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Republic of Ireland

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Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. [1]

796 relations: Academic degree, Acts of Union 1800, Adamstown, Dublin, Adoption of the Constitution of Ireland, Aer Lingus, Agriculture, Aidan O'Brien, Air charter, Airtricity, All Kinds of Everything, All-Ireland, Allies of World War I, Allies of World War II, Amhrán na bhFiann, Ancient Greek, Andy Lee (boxer), Anglo-Irish Treaty, Anglo-Irish Treaty Dáil vote, Anglo-Normans, Anglosphere, Annie M. P. Smithson, Army Ranger Wing, Army Reserve (Ireland), Art Deco, Arthur Griffith, Arthur Guinness, Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland, Association football in the Republic of Ireland, Athlone, Atlantic Ocean, Attorney General v. 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Academic degree

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.

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Acts of Union 1800

The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Adamstown, Dublin

Adamstown is the first "new town style development" planned in Ireland since Shannon Town in 1982.

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Adoption of the Constitution of Ireland

The current Constitution of Ireland came into effect on 29 December 1937, repealing and replacing the Constitution of the Irish Free State, having been approved in a national plebiscite on 1 July 1937 with the support of 56.5% of voters in the then Irish Free State.

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Aer Lingus

Aer Lingus (an anglicisation of the Irish aerloingeas meaning "air fleet") is the flag carrier airline of Ireland and the second-largest airline in the country.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Aidan O'Brien

Aidan Patrick O'Brien (born 16 October 1969 in County Wexford, Ireland) is an Irish horse racing trainer.

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Air charter

Air charter is the business of renting an entire aircraft (i.e., chartering) as opposed to individual aircraft seats (i.e., purchasing a ticket through a traditional airline).

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Airtricity

SSE Airtricity (previously Eirtricity) was founded in Ireland in 1997 and is now an energy company owned by SSE plc.

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All Kinds of Everything

"All Kinds of Everything" is a song written by Derry Lindsay and Jackie Smith; as performed by Dana, it won the Eurovision Song Contest 1970.

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All-Ireland

"All-Ireland" is an attributive term which emphasises the whole of the island of Ireland.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Amhrán na bhFiann

"Amhrán na bhFiann", called "The Soldier's Song" in English, is the Irish national anthem.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Andy Lee (boxer)

Andy Lee (born 11 June 1984) is an Irish former professional boxer who competed from 2006 to 2017.

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Anglo-Irish Treaty

The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.

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Anglo-Irish Treaty Dáil vote

The Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed in London on 6 December 1921 and Dáil Éireann voted to approve the treaty on 7 January 1922, following a debate through late December 1921 and into January 1922.

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Anglo-Normans

The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.

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Anglosphere

The Anglosphere is a set of English-speaking nations which share common roots in British culture and history, which today maintain close cultural, political, diplomatic and military cooperation.

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Annie M. P. Smithson

Annie Mary Patricia Smithson (26 September 1873 – 21 February 1948) was an Irish novelist, poet and Nationalist.

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Army Ranger Wing

The Army Ranger Wing (ARW) (Sciathán Fiannóglaigh an Airm, "SFA") is the special operations force of the Irish Defence Forces, the military of Ireland.

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Army Reserve (Ireland)

The Army Reserve (AR) (Cúltaca an Airm) is the land component of Ireland's Reserve Defence Forces (RDF).

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Art Deco

Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.

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Arthur Griffith

Arthur Joseph Griffith (Art Seosamh Ó Gríobhtha; 31 March 1871 – 12 August 1922) was an Irish politician and writer, who founded and later led the political party Sinn Féin.

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Arthur Guinness

Arthur Guinness (Irish: Art Mac Aonasa; b. 28 September 1725 – d. 23 January 1803) was an Irish brewer and the founder of the Guinness brewery business and family.

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Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland

Article 2 and Article 3 of the Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) were adopted with the constitution as a whole on 29 December 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took effect on 2 December 1999.

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Association football in the Republic of Ireland

Association football more commonly referred to as football and sometimes soccer to disambiguate it is the team sport with the highest level of participation in the Republic of Ireland (with five-a-side games being included).

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Athlone

Athlone is a town on the River Shannon near the southern shore of Lough Ree in Ireland.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Attorney General v. X

Attorney General v X, IESC 1; 1 IR 1, (more commonly known as the "X Case") was a landmark Irish Supreme Court case which established the right of Irish women to an abortion if a pregnant woman's life was at risk because of pregnancy, including the risk of suicide.

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Australian rules football in Ireland

Australian rules football in Ireland is a recently introduced team sport but the country has a long history of interaction with Australian rules leagues.

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Áras an Uachtaráin

Áras an Uachtaráin, formerly the Viceregal Lodge, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of Ireland.

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Éamon de Valera

Éamon de Valera (first registered as George de Valero; changed some time before 1901 to Edward de Valera; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland.

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Bacon and cabbage

Bacon and cabbage is a dish traditionally associated with Ireland.

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Balbriggan

Balbriggan is a town in the northern part of Fingal, Ireland.

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Ballinasloe

Ballinasloe is a town in the easternmost part of County Galway Ireland.

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Ballydoyle

Ballydoyle is a racehorse training facility located in County Tipperary in Ireland.

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Ballymun

Ballymun is an area on Dublin's Northside in Ireland, the modern development of which began in the 1960s to accommodate a housing crisis in inner city areas of Dublin.

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Baltic languages

The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Barmbrack

Barm Brack (bairín breac), also called Barmbrack or often shortened to brack, is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins.

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Barryroe

Barryroe is an oil and gas field discovered in the Celtic Sea due south of Cork.

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Baryte

Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.

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Baseball in Ireland

Baseball Ireland is the governing body of baseball in Ireland, covering both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

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Basketball

Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Baton (law enforcement)

A baton or truncheon is a roughly cylindrical club made of wood, rubber, plastic or metal.

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Bay

A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Be3

be3 is a digital television channel in Ireland operated by the TV3 Group, a subsidiary of Virgin Media Ireland.

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Belfast

Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.

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Bernard Dunne

Bernard Dunne (born 6 February 1980) is an Irish former professional boxer and a former WBA (Regular), and European Super Bantamweight champion.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Billy Roche

Billy Roche (born 11 January 1949) is an Irish playwright and actor.

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Biodiversity

Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Blanket bog

Blanket bog or blanket mire, also known as featherbed bog, is an area of peatland, forming where there is a climate of high rainfall and a low level of evapotranspiration, allowing peat to develop not only in wet hollows but over large expanses of undulating ground.

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Bog

A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.

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Bord Gáis Energy Theatre

The Bord Gáis Energy Theatre (or Grand Canal Theatre) is Ireland's largest fixed-seat theatre, and is located in Grand Canal Square, Dublin.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Boxing

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.

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Boxty

Boxty (bacstaí) is a traditional Irish potato pancake.

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Boyle Abbey

Boyle Abbey (Mainistir na Búille) was the first successful foundation in Connacht of the Cistercian order which had opened its first Irish house at Mellifont, County Louth, in 1142.

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Bram Stoker

Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula.

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Braveheart

Braveheart is a 1995 American epic war film directed by Mel Gibson, who stars as William Wallace, a late 13th-century Scottish warrior who led the Scots in the First War of Scottish Independence against King Edward I of England.

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Bray

Bray (formerly Brí Chualann) is a coastal town in north County Wicklow, Ireland.

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Brú na Bóinne

Brú na Bóinne (Palace of the Boyne or Mansion of the Boyne) or Boyne valley tombs, is an area in County Meath, Ireland, located in a bend of the River Boyne.

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Bread

Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

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Brendan Behan

Brendan Francis Aidan Behan (christened Francis Behan) (Breandán Ó Beacháin; 9 February 1923 – 20 March 1964) was an Irish poet, short story writer, novelist and playwright who wrote in both English and Irish.

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Brexit

Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).

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Brian Friel

Brian Patrick Friel (9 January 1929 – 2 October 2015), born in Omagh, Northern Ireland, was a dramatist, short story writer and founder of the Field Day Theatre Company.

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Brian O'Driscoll

Brian Gerard O'Driscoll (born 21 January 1979) is a retired Irish professional rugby union player.

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Brian O'Nolan

Brian O'Nolan (Brian Ó Nualláin; 5 October 1911 – 1 April 1966) was an Irish novelist, playwright and satirist, considered a major figure in twentieth century Irish literature.

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Brigid of Kildare

Saint Brigid of Kildare or Brigid of Ireland (Naomh Bríd; Brigida; 525) is one of Ireland's patron saints, along with Patrick and Columba.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bunratty Castle

Bunratty Castle is a large 15th-century tower house in County Clare, Ireland.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Cargo

In economics, cargo or freight are goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by water, air or land.

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Carlow

Carlow is the county town of County Carlow, in the south-east of Ireland, from Dublin.

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Carlow County Council

Carlow County Council (Comhairle Contae Cheatharlach) is the authority responsible for local government in County Carlow, Ireland.

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Carrauntoohil

Carrauntoohil is the highest peak on the island of Ireland.

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Castlestrange Stone

The Castlestrange stone is located in the grounds of "Castlestrange House" near Athleague in County Roscommon, Ireland.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Church in Europe

The Catholic Church in Europe, also known as Roman Catholic Church in Europe, is part of worldwide Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See in Rome, including represented Eastern Catholic missions.

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Catholic emancipation

Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.

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Cavan County Council

Cavan County Council (Comhairle Contae an Chabháin) is the authority responsible for local government in County Cavan, Ireland.

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CBS News

CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.

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Ceann Comhairle

The Ceann Comhairle ("head of the council") is the chairperson (or speaker) of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of Ireland.

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Ceili dance

Ceili dances, or true ceili dances (fíor céili) are a popular form of folk dancing in Ireland.

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Celtic cross

The Celtic cross is a form of Christian cross featuring a nimbus or ring that emerged in Ireland and Britain in the Early Middle Ages.

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Celtic knot

Celtic knots, called Icovellavna, (snaidhm Cheilteach, cwlwm Celtaidd) are a variety of knots and stylized graphical representations of knots used for decoration, used extensively in the Celtic style of Insular art.

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Celtic nations

The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.

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Celtic Sea

The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.

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Celtic Tiger

"Celtic Tiger" (An Tíogar Ceilteach) is a term referring to the economy of the Republic of Ireland from the mid-1990s to the late-2000s, a period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment.

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Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Census of Ireland 2011

The Census of Ireland 2011 was held on Sunday, 10 April 2011.

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Central Bank of Ireland

The Central Bank of Ireland (Banc Ceannais na hÉireann) is Ireland's central bank, and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Central Statistics Office (Ireland)

The Central Statistics Office (CSO; An Phríomh-Oifig Staidrimh) is the statistical agency responsible for the gathering of "information relating to economic, social and general activities and conditions" in Ireland, in particular the National Census which is held every five years.

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Channel Islands

The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.

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Charity (practice)

The practice of charity means the voluntary giving of help to those in need, as a humanitarian act.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Charles Kickham

Charles Joseph Kickham (9 May 1828 – 22 August 1882) was an Irish revolutionary, novelist, poet, journalist and one of the most prominent members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood.

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Charles Stewart Parnell

Charles Stewart Parnell (Cathal Stiúbhard Parnell; 27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish nationalist politician and one of the most powerful figures in the British House of Commons in the 1880s.

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Charter

A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified.

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Christianity in Ireland

Christianity is and has been the largest religion in Ireland.

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Church of Ireland

The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.

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Circuit Court (Ireland)

The Circuit Court (An Chúirt Chuarda) of Ireland is an intermediate level court of local and limited jurisdiction in the which hears both civil and criminal matters.

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Cistercians

A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.

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Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010

The Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010 is an Act of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament) which allows same-sex couples to enter into civil partnerships.

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Clare County Council

Clare County Council (Comhairle Contae an Chláir) is the authority responsible for local government in County Clare, Ireland.

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Clonmacnoise

The monastery of Clonmacnoise (Cluain Mhic Nóis in Irish, meaning "Meadow of the Sons of Nós", or perhaps, albeit less likely, Cluain Muccu Nóis "Meadow of the Pigs of Nós") is situated in County Offaly, Ireland on the River Shannon south of Athlone.

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Clover

Clover or trefoil are common names for plants of the genus Trifolium (Latin, tres "three" + folium "leaf"), consisting of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae.

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Coalition government

A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".

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Coat of arms of Ireland

The coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as Azure a Celtic Harp Or, stringed Argent (a gold harp with silver strings on a blue background).

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Cod

Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.

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Coddle

Coddle (sometimes Dublin coddle) is an Irish dish which is often made to use up leftovers, and therefore without a specific recipe.

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Colcannon

Colcannon is a traditional Irish dish of mashed potatoes with kale or cabbage — as well as the name of a song about the dish.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colm Tóibín

Colm Tóibín (born 30 May 1955) is an Irish novelist, short story writer, essayist, playwright, journalist, critic and poet.

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Columba

Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.

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Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base

The Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB) is a proposal for a common tax scheme for the European Union developed by the European Commission and first proposed in March 2011 which would create a single set of rules for how EU corporations calculate their EU taxes and provide the ability to consolidate EU taxes.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Common Travel Area

The Common Travel Area (CTA; Comhlimistéar Taistil) is an open borders area comprising the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Commuting

Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work, or study, and in doing so exceed the boundary of their residential community.

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Concert dance

Concert dance (also known as performance dance or theatre dance in the United Kingdom) is dance performed for an audience.

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Conduit and Sink OFCs

Conduit OFC and Sink OFC is an empirical quantitative method of classifying corporate tax havens, offshore financial centres and tax havens.

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Confidence and supply

In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.

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Congo Crisis

The Congo Crisis (Crise congolaise) was a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between 1960 and 1965.

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Conor McPherson

Conor McPherson (born 6 August 1971) is an Irish playwright and director.

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Conscription Crisis of 1918

The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the British government to impose conscription (military draft) in Ireland in April 1918 during the First World War.

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Constitution of Ireland

The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.

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Constitution of the Irish Free State

The Constitution of the Irish Free State (Bunreacht Shaorstáit Eireann) was adopted by Act of Dáil Éireann sitting as a constituent assembly on 25 October 1922.

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Constitutional Convention (Ireland)

The Convention on the Constitution (An Coinbhinsiún ar an mBunreacht) was established in Ireland in 2012 to discuss proposed amendments to the Constitution of Ireland.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Constitutional republic

A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.

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Convention Centre Dublin

The Convention Centre Dublin is a convention centre in the Dublin Docklands, Ireland.

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Coolmore Stud

Coolmore Stud, in Fethard, County Tipperary in Ireland, is headquarters of the world's largest breeding operation of thoroughbred racehorses.

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Copts

The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.

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Cork (city)

Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.

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Cork Airport

Cork Airport (Aerfort Chorcaí) is the second-largest of the three principal international airports in the Republic of Ireland, after Dublin and ahead of Shannon.

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Cork City Council

Cork City Council (Comhairle Cathrach Chorcaí) is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Cork in Ireland.

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Cork County Council

Cork County Council (Comhairle Contae Chorcaí) is the authority responsible for local government in County Cork, Ireland.

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Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland

With 80% of Irish corporation tax ("CT") coming from foreign multinationals, and 14 of Ireland's largest 20 companies being US-based, Ireland is considered to have an advanced corporation tax regime (12.5% rate, broad tax-treaty network, tax-free holding company regimes, advanced intellectual property/knowledge box regimes).

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Corrib gas project

The Corrib gas project (Tionscanamh Ghás Aiceanta na Coiribe) entails the extraction of a natural gas deposit off the northwest coast of Ireland.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Council of State (Ireland)

The Council of State (an Chomhairle Stáit) is a body established by the Constitution of Ireland to advise the President of Ireland in the exercise of many of his or her discretionary, reserve powers.

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Counties of Ireland

The counties of Ireland (contaetha na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: coonties o Airlann) are sub-national divisions that have been, and in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government.

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Countries of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

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Country dance

A country dance is any of a large number of social dances of the British Isles in which couples dance together in a figure or "set", each dancer dancing to his or her partner and each couple dancing to the other couples in the set.

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County Hall, Cork

The County Hall is a 17-storey office block, owned by Cork County Council and housing its administrative headquarters.

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County Kildare

County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara) is a county in Ireland.

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Court of Appeal (Ireland)

The Court of Appeal (An Chúirt Achomhairc) is a court in Ireland that sits between the High Court and Supreme Court.

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Crannog

A crannog (crannóg; crannag) is typically a partially or entirely artificial island, usually built in lakes, rivers and estuarine waters of Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.

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Cricket in Ireland

Cricket in Ireland is a long-established sport.

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Cricket Ireland

Cricket Ireland, officially the Irish Cricket Union, is the governing body for cricket in Ireland (both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland), and oversees the Ireland cricket team and Ireland women's cricket team.

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Criminal Courts of Justice (Dublin)

The Criminal Courts of Justice (Na Cúirteanna Breithiúnais Coiriúla) is the principal courts building for the criminal courts in the Republic of Ireland.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.

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Curragh Racecourse

The Curragh Racecourse, usually referred to as simply The Curragh, is Ireland's most important Thoroughbred racecourse.

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Cycling

Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Daily Mirror

The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903.

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Dana Rosemary Scallon

Dana Rosemary Scallon (born Rosemary Brown on 30 August 1951), known in her singing career as Dana, is a British-born Irish singer and former politician who served as Member of the European Parliament from 1999 to 2004.

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David Norris (politician)

David Patrick Bernard Norris (born 31 July 1944) is an Irish scholar, independent Senator and civil rights activist.

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Dáil Éireann

Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).

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Dáil Éireann (Irish Republic)

Dáil Éireann (Assembly of Ireland), also called the Revolutionary Dáil, was the revolutionary, unicameral parliament of the Irish Republic from 1919 to 1922.

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Dáil constituencies

There are currently 40 multi-member constituencies, that democratically elect 158 TDs (members of parliament), to Dáil Éireann (Ireland's lower house), usually every five years.

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Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council

Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council (Comhairle Contae Dhún Laoghaire-Ráth an Dúin) is the authority responsible for local government in the county of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Ireland.

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Declaration of independence

A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state.

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Deer

Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.

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Defence Forces (Ireland)

The Defence Forces (Fórsaí Cosanta, officially styled Óglaigh na hÉireann),Óglaigh na hÉireann derives its origins from the Irish Volunteers.

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Deforestation

Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Democratic Left (Ireland)

Democratic Left was a left-wing political party in Ireland between 1992 and 1999.

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Denis Johnston

(William) Denis Johnston (18 June 1901 – 8 August 1984) was an Irish writer.

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Dermot Bolger

Dermot Bolger (born 1959) is an Irish novelist, playwright and poet born in Finglas, a suburb of Dublin.

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Diacritic

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Digital terrestrial television

Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT) is a technology for broadcast television in which land-based (terrestrial) television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format.

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Dissolution of the Monasteries

The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.

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District Court (Ireland)

The District Court (An Chúirt Dúiche) is the main court of summary jurisdiction in Ireland.

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Dolomite

Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.

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Dominion

Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.

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Donegal County Council

Donegal County Council (Comhairle Contae Dhún na nGall) is the authority responsible for local government in County Donegal, Ireland.

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Double Irish arrangement

Double Irish arrangement is a tax scheme used by some U.S. corporations in Ireland (including Apple, Google and Facebook amongst others), to shield non-U.S. income from the pre Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA) U.S. worldwide 35% tax system, and almost all Irish taxes.

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Double monastery

A double monastery (also double house) is a monastery combining a separate community of monks and one of nuns, joined in one institution.

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Dracula

Dracula is an 1897 Gothic horror novel by Irish author Bram Stoker.

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Drogheda

Drogheda is one of the oldest towns in Ireland.

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Drombeg stone circle

Drombeg stone circle (also known as The Druid's Altar), is a Recumbent stone circle located east of Glandore, County Cork, Ireland. Drombeg is one of the most visited megalithic sites in Ireland and is protected under the National Monuments Act.

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Dublin

Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Dublin Airport

Dublin Airport (Aerfort Bhaile Átha Cliath) is an international airport serving Dublin, the capital city of Ireland.

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Dublin Area Rapid Transit

The Dublin Area Rapid Transit system, officially and popularly known as the DART, is an electrified rapid transit railway network serving the coastline and city centre of Dublin, capital city of the Republic of Ireland.

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Dublin Bus

Dublin Bus (Bus Átha Cliath) is a bus operator providing services in Dublin.

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Dublin Castle

Dublin Castle (Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) off Dame Street, Dublin, Ireland, is a major Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attraction.

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Dublin City Council

Dublin City Council (Comhairle Cathrach Bhaile Átha Cliath) is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Dublin in Ireland.

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Dublin Connolly railway station

Dublin Connolly (Stáisiún Uí Chonghaile) is the busiest railway station in Dublin and Ireland, and is a focal point in the Irish route network.

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Dublin Docklands

Dublin Docklands (Ceantar Dugaí Átha Cliath) is an area of the city of Dublin, Ireland, on both sides of the River Liffey, roughly from Talbot Memorial Bridge eastwards to the 3Arena.

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Dublin Docklands Development Authority

The Dublin Docklands Development Authority (Údarás Forbartha Dugthailte Bhaile Átha Cliath) (DDDA) was created by the Dublin Docklands Development Authority Act 1997 to lead a major project of physical, social and economic regeneration in the East side of Dublin along both banks of the River Liffey.

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Dublin Marathon

The Dublin Marathon is an annual 26.2 mile (42.2 kilometer) marathon in Dublin, Ireland, held on the last Sunday in October.

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Dublin Port Tunnel

The Dublin Tunnel (Irish: Tollán Bhaile Átha Cliath), originally and still commonly known as the Dublin Port Tunnel, is a road traffic tunnel in Dublin, Ireland, that forms part of the M50 motorway.

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Dublin Women's Mini Marathon

The Dublin Women's Mini Marathon (currently known as the Vhi Women's Mini Marathon, for title sponsor Vhi Healthcare) is an annual 10km charity road race that occurs each June bank holiday weekend in Ireland is the largest Women's event of its kind in the world.

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Dublinbikes

Dublinbikes (styled "dublinbikes") is a public bicycle rental scheme which has operated in the city of Dublin since 2009.

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Dundalk

Dundalk is the county town of County Louth, Ireland.

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Eamonn Coghlan

Eamonn Christopher Coghlan (born 21 November 1952) is a former track and field athlete who specialised in middle distance track events and the 5,000 metres.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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East-Link (Dublin)

The Tom Clarke Bridge, formerly and commonly known as the East-Link Toll Bridge, is a toll bridge in Dublin, Ireland, on the River Liffey, owned and operated by Dublin City Council.

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Easter Rising

The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Economic liberalism

Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.

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Edith Somerville

Edith Anna Œnone Somerville (2 May 1858 – 8 October 1949) was an Irish novelist who habitually signed herself as "E.

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Edna O'Brien

Edna O'Brien, DBE (born 15 December 1930) is an Irish novelist, memoirist, playwright, poet and short story writer.

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Edward Carson

Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC, PC (Ire), KC (9 February 1854 – 22 October 1935), from 1900 to 1921 known as Sir Edward Carson, was an Irish unionist politician, barrister and judge.

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Edward Lovett Pearce

Sir Edward Lovett Pearce (1699 – 7 December 1733) was an Irish architect, and the chief exponent of palladianism in Ireland.

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Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland

The Eighth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1983 amended the Constitution of Ireland by inserting a subsection recognising the equal right to life of the pregnant woman and the unborn.

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Electric Ireland

Electric Ireland is the supply division of the Electricity Supply Board, the former monopoly electricity company in Ireland.

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Elizabeth Bowen

Elizabeth Bowen, CBE (7 June 1899 – 22 February 1973) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and short story writer, notable for some of the best fiction about life in wartime London.

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Elm

Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.

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Enda Kenny

Enda Patrick Kenny (born 24 April 1951) is an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Taoiseach from 2011 to 2017, Leader of Fine Gael from 2002 to 2017, Minister for Defence from May 2014 to July 2014 and 2016 to 2017, Leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2011, Minister for Tourism and Trade from 1994 to 1997 and Minister of State for Youth Affairs from 1986 to 1987.

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Energy in Ireland

Energy in Ireland describes energy and electricity production, consumption and importing in the Republic of Ireland.

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English country house

An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Ennis

Ennis is the county town of County Clare, Ireland.

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Enterprise (train service)

| Enterprise is the cross-border inter-city train service between in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland, jointly operated by Iarnród Éireann (IE) and NI Railways (NIR).

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Eoin Colfer

Eoin Colfer (born 14 May 1965) is an Irish author of children's books.

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Equestrianism

Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.

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Ervia

Ervia, previously known as Bord Gáis or Bord Gáis Éireann (meaning "Gas Board of Ireland"), is a multi-utility company distributing pipeline natural gas, water services and dark fibre services in Ireland.

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EU illegal State aid case against Apple in Ireland

On 29 August 2016, after a two-year EU investigation, Margrethe Vestager of the European Commission announced Apple received illegal State aid from Ireland.

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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Euro sign

The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).

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Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council

The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a post-Cold War NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European Health Insurance Card

The European Health Insurance Card (or EHIC) is issued free of charge and allows anyone who is insured by or covered by a statutory social security scheme of the EEA countries and Switzerland to receive medical treatment in another member state free or at a reduced cost, if that treatment becomes necessary during their visit (for example, due to illness or an accident), or if they have a chronic pre-existing condition which requires care such as kidney dialysis.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurostat

Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Eurovision Song Contest

The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.

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Eurovision Song Contest 1994

The Eurovision Song Contest 1994 was the 39th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on 30 April 1994 in the Point Theatre in Dublin, Ireland.

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Exclusive economic zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.

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Executive Council of the Irish Free State

The Executive Council (Ard-Chomhairle) was the cabinet and de facto executive branch of government of the 1922–1937 Irish Free State.

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Fís Éireann/Screen Ireland

Fís Éireann/Screen Ireland (FÉ/SI), formerly Bord Scannán na hÉireann/the Irish Film Board (BSÉ/IFB), is Ireland’s national development agency for the Irish film, television and animation industry.

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Fertilizer

A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Fianna Fáil

Fianna Fáil (meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach), is a political party in Ireland.

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Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland

The Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1995 (previously bill no. 15 of 1995) is an amendment of the Constitution of Ireland which removed the constitutional prohibition on divorce, and allowed for the dissolution of a marriage provided specified conditions were satisfied.

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Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland

The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1972 is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland which deleted two subsections that recognised the special position of the Catholic Church and that recognised other named religious denominations.

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Figurehead

In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Financial services

Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.

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Fine Gael

Fine Gael (English: Family or Tribe of the Irish) is a liberal-conservative and Christian democratic political party in Ireland.

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Fingal County Council

Fingal County Council (Comhairle Contae Fhine Gall) is the authority responsible for local government in the county of Fingal, Ireland.

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Firearm

A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.

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First Dáil

The First Dáil (An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921.

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Flag of Ireland

The national flag of Ireland (bratach na hÉireann) – frequently referred to as the Irish tricolour (trídhathach na hÉireann) – is the national flag and ensign of the Republic of Ireland.

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Football Association of Ireland

The Football Association of Ireland (FAI; Cumann Peile na hÉireann) is the governing body for association football in the Republic of Ireland.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Formation dance

Formation dance is a style of ballroom dancing.

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Four Courts

The Four Courts (Na Ceithre Cúirteanna) is Ireland's main courts building, located on Inns Quay in Dublin.

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Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland

The Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1992 (previously bill no. 26 of 1992) is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland which specified that the protection of the right to life of the unborn does not limit the right to distribute information about services in foreign countries.

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Franciscans

The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.

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Frank McGuinness

Professor Frank McGuinness (born 1953) is an Irish writer.

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Frank O'Connor

Frank O'Connor (born Michael Francis O'Donovan; 17 September 1903 – 10 March 1966) was an Irish writer of over 150 works, best known for his short stories and memoirs.

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Fraxinus excelsior

Fraxinus excelsior, known as the ash, or European ash or common ash to distinguish it from other types of ash, is a flowering plant species in the olive family Oleaceae.

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Free trade areas in Europe

At present, there are four multi-lateral free trade areas in Europe, and one former free trade area in recent history.

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Free-to-air

Free-to-air (FTA) are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription, other ongoing cost or one-off fee (e.g. Pay-per-view).

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Freedom in the World

Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.

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Frogman

A frogman is someone who is trained in scuba diving or swimming underwater in a tactical capacity that includes police or military work.

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Full breakfast

A full breakfast is a breakfast meal that typically includes bacon, sausages, eggs and a beverage such as coffee or tea.

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Gaelic Athletic Association

The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA; Cumann Lúthchleas Gael, (CLG)) is an Irish international amateur sporting and cultural organisation, focused primarily on promoting indigenous Gaelic games and pastimes, which include the traditional Irish sports of hurling, camogie, Gaelic football, Gaelic handball and rounders.

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Gaelic football

Gaelic football (Irish: Peil Ghaelach; short name Peil or Caid), commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport.

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Gaelic games

Gaelic games are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).

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Gaelic handball

Gaelic handball (known in Ireland simply as handball; liathróid láimhe) is a sport played in Ireland where players hit a ball with a hand or fist against a wall in such a way as to make a shot the opposition cannot return, and that may be played with two (singles) or four players (doubles).

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Gaelic Ireland

Gaelic Ireland (Éire Ghaidhealach) was the Gaelic political and social order, and associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.

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Gaels

The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.

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Gaeltacht

Gaeltacht (plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish-language word for any primarily Irish-speaking region.

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Galileo (horse)

Galileo (foaled 30 March 1998) is a retired Irish Thoroughbred racehorse and active sire.

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Galway

Galway (Gaillimh) is a city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht.

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Galway City Council

Galway City Council (Comhairle Cathrach na Gaillimhe) is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Galway in Ireland.

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Galway County Council

Galway County Council (Comhairle Contae na Gaillimhe) is the authority responsible for local government in County Galway, Ireland.

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Garda Síochána

An Garda Síochána (meaning "the Guardian of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí ("Guardians") or "the Guards", is the police force of the Republic of Ireland.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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General Post Office, Dublin

The General Post Office (GPO; Ard-Oifig an Phoist) in Dublin is the headquarters of An Post, the Irish Post Office, and Dublin's principal post office.

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General practitioner

In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.

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Geographic coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.

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George Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.

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George Moore (novelist)

George Augustus Moore (24 February 1852 – 21 January 1933) was an Irish novelist, short-story writer, poet, art critic, memoirist and dramatist.

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George VI

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.

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Georges Pompidou

Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 19112 April 1974) was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974.

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Georgetown University

Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.

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Georgian architecture

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830.

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Georgian Dublin

Georgian Dublin is a phrase used in terms of the history of Dublin that has two interwoven meanings.

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Gerald Griffin

Gerald Griffin (12 December 1803 – 12 June 1840) was an Irish novelist, poet and playwright.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Global Gender Gap Report

The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.

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Golf

Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

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Good Friday Agreement

The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Gothic Revival architecture

Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.

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Government of Ireland

The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland.

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Government of Ireland Act 1914

The Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90), also known as the Home Rule Act, and before enactment as the Third Home Rule Bill, was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to provide home rule (self-government within the United Kingdom) for Ireland.

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Government of the United Kingdom

The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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Governor-General of the Irish Free State

The Governor-General (Seanascal) was the official representative of the sovereign of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1936.

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Grand jury

A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.

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Grand Slam (rugby union)

In rugby union, a Grand Slam (Irish: Caithréim Mhór. Welsh: Y Gamp Lawn. French: Grand Chelem) occurs when one team in the Six Nations Championship (or its Five Nations predecessor) manages to beat all the others during one year's competition.

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Great Famine (Ireland)

The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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Green Ensign

The Green Ensign is a historical flag flown by some Irish merchant vessels from the 17th century to the early 20th century.

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Green Party (Ireland)

The Green Party (Comhaontas Glas, literally "Green Alliance") is a green political party that operates in Ireland—both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

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Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.

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Greyhound racing

Greyhound racing is an organized, competitive sport in which greyhound dogs are raced around a track.

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Guinness

Guinness is an Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness (1725–1803) at St. James's Gate brewery in the capital city of Dublin, Ireland.

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Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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Gulliver's Travels

Gulliver's Travels, or Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World.

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Gypsum

Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.

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H. H. Asquith

Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916.

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Hans Place

Hans Place is a garden square in the Knightsbridge district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, immediately south of Harrods in SW1.

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Hazel

The hazel (Corylus) is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Headland

A headland (or simply head) is a coastal landform, a point of land usually high and often with a sheer drop, that extends into a body of water.

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Health Consumer Powerhouse

Health Consumer Powerhouse is a Swedish health policy think tank which specialises in comparing healthcare systems throughout Europe.

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Health Service Executive

The Health Service Executive (HSE) (Feidhmeannacht na Seirbhíse Sláinte) is responsible for the provision of health and personal social services for everyone living in Ireland, with public funds.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hedge

A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties.

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Heuston railway station

Heuston Station (Stáisiún Heuston; formerly Kingsbridge Station) also known as Dublin Heuston, is one of Ireland's main railway stations, linking the capital with the south, southwest and west.

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High Court (Ireland)

The High Court is established by Article 34 of the Constitution of Ireland, which grants it "full original jurisdiction in and power to determine all matters and questions whether of law or fact, civil or criminal", as well as the ability to determine "the validity of any law having regard to the provisions of this Constitution".

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HighBeam Research

HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.

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Hinduism in the Republic of Ireland

For an article on Hinduism specifically in Northern Ireland, see Hinduism in Northern Ireland Hinduism in the Republic of Ireland is one of the fastest-growing religions by percentage.

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History of Sinn Féin

Sinn Féin ("We Ourselves", often mistranslated as "Ourselves Alone") is the name of an Irish political party founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith.

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History of the Republic of Ireland

The Irish state came into being in 1922 as the Irish Free State, a dominion of the British Commonwealth, having seceded from the United Kingdom under the Anglo-Irish Treaty.

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Honors music

The honors music for a person, office or rank is music played on formal or ceremonial occasions in the presence of the person, office-holder, or rank-holder, especially by a military band.

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Horse racing

Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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House of Lords

The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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House of Tudor

The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.

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Hugh Leonard

Hugh Leonard (9 November 1926 – 12 February 2009) was an Irish dramatist, television writer and essayist.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Hurling

Hurling (iománaíocht, iomáint) is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin.

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Iarnród Éireann

Iarnród Éireann, also known as Irish Rail in English, is the operator of the national railway network of Ireland.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Independent politician

An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.

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Index of Economic Freedom

The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.

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Industrial Workers of the World

The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), members of which are commonly termed "Wobblies", is an international labor union that was founded in 1905 in Chicago, Illinois in the United States of America.

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Inis Cathaigh

Inis Cathaigh or Scattery Island is an island in the Shannon Estuary, Ireland, off the coast of Kilrush, County Clare.

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InterCity (Iarnród Éireann)

InterCity is the brand name given to rail services operated by Iarnród Éireann that run between Dublin and other major cities in Ireland.

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International Air Transport Association

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.

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International airport

An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.

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International Financial Services Centre

The International Financial Services Centre (or IFSC) began in 1987 as a special economic zone on a derelict 11 hectare site near the centre of Dublin, with EU approval to apply a 10% corporate tax rate for designated financial services activities on the site.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International rules football

International rules football (Peil na rialacha idirnáisiunta; also known as inter rules in Australia and compromise rules in Ireland) is a team sport consisting of a hybrid of football codes, which was developed to facilitate international representative matches between Australian rules football players and Gaelic football players.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Ireland and World War I

During World War I (1914–1918), Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which entered the war in August 1914 as one of the Entente Powers, along with France, and the Russian Empire.

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Ireland cricket team

The Ireland cricket team represents all of Ireland.

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Ireland in the Eurovision Song Contest

Ireland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 52 times since making its debut at the 1965 Contest in Naples, missing only two contests since then (and). The contest final is broadcast in Ireland on RTÉ One.

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Ireland men's national rugby league team

The Ireland men's national rugby league team, known as the Wolfhounds, represents Ireland in international rugby league competitions.

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Ireland National League (rugby league)

The All-Ireland Rugby League Championship (now the McGettigans All-Ireland League for sponsorship reasons) was first played for in 1997 under the title All-Ireland Challenge Cup.

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Ireland national netball team

The Ireland national netball team is the national netball team of Ireland.

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Ireland–IMF relations

The Republic of Ireland received an international rescue package from International Monetary Fund (IMF) with a sum total of 22.5 billion euros which was meant to fund programs aimed to restore banking system back to health, and reduce deficit and public debt.

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Irish Air Corps

The Air Corps (An tAerchór) is the air component of the Defence Forces of Ireland.

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Irish Army

The Irish Army, known simply as the Army (an tArm), is the land component of the Defence Forces of Ireland.

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Irish Athletic Boxing Association

The Irish Athletic Boxing Association Ltd. (IABA) is the national governing body for amateur boxing in Ireland.

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Irish breakfast tea

Irish breakfast tea is a blend of several black teas, most often Assam teas.

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Irish Catholics

Irish Catholics are an ethnoreligious group native to Ireland that are both Catholic and Irish.

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Irish Citizen Army

The Irish Citizen Army, or ICA, was a small paramilitary group of trained trade union volunteers from the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU) established in Dublin for the defence of workers' demonstrations from the police.

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Irish Civil War

The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.

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Irish coffee

Irish coffee (caife Gaelach) is a cocktail consisting of hot coffee, Irish whiskey, and sugar (some recipes specify that brown sugar should be used, specifying brown sugar, and that fresh cream should be floated on top.), stirred, and topped with thick cream.

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Irish Declaration of Independence

The Declaration of Independence (Forógra na Saoirse, Déclaration d'Indépendance) was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the Irish Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21 January 1919.

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Irish diaspora

The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael) refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland.

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Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.

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Irish general election, 1918

The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 general election which took place in Ireland.

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Irish Home Rule movement

The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Irish Independent

The Irish Independent is Ireland's largest-selling daily newspaper, published by Independent News & Media (INM).

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Irish Land Acts

The Land Acts were a series of measures to deal with the question of peasant proprietorship of land in Ireland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Irish military diaspora

The Irish military diaspora refers to the many people of either Irish birth or extraction (see Irish diaspora) who have served in overseas military forces, regardless of rank, duration of service, or success.

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Irish National Land League

The Irish National Land League (Irish: Conradh na Talún) was an Irish political organisation of the late 19th century which sought to help poor tenant farmers.

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Irish nationality law

Irish nationality law is contained in the provisions of the Irish Nationality and Citizenship Acts 1956 to 2004 and in the relevant provisions of the Irish Constitution.

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Irish Naval Service

The Naval Service (an tSeirbhís Chabhlaigh) is the maritime component of the Defence Forces of Ireland and is one of the three branches of the Irish Defence Forces.

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Irish neutrality during World War II

The policy of Irish neutrality during World War II was adopted by the Oireachtas at the instigation of the Taoiseach Éamon de Valera upon the outbreak of World War II in Europe.

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Irish Parliamentary Party

The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP; commonly called the Irish Party or the Home Rule Party) was formed in 1874 by Isaac Butt, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland up until 1918.

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Irish passport

An Irish passport is the passport issued to citizens of Ireland.

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Irish people

The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.

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Irish pound

The Irish pound (punt Éireannach) was the currency of Ireland until 2002.

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Irish prose fiction

The first Irish prose fiction, in the form of legendary stories, appeared in the Irish language as early as the seventh century, along with chronicles and lives of saints in Irish and Latin.

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Irish Republic

The Irish Republic (Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in January 1919.

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Irish Republican Army (1919–1922)

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Óglaigh na hÉireann) was an Irish republican revolutionary paramilitary organisation.

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Irish Republican Army (1922–1969)

The original Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence between 1919 and 1921.

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Irish republicanism

Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.

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Irish round tower

Irish round towers (Cloigtheach (singular), Cloigthithe (plural) – literally "bell house") are early medieval stone towers of a type found mainly in Ireland, with two in Scotland and one on the Isle of Man.

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Irish Rugby Football Union

The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) (Cumann Rugbaí na hÉireann) is the body managing rugby union in the island of Ireland (both Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).

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Irish Sea

The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.

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Irish stepdance

Irish stepdance is a style of performance dance with its roots in traditional Irish dance.

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Irish stew

Irish stew (stobhach / Stobhach Gaelach) is any variety of meat-and-root vegetables stew native to Ireland.

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Irish theatre

The history of Irish theatre begins with the rise of the English administration in Dublin at the start of the 17th century.

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Irish traditional music

Irish traditional music (also known as Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland.

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Irish Travellers

Irish Travellers (an lucht siúil, meaning 'the walking people') are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group who maintain a set of traditions.

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Irish Unionist Alliance

The Irish Unionist Alliance (IUA), also known as the Irish Unionist Party or simply the Unionists, was a unionist political party founded in Ireland in 1891 from the Irish Loyal and Patriotic Union to oppose plans for Home Rule for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Irish Volunteers

The Irish Volunteers (Óglaigh na hÉireann), sometimes called the Irish Volunteer Force or Irish Volunteer Army, was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists.

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Irish War of Independence

The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.

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Irish whiskey

Irish whiskey (Fuisce or uisce beatha) is whiskey made on the island of Ireland.

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Irish Wolfhound

The Irish Wolfhound (Cú Faoil) is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), specifically a very large sighthound from Ireland.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam in the Republic of Ireland

The documented history of Islam in Ireland dates to the 1950s.

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Jack (flag)

A jack is a national (originally naval) flag flown from a short jackstaff at the bow of a vessel, while the ensign is flown on the stern.

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Jack Lynch Tunnel

The Jack Lynch Tunnel (Irish: Tollán Sheáin Uí Loingsigh) is an immersed tube tunnel and an integral part of the N40 southern ring road of Cork in Ireland.

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James Connolly

James Connolly (Séamas Ó Conghaile; 5 June 1868 – 12 May 1916) was an Irish republican and socialist leader.

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James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon

James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon, PC, PC (NI) DL (8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940), was a prominent Irish unionist politician, leader of the Ulster Unionist Party and the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.

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James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.

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John B. Keane

John Brendan Keane (21 July 1928 – 30 May 2002) was an Irish playwright, novelist and essayist from Listowel, County Kerry.

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John Banim

John Banim (3 April 1798 – 30 August 1842), was an Irish novelist, short story writer, dramatist, poet and essayist, sometimes called the "Scott of Ireland." He also studied art, working as a painter of miniatures and portraits, and as a drawing teacher, before dedicating himself to literature.

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John Banville

William John Banville (born 8 December 1945), who sometimes writes as Benjamin Black, is an Irish novelist, adapter of dramas, and screenwriter.

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John McGahern

John McGahern (12 November 1934 – 30 March 2006) is regarded as one of the most important Irish writers of the latter half of the twentieth century.

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John Redmond

John Edward Redmond (1 September 1856 – 6 March 1918) was an Irish nationalist politician, barrister, and MP in the British House of Commons.

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Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

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Joseph O'Connor

Joseph Victor O'Connor is an Irish novelist.

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Judicial review

Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

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Junior Certificate

The Junior Certificate (Teastas Sóisearach) or "Junior Cert" for short, is an educational qualification awarded in Ireland by the Department of Education and Skills to students who have successfully completed the junior cycle of secondary education and achieved a minimum standard in their Junior Certificate Examination (Irish: Scrúdú an Teastais Shóisearaigh).

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Jury

A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.

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Kate O'Brien (novelist)

Kate O'Brien (3 December 1897 – 13 August 1974) was an Irish novelist and playwright.

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Katherine Zappone

Katherine Alexandra Zappone (born 25 November 1953) is an American-Irish Independent politician who has served as Minister for Children and Youth Affairs since May 2016.

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Katie Taylor

Katie Taylor (born 2 July 1986) is an Irish professional boxer and former footballer.

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Kells, County Meath

Kells is a town in County Meath, Ireland.

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Kerry County Council

Kerry County Council (Comhairle Contae Chiarraí) is the authority responsible for local government in County Kerry, Ireland.

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Kerry Group

Kerry Group is a public food company headquartered in Ireland.

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Kildare County Council

Kildare County Council (Comhairle Contae Chill Dara) is the authority responsible for local government in County Kildare, Ireland.

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Kilkenny

Kilkenny.

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Kilkenny Castle

Kilkenny Castle (Caisleán Chill Chainnigh) is a castle in Kilkenny, Ireland built in 1195 to control a fording-point of the River Nore and the junction of several routeways.

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Kilkenny County Council

Kilkenny County Council (Comhairle Contae Chill Chainnigh) is the authority responsible for local government in County Kilkenny, Ireland.

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King's Inns

The Honorable Society of King's Inns (HSKI) is the institution which controls the entry of barristers-at-law into the justice system of Ireland.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Kingdom of Ireland

The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.

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Kingdom of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

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Kinsale Head gas field

The Kinsale Head gas field is an offshore natural gas field off the southern coast of Ireland discovered in 1973 near Old Head of Kinsale, in the Celtic Sea and met Ireland's gas need until 1996.

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Kitchener's Army

The New Army, often referred to as Kitchener's Army or, disparagingly, as Kitchener's Mob, was an (initially) all-volunteer army of the British Army formed in the United Kingdom from 1914 onwards following the outbreak of hostilities in the First World War in late July 1914.

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Knightsbridge

Knightsbridge is an exclusive residential and retail district in West London, south of Hyde Park.

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Knowledge economy

The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.

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Labour Party (Ireland)

The Labour Party (Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a social-democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland.

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Land reform

Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.

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Laois County Council

Laois County Council (Comhairle Contae Laoise) is the authority responsible for local government in County Laois, Ireland.

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Larger urban zone

The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Laurence Sterne

Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768) was an Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman.

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Law of the Republic of Ireland

The law of Ireland consists of constitutional, statute and common law.

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League of Ireland

The League of Ireland (Sraith na hÉireann), together with the Football Association of Ireland, is one of the two main governing bodies responsible for organising association football in the Republic of Ireland.

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Leaving Certificate (Ireland)

The Leaving Certificate Examination (Scrúdú na hArdteistiméireachta), which is commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert (Irish: Ardteist) is the university matriculation examination in the Republic of Ireland and the final exam of the Irish secondary school system.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Left- and right-hand traffic

The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.

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Leinster House

Leinster House (Teach Laighean) is the seat of the Oireachtas, the parliament of Ireland.

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Leitrim County Council

Leitrim County Council (Comhairle Contae Liatroma) is the authority responsible for local government in County Leitrim, Ireland.

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Leo Varadkar

Leo Eric Varadkar (born 18 January 1979) is an Irish politician who has served as Taoiseach, Minister for Defence and Leader of Fine Gael since June 2017.

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Leopardstown Racecourse

Leopardstown Racecourse is an Irish horse-racing venue, located in Leopardstown, Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, 8km south of the Dublin city centre.

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Leprechaun economics

Leprechaun economics was a term coined by Nobel Prize-winning economist Paul Krugman in a tweet on 12 July 2016 in response to the publication by the Irish Central Statistics Office (CSO) that Irish GDP had grown by 26.3%, and Irish GNP had grown by 18.7%, in the 2015 Irish national accounts.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Limerick

Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.

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Limerick City and County Council

Limerick City and County Council (Comhairle Cathrach agus Contae Luimnigh) is the authority responsible for local government in the City of Limerick and County Limerick in Ireland.

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Limerick Tunnel

The Limerick Tunnel is a, twin bore road tunnel underneath the River Shannon on the outskirts of Limerick city.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of countries by economic freedom

This article includes a partial List of countries by economic freedom that shows the top 50 highest ranking countries from two reports on economic freedom.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

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List of Ireland-related topics

This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland.

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List of Irish novelists

This is a list of novelists either born on the island of Ireland or holding Irish citizenship.

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List of Irish people

This is a list of notable Irish people who were born on the island of Ireland, in either the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland, and have lived there for most of their lives.

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List of monastic houses in Ireland

This is a list of the abbeys, priories, friaries and other monastic religious houses in Ireland.

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List of national legal systems

The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.

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List of towns and villages in the Republic of Ireland

This is a link page for cities, towns and villages in the Republic of Ireland, including townships or urban centres in Dublin and other major urban areas.

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Live birth (human)

In human reproduction, a live birth occurs when a fetus, whatever its gestational age, exits the maternal body and subsequently shows any sign of life, such as voluntary movement, heartbeat, or pulsation of the umbilical cord, for however brief a time and regardless of whether the umbilical cord or placenta are intact.

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Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898

The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 (61 & 62 Vict. c. 37) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that established a system of local government in Ireland similar to that already created for England, Wales and Scotland by legislation in 1888 and 1889.

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Local government in the Republic of Ireland

In Ireland, local government functions are mostly exercised by thirty-one local authorities, termed County, City, or City and County Councils.

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Local Government Reform Act 2014

The Local Government Reform Act 2014 is an act of the Oireachtas providing for a major restructuring of local government in the Republic of Ireland with effect from the 2014 local elections.

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Local roads in Ireland

A local road (Bóthar Áitiúil) in the Ireland is a public road not classified as a national primary road, national secondary road, or regional road but nevertheless forming a link in the national network of roads.

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London Declaration

The London Declaration was a declaration issued by the 1949 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference on the issue of India's continued membership in the Commonwealth of Nations after its transition to a republican constitution.

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Longford

Longford is the county town of County Longford in Ireland.

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Longford County Council

Longford County Council (Comhairle Contae an Longfoirt) is the authority responsible for local government in County Longford, Ireland.

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Longphort

A longphort (Ir. plur. longphuirt) is a term used in Ireland for a Viking ship enclosureConnolly S.J (1998).

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Louth County Council

Louth County Council (Comhairle Contae Lú) is the authority responsible for local government in County Louth, Ireland.

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Lower house

A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.

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Luas

Luas (Irish pronunciation:; Irish for "speed") is a tram/light rail system in Dublin, Ireland.

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Macgillycuddy's Reeks

MacGillycuddy's Reeks is a mountain range in County Kerry, Ireland.

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Maeve Binchy

Maeve Binchy Snell (28 May 1939Born 1939 as per biography, Maeve Binchy by Piers Dudgeon, Thomas Dunne Books 2013; (hardcover), pp. 4, 280, 302; (ebook) – 30 July 2012), known as Maeve Binchy, was an Irish novelist, playwright, short story writer, columnist, and speaker best known for her sympathetic and often humorous portrayal of small-town life in Ireland, her descriptive characters, her interest in human nature, and her often clever surprise endings.

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Maria Edgeworth

Maria Edgeworth (1 January 1768 – 22 May 1849) was a prolific Anglo-Irish writer of adults' and children's literature.

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Markree Castle

Markree Castle, in Collooney, County Sligo, Ireland is the ancestral seat of the Cooper family, partially moated by the River Unshin.

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Mass in the Catholic Church

The Mass or Eucharistic Celebration is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church where the Eucharist (Communion) is consecrated.

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Mayo County Council

Mayo County council (Comhairle Contae Mhaigh Eo) is the authority responsible for local government in County Mayo, Ireland.

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Máirtín Ó Cadhain

Máirtín Ó Cadhain (1906 – 18 October 1970) was one of the most prominent Irish language writers of the twentieth century.

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Meath County Council

Meath County Council (Comhairle Contae na Mí) is the authority responsible for local government in County Meath, Ireland.

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Mellifont Abbey

Mellifont Abbey (An Mhainistir Mhór, literally "the big abbey"), was a Cistercian abbey located close to Drogheda in County Louth, Ireland.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Member state of the European Union

The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.

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Mesolithic

In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Methodist Church in Ireland

The Methodist Church in Ireland (Ulster-Scots: Methody Kirk in Airlann) is a Wesleyan Methodist church that operates across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on an all-Ireland basis.

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Michael Collins (Irish leader)

Michael Collins (Mícheál Ó Coileáin; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary, soldier and politician who was a leading figure in the early-20th-century Irish struggle for independence.

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Michael D. Higgins

Michael Daniel Higgins (Mícheál Dónal Ó hUiginn; born 18 April 1941) is an Irish politician who has served as the 9th President of Ireland since November 2011.

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Military aid to the civil power

Military aid to the civil power (MACP) (sometimes to the civil authorities) is a term used to describe the use of the armed forces in support of the civil authorities of a state.

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Military Police Corps (Ireland)

The Military Police Corps (MP) (Cór Póiliní an Airm, PA) is the corps of the Irish Army, a branch of the Irish Defence Forces, responsible for the provision of policing service personnel and providing a military police presence to forces while on exercise and deployment.

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Minister for Defence (Ireland)

The Minister for Defence (An tAire Cosanta) is the senior minister at the Department of Defence in the Government of Ireland.

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Minister for Education and Skills

The Minister for Education and Skills (An tAire Oideachais agus Scileanna) is the senior government minister at the Department of Education and Skills in the Government of Ireland.

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Minister for Finance (Ireland)

The Minister for Finance (An tAire Airgeadais) is the senior minister at the Department of Finance in the Government of Ireland.

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Minister for Health (Ireland)

The Minister for Health (An tAire Sláinte) is the senior minister at the Department of Health in the Government of Ireland and is responsible for healthcare in the Republic of Ireland and related services.

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Ministry of Dáil Éireann

The Ministry of Dáil Éireann (Irish language: Aireacht Dáil Éireann) was the cabinet of the 1919–1922 Irish Republic.

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Modified gross national income

Modified GNI (or GNI*) was created by the Central Bank of Ireland in February 2017 as a way to measure the Irish economy, and Irish indebtedness, due to the increasing distortions that Irish multinational tax schemes, also known as Irish IP-based BEPS tools, were having on Irish GNI, Irish GNP and Irish GDP.

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Monaghan County Council

Monaghan County Council (Comhairle Contae Mhuineacháin) is the authority responsible for local government in County Monaghan, Ireland.

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Montjeu

Montjeu (1996 – 29 March 2012) was an Irish-bred, French-trained thoroughbred horse racing racehorse and sire.

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Motorsport

Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.

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Motorways in the Republic of Ireland

In Ireland, the highest category of road is a motorway (mótarbhealach, plural: mótarbhealaí), indicated by the prefix M followed by one, two or three digits.

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Mullingar

Mullingar is the county town of County Westmeath in Ireland.

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Municipal district

A municipal district is an administrative entity comprising a clearly defined territory and its population.

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Naas

Naas (Nás na Ríogh, or An Nás) is the county town of County Kildare in Ireland.

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National Army (Ireland)

The National Army, sometimes unofficially referred to as the Free State army or the Regulars, was the army of the Irish Free State from January 1922 until October 1924.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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National primary road

A national primary road (Bóthar príomha náisiúnta) is a road classification in Ireland.

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National Roads Authority

The National Roads Authority (NRA) (An tÚdarás um Bóithre Náisiúnta) was a state body in Ireland, responsible for the national road network.

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National secondary road

A national secondary road (Bóthar Náisiúnta den Dara Grád) is a category of road in Ireland.

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National Volunteers

The National Volunteers was the name taken by the majority of the Irish Volunteers that sided with Irish Parliamentary Party leader John Redmond after the movement split over the question of the Volunteers' role in World War I.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Naval Service Reserve

The Naval Service Reserve (NSR) (Cúltaca na Seirbhíse Cabhlaigh) is the reserve force of the Irish Naval Service.

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Navan

Navan (trans. "the Cave") is the county town of County Meath in Ireland.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Netball

Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.

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Neutral country

A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).

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Newbridge, County Kildare

Newbridge, officially known by its Irish name Droichead Nua, is a town in County Kildare, Ireland.

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Newstalk

Newstalk (formerly NewsTalk 106) is an independent radio station in Ireland.

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NI Railways

NI Railways, also known as Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) and for a brief period Ulster Transport Railways (UTR), is the railway operator in Northern Ireland.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Norsemen

Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.

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North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland)

The North Channel (known in Irish and Scottish Gaelic as Sruth na Maoile, in Scots as the Sheuch and alternatively in English as the Straits of Moyle or Sea of Moyle) is the strait between north-eastern Northern Ireland and south-western Scotland.

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North/South Ministerial Council

The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC) (An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh-Theas, Ulster-Scots: North South Meinisterlie Council) is a body established under the Good Friday Agreement to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain governmental powers across the whole island of Ireland.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Northern Ireland Executive

The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature Northern Ireland Assembly.

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Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill

Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill (born 1952) is an Irish poet.

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NUTS 3 statistical regions of the Republic of Ireland

There are eight regions at NUTS III level in Ireland.

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Oak

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Obel Tower

The Obel Tower is a highrise building in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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Odyssey

The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Offaly County Council

Offaly County Council (Comhairle Contae Uíbh Fhailí) is the authority responsible for local government in County Offaly, Ireland.

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Official residence

An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor or other senior figure officially resides.

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Oireachtas

The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.

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Oireachtas of the Irish Free State

The Oireachtas of the Irish Free State (Oireachtas Shaorstát Éireann) was the legislature of the Irish Free State from 1922 until 1937.

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Oliver Goldsmith

Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1728 – 4 April 1774) was an Irish novelist, playwright and poet, who is best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770), and his plays The Good-Natur'd Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1771, first performed in 1773).

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.

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Outline of the Republic of Ireland

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Ireland: Ireland (Irish language: Éire) is a sovereign island nation located in Northern Europe.

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Palladian architecture

Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).

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Paramilitary

A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.

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Paris Peace Conference, 1919

The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.

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Parliament Act 1911

The Parliament Act 1911 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Parliament House, Dublin

Parliament House in Dublin, Ireland, was home to the Parliament of Ireland, and later housed the Bank of Ireland.

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Parliament of Northern Ireland

The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the Home Rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended with the introduction of Direct Rule.

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Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Partnership for Peace

The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.

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Patricia Lynch

Patricia Lynch (c. 1894 – 1972) was an Irish children's writer and a journalist.

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Patrick Kavanagh

Patrick Kavanagh (21 October 1904 – 30 November 1967) was an Irish poet and novelist.

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Patrick Pearse

Patrick Henry Pearse (also known as Pádraig or Pádraic Pearse; Pádraig Anraí Mac Piarais; An Piarsach; 10 November 1879 – 3 May 1916) was an Irish teacher, barrister, poet, writer, nationalist, republican political activist and revolutionary who was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916.

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Patrol boat

A patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence duties.

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Paul McGinley

Paul Noel McGinley (born 16 December 1966) is an Irish professional golfer who has won four events on the European Tour.

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Pádraic Ó Conaire

Pádraic Ó Conaire (28 February 1882 – 6 October 1928) was an Irish writer and journalist whose production was primarily in the Irish language.

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Pádraig Harrington

Pádraig Peter Harrington (born 31 August 1971) is an Irish professional golfer who plays on the European Tour and the PGA Tour.

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PDF

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Peninsula

A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.

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Pepper spray

Pepper spray (also known as capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and temporary blindness) used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears.

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Pesticide

Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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Phase-out of incandescent light bulbs

Governments around the world have passed measures to phase out incandescent light bulbs for general lighting in favor of more energy-efficient lighting alternatives.

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Pinophyta

The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

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Plain tobacco packaging

Plain tobacco packaging, also known as generic, neutral, standardised or homogeneous packaging, refers to packaging that requires the removal of all branding (colours, imagery, corporate logos and trademarks), permitting manufacturers to print only the brand name in a mandated size, font and place on the pack, in addition to the health warnings and any other legally mandated information such as toxic constituents and tax-paid stamps.

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Plastic shopping bag

Plastic shopping bags, carrier bags, or plastic grocery bags) are a type of plastic bag used as shopping bags and made from various kinds of plastic. In use by consumers worldwide since the 1960s, these bags are sometimes called single-use bags, referring to carrying items from a store to a home. However, reuse for storage or trash is common, and modern plastic shopping bags are increasingly recyclable or biodegradable. In recent decades, numerous countries have introduced legislation restricting the sale of plastic bags, in a bid to reduce littering and plastic pollution. Some reusable shopping bags are made of plastic film, fibers, or fabric.

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Poitín

Poitín, anglicized as potcheen, poteen or potheen, is a traditional Irish distilled beverage (40%–90% ABV).

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Port Laoise

Port Laoise, or Portlaoise (Irish, anglicised) is the county town of County Laois, Ireland.

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Portarlington, County Laois

Portarlington, historically called Cooletoodera (from), is a town on the border of County Laois and County Offaly, Ireland.

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Post-2008 Irish banking crisis

The post-2008 Irish banking crisis was the situation whereby, due to the Great Recession, a number of Irish financial institutions faced almost imminent collapse due to insolvency.

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Post-2008 Irish economic downturn

The post-2008 Irish economic downturn in the Republic of Ireland, coincided with a series of banking scandals, followed the 1990s and 2000s Celtic Tiger period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment, a subsequent property bubble which rendered the real economy uncompetitive, and an expansion in bank lending in the early 2000s.

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Poulnabrone dolmen

Poulnabrone dolmen (Poll na mBrón in Irish, meaning "hole of the quern stones" (bró in Irish)) is a portal tomb - one of approximately 172 in Ireland - located in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland.

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Premier League

The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system.

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Presbyterian Church in Ireland

The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (PCI; Eaglais Phreispitéireach in Éirinn, Ulster-Scots: Prisbytairin Kirk in Airlann) is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Ireland, and the largest Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland.

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Presidency of the Council of the European Union

The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.

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President of Ireland

The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.

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President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State

The President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State (Uachtarán ar Ard-Chomhairle Shaorstát Éireann) was the head of government or prime minister of the Irish Free State which existed from 1922 to 1937.

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Press Freedom Index

The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.

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Prisoner of war

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.

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Proclamation of the Irish Republic

The Proclamation of the Republic (Forógra na Poblachta), also known as the 1916 Proclamation or the Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916.

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Programme for International Student Assessment

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.

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Progressive Democrats

The Progressive Democrats (An Páirtí Daonlathach, literally The Democratic Party, PDs) was a conservative-liberal political party in the Republic of Ireland.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.

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Protectionism

Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.

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Protestant Ascendancy

The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Public broadcasting

Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service.

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Quadrille

The quadrille is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies.

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Quartering (heraldry)

Quartering in is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.

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Quaternary glaciation

The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.

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Raidió Teilifís Éireann

Raidió Teilifís Éireann (Radio-Television of Ireland; abbreviated as RTÉ) is a semi-state company and the national public service broadcaster of Ireland.

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Raisin

A raisin is a dried grape.

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Rate of natural increase

Within the study of demography, the rate of natural increase (RNI) is classified as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.

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Recycling in the Republic of Ireland

Rates of household recycling in Ireland have increased dramatically since the late 1990s.

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Regional road (Ireland)

A regional road (bóthar réigiúnach) in Ireland is a class of road not forming a major route (such as a national primary road or national secondary road), but nevertheless forming a link in the national route network.

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Religious studies

Religious studies, alternately known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic of Ireland Act 1948

The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 (No. 22 of 1948) is an Act of the Oireachtas which declared that Ireland may be officially described as the Republic of Ireland, and vested in the President of Ireland the power to exercise the executive authority of the state in its external relations, on the advice of the Government of Ireland.

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Republic of Ireland national football team

The Republic of Ireland national football team (Foireann peile náisiúnta Phoblacht na hÉireann) represents Ireland in association football.

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Reserve Defence Forces

The Reserve Defence Forces (RDF) (Na hÓglaigh Cúltaca) are the reserve components of the Defence Forces of Ireland.

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Richard Brinsley Sheridan

Richard Brinsley Butler Sheridan (30 October 17517 July 1816) was an Irish satirist, a playwright and poet, and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.

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Ringfort

Ringforts, ring forts or ring fortresses are circular fortified settlements that were mostly built during the Bronze age up to about the year 1000.

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River Lee

The River Lee (Irish: An Laoi) is a river in Ireland.

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River Shannon

The River Shannon (Abha na Sionainne, an tSionainn, an tSionna) is the longest river in Ireland at.

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Riverdance

Riverdance is a theatrical show consisting mainly of traditional Irish music and dance.

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Robert Barton

Robert Childers Barton (14 March 1881 – 10 August 1975) was an Irish nationalist, politician and farmer who participated in the negotiations leading up to the signature of the Anglo-Irish Treaty.

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Rococo

Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.

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Roddy Doyle

Roddy Doyle (born 8 May 1958) is an Irish novelist, dramatist and screenwriter.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

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Ronan O'Gara

Ronan John Ross O'Gara (Irish: Rónán Ó Gadhra, born 7 March 1977) is an Irish former rugby union player and current coach.

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Roscommon County Council

Roscommon County Council (Comhairle Contae Ros Comáin) is the authority responsible for local government in County Roscommon, Ireland.

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Rounders

Rounders (cluiche corr) is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams.

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Royal assent

Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.

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Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom

The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

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Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland

The Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland (Institiúid Ríoga Ailtirí na hÉireann) founded in 1839, is the "competent authority for architects and professional body for Architecture in the Republic of Ireland." The RIAI’s purpose is "to uphold the highest standards in architecture and to provide impartial and authoritative advice and information in issues affecting architects, the built environment and society." The RIAI’s primary roles are in the areas of: Protecting the consumer; Promoting architecture; Supporting architects and architectural technologists; and Regulating architects.

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RTÉ 2fm

RTÉ 2fm, or 2FM as it is more commonly referred to, is an Irish radio station operated by RTÉ.

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RTÉ lyric fm

RTÉ lyric fm is an Irish classical-music and arts radio station, owned by the public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ).

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RTÉ News and Current Affairs

RTÉ News and Current Affairs (Nuacht agus Cúrsaí Reatha RTÉ), is a major division of Raidió Teilifís Éireann and provides a range of national and international news and current affairs programming for RTÉ television, radio and online and also for the independent Irish language broadcaster TG4.

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RTÉ News Now

RTÉ News Now is a 24-hour news television network in the Republic of Ireland operated by Irish public service broadcaster RTÉ.

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RTÉ One

RTÉ One (RTÉ a hAon) is the flagship television channel of Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ), and it is the most popular and most watched television channel in Ireland.

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RTÉ Performing Groups

RTÉ Performing Groups is a group of five classical ensembles, part of the Irish broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ).

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RTÉ Radio

RTÉ Radio is a division of the Irish national broadcasting organisation Raidió Teilifís Éireann.

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RTÉ Radio 1

RTÉ Radio 1 (RTÉ Raidió 1) is the principal radio channel of Irish public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann and is the direct descendant of Dublin radio station 2RN, which began broadcasting on a regular basis on 1 January 1926.

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RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta

RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta ("Radio of the Gaeltacht"), abbreviated RnaG, is the Irish-language radio service of the public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann.

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RTÉ Television

RTÉ Television is a department of Ireland's national broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ).

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RTÉ2

RTÉ2 is a free-to-air general entertainment channel operated by Irish national broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann.

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RTÉjr

RTÉjr is a children's channel operated by Ireland's national broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann, which targets a demographic between 2 – 6 years of age.

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Rugby league

Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.

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Rugby League European Championship

The Rugby League European Championship (formerly known as the European Cup and European Nations Cup) is a rugby league football tournament for European national teams that was first held in 1935.

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Rugby League European Federation

The Rugby League European Federation (RLEF) is the umbrella body for nations playing the sport of rugby league football across Europe and the Northern Hemisphere.

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Rugby League Ireland

Rugby League Ireland (RLI) is the internationally recognised governing body for the development of rugby league football in Ireland, having secured official recognition from the RLIF in 2000.

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Rugby League World Cup

The Rugby League World Cup is an international rugby league tournament, contested by national teams of the Rugby League International Federation, which was first held in France in 1954, the first World Cup in either rugby code.

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Rugby union in Ireland

Rugby union in Ireland is a popular team sport.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Ryanair

Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline founded in 1984, headquartered in Swords, Dublin, Ireland, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports.

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Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral

Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral (Ardeaglais Naomh Fionnbarra) is a Gothic revival three spire cathedral in the city of Cork, Ireland.

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Saint Patrick

Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.

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Saint Patrick's Day

Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (AD 385–461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland.

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Salmon

Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Samuel Beckett

Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.

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Saorview

Saorview is the national digital terrestrial television (DTT) service in Ireland.

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Saving Private Ryan

Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 American epic war film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Robert Rodat.

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Séamus Ó Grianna

Séamus Ó Grianna (17 November 1889–27 November 1969; locally known also as Jimí Fheilimí) was an Irish writer, who used the pen name Máire.

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Schengen Area

The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.

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Sea the Stars

Sea The Stars (foaled 6 April 2006) is a champion Irish Thoroughbred racehorse.

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Seal of the President of Ireland

The Seal of the President of Ireland (Séala Uachtarán na hÉireann) is a seal used by the President of Ireland to be affixed to every "...

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Seamus Heaney

Seamus Justin Heaney (13 April 1939 – 30 August 2013) was an Irish poet, playwright and translator.

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Seanad Éireann

Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) is the government upper house of the Oireachtas (the Irish legislature), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann (the lower house).

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Seán Ó Faoláin

Seán Proinsias Ó Faoláin (22 February 1900 – 20 April 1991) was an Irish short story writer.

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Seán Lemass

Seán Francis Lemass (born John Francis Lemass; 15 July 1899 – 11 May 1971) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach and Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 to 1966, Tánaiste from 1957 to 1959, 1951 to 1954 and 1945 to 1948, Minister for Industry and Commerce from 1957 to 1959, 1951 to 1954, 1945 to 1949 and 1932 to 1939 and Minister for Supplies from 1939 to 1945.

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Seán O'Casey

Seán O'Casey (Seán Ó Cathasaigh; born John Casey; 30 March 1880 – 18 September 1964) was an Irish dramatist and memoirist.

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Seán T. O'Kelly

Seán Thomas O'Kelly (Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh; 25 August 1882 – 23 November 1966), originally John T. O'Kelly, was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as the 2nd President of Ireland from June 1945 to June 1959.

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Sebastian Barry

Sebastian Barry (born 5 July 1955) is an Irish playwright, novelist and poet.

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Second Dáil

The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16 August 1921 until 8 June 1922.

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Secularism

Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).

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Shamrock

A shamrock is a young sprig, used as a symbol of Ireland.

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Shane Ross

Shane Peter Nathaniel Ross (born 11 July 1949) is an Irish Independent politician who has served as Minister for Transport, Tourism and Sport since May 2016.

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Shannon Airport

Shannon Airport (Aerfort na Sionna) is one of Ireland's three primary airports, along with Dublin and Cork.

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Shelta

Shelta (Irish: Seiltis) is a language spoken by Irish Travellers, particularly in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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Simon Coveney

Simon Anthony Coveney (born 16 June 1972) is an Irish Fine Gael politician who has served as Tánaiste since November 2017, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade and Deputy Leader of Fine Gael since June 2017.

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Single transferable vote

The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).

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Sinn Féin

Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

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Skellig Michael

Skellig Michael (Sceilig Mhichíl) (or the Great Skellig (Sceilig Mhór) is a twin-pinnacled crag situated west of the Iveragh Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland. The larger of the two Skellig Islands, the island is known for its steep landscape, the Gaelic monastery founded between the 6th and 8th century, and its variety of inhabiting species, including gannets, puffins, a colony of razorbills and a resident population of approximately fifty grey seals.Lavelle (1976), pp. 31–32 The rock contains the remains of a tower house, a megalithic stone row and a cross inscribed slabO'Shea (1981), p. 28 known as the "Wailing Woman". The island, along with some of the Blasket Islands, forms the most westerly part of the Republic of Ireland.S.M. (1913), p. 164 It consists of approximately 44 acres of rock, with its highest point, the Spit, is 714 feet above sea level. The monastery is situated at 550–600 feet, while "Christ's Saddle" is 422 feet and the flagstaff area is 120 feet above sea level.O'Shea (1981), p. 3 The island's slopes are ascended by a flight of stone steps. The name "Skellig" is derived from a Gaelic word for a splinter of stone (sceilig). Its twin island, "Little Skellig" (Sceilig Bheag) is larger but practically inaccessible, and is closed to the public. The island is dedicated to the archangel Michael, who is said to have appeared there to help Saint Patrick banish serpents into the sea.Lavelle (1976), pp. 11–12 The remains of the monastery, which today consists of a small enclosure of beehive huts and oratories, and most of the island, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. Because of the often difficult crossing from the mainland, and the exposed nature of the small landing spot, the island is only accessible to the public during the summer months.

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Sky Ireland

Sky Ireland Limited is a subsidiary of Sky plc and supplies television, internet and telephony services in Ireland.

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Sligo County Council

Sligo County Council (Comhairle Contae Shligigh) is the authority responsible for local government in County Sligo, Ireland.

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Smoking ban

Smoking bans (or smoke-free laws) are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, that prohibit tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces.

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Smurfit Kappa

The Smurfit Kappa Group plc is Europe's leading corrugated packaging company and one of the leading paper-based packaging companies in the world.

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Social dance

Social dance is that category of dances that have a social function and context.

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Social Democrats (Ireland)

The Social Democrats is a political party in Ireland.

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Soda bread

Soda bread is a variety of quick bread traditionally made in a variety of cuisines in which sodium bicarbonate (otherwise known as "baking soda") is used as a leavening agent instead of the traditional yeast.

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Softball in Ireland

Softball is governed in Ireland by the Softball Ireland, itself a member of the International Softball Federation.

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Solidarity–People Before Profit

Solidarity–People Before Profit is an electoral alliance in Ireland.

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Somerville and Ross

Somerville and Ross (Edith Somerville and Violet Florence Martin, writing under the name Martin Ross) were an Anglo-Irish writing team, perhaps most famous for their series of books that were made into the TV series The Irish R.M..

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Sonia O'Sullivan

Sonia O'Sullivan (born 28 November 1969) is an Irish former track and field athlete.

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South Dublin County Council

South Dublin County Council (Comhairle Contae Baile Átha Cliath Theas) is the authority responsible for local government in the county of South Dublin, Ireland.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Special economic zone

A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country.

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Spectator sport

A spectator sport is a sport that is characterized by the presence of spectators, or watchers, at its competitions.

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Sport of athletics

Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.

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St Colman's Cathedral, Cobh

The Cathedral Church of St Colman, usually known as Cobh Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Cobh, Ireland.

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St George's Channel

St George's Channel (Sianel San Siôr, Muir Bhreatan) is a sea channel connecting the Irish Sea to the north and the Celtic Sea to the southwest.

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St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin

Saint Patrick's Cathedral (Ard-Eaglais Naomh Pádraig) in Dublin, Ireland, founded in 1191, is the National Cathedral of the Church of Ireland.

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St. James's Gate

St.

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St. Patrick's blue

St.

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Step dance

Step dance is the generic term for dance styles in which the footwork is the most important part of the dance.

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Stout

Stout is a dark beer that includes roasted malt or roasted barley, hops, water and yeast.

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Sultana (grape)

The sultana is a "white" (pale green), oval seedless grape variety also called the sultanina, Thompson Seedless (United States), Lady de Coverly (England), and oval-fruited Kishmish (Iran, Turkey, Israel, Palestine).

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Supreme Court of Ireland

The Supreme Court of Ireland (Cúirt Uachtarach na hÉireann) is the highest judicial authority in the Republic of Ireland.

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Swords, Dublin

Swords is the county town of Fingal and a key satellite of Greater Dublin, Ireland.

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Taoiseach

The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.

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Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017

The Act to provide for reconciliation pursuant to titles II and V of the concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 2018,, is a congressional revenue act originally introduced in Congress as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), that amended the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

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Tax haven

A tax haven is defined as a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation ("headline" rates may be higher).

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Taxus baccata

Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia.

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Tánaiste

The Tánaiste is the deputy head of government of Ireland and the second-most senior officer in the Government of Ireland.

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Teachta Dála

A TD (plural TDanna in Irish or TDs in English; full Irish form Teachta Dála,, plural Teachtaí Dála) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (the Irish Parliament).

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Telephone numbers in the Republic of Ireland

Numbers on the Irish Telephone Numbering Plan are regulated and assigned to operators by ComReg.

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Television licence

A television licence or broadcast receiving licence is a payment required in many countries for the reception of television broadcasts, or the possession of a television set where some broadcasts are funded in full or in part by the licence fee paid.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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TG4

TG4 (TG Ceathair; or) is an Irish public service broadcaster for Irish-language speakers.

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Thatching

Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, heather, or palm fronds, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof.

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The Custom House

The Custom House (Teach an Chustaim) is a neoclassical 18th century building in Dublin, Ireland which houses the Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government.

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The Elysian

The Elysian is a mixed-use Celtic Tiger-era building at Eglinton Street in Cork, Ireland.

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The Emergency (Ireland)

The Emergency (Ré na Práinne / An Éigeandáil) was the state of emergency which existed in the state of Ireland during the Second World War.

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The Irish Times

The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.

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The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman

The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne.

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The Troubles

The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.

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The Vicar of Wakefield

The Vicar of Wakefield – subtitled A Tale, Supposed to be written by Himself – is a novel by Irish writer Oliver Goldsmith (1728–1774).

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Third Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland

The Third Amendment of the Constitution Act 1972 is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland that permitted the State to join the European Communities, which would later become the European Union, and provided that European Community law would take precedence over the constitution.

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Thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland

The Thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1992 (previously bill no. 25 of 1992) is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland which specified that the protection of the right to life of the unborn does not limit freedom of travel in and out of the state.

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Thomas Kilroy

Thomas F. Kilroy (born 23 September 1934) is an Irish playwright and novelist.

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Thomas McCarthy (poet)

Thomas McCarthy (born 1954) is an Irish poet, novelist, and critic, born in Cappoquin, Co.

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Time in Ireland

Ireland uses Irish Standard Time (IST, UTC+01:00; Am Caighdeánach Éireannach) in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0; Meán-Am Greenwich) in the winter period.

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Tintern Abbey (County Wexford)

Tintern Abbey was a Cistercian abbey located on the Hook peninsula, County Wexford, Ireland.

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Tipperary County Council

Tipperary County Council (Comhairle Contae Thiobraid Árann) is the authority responsible for local government in County Tipperary, Ireland.

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Today FM

Radio Ireland Ltd, trading as 100-102 Today FM, is a commercial FM radio station which is available nationally in Ireland.

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Tom Murphy (playwright)

Tom Murphy (23 February 1935 – 15 May 2018) was an Irish dramatist who worked closely with the Abbey Theatre in Dublin and with Druid Theatre, Galway.

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Tony Gregory

Tony Gregory (5 December 1947 – 2 January 2009) was an Irish independent politician, and a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin Central constituency from 1982 to 2009.

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Tourism in the Republic of Ireland

Tourism in the Republic of Ireland is one of the biggest contributors to the Economy of the Republic of Ireland, with 8.7 million people visiting the country in 2016, about 1.8 times Ireland's population.

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Town Councils in the Republic of Ireland

In Ireland, a Town Council was part of the second (or lower) tier of local government.

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Track gauge in Ireland

The track gauge adopted by the mainline railways in Ireland is.

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Tralee

Tralee is the county town of County Kerry in the south-west of Ireland.

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Transport 21

Transport 21 was an Irish infrastructure plan, announced in November 2005.

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Tricolour (flag)

A tricolour or tricolor is a type of flag or banner design with a triband design which originated in the 16th century as a symbol of republicanism, liberty or indeed revolution.

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Triskelion

A triskelion or triskele is a motif consisting of a triple spiral exhibiting rotational symmetry.

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Tuairisc.ie

Tuairisc.ie is an online Irish language newspaper.

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Turners Cross, Cork

Turners Cross is a ward on the south side of Cork City, and home to the Roman Catholic parish of the same name.

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Turoe Stone

The Turoe stone is a granite stone decorated in a Celtic style located in the village of Bullaun, County Galway, Ireland, 6 km north of Loughrea off the R350 regional road.

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TV3 (Ireland)

TV3 is a commercial free-to-air television channel operated within Ireland by the TV3 Group operated by Virgin Media Ireland and owned by Liberty Global.

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Twentieth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland

The Twentieth Amendment of the Constitution Act 2001 is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland which provided constitutional recognition of local government and required that local government elections occur at least once in every five years.

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U2

U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin formed in 1976.

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Ulster

Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.

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Ulster Scots dialects

Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.

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Ulster Scots people

The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.

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Ulster Unionist Party

The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.

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Ulster Volunteers

The Ulster Volunteers was a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block domestic self-government (or Home Rule) for Ireland, which was then part of the United Kingdom.

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Ulysses (novel)

Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce.

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Unemployment

Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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Union of the Crowns

The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.

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Unionism in Ireland

Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.

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Unitary parliamentary republic

A unitary parliamentary republic refers to a unitary state with a republican form of government that is dependent upon the confidence of parliament.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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Upper house

An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.

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Violet Florence Martin

Violet Florence Martin (11 June 1862 – 21 December 1915) was an Irish author who co-wrote a series of novels with cousin Edith Somerville under the pen name of Martin Ross in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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Virgin Media Ireland

Virgin Media Ireland is Liberty Global's telecommunications operation in Ireland.

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W. B. Yeats

William Butler Yeats (13 June 186528 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.

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Waterford

Waterford (from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a city in Ireland.

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Waterford City and County Council

Waterford City and County Council (Comhairle Cathrach agus Contae Phort Láirge) is the authority responsible for local government in the City of Waterford and County Waterford in Ireland.

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West-Link

The West-Link (Droichead an Nascbhóthair Thiar) is a toll bridge (actually twin bridges) on the M50 motorway to the west of Dublin, Ireland, operated by Emovis (trading as eFlow) for Transport Infrastructure Ireland.

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Western European Summer Time

Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Western European Time

Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Westmeath County Council

Westmeath County Council (Comhairle Contae na hIarmhí) is the authority responsible for local government in County Westmeath, Ireland.

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Westport, County Mayo

Westport (historically anglicised as Cahernamart) is a town in County Mayo in Ireland.

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Wexford County Council

Wexford County Council (Comhairle Contae Loch Garman) is the authority responsible for local government in County Wexford, Ireland.

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Wexford Festival Opera

The Wexford Festival Opera is an opera festival that takes place in the town of Wexford in south-eastern Ireland during the months of October and November.

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Wicklow County Council

Wicklow County Council (Comhairle Contae Chill Mhantáin) is the authority responsible for local government in County Wicklow, Ireland.

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William Carleton

William Carleton (4 March 1794, Prolusk (often spelt as Prillisk as on his gravestone), Clogher, County Tyrone – 30 January 1869, Sandford Road, Ranelagh, Dublin) was an Irish writer and novelist.

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William III of England

William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

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William Trevor

William Trevor KBE (24 May 1928 – 20 November 2016) was an Irish novelist, playwright and short story writer.

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Wind farm

A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity.

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Wind power

Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.

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Wind power in the Republic of Ireland

, the Republic of Ireland has 2,878 MegaWatts (3,916 MW all-island) of installed wind power nameplate capacity, and 1 MW of solar power.

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Workers and Unemployed Action

Workers and Unemployed Action (WUA) is an Irish political party based in Clonmel in South County Tipperary, set up in 1985 by Séamus Healy.

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World Values Survey

The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yeast

Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Youghal

Youghal is a seaside resort town in County Cork, Ireland.

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Young Ireland

Young Ireland (Éire Óg) was a political, cultural and social movement of the mid-19th century.

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.eu

.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).

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.ie

.ie is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) which corresponds with the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the Republic of Ireland.

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10th (Irish) Division

The 10th (Irish) Division, was one of the first of Kitchener's New Army K1 Army Group divisions (formed from Kitchener's 'first hundred thousand' new volunteers), authorized on 21 August 1914, after the outbreak of the Great War.

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16th (Irish) Division

The 16th (Irish) Division was an infantry division of the British Army, raised for service during World War I. The division was a voluntary 'Service' formation of Lord Kitchener's New Armies, created in Ireland from the 'National Volunteers', initially in September 1914, after the outbreak of the Great War.

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1979 energy crisis

The 1979 (or second) oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.

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2000 Rugby League World Cup

The 2000 Rugby League World Cup was held during October and November of that year in Great Britain, Ireland and France.

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2003 invasion of Iraq

The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).

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2007 Cricket World Cup

The 2007 Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2007) was the 9th edition of the Cricket World Cup tournament that took place in the West Indies from 13 March to 28 April 2007, using the sport's One Day International (ODI) format.

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2008 Rugby League World Cup

The 2008 Rugby League World Cup was the thirteenth staging of the Rugby League World Cup since its inauguration in 1954, and the first since the 2000 tournament.

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2009 Six Nations Championship

The 2009 Six Nations Championship, known as the 2009 RBS 6 Nations because of the tournament's sponsorship by The Royal Bank of Scotland, was the 10th Six Nations Championship, and the 115th international championship, an annual rugby union competition contested by the six major Northern Hemisphere national teams.

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36th (Ulster) Division

The 36th (Ulster) Division was an infantry division of the British Army, part of Lord Kitchener's New Army, formed in September 1914.

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3e

3e (3 entertainment), known prior to its purchase by Doughty Hanson as Channel 6, is the second free-to-air general entertainment channel operated by the TV3 Group a subsidiary of Virgin Media Ireland in Ireland.

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Redirects here:

26 Counties, 26 counties, Eire Ireland, HÉireann, ISO 3166-1:IE, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), Ireland (Republic of), Ireland (country), Ireland (republic), Ireland (sovereign state), Ireland (state), Ireland Republic, Ireland country, Ireland, Republic of, Ireland, republic of, Ireland/Éire, Irish state, Rep Ire, Rep ireland, Rep of Ireland, Rep of ire, Rep. Ireland, Rep. of Ireland, Republic Ireland, Republic Of Ireland, Republic in Ireland, Republic in ireland, Republic of ireland, Republic, Ireland, Republic, ireland, RepublicofIreland, State of Ireland, Subdivisions of the Republic of Ireland, The 26 Counties, The Republic Of Ireland, The Republic of Ireland, The Twenty Six Counties, The Twenty-Six Counties, Twenty Six Counties, Twenty-Six Counties, Éire Ireland.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Ireland

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