, novelist, screenwriter, and teacher.
The Évian Accords comprise a treaty which was signed on 18 March 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic, the government-in-exile of FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) which sought Algeria's independence from France.
Évreux is a commune in and the capital of the department of Eure, in the French region of Normandy.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Barfleur is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Barneville-Carteret is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region of north-western France.
A bathyscaphe is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere, but suspended below a float rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design.
Batoidea is a superorder of cartilaginous fish commonly known as rays.
The Battle of Cherbourg was part of the Battle of Normandy during World War II.
The Battle of Cherbourg, or sometimes the Battle off Cherbourg or the Sinking of CSS Alabama, was a single-ship action fought during the American Civil War between a United States Navy warship, the USS ''Kearsarge'', and a Confederate States Navy warship, the CSS ''Alabama'', on June 19, 1864, off Cherbourg, France.
The Battle of Formigny, fought on 15 April 1450, was a major battle of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Krasnoi (Krasny) (November 15 to 18, 1812) was a series of skirmishes fought in the final stage of Napoleon's retreat from Moscow.
The Battle of Rocquencourt was a cavalry skirmish fought on 1 July 1815 in and around the villages of Rocquencourt and Le Chesnay.
The Battle of Wagram (5–6 July 1809) was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen.
The related naval battles of Barfleur and La Hougue took place between 29 May and 4 June New Style (NS), 1692 (19–24 May in the Old Style (OS) Julian calendar then in use in England).
Bayeux is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandy in northwestern France.
Beaumont-Hague is a former commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benjamin "Ben" Guggenheim (October 26, 1865 – April 15, 1912) was an American businessman.
Benoît Peeters (born 1956) is a French comics writer, novelist, and comics studies scholar.
Bernard Guy Georges Cazeneuve (born 2 June 1963) is a French politician and lawyer who served as Prime Minister of France from December 2016 to May 2017.
Bertrand du Guesclin (c. 1320 – 13 July 1380), nicknamed "The Eagle of Brittany" or "The Black Dog of Brocéliande", was a Breton knight and French military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
In the Middle Ages, the term bezant (Old French besant, from Latin bizantius aureus) was used in western Europe to describe several gold coins of the east, all derived ultimately from the Roman ''solidus''.
Blainville-sur-Mer is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image.
The Blue Riband is an unofficial accolade given to the passenger liner crossing the Atlantic Ocean in regular service with the record highest speed.
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.
A boilermaker is a trained craftsperson who produces steel fabrications from plates and tubes.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bremerhaven (literally "Bremen's harbour", Low German: Bremerhoben) is a city at the seaport of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.
Brittany Ferries is a French shipping company that operates a fleet of ferries and cruiseferries between France and United Kingdom, Ireland, and Spain, and between United Kingdom and Spain.
Burton Stephen Lancaster (November 2, 1913 – October 20, 1994) was an American actor and producer.
A butter churn is a device used to convert cream into butter.
The caduceus (☤;; Latin cādūceus, from Greek κηρύκειον kērū́keion "herald's wand, or staff") is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology and consequently by Hermes Trismegistus in Greco-Egyptian mythology.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Caen stone (Pierre de Caen), is a light creamy-yellow Jurassic limestone quarried in north-western France near the city of Caen.
Calvados is an apple brandy from the Normandy region in France.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Camille Claudel (8 December 1864 19 October 1943) was a French sculptor.
Cancer pagurus, commonly known as the edible crab or brown crab, is a species of crab found in the North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and perhaps in the Mediterranean Sea.
The canton of Équeurdreville-Hainneville is an administrative division of the Manche department, northwestern France.
The canton of Cherbourg-Octeville-1 is an administrative division of the Manche department, northwestern France.
The canton of Cherbourg-Octeville-2 is an administrative division of the Manche department, northwestern France.
The Canton of Cherbourg-Octeville-Nord-Ouest in France was situated in the department of Manche and the region of Basse-Normandie.
The Canton of Cherbourg-Octeville-Sud-Est in France was situated in the department of Manche and the region of Basse-Normandie.
The Canton of Cherbourg-Octeville-Sud-Ouest in France was situated in the department of Manche and the region of Basse-Normandie.
The canton of Tourlaville is an administrative division of the Manche department, northwestern France.
In architecture the capital (from the Latin caput, or "head") or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster).
Carrefour S.A. is a French multinational retailer headquartered in Boulogne Billancourt, France, in the Hauts-de-Seine Department near Paris.
Cartagena (Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain.
A caryatid (Καρυάτις, plural: Καρυάτιδες) is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head.
A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired.
In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.
Catherine Deneuve (born 22 October 1943) is a French actress as well as an occasional singer, model and producer.
The Catholic League of France (Ligue catholique), sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Catholics as the Holy League (La Sainte Ligue), was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion.
Celtic Link Ferries was an Irish ferry company which used to operate a passenger and freight roll-on/roll-off service between Rosslare and Cherbourg.
A certification mark (or conformity mark) on a commercial product indicates the existence of an accepted product standard or regulation and a claim that the manufacturer has verified compliance with those standards or regulations.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chalair Aviation is a French regional airline with its head office and base on the grounds of Caen – Carpiquet Airport in Carpiquet.
The Challenger La Manche is a professional tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts.
A chamber of commerce (or board of trade) is a form of business network, for example, a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses.
Champion was a supermarket chain that operated in France and owned by the international retailer Carrefour.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
In heraldry, a charge is any emblem or device occupying the field of an escutcheon (shield).
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Ferdinand d'Artois, Duke of Berry (24 January 1778 – 14 February 1820) was the third child and youngest son of the future King of France, Charles X, and his wife, Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy.
Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez (26 January 1739 – 14 March 1823) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Charles II (10 October 1332 – 1 January 1387), called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387.
Charles III (1361 – 8 September 1425), called the Noble, was King of Navarre from 1387 to his death and Count of Évreux from 1387 to 1404, when he exchanged it for the title Duke of Nemours.
Charles Pasqua (18 April 1927 – 29 June 2015) was a French businessman and Gaullist politician.
Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called "the Wise" (le Sage; Sapiens), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.
Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422), called the Beloved (le Bien-Aimé) and the Mad (le Fol or le Fou), was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422.
Charles X (Charles Philippe; 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
Charles-Eugène Delaunay (9 April 1816 – 5 August 1872) was a French astronomer and mathematician.
Charles-René d'Hozier (24 February 1640 –13 February 1732) was a French historical commentator.
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film.
Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France.
Cherbourg – Maupertus Airport or Aéroport de Cherbourg - Maupertus is an airport located 11 km east of Cherbourg-Octeville, between Maupertus-sur-Mer and Gonneville.
Cherbourg Harbour (French: rade de Cherbourg; literally, the roadstead of Cherbourg), is a harbour situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula, on the English Channel coastline in northwestern France.
Cherbourg Naval Base is a naval base in Cherbourg Harbour, Cherbourg, Manche department, Normandy.
The Cherbourg Project (or Boats of Cherbourg) was an Israeli military operation that took place on 24 December 1969, and involved the escape of five remaining unarmed Sa'ar 3 class boats from the French port of Cherbourg.
The Cherbourg Engineering School (in French: EIC - École d'Ingénieurs de Cherbourg, now ESIX Normandie) is a French engineering university funded in 1993.
Cherbourg-en-Cotentin is a commune in the department of Manche, in northwestern France, established on 1 January 2016.
In heraldic blazon, a chief is a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running horizontally across the top edge of the shield.
Chirbury is a village in west Shropshire, England.
The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals.
A choir, also sometimes called quire, is the area of a church or cathedral that provides seating for the clergy and church choir.
Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.
The Cité de la Mer ("city of the sea") is a maritime museum in Cherbourg, France.
The Civil War Trust is now the American Battlefield Trust, a 501(c)(3) charitable organization whose primary focus is in the preservation of American battlefields.
Claude Miller (20 February 1942 – 4 April 2012) was a French film director, producer and screenwriter.
Claude Zidi (born 25 July 1934) is a French film director and screenwriter who is noted for his mainstream burlesque comedies.
Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
Cobh, known from 1849 until 1920 as Queenstown, is a tourist seaport town on the south coast of County Cork, Ireland.
Colas Group is a major French civil engineering firm specialising in road construction and rail track construction through its Colas Rail subsidiary.
a medium used to express ideas by images, often combined with text or other visual information.
The commanding officer (CO) or, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general (CG), is the officer in command of a military unit.
A commendatory abbot is an ecclesiastic, or sometimes a layman, who holds an abbey in commendam, drawing its revenues but not exercising any authority over its inner monastic discipline.
Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.
Communauté d'agglomération du Cotentin is the communauté d'agglomération, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Cherbourg-en-Cotentin, on the Cotentin Peninsula.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
COMEX (or Compagnie Maritime d'Expertises) is a company specializing in engineering and deep diving operations, created in November 1961 by Henri Germain Delauze and ran by him until his death in 2012.
A company town is a place where practically all stores and housing are owned by the one company that is also the main employer.
A company or "yellow" union is a worker organization which is dominated or influenced by an employer, and is therefore not an independent trade union.
The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated from 1976 until 2003.
The Concours des villes et villages fleuris ("towns and villages in bloom competition") is a contest organized annually in France which aims to encourage communes to adopt and implement policies that improve the quality of life of their inhabitants and enhance their attractiveness to visitors through the provision and maintenance of green spaces and the enhancement of their natural environments.
Condor Ferries is an operator of passenger and freight ferry services between The United Kingdom, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey and France.
Constructions Mécaniques de Normandie (CMN) is a French shipyard located at Cherbourg.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France.
Cotentinais is the dialect of the Norman language spoken in the Cotentin Peninsula.
Coubalan is a small town in the rural district of the same name, located in Tenghory Arrondissement, Bignona Department, Ziguinchor Region, Senegal.
Coutances is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
The Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (War Cross 1939–1945) is a French military decoration, a version of the Croix de guerre created on September 26, 1939, to honour people who fought with the Allies against the Axis forces at any time during World War II.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built in 1862 for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead on the River Mersey opposite Liverpool, England by John Laird Sons and Company.
Cunard Line is a British-American cruise line based at Carnival House at Southampton, England, operated by Carnival UK and owned by Carnival Corporation & plc.
Cuxhaven is an independent town and seat of the Cuxhaven district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.
The Dassault Mirage F1 is a French fighter and attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
The Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard (Étendard is French for "battle flag", cognate to English "standard") is a French carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault-Breguet for service with the French Navy.
Pierre-Jean David (12 March 17884 January 1856) was a French sculptor and medallist.
A deanery (or decanate) is an ecclesiastical entity in the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Evangelical Church in Germany, and the Church of Norway.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Demining or mine clearance is the process of removing land mines from an area, while minesweeping describes the act of detecting mines.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Deva (Hungarian: Déva, Hungarian pronunciation:; German: Diemrich, Schlossberg, Denburg; Latin: Sargetia; Turkish: Deve, Devevar) is a city in Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania, on the left bank of the Mureș River.
Dominique Riquet (born 18 September 1946 in Valenciennes, Nord) is a French politician who is a Christian Democrat Member of the European Parliament (MEP) and mayor of Valenciennes elected in the 2009 European election for the North-West constituency.
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and later Roman architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Eiffage S.A. is a French civil engineering construction company.
Emmanuel Liais (15 February 1826–5 March 1900) was a French astronomer, botanist and explorer who spent many years in Brazil.
Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The English landscape garden, also called English landscape park or simply the English garden (Jardin à l'anglaise, Giardino all'inglese, Englischer Landschaftsgarten, Jardim inglês, Jardín inglés), is a style of "landscape" garden which emerged in England in the early 18th century, and spread across Europe, replacing the more formal, symmetrical jardin à la française of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe.
Enki Bilal (born October 7, 1951) is a French comic book creator, comics artist and film director.
Ernest Psichari (27 September 1883 – 22 August 1914) was a French author, religious thinker and soldier.
Ernst Umhauer (born 2 December 1989) is a French actor who is best known for his role as Claude Garcia in the 2012 film In The House, directed by François Ozon.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.
EURIWARE was a French company that provided advanced Consultancy and IT services in the spheres of energy, industry and defense.
The Airbus Helicopters AS365 Dauphin (Dolphin), also formerly known as the Aérospatiale SA 365 Dauphin 2, is a medium-weight multipurpose twin-engine helicopter currently produced by Airbus Helicopters.
Europe Ecology (Europe Écologie) was a green electoral coalition of political parties in France created for the 2009 European elections composed of The Greens and other ecologists and regionalists.
Europe Ecology – The Greens (Europe Écologie Les Verts, EELV) is a green and centre-left political party in France.
The European bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a primarily ocean-going fish native to the waters off Europe's western and southern and Africa's northern coasts, though it can also be found in shallow coastal waters and river mouths during the summer months.
On 13 June 1999 the fifth direct elections to the European Parliament were held in the France.
Elections to the European Parliament were held in France on 13 June 2004.
European elections to elect 72 French Members of the European Parliament were held on Sunday 7 June 2009.
The 2014 European Parliament election in France for the election of the 8th delegation from France to the European Parliament took place on 24 May 2014 in the overseas territories of France, and on 25 May 2014 in metropolitan France.
The European route E 03, is a series of road in Europe, part of the United Nations International E-road network, running from Cherbourg, France to La Rochelle, also in France.
European route E 46 is a road part of the International E-road network.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
FastShip, Inc. was a company that proposed a new seaborne intermodal cargo service in the 1990s and filed for bankruptcy reorganization in 2012.
Félix Amiot (17 October 1894 – 21 December 1974) was a French aircraft constructor.
Félix du Temple de la Croix (18 July 1823 – 4 November 1890) (usually simply called Félix du Temple) was a French naval officer and an inventor, born into an ancient Norman family.
Fernand Le Rachinel (born 4 June 1942 in Gourfaleur, Manche) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the north-west of France.
Ferrol (In the neighbourhood of Strabo's Cape Nerium, modern day Cape Prior), is a city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia, on the Atlantic coast in north-western Spain.
In heraldry, a fess or fesse (from Middle English fesse, from Old French, from Latin fascia, "band") is a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running horizontally across the centre of the shield.
The term "feu" (French for "fire" from the Latin focus meaning hearth) meant, especially in the Middle Ages, the hearth, first in the strict sense (the place where the fire burns) and figuratively: the family home (cf. the expression "without fire or place") or the family itself.
FFHG Division 1 (Fédération Française de Hockey sur Glace Division 1 or French Ice Hockey Federation Division 1) is a professional ice hockey league in France.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant is located at Flamanville, Manche, France on the Cotentin Peninsula.
In archival science, a fonds is the aggregation of documents that originate from the same source.
The Fort du Roule is a collection of French and German fortifications built in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries on the Roule mountain in Cherbourg (Cherbourg-en-Cotentin since 2016).
Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
François Schuiten (born 26 April 1956) is a Belgian comic book artist.
François-Adrien Boieldieu (16 December 1775 8 October 1834) was a French composer, mainly of operas, often called "the French Mozart".
François-Henri d'Harcourt (12 January 1726 – 22 July 1802) was Count Lillebonne, a French general, duke and peer of France.
François Michel Le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (18 January 1641 – 16 July 1691) was the French Secretary of State for War for a significant part of the reign of Louis XIV.
'''Françoiz Breut''' (August 2010) Françoiz Breut (born 10 December 1969 in Cherbourg) is the stage name of Françoise Breut, a French illustrator and chanteuse of moody and melancholic pop.
France 3 Normandie is one of France 3's regional stations, serving the French region of Normandy.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
The Franco-Russian Alliance, or Russo-French Rapprochement, was an alliance formed by the agreements of 1891–93; it lasted until 1917.
Franz Xaver Winterhalter (20 April 1805 – 8 July 1873) was a German painter and lithographer, known for his portraits of royalty in the mid-19th century.
Les Forces Navales Françaises Libres ("Free French Naval Forces") were the naval arm of the Free French Forces during the Second World War.
Cantonale elections to renew the first series of cantons general councillors were held in France on 15 and 22 March 2001.
Cantonal elections to elect half the membership of the general councils of France's 100 departments were held on 11 and 18 March 2001.
Cantonal elections to elect half the membership of the general councils of France's 100 departments were held on 21 and 28 March 2004.
Cantonal elections to elect half the membership of the general councils of France's 100 departments were held on 9 and 16 March 2008.
The French referendum on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was held on 29 May 2005 to decide whether France should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French General Review of Public Policies (RGPP), in French "Révision générale des politiques publiques", aims at reducing public spending while increasing the efficiency and quality of public action.
Formidable was an ironclad battleship of the ''Marine nationale'' (French Navy).
The French legislative elections took place on 9 June and 16 June 2002 to elect the 12th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, in a context of political crisis.
The French legislative elections took place on 10 June and 17 June 2007 to elect the 13th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, a few weeks after the French presidential election run-off on 6 May.
Legislative elections took place on 10 and 17 June 2012 (and on other dates for small numbers of voters outside metropolitan France) to select the members of the 14th National Assembly of the French Fifth Republic – a little over a month after the French presidential election run-off held on 6 May.
Vulcain (M611) is a ''Vulcain''-class minesweeper of the French Navy.
Municipal elections were held in France on 11 and 18 March 2001.
The French municipal elections of 2008 were held on 9 March in that year (with a second round of voting taking place, where necessary, one week later on 16 March) to elect the municipal councils of France's 36,782 communes.
The French municipal elections of 2014 were held on 23 March of that year with a second round of voting, where necessary, on 30 March to elect the municipal councils of France's communes.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002, and a runoff election between the top two candidates (Jacques Chirac and Jean-Marie Le Pen) on 5 May 2002.
The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France (and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra) for a five-year term.
A presidential election was held in France on 22 April 2012 (or 21 April in some overseas departments and territories), with a second round run-off held on 6 May (or 5 May for those same territories) to elect the President of France (who is also ex officio one of the two joint heads of state of Andorra, a sovereign state).
Regional elections were held in France on 15 March 1998.
Regional elections in were held in France on 21 and 28 March 2004.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
The French Section of the Workers' International (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière, SFIO) was a French socialist political party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the current Socialist Party (PS).
Belle-Poule was a 60-gun first rank frigate of the French Navy.
Le Redoutable (S 611) was the lead boat of the class of ballistic missile submarines in the French ''Marine Nationale''.
Surcouf was the largest French submarine cruiser built.
The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.
Danielle Frida Hélène Boccara (29 October 1940 – 1 August 1996) was a French singer of Italian descent and born in Casablanca, who performed and recorded in a number of languages, including French, Spanish, English, Italian, German, Dutch and Russian.
Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, seigneur de Lorges (5 May 1530 – 26 June 1574), a French nobleman, was a captain of the Scots Guards of King Henry II of France.
Gallia Lugdunensis (French: Gaule Lyonnaise) was a province of the Roman Empire in what is now the modern country of France, part of the Celtic territory of Gaul formerly known as Celtica.
Garde à Vue is a 1981 French film directed by Claude Miller and starring Romy Schneider, Michel Serrault, Lino Ventura and Guy Marchand.
Caen, Gare de l'Ouest or Gare Calvados, is the main and now only station serving the city of Caen.
Gare de Cherbourg is the railway station of the city of Cherbourg, France.
Dijon or Dijon-Ville is a railway station located in Dijon, Côte-d'Or, eastern France.
is the main train station for the town of Lisieux, Normandy, France.
Rennes railway station is situated in the town centre of Rennes, France.
Cherbourg's Gare Maritime or Gare Maritime Transatlantique was a railway station at the end of the railway line from Paris' Gare Saint-Lazare and of the short branch from Cherbourg's main station.
The Gare Saint-Lazare (St Lazarus Station), officially Paris-Saint-Lazare, is one of the six large terminus railway stations of Paris.
Generalleutnant, short GenLt, (lieutenant general) is the second highest general officer rank in the German Army (Heer) and the German Air Force (Luftwaffe).
Generalmajor, short GenMaj, (English: major general) is a general officer rank in many countries, and is identical to and translated as major general.
Gentilly is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France.
Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151) — called the Handsome or the Fair (le Bel) and Plantagenet — was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144.
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.
George Herman Babcock (June 17, 1832 – December 16, 1893) was an American inventor.
Georges Jules Victor Clairin (11 September 1843, Paris – Pouldu, Clohars-Carnoët 2 September 1919) was a French Orientalist painter and illustrator.
Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847 – 29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of Sorelianism.
Georges-François-Xavier-Marie Grente (5 May 1872 – 5 May 1959) was a French Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gilles Picot, squire of Gouberville, Le Mesnil-au-Val and Russy, born in 1521, died on 7 March 1578, was a French diarist.
Gilles Pargneaux (born 24 March 1957 in Harcigny) is a French Socialist (PS) politician.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Gonfreville-l’Orcher is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Granville is a commune in the Manche department and region of Normandy in north-western France.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Greenschists are metamorphic rocks that formed under the lowest temperatures and pressures usually produced by regional metamorphism, typically and 2–10 kilobars.
Groupe Caisse d'épargne is a French semi-cooperative banking group, founded in 1818, with around 4700 branches in the country.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
Guillaume Fouace (22 May 1837, Réville - 7 January 1895, Paris) was a French painter.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
The Hall of Mirrors (Grande Galerie or Galerie des Glaces) is the central gallery of the Palace of Versailles in Versailles, France.
The Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft (HAPAG for short, often referred to in English as Hamburg America Line (sometimes also Hamburg-American Line, Hamburg-Amerika Linie or Hamburg Line); literally Hamburg American Packet-shipping Joint-stock company) was a transatlantic shipping enterprise established in Hamburg, Germany, in 1847.
Hann is a neighbourhood of Dakar, the capital of Senegal.
Héauville is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Hélène Flautre (born July 29, 1958 in Bapaume) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the North West of France.
HD Ferries was a fast catamaran Channel Islands ferry service between Jersey, Guernsey and Brittany.
Heinz Hellmich (9 June 1890 – 17 June 1944) was a German general (Generalleutnant) in the Wehrmacht during World War II and a posthumous recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross of Nazi Germany.
Henri-Michel-Antoine Chapu (29 September 1833 – 21 April 1891) was a French sculptor in a modified Neoclassical tradition who was known for his use of allegory in his work.
Henri, Adrien, Barthélemy, Louis Rieunier (6 March 1833, Castelsarrasin – 10 July 1918, Albi) was a French admiral and politician, most notable for his involvement in Vietnam.
Henri Weber (born 23 June 1944) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the north-west of France.
Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Henryk Walezy, Henrikas Valua) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and King of France from 1574 until his death.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Henry Moret (12 December 1856 – 5 May 1913) was a French Impressionist painter.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
Although the History of the French Navy goes back to the Middle Ages, its history can be said to effectively begin with Richelieu under Louis XIII.
HLM is the acronym of Habitation à Loyer Modéré ("rent-controlled housing"), a form of private or public housing in France, Switzerland, Algeria, Senegal, and Quebec.
Homarus is a genus of lobsters, which include the common and commercially significant species Homarus americanus (the American lobster) and Homarus gammarus (the European lobster).
A vessel's home port is the port at which it is based, which may not be the same as its port of registry shown on its registration documents and lettered on the stern of the ship's hull.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Honoré de Balzac (born Honoré Balzac, 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.
A housing estate (or sometimes housing complex) is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
In commerce, a hypermarket is a superstore combining a supermarket and a department store.
"Il est né, le divin Enfant" (English: He is born, the divine Child) is a traditional French Christmas carol, which was published for the first time in 1862 by R. Grosjean, organist of the Cathedral of Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, in a collection of carols entitled "Airs des Noëls lorrains." The text of the carol was published for the first time in a collection of ancient carols, published in either 1875 or 1876 by Dom G. Legeay.
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum (plural incunables or incunabula, respectively), is a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed in Europe before the year 1501.
The Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité (previously Institut National des Appellations d'Origine) (INAO) is the French organization charged with regulating French agricultural products with Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs).
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
The (National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology), in French: L'Institut national des sciences et techniques nucléaires, is a public higher education institution administered by the CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission) under the joint authority of the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research, the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and the Digital Sector and the Ministry of the Environment, Energy and Marine Affairs.
Intercités (before September 2009: Corail Intercités) is a brand name used by France’s national railway company, SNCF, to denote non high speed services on the 'classic' network in France.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Irish Ferries is a maritime transport company that operates passenger and freight services on routes between Ireland, Britain and Continental Europe, including Dublin Port–Holyhead; Rosslare Europort to Pembroke as well as Dublin Port-Cherbourg and Rosslare to Cherbourg and Roscoff in France The company is a division of the Irish Continental Group (ICG) which trades on the Irish Stock Exchange and the London Stock Exchange.
Isigny-sur-Mer is a commune in the Calvados department and Normandy region of north-western France.
Iskandar Safa (born April 1955) is a French businessman of Lebanese origin.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
General Joseph "Lightning Joe" Lawton Collins (May 1, 1896 – September 12, 1987) was a senior United States Army officer who served in World War II and became Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the Korean War.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
Jacques de Loustal (born April 10, 1956, in Neuilly-Sur-Seine) is a French comics artist who uses a painterly style reminiscent of David Hockney.
Jacques Demy (5 June 1931 – 27 October 1990) was a French director, lyricist, and screenwriter.
Jacques Hébert (8 August 1920 – 15 February 2018) was a French politician.
Jacques Prévert (4 February 190011 April 1977) was a French poet and screenwriter.
Jacques Rouxel (26 February 1931 – 25 April 2004), born in Cherbourg, France, was a film animator.
Jane Mallory Birkin, OBE (born 14 December 1946) is an English actress, singer, songwriter, and model.
The Jardin botanique de la Roche Fauconnière is a private botanical garden located in the Parc de la Fauconnière, Cherbourg-Octeville, Manche, Normandy, France.
Jean Becker (born 10 May 1933) is a French film director, screenwriter and actor.
Jean Fleury (or Florin) (died 1527) was a French naval officer and privateer.
Jean Froissart (Old French, Middle French Jehan, –) was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian from the Low Countries, who wrote several works, including Chronicles and Meliador, a long Arthurian romance, and a large body of poetry, both short lyrical forms, as well as longer narrative poems.
Jean Gabin (17 May 190415 November 1976) was a French actor and sometime singer.
Jean Hamon (2 January 1618 – 22 February 1687) was a French doctor and writer of many works on medical and religious subjects.
Jean-Alfred Villain-Marais, also known as Jean Marais (11 December 1913 – 8 November 1998), was a French actor, writer, director and sculptor.
Jean Nicolet (Nicollet), Sieur de Belleborne (ca. 15981 November 1642) was a French coureur des bois noted for discovering and exploring Lake Michigan, Mackinac Island, Green Bay, and being the first European to set foot in what is now the U.S. state of Wisconsin.
Jean-Antoine Houdon (25 March 1741 – 15 July 1828) was a French neoclassical sculptor.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Marie de Beauvais (b. at Cherbourg, 17 October 1731; d. at Paris, 4 April 1790) was a French bishop of Senez.
Jean-Charles Tacchella (born 23 September 1925) is a French screenwriter and film director.
Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France.
Jean-Marie Le Pen (born 20 June 1928) is a French politician who has served as Honorary President of the National Front since January 2011 and a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from France since 2004, previously between 1984 and 2003.
Jean-Pierre Godefroy (born 23 September 1944) is a member of the Senate of France, representing the Manche department.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
Joachim Menant (16 April 1820 – 30 August 1899) was a French magistrate and orientalist.
John II (Jean II; 26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364), called John the Good (French: Jean le Bon), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1350 until his death.
Baron Joseph Marie François Cachin was a French engineer, most notable for his work at Cherbourg Harbour.
Joseph Walton Losey III (January 14, 1909June 22, 1984) was an American theatre and film director, born in Wisconsin.
Joseph-Aimé-Paul Noyon (3 October 1888 – 15 October 1962) was a French organist and composer of classical music.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
Qalaat MGouna (qəlʿət mguna) or Tighremt NImgunen (ⵜⵉⵖⵔⵎⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵎⴳⵓⵏⵏ) is a city in Tinghir Province, Dra-Tafilalt, Morocco.
Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben (30 October 1894 – 18 June 1964) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Keolis is the largest private sector French transport group.
Khâgne is an informal French term for what are officially known as classes préparatoires littéraires, i.e. the classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles (CPGE), or classe prépa, dedicated to literature and the humanities.
Konteradmiral, abbreviated KAdm or KADM, is the second lowest naval flag officer rank in the German Navy.
La Course à l'échalote is a 1975 French comedy film directed by Claude Zidi.
La Duchesse de Langeais is an 1834 novel by French author Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) and included in the Scènes de la vie parisienne section of his novel sequence La Comédie humaine.
La Glacerie is a former commune in the Manche department in north-western France.
La Hague is a commune in the department of Manche, northwestern France.
The La Hague site is a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Cotentin Peninsula in northern France.
La Marie du port (Marie of the Port) is a 1950 French romantic drama film directed by Marcel Carné.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
La Unión is a municipality in the Honduran department of Copán.
In France, the Labour Courts or employment tribunals (in French: conseil de prud'hommes) resolve individual disputes arising out of an employment contract.
Lake Moeris (Μοῖρις, genitive Μοίριδος) is an ancient lake in the northwest of the Faiyum Oasis, southwest of Cairo, Egypt.
The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion.
Laurent Bouhnik (French pronunciation: lɔʁɑ̃ bunik; born April 7, 1961 in Paris, France) is a French director, writer and actor.
Le Croisic (Breton: Ar Groazig), is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
Le Curé de village (The Village Priest) is a novel by Honoré de Balzac.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
Le Molay-Littry is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Le p'tit Parigot (The Small Parisian One) is a 1926 French movie serial in six parts.
Le Réquisitionnaire (English "The Conscript" or "The Recruit") is a short story by Honoré de Balzac.
Le Rozel is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Le Trident is a group of three theatres in the city of Cherbourg-Octeville, within the Manche department of Normandy, in northern France.
A learned society (also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organisation that exists to promote an academic discipline, profession, or a group of related disciplines such as the arts.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Left Front (Front de gauche, FG or FDG) is a French electoral alliance and a political movement created for the 2009 European elections by the French Communist Party and the Left Party when a left-wing minority faction decided to leave the Socialist Party, and the Unitarian Left (Gauche Unitaire), a group which left the New Anticapitalist Party.
The lemon sole (Microstomus kitt) is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae.
Les Invalides, commonly known as Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.
Les Méchins is a municipality in Quebec, Canada, about east of Matane along Quebec Route 132.
Les Pieux is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Les Shadoks is an animated television series created by French cartoonist Jacques Rouxel (26 February 1931 – 25 April 2004) which caused a sensation in France when it was first broadcast in 1968–1974.
Liberty ships were a class of cargo ship built in the United States during World War II.
A lintel or lintol is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports.
Lise de la Salle (born May 8, 1988 in Cherbourg) is a French classical pianist.
The Remarkable Gardens of France is intended to be a list and description, by region, of the more than three hundred gardens classified as "Jardins remarquables" by the French Ministry of Culture and the Comité des Parcs et Jardins de France.
The Little Sisters of the Poor is a Roman Catholic religious institute for women.
Lizinska de Mirbel (26 July 1796 – 29 August 1849) was a French painter of miniature portraits.
Lord Darcy is a detective in an alternate history, created by Randall Garrett.
Lorient is a town (French "commune") and seaport in the Morbihan "department" of Brittany in North-Western France.
François Marie Louis Corbière (10 May 1850, Champsecret – 3 January 1941, Cherbourg) was a French botanist and mycologist.
Louis Bon Jean de la Couldre de La Bretonnière (born 6 or 8 July 1741 at the château de la Bretonnière at Marchésieux – 25 November 1809 in Paris) was a French naval officer and the first designer of Cherbourg Harbour.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Louis-Alexandre de Cessart (25 August 1719, Paris – 12 April 1806, Rouen) was a French road and bridge engineer.
Louis-Émile Bertin (23 March 1840 – 22 October 1924) was a French naval engineer, one of the foremost of his time, and a proponent of the "Jeune École" philosophy of using light, but powerfully armed warships instead of large battleships.
Love Me No More (Deux jours à tuer) is a 2008 French drama film directed by Jean Becker.
Lower Normandy (Basse-Normandie,; Basse-Normaundie) is a former administrative region of France.
The Luxor Obelisk (French: Obélisque de Louxor) is a high Ancient Egyptian obelisk standing at the centre of the Place de la Concorde in Paris, France.
Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae.
The Madison is a novelty dance that was popular in the late 1950s to mid-1960s.
Maison d'arrêt are a category of prisons in France, in Belgium and other French-speaking countries, which hold prisoners awaiting trial or sentencing, or those being held for less than one year, similar to county jails in the United States.
The Majoidea are a superfamily of crabs which includes the various spider crabs.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
Manche is a French department in Normandy (Normandie), named for the English Channel, which is known as La Manche, literally "the sleeve", in French, that borders its north and west shores and part of its east shore.
Mantes-la-Jolie is a railway station serving the town Mantes-la-Jolie, Yvelines department, northwestern France.
The railway from Mantes-la-Jolie to Cherbourg is an important French 228-kilometre long railway line, that connects Mantes-la-Jolie, a western suburb of Paris, with the northwestern port city Cherbourg via Caen.
In heraldry, mantling or lambrequin is drapery tied to the helmet above the shield.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Marcel Carné (18 August 1906 – 31 October 1996) was a French film director.
Marc Vulson de la Colombière (†1658) or Sieur de la Colombière was a French heraldist, historian, poet, minion of the royal court.
Marion Anne Perrine "Marine" Le Pen (born 5 August 1968) is a French politician and lawyer serving as President of the National Rally political party (previously named National Front) since 2011, with a brief interruption in 2017.
Marines, also known as a marine corps or naval infantry, are typically an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations at sea and on land, as well as the execution of their own operations.
The Préfet Maritime is a servant of the French State who exercises authority over the sea in one particular region (a Préfecture maritime).
Martinvast is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
A Masonic lodge, often termed a private lodge or constituent lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry.
Masseot Abaquesne (c. 1500-1564) was a faience manufacturer of Rouen, France between 1535 and 1557.
Matane is a town on the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec, Canada, on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River at the mouth of the Matane River.
Maupertus-sur-Mer is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Maxime Laubeuf was a French maritime engineer of the late nineteenth century.
Météo-France is the French national meteorological service.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.
A merger, consolidation or amalgamation, in a political or administrative sense, is the combination of two or more political or administrative entities, such as municipalities (in other words cities, towns, etc.), counties, districts, etc., into a single entity.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Michel Besnier (1928-2000) was a French heir and businessman.
Michel Legrand (born 24 February 1932) is a French musical composer, arranger, conductor, and jazz pianist.
Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French tyre company Michelin for more than a century.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Mimosa is a genus of about 400 species of herbs and shrubs, in the mimosoid clade of the legume family Fabaceae.
A minehunter is a naval vessel that seeks, detects, and destroys individual naval mines.
The Ministry of Culture (Ministère de la Culture) is the ministry of the Government of France in charge of national museums and the monuments historiques.
Miscellaneous right (divers droite, DVD) in France refers to right-wing candidates who are not members of any large party.
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.
Mont-Saint-Michel (Norman: Mont Saint Miché) is an island commune in Normandy, France.
* Monument historique is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Motorways of the Sea are a concept in the transport policy of the European Union, stressing the importance of sea transport.
A multiplex is a movie theater complex with multiple screens within a single complex.
In France, a municipal council (French: conseil municipal) is an elected body of the commune responsible for "executing, in its deliberations, the business of the town" (translated).
The Musée des beaux-arts Thomas Henry is a museum at Cherbourg-Octeville (Manche) with around 300 artworks, mainly paintings from the 15th to 19th centuries.
The musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The National Rally (Rassemblement national, RN), formerly known as the National Front (Front national,; FN) until 2018, is a right-wing populist and nationalist political party in France.
Naval Group is a French industrial group specialised in naval defence and marine renewable energy.
The nave is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church (whether aisled or not) between its rear wall and the far end of its intersection with the transept at the chancel.
Nemours is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
Nestlé S.A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company headquartered in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
Nord (North; Noorderdepartement) is a department in the far north of France.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Nouainville is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Octave Mirbeau (16 February 1848 – 16 February 1917) was a French journalist, art critic, travel writer, pamphleteer, novelist, and playwright, who achieved celebrity in Europe and great success among the public, while still appealing to the literary and artistic avant-garde.
Octeville-l'Avenel is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Octeville-sur-Mer is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France and is twinned with Bourne End (Bucks) in United Kingdom since 2003 and with Furci Siculo (Sicily) in Italy since 2010.
The Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (ORTF) was the national agency charged, between 1964 and 1974, with providing public radio and television in France.
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that it has abandoned all defensive efforts.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Operation Pluto (Pipe-Lines Under The Ocean) was a Second World War operation by British engineers, oil companies, and the British Armed Forces; to construct undersea oil pipelines under the English Channel between England and France in support of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
In heraldry, or (French for "gold") is the tincture of gold and, together with argent (silver), belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals", or light colours.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Ostend (Oostende, or; Ostende; Ostende) is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
P&O Ferries is a British-based company that operates ferries from the United Kingdom to Ireland and Continental Europe (France, Belgium and the Netherlands).
P&O Irish Sea was the trading name of P&O Ferries in the Irish Sea from 1998 to 2010, when it was merged back into and rebranded P&O Ferries.
P&O Portsmouth was the name for P&O European Ferries' Portsmouth operations from 1999 to 2002 when it was merged with the Dover Operations to become P&O Ferries.
The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.
The Palais Bourbon is a government building located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine, across from the Place de la Concorde.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Observatory (Observatoire de Paris or Observatoire de Paris-Meudon), a research institution of PSL Research University, is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centres in the world.
The Parliament of Normandy (parlement de Normandie), also known as the Parliament of Rouen (parlement de Rouen) after the place where it sat (the provincial capital of Normandy), was a provincial parlement of the Kingdom of France.
Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders ('pas' meaning passage).
Pathé or Pathé Frères (styled as PATHÉ!) is the name of various French businesses that were founded and originally run by the Pathé Brothers of France starting in 1896.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
Paul-Louis Halley (16 September 1934 – 6 December 2003) was a French businessman who co-founded the retail company Promodès, which later merged with Carrefour.
Pecten maximus, common names the great scallop, king scallop, St James shell or escallop, is a northeast Atlantic species of scallop, an edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Pectinidae.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Peri-urbanisation relates to those processes of dispersive urban growth that creates hybrid landscapes of fragmented urban and rural characteristics.
Peter and Sloane was a 1980s French musical group.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
Philippe Duron (born 19 June 1947) is a French politician.
Philippe Mius d’Entremont, 1st Baron of Pobomcoup (1609–1701) was an early Acadian settler, and progenitor of the Muise and d’Entremont families of Nova Scotia.
Philippe-Laurent Roland (13 August 1746 – 11 July 1816) was a French sculptor.
Pierre Corneille (Rouen, 6 June 1606 – Paris, 1 October 1684) was a French tragedian.
Pierre Richard (born Pierre-Richard Maurice Charles Léopold Defays; 16 August 1934) is a French actor, film director and screenwriter, best known for the roles of a clumsy daydreamer in comedy films.
Pierre-Yves Lambert, former student of the École Normale Supérieure, is a French teacher and linguist.
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard.
Plaice is a common name for a group of flatfish that comprises four species: the European, American, Alaskan and scale-eye plaice.
Poclain is a family company founded by Georges Bataille in France in 1927, then developed by his sons Pierre and Claude Bataille, with help from Jacques and Bernard Bataille.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pollock (pronounced) is the common name used for either of the two species of North Atlantic marine fish in the genus Pollachius.
Pont-Aven School (French: École de Pont-Aven, Breton: Skol Pont Aven) encompasses works of art influenced by Pont-Aven and its surroundings.
Pont-l'Évêque is a French cheese, originally manufactured in the area around the commune of Pont-l'Évêque, between Deauville and Lisieux in the Calvados département of Normandy.
Poole is a large coastal town and seaport in the county of Dorset, on the south coast of England.
The Port of Caen, Port de Caen, is the harbour and port authority of the Norman city of Caen, France.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
A prefecture (préfecture) in France may refer to.
Promodès is a former French group of retailers.
Pulpit is a raised stand for preachers in a Christian church.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
The Queen Elizabeth 2, often referred to simply as QE2, is a floating hotel and retired ocean liner built for the Cunard Line which was operated by Cunard as both a transatlantic liner and a cruise ship from 1969 to 2008.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Querqueville is a former commune in the Manche department in north-western France.
Quettehou is a commune in the Manche department in north-western France.
Quintus Titurius Sabinus was one of Caesar's legates during the Gallic Wars.
The Radical Party of the Left (Parti radical de gauche, PRG) was a social-liberal political party in France.
The Raid on Cherbourg took place in August 1758 during the Seven Years' War when a British force was landed on the coast of France by the Royal Navy with the intention of attacking the town of Cherbourg as part of the British government's policy of "descents" on the French coasts.
The Rally for France (Rassemblement pour la France (RPF), also briefly known in 2003 as Rally for France and European Independence or Rassemblement pour la France et l'Indépendance de l'Europe) is a political party in France of the right.
The Rally for the Republic (Rassemblement pour la République; RPR), was a Neo-Gaullist and conservative political party in France.
Randall Garrett (December 16, 1927 – December 31, 1987) was an American science fiction and fantasy author.
Réseau ferré de France (RFF, French Rail Network) was a French company which owned and maintained the French national railway network from 1997 to 2014.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Réville is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
The Red Ball Express was a famed truck convoy system that supplied Allied forces moving quickly through Europe after breaking out from the D-Day beaches in Normandy in 1944.
The red mullets or surmullets are two species of goatfish, Mullus barbatus and Mullus surmuletus, found in the Mediterranean Sea, east North Atlantic Ocean, and the Black Sea.
The Red Star Line was an ocean passenger line founded in 1871 as a joint venture between the International Navigation Company of Philadelphia, which also ran the American Line, and the Société Anonyme de Navigation Belgo-Américaine of Antwerp, Belgium.
The Le Redoutable-class submarine was a ballistic missile submarine class of the French ''Marine Nationale''.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Reformed Church of France (Église Réformée de France, ERF) was the main Protestant denomination in France with a Reformed orientation that could be traced back directly to John Calvin.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Remy de Gourmont (4 April 1858 – 27 September 1915) was a French Symbolist poet, novelist, and influential critic.
Jules Gustave René Coty (20 March 188422 November 1962) was President of France from 1954 to 1959.
René Garrec (born 24 December 1934) was a member of the Senate of France, representing the Calvados department as a member of The Republicans.
René Eugène Le Somptier (12 November 1884 in Caen – 23 September 1950 in Paris) was a French filmmaker and journalist.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
A retable is a structure or element placed either on or immediately behind and above the altar or communion table of a church.
The retour des cendres ("return of the ashes") was the return of the mortal remains of Napoleon I of France from the island of St Helena to France and their burial in the Hôtel des Invalides in Paris in 1840, on the initiative of Adolphe Thiers and King Louis-Philippe.
A revival house or repertory cinema is a cinema that specializes in showing classic or notable older films (as opposed to first run films).
Richard Berry (born Richard Élie Benguigui, 31 July 1950) is a French actor, film director and screenwriter.
Admiral of the Fleet Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, (8 March 1726 – 5 August 1799) was a British naval officer.
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Richard III (997/1001 – 6 August 1027) was the Duke of Normandy who reigned from August 1026 to his death.
RMS Queen Mary 2 (also referred to as the QM2) is a transatlantic ocean liner.
RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early hours of 15 April 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City.
Roads to the South is a 1978 French film directed by Joseph Losey.
Rochefort is a commune in southwestern France, a port on the Charente estuary.
Roland Gérard Barthes (12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rabat (Archidioecesis Rabatensis) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Morocco.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Coutances (–Avranches) (Latin: Dioecesis Constantiensis (–Abrincensis); French: Diocèse de Coutances (–Avranches)) is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
Roman de Rou is a verse chronicle by Wace in Norman covering the history of the Dukes of Normandy from the time of Rollo of Normandy to the battle of Tinchebray in 1106.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romane Bohringer (born 14 August 1973) is a French actress, film director, screenwriter, and costume designer.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rosette (real name Françoise Quéré; born 6 September 1959) is a French actress and producer.
Rosslare Europort (Calafort Ros Láir) is a modern seaport located at Rosslare Harbour in County Wexford, Ireland, near the southeastern-most point of Ireland, handling passenger and freight ferries to and from Wales and France.
The village of Rosslare Harbour grew up to serve the needs of the harbour of the same name (now called Rosslare Europort), first developed in 1906 by the Great Western Railway and the Great Southern and Western Railway to accommodate steamferry traffic between Great Britain and Ireland.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
A roundel is a circular charge in heraldry.
The N13 is a trunk road (nationale) in France between Paris and Cherbourg.
The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company was a British shipping company founded in London in 1839 by a Scot, James MacQueen.
Rubble is broken stone, of irregular size, shape and texture; undressed especially as a filling-in.
Rumba is a 2008 comedy film starring Dominique Abel and Fiona Gordon as a married couple who love Latin dancing, and Bruno Romy as a depressed man trying to commit suicide.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
In heraldry, sable is the tincture black, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures, called "colours".
Saint Helier (Saint-Hélier) is one of the twelve parishes of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel.
Saint-Jean-de-Cherbourg is a parish municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec, located in La Matanie Regional County Municipality.
Saint-Laurent-de-Cuves is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Saint-Lô is a commune in north-western France, the capital of the Manche department in the region of Normandy.
Saint-Vaast-la-Hougue is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sanmina Corporation is an American electronics manufacturing services (EMS) provider headquartered in San Jose, California that serves original equipment manufacturers in technology-related industries such as communications and computer hardware.
Sarh (Arabic: ساره), formerly French colonial Fort Archambault, is the capital of the Moyen-Chari Region and of the Department of Barh Köh in Chad.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.
Marie-Ségolène Royal, known as Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953), is a French politician and prominent member of the Socialist Party.
Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Schist (pronounced) is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large, flat, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation (nearby grains are roughly parallel).
The School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (École des hautes études en sciences sociales; also known as EHESS) is a French grande école (élite higher-education establishment that operates outside the regulatory framework of the public university system) specialised in the social sciences and often considered as the most prestigious institution for the social sciences in France.
Sea lions are sea mammals characterized by external ear flaps, long foreflippers, the ability to walk on all fours, short, thick hair, and a big chest and belly.
Second Empire is an architectural style, most popular in the latter half of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
A sensitive urban zone (Zone urbaine sensible, ZUS) is an urban area in France defined by the authorities to be a high-priority target for city policy, taking into consideration local circumstances related to the problems of its residents.
Sericite is a fine grained mica, similar to muscovite, illite, or paragonite.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water.
Shropshire (alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian) is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, and Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south.
Sideville is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
The siege of Antwerp took place during the War of the Sixth Coalition and lasted from 14 January 1814 to 4 May 1814.
Simon Vouet (9 January 1590 – 30 June 1649) was a French painter and draftsman, who today is perhaps best remembered for helping to introduce the Italian Baroque style of painting to France.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), also known as the sandy dogfish, lesser-spotted dogfish, Rough-hound or Morgay (in Scotland and Cornwall), is a catshark of the family Scyliorhinidae.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
The Solitaire du Figaro, previously called the Course de l'Aurore, is a solo multi-stage sailing race created in 1970 by Jean-Louis Guillemard and Jean-Michel Barrault.
During the 17th century, the Solitaires were Frenchmen who chose to live a humble and ascetic life in retreat at Port-Royal-des-Champs.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
In heraldry, the term star may refer to any star-shaped charge with any number of rays, which may appear straight or wavy, and may or may not be pierced.
Stena Line is one of the largest ferry operators in the world.
Stephen Wilcox, Jr. (February 12, 1830 – November 27, 1893) was an American inventor, best known as the co-inventor (with George Herman Babcock) of the water-tube boiler.
Stephen (Étienne; – 25 October 1154), often referred to as Stephen of Blois, was King of England from 1135 to his death, as well as Count of Boulogne from 1125 until 1147 and Duke of Normandy from 1135 until 1144.
A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
In France, a subprefecture (sous-préfecture) is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department.
Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map"), also referred to as Peutinger's Tabula or Peutinger Table, is an illustrated itinerarium (ancient Roman road map) showing the layout of the cursus publicus, the road network of the Roman Empire.
The Tall Ships' Races are races for sail training "tall ships" (sailing ships).
Tanbark is the bark of certain species of tree.
TER Basse-Normandie was the regional rail network serving Lower Normandy, France.
The Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama is an 1864 oil painting by Édouard Manet.
The Black Box (original title: La Boîte noire) is a 2005 French mystery film directed by Richard Berry, written by Berry and Éric Assous, adapted from a novella by Tonino Benacquista, and starring José Garcia and Marion Cotillard.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Diary of a Chambermaid (French: Le Journal d'une femme de chambre) is a 1900 decadent novel by Octave Mirbeau, published during the Dreyfus Affair.
The Green Ray (Le Rayon vert) is a 1986 film by Éric Rohmer.
The Jewish War or Judean War (in full Flavius Josephus's Books of the History of the Jewish War against the Romans, Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμαίους βιβλία, Phlauiou Iōsēpou historia Ioudaikou polemou pros Rōmaious biblia), also referred to in English as The Wars of the Jews, is a book written by Josephus, a Roman-Jewish historian of the 1st century.
The Pillars of the Earth is an historical novel by Welsh author Ken Follett published in 1989 about the building of a cathedral in the fictional town of Kingsbridge, England.
The Umbrellas of Cherbourg (Les Parapluies de Cherbourg) is a 1964 French-West German musical-romantic drama film directed by Jacques Demy, starring Catherine Deneuve and Nino Castelnuovo.
A theatre, theater or playhouse, is a structure where theatrical works or plays are performed, or other performances such as musical concerts may be produced.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
Lieutenant General Thomas Bligh (1685–1775) was a British soldier, best known for his service during the Seven Years' War when he led a series of amphibious raids, known as "descents" on the French coastline.
Bon-Thomas Henry (1766 in Cherbourg, France – 1836 in Cherbourg) was a French painter and patron of the arts.
Thomson-CSF was a major electronics and defence contractor.
Tokia Afféda Saïfi (born July 11, 1959 in Hautmont, Nord) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the North-West of France.
Tonneville is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Too Many Magicians is a novel by Randall Garrett, an American science fiction author.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
The Tour de France is an annual male multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
Tour de France à la voile is an annual yachting race around the coast of France.
Tourlaville is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
A town is a human settlement.
The term township generally means the district or area associated with a town.
A transept (with two semitransepts) is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice.
Les Trente Glorieuses ("The Glorious Thirty") refers to the thirty years from 1945 to 1975 following the end of the Second World War in France.
A trial court or court of first instance is a court having original jurisdiction, in which trials take place.
In France, the Tribunal d'instance (literally "Court of First Instance") is a judicial lower court of record of first instance for general civil suits and includes a criminal division, the Police Court (tribunal de police), which hears cases of misdemeanors or summary offences (contraventions).
In France, the tribunal de commerce (plural tribunaux de commerce, literally "commercial courts") are the oldest courts in the French judicial organization.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Twin Jet is a French regional airline based in Aix en Provence.
The Unelli or Veneli (also Venelli) were one of the Armoric or maritime states of Gallia.
The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire; UMP) was a centre-right political party in France that was one of the two major contemporary political parties in France along with the centre-left Socialist Party (PS).
The Union for French Democracy (Union pour la Démocratie Française, UDF) was a centre-right political party in France.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The University of Caen Normandy (UNICAEN; French: Université de Caen Normandie) is a university in Caen in Normandy, France.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
An aire urbaine (literal and official translation: "urban area") is an INSEE (France's national statistics bureau) statistical concept describing a core of urban development and the extent of its commuter activity.
Urville-Nacqueville is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
USS Kearsarge, a Mohican-class sloop-of-war, is best known for her defeat of the Confederate commerce raider during the American Civil War.
Utah, commonly known as Utah Beach, was the code name for one of the five sectors of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June 6, 1944 (D-Day), during World War II.
The Val de Saire (or Vale of the River Saire) is an area situated in the north of the Cotentin Peninsula, to the east of Cherbourg in the French region of Lower Normandy.
Valognes is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.
Veles (Велес) is a city in the central part of the Republic of Macedonia on the Vardar river.
In classical heraldry, vert is the name of the tincture roughly equivalent to the colour "green".
François Auguste Victor Grignard (6 May 1871 in Cherbourg – 13 December 1935 in Lyon) was a Nobel Prize-winning French chemist.
The VII Corps of the United States Army was one of the two principal corps of the United States Army Europe during the Cold War.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Villequier is a former commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.
Vulcan (Latin: Volcānus or Vulcānus) is the god of fire including the fire of volcanoes, metalworking, and the forge in ancient Roman religion and myth.
Wace (1110 – after 1174), sometimes referred to as Robert Wace, was a Norman poet, who was born in Jersey and brought up in mainland Normandy (he tells us in the Roman de Rou that he was taken as a child to Caen), ending his career as Canon of Bayeux.
Walesby is a village and civil parish in the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England.
Walter Hennecke (23 May 1898 – 1 January 1984) was a German admiral during World War II.
Saint Wandregisel (Wandrille) (c. 605–668 AD) was a Frankish courtier, monk, and abbot.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, more commonly known as the White Star Line, was a prominent British shipping company.
William Longsword (Guillaume Longue-Épée, Willermus Longa Spata, Vilhjálmr Langaspjót; c. 893 – 17 December 942) was the second ruler of Normandy, from 927 until his assassination in 942.
William of Jumièges (Guillaume de Jumièges) was a contemporary of the events of 1066, and one of the earliest writers on the subject of the Norman conquest of England.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yann Kersalé (born 17 February 1955) is a French conceptual artist who works with light.
A yellowtail may be any of several different species of fish.
Ivo Livi, better known as Yves Montand (13 October 1921 – 9 November 1991), was an Italian-French actor and singer.
The 1986 Tour de France was the 73rd running of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours.
The 1994 Tour de France was the 81st edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours.
The 2008 French White Paper on Defence and National Security was a defence reform of the French Armed Forces.
The 2016 Tour de France was the 103rd edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours.
The 7th Panzer Division was an armored formation of the German Army in World War II.