160 relations: Absorption (pharmacology), Accommodation (eye), Acidosis, Agonist, Agranulocytosis, Akathisia, Alazocine, Alcohol (drug), Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Amitriptyline, Analgesic, Antiarrhythmic agent, Anticholinergic, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antidote, Antihistamine, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Artificial ventilation, Ataxia, Atrioventricular block, Atypical antidepressant, Barbiturate, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Benzodiazepine, Beta blocker, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Breast milk, Breastfeeding, Central nervous system, Cmax (pharmacology), Confusion, Constipation, CYP2D6, Delirium, Depressant, Derivative (chemistry), Dextromethorphan, Diazepam, Dibenzazepine, Ditolylguanidine, Dizziness, Dobutamine, Dopamine, Dopamine (medication), Dopamine receptor D1, ..., Dopamine receptor D2, Downregulation and upregulation, Drug overdose, Dyskinesia, Edema, Ejaculation, Electrical conduction system of the heart, Elimination (pharmacology), Endoplasmic reticulum, English language, Epileptic seizure, Equinumerosity, Erectile dysfunction, Europe, Fatigue, Feces, Fertility, French language, Galactorrhea, Gastric lavage, Gastrointestinal tract, Generalized anxiety disorder, German language, Glaucoma, Guinea pig, Hair loss, Haloperidol, Histamine, Histamine H1 receptor, Histamine H2 receptor, Histamine H3 receptor, Histamine H4 receptor, Human embryogenesis, Hydrochloride, Hypersensitivity, Hypnotic, Hypotension, Ifenprodil, Ileus, Imipramine, Intubation, Isozyme, Italian language, Jaundice, Lactation, Latin, Leukopenia, Ligand (biochemistry), Liver, Mechanism of action, Metabolism, Microsome, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine reuptake inhibitor, Motor disorder, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Nausea, Neurotransmitter, NMDA receptor, Norepinephrine, Novartis, Oral administration, Palpitations, Paraldehyde, Pentazocine, Perspiration, Pharmacodynamics, Phenobarbital, Plasma protein binding, Polyneuropathy, Progesterone, Protein, Psychomotor agitation, Receptor antagonist, Recovery position, Respiratory failure, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Risperidone, Sedation, Sedative, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Side effect, Sigma receptor, Sigma-1 receptor, Sigma-2 receptor, Sleep disorder, Somatic symptom disorder, Spanish language, Stupor, Supraventricular tachycardia, Tachycardia, Tolerability, Trademark distinctiveness, Tremor, Tricyclic antidepressant, Urinary retention, Urination, Urine, Volume of distribution, Vomiting, Weight gain, Xerostomia, 3-PPP, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT2 receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2C receptor. Expand index (110 more) » « Shrink index
In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream.
Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies.
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.
Akathisia is a movement disorder characterized by a feeling of inner restlessness and inability to stay still.
Alazocine (developmental code name -10047), also known more commonly as N-allylnormetazocine (NANM), is a synthetic opioid analgesic of the benzomorphan family related to metazocine which was never marketed.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Artificial ventilation, (also called artificial respiration) is any means of assisting or stimulating respiration, a metabolic process referring to the overall exchange of gases in the body by pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Atrioventricular block (AV block) is a type of heart block in which the conduction between the atria and ventricles of the heart is impaired.
An atypical antidepressant is a type of antidepressant medication which acts in an atypical manner relative to most other antidepressants.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cmax is the maximum (or peak) serum concentration that a drug achieves in a specified compartment or test area of the body after the drug has been administrated and before the administration of a second dose.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Dibenzazepine (iminostilbene) is a chemical compound with two benzene rings fused to an azepine group.
Ditolylguanidine is a sigma receptor agonist.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Dobutamine is a sympathomimetic drug used in the treatment of heart failure and cardiogenic shock.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine, sold under the brandname Intropin among others, is a medication most commonly used in the treatment of very low blood pressure, a slow heart rate that is causing symptoms, and, if epinephrine is not available, cardiac arrest.
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Dyskinesia refers to a category of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements, including movements similar to tics or chorea and diminished voluntary movements.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle.
In pharmacology the elimination or excretion of a drug is understood to be any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated (that is, cleared and excreted) from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
In mathematics, two sets or classes A and B are equinumerous if there exists a one-to-one correspondence (a bijection) between them, i.e. if there exists a function from A to B such that for every element y of B there is exactly one element x of A with f(x).
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
Gastric lavage, also commonly called stomach pumping or gastric irrigation, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.
Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs.
Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and also control histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release.
The histamine H4 receptor is, like the other three histamine receptors, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily.
Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Ifenprodil is an inhibitor of the NMDA receptor, specifically of GluN1 (glycine-binding NMDA receptor subunit 1) and GluN2B (glutamate-binding NMDA receptor subunit 2) subunits.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.
Intubation (sometimes entubation) is a medical procedure involving the insertion of a tube into the body.
Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor of one or more of the three major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by blocking the action of one or more of the respective monoamine transporters (MATs), which include the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT).
Motor disorders are disorders of the nervous system that cause abnormal and involuntary movements.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
Paraldehyde is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.
Pentazocine, sold under the brand name Talwin among others, is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
Polyneuropathy (poly- + neuro- + -pathy) is damage or disease affecting peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy) in roughly the same areas on both sides of the body, featuring weakness, numbness, and burning pain.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
The recovery position refers to one of a series of variations on a lateral recumbent or three-quarters prone position of the body, in to which an unconscious but breathing casualty can be placed as part of first aid treatment.
Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.
The sigma-2 receptor (σ2R) is a sigma receptor subtype that has been found highly expressed in malignant cancer cells, and is currently under investigation for its potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,(2013) " " dsm5.org.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Stupor (from Latin stupere, "be stunned or amazed") is the lack of critical mental function and a level of consciousness wherein a sufferer is almost entirely unresponsive and only responds to base stimuli such as pain.
Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is an abnormally fast heart rhythm arising from improper electrical activity in the upper part of the heart.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tolerability refers to the degree to which overt adverse effects of a drug can be tolerated by a patient.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
In pharmacology, the volume of distribution (VD, also known as apparent volume of distribution) is the theoretical volume that would be necessary to contain the total amount of an administered drug at the same concentration that it is observed in the blood plasma.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Weight gain is an increase in body weight.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
3-PPP (N-n-propyl-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine) is a mixed sigma σ1 and σ2 receptor agonist (with similar affinity for both subtypes, though slightly higher affinity for the latter) and D2 receptor partial agonist which is used in scientific research.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
ATC code N06AA05, ATCvet code QN06AA05, Deprenil, Dinsidon, Ensidon, G 33,040, G 33040, G-33,040, G-33040, G33,040, G33040, Insidon, Inzeton, Nisidana, Opipram, Opipramol dihydrochloride, Opipramol hydrochloride, Opipramola, Opipramolo, Opipramolum, Opramol, Oprimol, Pramolan, RP 8307, RP-8307, RP8307, Sympramol.