462 relations: Aéropostale (aviation), Aer Lingus, Aeroflot, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aeropostal Alas de Venezuela, Aerospace, Ahmedabad, Air Ceylon, Air charter, Air ferry, Air France, Air France–KLM, Air India, Air New Zealand, Air operator's certificate, Air Transportation Stabilization Board, Air Union, AirAsia X, Airbus, Airco DH.16, Airco DH.4, Airco DH.9, Airco DH.9A, Aircraft, Aircraft engine, Aircraft livery, Aircraft maintenance, Aircraft pilot, Aircraft Transport and Travel, Aircrew, Airframe, Airline alliance, Airline codes, Airline complaints, Airline Deregulation Act, Airline hub, Airline timetable, Airliners.net, Airlines of Africa, Airmail, Airport, Airport lounge, Airport security, AirTran Airways, Alan Cobham, Albert Plesman, Alitalia, America West Airlines, American Airlines, American Airlines Group, ..., AMR Corporation, Amsterdam, Amtrak, Argentina, Aserca Airlines, Asiana Airlines, Asset, ATA Airlines, ATPCO, Australia, Austrian Airlines, Available seat miles, Avianca, Avianca Brazil, Avianca Ecuador, Avianca El Salvador, Avianca Holdings, Aviation insurance, Aviation safety, Avionics, Baggage handler, Baguio, Baltimore–Washington International Airport, Bankruptcy, Basra, Beechcraft Model 18, Benoist XIV, Bermuda Agreement, Biofuel, Board of directors, Boeing, Boeing 247, Boeing 377 Stratocruiser, Boeing 707, Boeing 737, Boeing 737 Classic, Boeing 737 Next Generation, Boeing 747, Boeing 757, Boeing 767, Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Bolivia, Bomber, Boston, Braniff International Airways, Brazil, Brisbane, British Airways, British Empire, British Marine Air Navigation Co Ltd, British Overseas Airways Corporation, Brussels, Buddha Air, Business travel, BWIA West Indies Airways, Cabotage, Cairo, California, Canary Islands, Cape Town, Cargo, Cargo airline, Caribbean Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Central America, Chalk's International Airlines, Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code, Chennai, Chile, Civil aviation, Codeshare agreement, Cologne, Colombia, Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, Computer reservation system, Concorde, Continental Airlines, Contract, Corporation, Costa Rica, Cost–benefit analysis, Croydon, Croydon Airport, Cuba, Cubana de Aviación, Curtiss JN-4, Czech Airlines, Daimler Airway, Düsseldorf, De Havilland Comet, De Havilland Puss Moth, Decolonization, DELAG, Delta Air Lines, Department of Finance Canada, Depreciation, Deutsche Luft Hansa, Deutsche Luft-Reederei, Domestic flight, Dominican Republic, Dominicana de Aviación, Dornier Flugzeugwerke, Douglas DC-3, Douglas DC-4, Douglas DC-6, Douglas DC-8, Douglas MacArthur, Dubai International Airport, Dutch East Indies, Eastern Air Lines, EasyJet, Ecuador, El Al, El Salvador, Elasticity (economics), Electric aircraft, Emissions trading, Employment, English Channel, Environmental impact of aviation, Equity (finance), Estonia, European Union, Externality, Far East, Farman Aviation Works, Farman F.60 Goliath, Federal Aviation Administration, FedEx Express, Fina Air, Finland, Finnair, First class (aviation), First officer (aeronautics), Flag carrier, Flight attendant, Flight dispatcher, Flight engineer, Flight length, Flight planning, FlightAware, Fokker, Folkestone, Ford Motor Company, Ford Trimotor, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Frankfurt, Frankfurt Airport, Freedoms of the air, French Indochina, French North Africa, Frequent-flyer program, Fuel, Fuselage, Garuda Indonesia, Gate agent, George Holt Thomas, Germany, Ghent, Global dimming, Government Accountability Office, Government contract flight, Government of India, Great Depression, Greenhouse gas, Groundcrew, Guam, Guatemala, Handley Page H.P.42, Handley Page Transport, Handley Page Type O, Handley Page Type W, Hanjin, Hawaii, Hawkinge, Hedge (finance), Helsinki, Hendon Aerodrome, Highway, Holding company, Honduras, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Hounslow Heath Aerodrome, Hugo Junkers, Hypermobility (travel), Imperial Airways, India, Indian independence movement, Inflight magazine, Information technology, Instone Air Line, Interflug, Interjet, Interlining, International Air Transport Association, International Civil Aviation Organization, International flight, Iran Air, Israel, Issues relating to biofuels, J. 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Aéropostale (formally, Compagnie générale aéropostale) was a pioneering aviation company which operated from 1918 to 1933.
Aer Lingus (an anglicisation of the Irish aerloingeas meaning "air fleet") is the flag carrier airline of Ireland and the second-largest airline in the country.
PJSC AeroflotRussian Airlines (ПАО "Аэрофло́т — Росси́йские авиали́нии"), commonly known as Aeroflot (Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet"), is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation.
Aerolíneas Argentinas (Argentine Airlines), formally Aerolíneas Argentinas S.A., is Argentina's largest airline and the country flag carrier.
Aeropostal Alas de Venezuela, normally referred to as just Aeropostal, was a state-owned airline of Venezuela based in Torre Polar Oeste in Caracas, Venezuela.
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Air Ceylon was founded in 1947 as the flag carrier airline of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).
Air charter is the business of renting an entire aircraft (i.e., chartering) as opposed to individual aircraft seats (i.e., purchasing a ticket through a traditional airline).
An air ferry is a ferry service in which cars and passengers are transported by aircraft.
Air France (formally Société Air France, S.A.), stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France.
Air France–KLM is a Franco-Dutch airline holding company incorporated under French law with its headquarters at Charles de Gaulle Airport in Tremblay-en-France, near Paris.
Air India is the flag carrier airline of India.
Air New Zealand Limited is the flag carrier airline of New Zealand.
An air operator's certificate (AOC) is the approval granted by a national aviation authority (NAA) to an aircraft operator to allow it to use aircraft for commercial purposes.
The Air Transportation Stabilization Board (ATSB) is an office of United States Department of the Treasury created to assist US airlines in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Air Union was a French airline established January 1, 1923, as the result of a merger between the airlines Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes and Compagnie des Grands Express Aériens.
AirAsia X Berhad (previously known as FlyAsianXpress Sdn. Bhd.), operating as AirAsia X, is a long-haul budget airline based in Malaysia, and a sister company of AirAsia.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
The Airco DH.16 was a British four-seat commercial biplane of the 1910s designed by Geoffrey de Havilland, the chief designer at Airco.
The Airco DH.4 was a British two-seat biplane day bomber of the First World War.
The Airco DH.9 (from de Havilland 9) – also known after 1920 as the de Havilland DH.9 – was a British single-engined biplane bomber developed and deployed during the First World War.
The Airco DH.9A was a British single-engined light bomber designed and first used shortly before the end of the First World War.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.
An aircraft livery is a set of comprehensive insignia comprising color, graphic, and typographical identifiers which operators (airlines, but also governments, air forces and occasionally private and corporate owners) apply to their aircraft.
Aircraft maintenance is the overhaul, repair, inspection or modification of an aircraft or aircraft component.
An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls.
Aircraft Transport and Travel Limited was a British airline formed during the First World War, a subsidiary of Airco.
Aircrew, also called flight crew, are personnel who operate an aircraft while in flight.
The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure.
An airline alliance is an aviation industry arrangement between two or more airlines agreeing to cooperate on a substantial level.
This is a list of airline codes.
Airline complaints are any type of formal complaint filed by an airline customer either to the airline responsible for the grievance or the government office responsible for overseeing the airlines national industry.
The Airline Deregulation Act is a 1978 United States federal law that deregulated the airline industry in the United States, removing U.S. federal government control over such areas as fares, routes and market entry of new airlines, introducing a free market in the commercial airline industry and leading to a great increase in the number of flights, a decrease in fares, and an increase in the number of passengers and miles flown.
Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport.
Airline timetables are printed pamphlets or folders that many airlines have traditionally used to inform passengers of several different things, such as schedules, fleet, security, in-flight entertainment, food menus, baggage weight restrictions, and contact information.
Airliners.net is an aviation website that includes an extensive photo database of aircraft and airports, as well as a forum catering to aviation enthusiasts.
Airlines proliferated in Africa because, in many countries, road and rail networks are not well developed due to financial issues, terrain, and rainy seasons.
Airmail (or air mail) is a mail transport service branded and sold on the basis of at least one leg of its journey being by air.
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
An airport lounge is a facility operated at many airports.
Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in an attempt to protect passengers, staff and planes which use the airports from accidental/malicious harm, crime and other threats.
AirTran Airways, most commonly stylized as airTran, is a former American low-cost airline that was originally headquartered in Orlando, Florida and is currently an inactive subsidiary of Southwest Airlines.
Sir Alan John Cobham, KBE, AFC (6 May 1894 – 21 October 1973) was an English aviation pioneer.
Albert Plesman (7 September 1889 – 31 December 1953) was a Dutch pioneer in aviation and the founder of the KLM, the oldest airline in the world still operating under its original name.
Alitalia – Società Aerea Italiana (Alitalia – Italian Air Company), operating as Alitalia, is the flag carrier of Italy.
America West Airlines was a U.S. regional airline headquartered in Tempe, Arizona.
American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is a major United States airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex.
American Airlines Group, Inc. is an American publicly traded airline holding company headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas.
AMR Corporation was a commercial aviation business and airline holding company based in Fort Worth, Texas, which was the parent company of American Airlines, American Eagle Airlines, AmericanConnection and Executive Airlines.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to three Canadian cities.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Aserca Airlines C.A. (Aero Servicios Carabobo) was an airline based in Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela.
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.
ATA Airlines, Inc. – formerly known as American Trans Air and commonly referred to as ATA – was an American low-cost scheduled service and charter airline based in Indianapolis, Indiana.
The Airline Tariff Publishing Company (commonly known as ATPCO) is a privately held corporation that engages in the collection and distribution of fare and fare-related data for the airline and travel industry.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austrian Airlines AG, sometimes shortened to Austrian, is the former flag carrier of Austria and a subsidiary of the Lufthansa Group.
Available seat miles (ASM) or Available seat kilometres (ASK) 8056 airline passenger carrying capacity.
Avianca S.A. (acronym in Spanish for "Aerovías del Continente Americano S.A.", Airways of the American Continent) is a Colombian airline that has been the national airline and flag carrier of Colombia since 5 December 1919, when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA.
Avianca Brazil (Avianca Brasil), officially Oceanair Linhas Aéreas S/A, is a Brazilian airline based in São Paulo, Brazil.
Avianca Ecuador, formerly known as AeroGal, is an airline based in Quito, Ecuador.
Avianca El Salvador, formerly Transportes Aereos del Continente Americano, simply known as TACA Airlines, is an airline owned by the Synergy Group based in El Salvador.
Avianca Holdings (formerly AviancaTaca AirHoldings Inc.) is a Latin American airline holding company formed in February 2010 by the merger of two airlines, Avianca from Colombia and TACA Airlines from El Salvador.
Aviation insurance is insurance coverage geared specifically to the operation of aircraft and the risks involved in aviation.
Aviation safety means the state of an aviation system or organization in which risks associated with aviation activities, related to, or in direct support of the operation of aircraft, are reduced and controlled to an acceptable level.
Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites, and spacecraft.
In the airline industry, a baggage handler is a person who loads and unloads baggage (suitcases or luggage), and other cargo (airfreight, mail, counter-to-counter packages) for transport via aircraft.
, officially the (Ibaloi: Ciudad ne Bagiw; Siudad ti Baguio; Lungsod ng Baguio) and popularly referred to as Baguio City, is a mountain resort city located in Northern Luzon, Philippines.
Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport is an international airport located in Linthicum, an unincorporated community in northern Anne Arundel County, Maryland, United States.
Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
The Beechcraft Model 18 (or "Twin Beech", as it is also known) is a 6- to 11-seat, twin-engined, low-wing, tailwheel light aircraft manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas.
The Benoist XIV was a small biplane flying boat built in the United States in 1913 in the hope of using it to carry paying passengers.
The Bermuda Agreement (formally Agreement between the government of the United Kingdom and the government of the United States relating to Air Services between their respective Territories), reached in 1946 by American and British negotiators in Bermuda, was an early bilateral air transport agreement regulating civil air transport.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing Model 247 was an early United States airliner, considered the first such aircraft to fully incorporate advances such as all-metal (anodized aluminium) semimonocoque construction, a fully cantilevered wing and retractable landing gear.
The Boeing 377 Stratocruiser was a large long-range airliner developed from the C-97 Stratofreighter military transport, itself a derivative of the B-29 Superfortress.
The Boeing 707 is a mid-sized, long-range, narrow-body, four-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1958 to 1979.
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range twinjet narrow-body airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States.
The Boeing 737 Classic refers to the -300/-400/-500 series of the Boeing 737.
The Boeing 737 Next Generation, commonly abbreviated as 737NG, is the name given to the −600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 airliner.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner that was designed and built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing 767 is a mid- to large-size, mid- to long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Braniff Airways, Inc., doing business as Braniff International Airways, from 1948 until 1965, and then Braniff International from 1965 until 1983, was an American airline that operated from 1928 until 1982.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia.
British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size, or the second largest, behind easyJet, when measured by passengers carried.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British Marine Air Navigation Co Ltd was a short-lived British airline operating flying boats across the English Channel in 1923 and 1924.
British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was the British state-owned airline created in 1940 by the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Buddha Air Pvt.
Business travel is travel undertaken for work or business purposes, as opposed to other types of travel, such as for leisure purposes or regularly commuting between one's home and workplace.
BWIA West Indies Airways Limited, known locally as "Bee-wee" and also as British West Indian Airways, was the national airline based in Trinidad and Tobago.
Cabotage is the transport of goods or passengers between two places in the same country by a transport operator from another country.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
In economics, cargo or freight are goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by water, air or land.
Cargo airlines (or airfreight carriers, and derivatives of these names) are airlines mainly dedicated to the transport of cargo by air.
Caribbean Airlines Limited is the state-owned airline and flag carrier of Trinidad and Tobago.
Cathay Pacific Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Chalk's International Airlines, formerly Chalk's Ocean Airways, was an airline with its headquarters on the grounds of Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport in unincorporated Broward County, Florida near Fort Lauderdale.
Chapter 11 is a chapter of Title 11, the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial.
A codeshare agreement, also known as codeshare, is an aviation business arrangement in which two or more airlines share the same flight.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Compagnie des messageries aériennes was a pioneering French airline which was in operation from 1919–23, when it was merged with Grands Express Aériens to form Air Union.
A computer reservation system or central reservation system (CRS) is a computerized system used to store and retrieve information and conduct transactions related to air travel, hotels, car rental, or other activities.
The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated from 1976 until 2003.
Continental Airlines was a major United States airline founded in 1934 and eventually headquartered in Houston, Texas.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
Cost–benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes called benefit costs analysis (BCA), is a systematic approach to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives (for example in transactions, activities, functional business requirements or projects investments); it is used to determine options that provide the best approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings.
Croydon is a large town in south London, England, south of Charing Cross.
Croydon Airport, also known as London Terminal Aerodrome or London Airport (ICAO: EGCR) was the UK's major international airport during the interwar period, located in South London, England.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cubana de Aviación S.A., commonly known as Cubana, is a national airline based in Cuba, as well as the country's largest airline.
The Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" was one of a series of "JN" biplanes built by the Curtiss Aeroplane Company of Hammondsport, New York, later the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company.
Czech Airlines a.s. (abbreviation: ČSA, České aerolinie, a.s.) is the national airline of the Czech Republic.
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Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airliner.
The de Havilland DH.80A Puss Moth is a British three-seater high-wing monoplane aeroplane designed and built by the de Havilland Aircraft Company between 1929 and 1933.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
DELAG, acronym for Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft (German for "German Airship Travel Corporation"), was the world's first airline to use an aircraft in revenue service.
Delta Air Lines, Inc., commonly referred to as Delta, is a major United States airline, with its headquarters and largest hub at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia.
Department of Finance Canada (Ministère des Finances Canada) operates under the Minister of Finance.
In accountancy, depreciation refers to two aspects of the same concept.
Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G. (from 1933 styled as Deutsche Lufthansa and also known as Luft Hansa, Lufthansa, or DLH) was a German airline, serving as flag carrier of the country during the later years of the Weimar Republic and throughout Nazi Germany.
Deutsche Luft-Reederei (D.L.R.), was a German airline established in December 1917 which started operating in 1919.
A domestic flight is a form of commercial flight within civil aviation where the departure and the arrival take place in the same country.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Compañía Dominicana de Aviación, usually shortened to Dominicana, was an airline from the Dominican Republic, serving as flag carrier of the country.
Dornier Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer founded in Friedrichshafen in 1914 by Claude Dornier.
The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner with tailwheel-type landing gear.
The Douglas DC-4 is a four-engine (piston) propeller-driven airliner developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company.
The Douglas DC-6 is a piston-powered airliner and transport aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company from 1946 to 1958.
The Douglas DC-8 (also known as the McDonnell Douglas DC-8) is an American four-engine long-range narrow-body jet airliner built from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
Dubai International Airport (مطار دبي الدولي) is the primary international airport serving Dubai, United Arab Emirates and is the world's busiest airport by international passenger traffic.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
Eastern Air Lines was a major American airline from 1926 to 1991.
EasyJet Airline Company Limited, styled as easyJet, is a British low-cost carrier airline headquartered at London Luton Airport.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
El Al Israel Airlines Ltd. (TASE: ELAL), trading as El Al (אל על, "To the Skies" or "Skywards", إل-عال), is the flag carrier of Israel.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
In economics, elasticity is the measurement of how an economic variable responds to a change in another.
An electric aircraft is an aircraft powered by electric motors.
Emissions trading, or cap and trade, is a government, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming.
In accounting, equity (or owner's equity) is the difference between the value of the assets and the value of the liabilities of something owned.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
Farman Aviation Works (Avions Farman) was a French aircraft company founded and run by the brothers Richard, Henri, and Maurice Farman.
The Farman F.60 Goliath was a French airliner and bomber produced by the Farman Aviation Works from 1919.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
FedEx Express, formerly Federal Express, is a cargo airline based in Memphis, Tennessee, United States.
Fina Air was an airline based in San Juan, Puerto Rico named after Josefina Canto who was the mother of Lazaro Canto.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finnair (Oyj, Finnair Abp.) is the flag carrier and largest airline of Finland, with its headquarters in Vantaa on the grounds of Helsinki Airport, its hub.
First class is a travel class on some passenger airliners intended to be more luxurious than business class, premium economy, and economy class.
In commercial aviation, the first officer is the second pilot (also referred to as the co-pilot) of an aircraft.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
Flight attendants or cabin crew (also known as stewards/stewardesses, air hosts/hostesses, cabin attendants) are members of an aircrew employed by airlines primarily to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers aboard commercial flights, on select business jet aircraft, and on some military aircraft.
A flight dispatcher (also known as an airline dispatcher, flight follower or flight operations officer) assists in planning flight paths, taking into account aircraft performance and loading, enroute winds, thunderstorm and turbulence forecasts, airspace restrictions, and airport conditions.
A flight engineer (FE), also sometimes called an air engineer, is the member of an aircraft's flight crew who monitors and operates its complex aircraft systems.
In aviation, the flight length is defined as the distance of a flight.
Flight planning is the process of producing a flight plan to describe a proposed aircraft flight.
FlightAware is a global aviation software and data services company based in Houston, Texas.
Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker.
Folkestone is a port town on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
The Ford Trimotor (also called the "Tri-Motor", and nicknamed "The Tin Goose") is an American three-engined transport aircraft.
Fort Lauderdale (frequently abbreviated as Ft. Lauderdale) is a city in the U.S. state of Florida, north of Miami.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main, also known as Rhein-Main-Flughafen) is a major international airport located in Frankfurt, the fifth-largest city of Germany and one of the world's leading financial centres.
The freedoms of the air are a set of commercial aviation rights granting a country's airlines the privilege to enter and land in another country's airspace, formulated as a result of disagreements over the extent of aviation liberalisation in the Convention on International Civil Aviation of 1944, known as the Chicago Convention.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.
A frequent-flyer program (FFP) is a loyalty program offered by an airline.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section.
Garuda Indonesia (officially PT Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk) is the national airline of Indonesia. Named after the holy bird Garuda of Hinduism from the national emblem of Indonesia, the airline is headquartered at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, near Jakarta. As of 11 December 2014, the airline is rated as a 5-star airline by the international airline review firm Skytrax. The air carrier was previously known as Garuda Indonesian Airways. Founded in 1947 as KLM Interinsulair Bedrijf, the airline is now one of the world's leading airlines and the 20th member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. It operates regularly scheduled flights to a large number of destinations in Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Australia and Europe from its main hub in Jakarta, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, as well as services to Australia and Asia from Ngurah Rai International Airport (Bali) and a large number of domestic flights from both Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport (Makassar) and Kualanamu International Airport (Medan). At its peak in the late 1980s up to the mid-1990s, Garuda operated an extensive network of flights all over the world, with regularly scheduled services to Los Angeles, Paris, Rome, Fukuoka, Adelaide, Johannesburg, Cairo and other cities in Europe, Australia and Asia. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a series of financial and operational difficulties hit the airline hard, which included the in-flight murder of a human rights activist, causing it to drastically cut back services. In 2009, the airline undertook a five-year modernization plan known as the Quantum Leap, which overhauled the airline's brand, livery, logo and uniforms, as well as newer, more modern aircraft and facilities and a renewed focus on international markets, and earning the airline awards such as Most Improved Airline, 5-Star Airline, and World's Best Cabin Crew. The airline also operated a budget subsidiary Citilink, which provided low-cost flights to multiple Indonesian destinations and was spun-off in 2012.
Gate agents work at the boarding gates of airports where passengers board their flights and arriving planes drop off passengers.
George Holt Thomas (31 March 1869 – 1 January 1929) aviation industry pioneer and newspaper proprietor.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in the 1950s.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
A government contract flight is a type of charter airline operation contracted with a government agency.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
In aviation, groundcrew or ground staff are the support personnel that service aircraft on the ground – as opposed to aircrew, who operate an aircraft while in flight.
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
The Handley Page H.P.42 and H.P.45 were British four-engine biplane airliners designed to a 1928 Imperial Airways specification by Handley Page of Radlett in Hertfordshire.
Handley Page Transport Ltd was an airline company founded in 1919 by Frederick Handley Page in the new era of civil flying after the First World War.
The Handley Page Type O was a biplane bomber used by Britain during the First World War.
The Handley Page W.8, W.9 and W.10 were British two- and three-engine medium-range biplane airliners designed and built by Handley Page.
The Hanjin Group is a South Korean conglomerate, or chaebol.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Hawkinge is now a town and civil parish in the Folkestone and Hythe district of Kent, England.
A hedge is an investment position intended to offset potential losses or gains that may be incurred by a companion investment.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Hendon Aerodrome was an aerodrome in London, England, that was an important centre for aviation from 1908 to 1968.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaiokinai.
Hounslow Heath Aerodrome was a grass airfield, operational 1914-1920.
Hugo Junkers (3 February 1859 – 3 February 1935) was a German aircraft engineer and aircraft designer.
Hypermobile travelers are "highly mobile individuals" who take "frequent trips, often over great distances." They "account for a large share of the overall kilometres travelled, especially by air." These people contribute significantly to the overall amount of airmiles flown within a given society.
Imperial Airways was the early British commercial long-range airline, operating from 1924 to 1939 and serving parts of Europe but principally the British Empire routes to South Africa, India and the Far East, including Malaya and Hong Kong.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
An inflight magazine (or in-flight magazine) is a free magazine distributed via the seats of an airplane by an airline company.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Instone Air Line was an early British airline from 1919 to 1924.
Interflug GmbH (Interflug Gesellschaft für internationalen Flugverkehr m.b.H.) was the national airline of East Germany from 1963 to 1990.
Interjet (official legal name ABC Aerolíneas, S.A. de C.V.), is a Mexican airline headquartered in Mexico City, Mexico’s third largest airline after Aeroméxico and Volaris.
Interlining, also known as interline ticketing and interline booking, is a voluntary commercial agreement between individual airlines to handle passengers traveling on itineraries that require multiple flights on multiple airlines.
The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale, OACI), is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
An international flight is a form of commercial flight within civil aviation where the departure and the arrival take place in different countries.
Iran Air, branded as The Airline of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Havâpeymâyiye Jomhuriye Eslâmiye Irân), is the flag carrier of Iran headquartered on the grounds of Mehrabad Airport in Tehran.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
There are various social, economic, environmental and technical issues with biofuel production and use, which have been discussed in the popular media and scientific journals.
Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata (29 July 1904 – 29 November 1993) was a French-born Indian aviator, entrepreneur, chairman of Tata Group and the shareholder of Tata Sons.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
, also known as, is the flag carrier airline of Japan. It is headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan; and its main hubs are Tokyo's Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport), as well as Osaka's Kansai International Airport and Osaka International Airport.
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.
Jet2.com Limited, often known simply as Jet2, is a British low-cost airline based at Leeds Bradford Airport, England.
JetBlue Airways Corporation, stylized as jetBlue, is an American low cost airline headquartered in New York City.
John F. Kennedy International Airport (often referred to as Kennedy Airport, New York-JFK or simply JFK) is the primary international airport serving New York City.
Johnston Atoll, also known as Kalama Atoll to Native Hawaiians, is an unincorporated territory of the United States currently administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
Juan Terry Trippe (June 27, 1899 – April 3, 1981) was an American commercial aviation pioneer, entrepreneur and the founder of Pan American World Airways, one of the iconic airlines of the 20th century.
Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG (JFM, earlier JCO or JKO in World War I), more commonly Junkers, was a major German aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturer.
The Junkers F.13 (also known as the F 13) was the world's first all-metal transport aircraft, developed in Germany at the end of World War I. It was an advanced cantilever-wing monoplane, with enclosed accommodation for four passengers.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Kenley is a district in the south of the London Borough of Croydon (historically in Surrey).
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, legally Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V., is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd., operating as Korean Air, is the largest airline and flag carrier of South Korea based on fleet size, international destinations and international flights.
Korean National Airlines (KNA) was the first (commercial cargo and passenger) air carrier in Korea.
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
LaGuardia Airport is an airport in the northern part of the New York City borough of Queens in the United States.
LATAM Airlines Group S.A. is a Chilean airline holding company incorporated under Chilean law and headquartered in Santiago.
LATAM Airlines, formerly LAN Airlines S.A., is an airline based in Santiago, Chile, and is one of the founders of LATAM Airlines Group, Latin America's largest airline holding company.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
A legacy carrier, in the United States, is an airline that had established interstate routes before the beginning of the route liberalization which was permitted by the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, and was thus directly affected by that act.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
Lille Airport (Aéroport de Lille) is an airport located in Lesquin, south-southeast of Lille, a city in northern France.
In United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and United States law and business, liquidation is the process by which a company is brought to an end.
This article is a list of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft and is grouped by the years in which the accidents and incidents occurred.
A number of major airlines have declared bankruptcy and have either ceased operations, or reorganized under bankruptcy protection.
This is a list of airline holding companies, that either own more than one airline or are the parent company of a single airline.
The aircraft liveries and logos of airlines are used to provide distinctive branding for corporate and commercial reasons.
This article lists airline mergers and acquisitions, with a brief history of each.
This is a list of airlines by foundation date, founded by December 31, 1929.
The following are lists of the world's busiest passenger air routes, based on number of passengers, seat capacity, or aircraft movements.
This is a list of defunct airlines, arranged alphabetically by country within their respective continents.
This is a list of helicopter airlines.
Listed here are the world's airports used as airline hubs.
Greece has a large number of islands, with estimates ranging from somewhere around 1,200 to 6,000, depending on the minimum size to take into account.
The following is a list of low-cost carriers organized by home country.
The following is a list of regional airlines organized by home country.
This is a list of airlines.
Lloyd Aéreo Boliviano S.A.M. (abbreviated LAB and internationally known as LAB Airlines), was the flag carrier and principal airline of Bolivia from 1925 until it ceased operations in 2010.
The Lockheed Constellation ("Connie") is a propeller-driven, four-engined airliner built by Lockheed Corporation between 1943 and 1958 at Burbank, California.
The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as the L-1011 (pronounced "L-ten-eleven") or TriStar, is a medium-to-long-range, wide-body trijet airliner by Lockheed Corporation.
The Lockheed L-188 Electra is an American turboprop airliner built by Lockheed.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Los Angeles International Airport is the primary international airport serving Los Angeles, California.
A loss leader (also leader) is a pricing strategy where a product is sold at a price below its market cost to stimulate other sales of more profitable goods or services.
Louis Charles Breguet (2 January 1880 in Paris – 4 May 1955 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France) was a French aircraft designer and builder, one of the early aviation pioneers.
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (also known as ''no-frills'', ''discount'' or budget carrier or airline, or LCC) is an airline without most of the traditional services provided in the fare, resulting in lower fares and fewer comforts.
Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa (sometimes also as Lufthansa German Airlines), is the largest German airline and, when combined with its subsidiaries, also the largest airline in Europe both in terms of fleet size and passengers carried during 2017.
LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin (Deutsches Luftschiff Zeppelin #127; Registration: D-LZ 127) was a German-built and -operated, passenger-carrying, hydrogen-filled, rigid airship which operated commercially from 1928 to 1937.
LZ 129 Hindenburg (Luftschiff Zeppelin #129; Registration: D-LZ 129) was a large German commercial passenger-carrying rigid airship, the lead ship of the ''Hindenburg'' class, the longest class of flying machine and the largest airship by envelope volume.
The United States Department of Transportation defines a major carrier or major airline carrier as a U.S.-based airline that posts more than $1 billion in revenue during a fiscal year, grouped accordingly as "Group III".
Makati, officially the City of Makati (Lungsod ng Makati, Siyudad ng Makati), in the Philippines, is one of the sixteen cities that make up Metro Manila.
Malaysia Airlines Berhad (MAB) (Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad), formerly known as Malaysian Airline System Berhad (MAS), branded as Malaysia Airlines, is an airline operating flights from Kuala Lumpur International Airport and from secondary hubs in Kota Kinabalu and Kuching to destinations throughout Asia, Oceania and Europe.
Malaysia–Singapore Airlines (MSA) was the flag carrier of Malaysia and Singapore.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.
Market share is the percentage of a market (defined in terms of either units or revenue) accounted for by a specific entity.
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine wide-body jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas.
The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is an American three-engine medium- to long-range wide-body jet airliner, manufactured by McDonnell Douglas and, later, by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
Compañía Mexicana de Aviación, S.A. de C.V. (commonly known as Mexicana) was Mexico's oldest airline and one of the oldest continuously single-branded airlines (after KLM, Avianca and QANTAS), and Mexico's biggest and flagship airline before ceasing operations on August 28, 2010.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Natal ("Christmas") is the capital and largest city of the state Rio Grande do Norte, located in northeastern Brazil.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nevill Vintcent, O.B.E., D.F.C. (1902–1942) was a South African aviator and airline founder.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nielson Field (Luzon, the Philippines) was the location of the Far East Air Force headquarters.
Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.
Northwest Airlines Corp. (often abbreviated as NWA and stylized as nwa) was a major United States airline founded in 1926 and absorbed into Delta Air Lines, Inc. by a merger.
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States.
Oceanair was a regional airline that was based at Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Off spin is a type of finger spin bowling in the sport of cricket.
Oneworld (marketed as oneworld; CRS: *O) is an airline alliance founded on 1 February 1999.
Open skies is an international policy concept that calls for the liberalization of the rules and regulations of the international aviation industry—especially commercial aviation—in order to create a free-market environment for the airline industry.
An operating expense, operating expenditure, operational expense, operational expenditure or opex is an ongoing cost for running a product, business, or system.
Orient Airways Ltd.
In business, overhead or overhead expense refers to an ongoing expense of operating a business.
Overselling or overbooking is sale of a volatile good or service in excess of actual supply.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Pakistan International Airlines (پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایئر لائنز) commonly referred to by the abbreviation PIA (پیآئیاے) is the national flag carrier of Pakistan.
Pan American World Airways, originally founded as Pan American Airways and commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991.
A parent company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operation by doing and influencing or electing its board of directors.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Paris–Le Bourget Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Le Bourget) is an airport located within portions of the communes of Le Bourget, Bonneuil-en-France, Dugny and Gonesse, north-northeast (NNE) of Paris, France.
A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests.
A passenger (also abbreviated as pax) is a person who travels in a vehicle but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination or otherwise operate the vehicle.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Philippine Airlines (PAL), a trade name of PAL Holdings, Inc.
The pilot in command (PIC) of an aircraft is the person aboard the aircraft who is ultimately responsible for its operation and safety during flight.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Pressurization (or Pressurisation) is the application of pressure in a given situation or environment.
Price discrimination is a microeconomic pricing strategy where identical or largely similar goods or services are transacted at different prices by the same provider in different markets.
Price war is "commercial competition characterized by the repeated cutting of prices below those of competitors".
Prinair was a Puerto Rican airline.
A private equity firm is an investment management company that provides financial backing and makes investments in the private equity of startup or operating companies through a variety of loosely affiliated investment strategies including leveraged buyout, venture capital, and growth capital.
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
Profit, in accounting, is an income distributed to the owner in a profitable market production process (business).
In economics, profit in the accounting sense of the excess of revenue over cost is the sum of two components: normal profit and economic profit.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Puertorriqueña de Aviación, previously known as Aerovías Nacionales de Puerto Rico (alternatively known as ANPRI) was an airline company that operated during the 1930s.
Economic loss is a term of art which refers to financial loss and damage suffered by a person such as can be seen only on a balance sheet rather than as physical injury to the person or destruction of property.
A ship's purser (also purser or pusser) is the person on a ship principally responsible for the handling of money on board.
Qantas Airways is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations.
Ronald Edward George Davies (3 July 1921 – 30 July 2011) was an English specialist in airline and air transport history, and commercial aviation economic research.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
A red-eye flight is any flight departing late at night and arriving early the next morning.
Regional airlines are airlines that operate regional aircraft to provide passenger air service to communities without sufficient demand to attract mainline service.
A regional jet (RJ) is a class of short to medium-range turbofan powered regional airliners.
In accounting, revenue is the income that a business has from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers.
Robert Lloyd "Bob" Crandall (born December 6, 1935 in Westerly, Rhode Island) is an American businessman who is the former president and chairman of American Airlines.
Rome2rio is a multimodal transport search engine that launched in April 2011.
Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is the primary airport serving Washington, D.C..
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline founded in 1984, headquartered in Swords, Dublin, Ireland, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports.
The Societé Anonyme Belge d'Exploitation de la Navigation Aérienne, (French; "Belgian Corporation for Air Navigation Services"), better known internationally by the acronym Sabena or SABENA, was the national airline of Belgium from 1923 to 2001, with its base at Brussels National Airport.
Sabre Global Distribution System, owned by Sabre Holdings, is used by travel agents around the world with more than 400 airlines, 220,000 hotels, 42 car rental brands, 38 rail providers and 17 cruise lines.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
A schedule or a timetable, as a basic time-management tool, consists of a list of times at which possible tasks, events, or actions are intended to take place, or of a sequence of events in the chronological order in which such things are intended to take place.
In time series data, seasonality is the presence of variations that occur at specific regular intervals less than a year, such as weekly, monthly, or quarterly.
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shakeout is a term used in business and economics to describe the consolidation of an industry or sector, in which businesses are eliminated or acquired through competition.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Singapore Airlines Limited (SIA) is the flag carrier airline of Singapore with its hub at Singapore Changi Airport.
A sky marshal (also known as air marshal, flight marshal, or, in the United States, FAM) is a covert law enforcement or counter-terrorist agent on board a commercial aircraft to counter aircraft hijackings.
Skybus Airlines Inc. was a privately held airline based in Columbus, Ohio, United States.
SkyEurope Airlines was a low-cost airline headquartered in Bratislava, with its main base at Bratislava Airport (BTS) in Bratislava, Slovakia, and another base in Prague.
SkyTeam is an airline alliance.
The Société Générale des Transports Aériens (SGTA) was a French airline founded in 1919.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Southwest Airlines Co. is a major United States airline headquartered in Dallas, Texas, and the world’s largest low-cost carrier.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
SriLankan Airlines (marketed as SriLankan) is the flag carrier of Sri Lanka and a member of the Oneworld airline alliance.
Star Alliance is one of the world's largest global airline alliances.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle was a French short/medium-range jet airliner.
Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn.
In business, a takeover is the purchase of one company (the target) by another (the acquirer, or bidder).
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Tampa is a major city in, and the county seat of, Hillsborough County, Florida, United States.
Tata Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Thai Airways International Public Company Limited, trading as THAI (บริษัท การบินไทย จำกัด (มหาชน)) is the flag carrier airline of Thailand.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Lost World is a 1925 American silent fantasy monster adventure film adapted from Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 novel of the same name.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Tiger Airways Australia Pty Ltd, operating as Tigerair Australia, is an Australian low-cost airline.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Antony Habersack Jannus, more familiarly known as Tony Jannus (July 22, 1889 – October 12, 1916), was an early American pilot whose aerial exploits were widely publicized in aviation's pre-World War I period.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Toussus-le-Noble is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.
Trans World Airlines (TWA) was a major American airline from 1924 until 2001.
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that has authority over the security of the traveling public in the United States.
A travel class is a quality of accommodation on public transport.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
The Tupolev Tu-104 (NATO reporting name: Camel) was a twinjet medium-range narrow-body turbojet-powered Soviet airliner.
The Tupolev Tu-124 (NATO reporting name: Cookpot) was a 56-passenger short-range twinjet airliner built in the Soviet Union.
The Tupolev Tu-144 (Tyполев Ту-144; NATO reporting name: Charger) is a retired jet airliner and commercial supersonic transport aircraft (SST).
Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey.
UAL Corporation is the former name of United Continental Holdings, an airline holding company, incorporated in Delaware with headquarters in Chicago, Illinois.
United Airlines, Inc., commonly referred to as United, is a major United States airline headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
The United States Army Air ServiceCraven and Cate Vol.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT or DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the U.S. government concerned with transportation.
The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.
The units of transportation measurement describes the unit of measurement used to measure the quantity and traffic of transportation used in transportation statistics, planning, and their related fields.
US Airways (formerly known as USAir) was a major American airline that ceased to operate independently when the Federal Aviation Administration granted a single operating certificate (SOC) for US Airways and American Airlines on April 8, 2015.
VARIG (acronym for Viação Aérea RIo-Grandense) was the first airline founded in Brazil, in 1927.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vieques Air Link (VAL, IATA code:V4) is a small Puerto Rico-based airline that links Vieques with Culebra and mainland Puerto Rico.
VIP Ecuador was an airline based at Mariscal Sucre International Airport and headquartered in Quito, Ecuador.
Virgin Atlantic, a trading name of Virgin Atlantic Airways Limited and Virgin Atlantic International Limited, is a British airline with its head office in Crawley, United Kingdom.
Virgin Green Fund was established in 2007 to invest in companies in the renewable energy and resource efficiency sectors in the US and Europe.
Volaris, legally Concesionaria Vuela Compañía de Aviación, S.A.B. de C.V. (BMV: VOLARA), is a Mexican low-cost airline based in Santa Fe, Álvaro Obregón, Mexico City with its hub in Guadalajara, Mexico City, and Tijuana, and focus cities in Cancun, Los Angeles, and Monterrey.
Wake Island (also known as Wake Atoll) is a coral atoll in the western Pacific Ocean in the northeastern area of the Micronesia subregion, east of Guam, west of Honolulu and southeast of Tokyo.
Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.
Washington Dulles International Airport is an international airport in the eastern United States, located in Loudoun and Fairfax counties in Virginia, west of downtown Opened in 1962, it is named after John Foster Dulles the 52nd Secretary of State who served under President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
A wide-body aircraft is a jet airliner with a fuselage wide enough to accommodate two passenger aisles, also known as twin-aisle aircraft, with seven or more seats abreast.
Wilhelmina (Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria; 31 August 1880 – 28 November 1962) was Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948.
William Bushnell Stout (March 16, 1880 – March 20, 1956) was a pioneeringhttp://home.earthlink.net/~ralphcooper/biostout.htm American inventor, engineer, developer and designer whose works in the automotive and aviation fields were groundbreaking.
Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones (winter does not occur in the tropical zone).
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The world's largest airlines can be defined in several ways.
Yangon (ရန်ကုန်မြို့, MLCTS rankun mrui,; formerly known as Rangoon, literally: "End of Strife") was the capital of the Yangon Region of Myanmar, also known as Burma.
Yield management is a variable pricing strategy, based on understanding, anticipating and influencing consumer behavior in order to maximize revenue or profits from a fixed, time-limited resource (such as airline seats or hotel room reservations or advertising inventory).
A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.
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