796 relations: Academic degree, Acts of Union 1800, Adamstown, Dublin, Adoption of the Constitution of Ireland, Aer Lingus, Agriculture, Aidan O'Brien, Air charter, Airtricity, All Kinds of Everything, All-Ireland, Allies of World War I, Allies of World War II, Amhrán na bhFiann, Ancient Greek, Andy Lee (boxer), Anglo-Irish Treaty, Anglo-Irish Treaty Dáil vote, Anglo-Normans, Anglosphere, Annie M. P. Smithson, Army Ranger Wing, Army Reserve (Ireland), Art Deco, Arthur Griffith, Arthur Guinness, Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland, Association football in the Republic of Ireland, Athlone, Atlantic Ocean, Attorney General v. X, Australian rules football in Ireland, Áras an Uachtaráin, Éamon de Valera, Bacon and cabbage, Balbriggan, Ballinasloe, Ballydoyle, Ballymun, Baltic languages, Barmbrack, Barryroe, Baryte, Baseball in Ireland, Basketball, Baton (law enforcement), Bay, BBC News, Be3, Belfast, ..., Bernard Dunne, Bicameralism, Billy Roche, Biodiversity, Blanket bog, Bog, Bord Gáis Energy Theatre, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Boxing, Boxty, Boyle Abbey, Bram Stoker, Braveheart, Bray, Brú na Bóinne, Bread, Brendan Behan, Brexit, Brian Friel, Brian O'Driscoll, Brian O'Nolan, Brigid of Kildare, British Army, British Empire, Bronze Age, Bunratty Castle, Capital punishment, Cargo, Carlow, Carlow County Council, Carrauntoohil, Castlestrange Stone, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Europe, Catholic emancipation, Cavan County Council, CBS News, Ceann Comhairle, Ceili dance, Celtic cross, Celtic knot, Celtic nations, Celtic Sea, Celtic Tiger, Celts, Census of Ireland 2011, Central Bank of Ireland, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Statistics Office (Ireland), Channel Islands, Charity (practice), Charles de Gaulle, Charles Kickham, Charles Stewart Parnell, Charter, Christianity in Ireland, Church of Ireland, Circuit Court (Ireland), Cistercians, Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010, Clare County Council, Clonmacnoise, Clover, Coalition government, Coat of arms of Ireland, Cod, Coddle, Colcannon, Cold War, Colm Tóibín, Columba, Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base, Common law, Common Travel Area, Commonwealth of Nations, Commuting, Concert dance, Conduit and Sink OFCs, Confidence and supply, Congo Crisis, Conor McPherson, Conscription Crisis of 1918, Constitution of Ireland, Constitution of the Irish Free State, Constitutional Convention (Ireland), Constitutional monarchy, Constitutional republic, Convention Centre Dublin, Coolmore Stud, Copts, Cork (city), Cork Airport, Cork City Council, Cork County Council, Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland, Corrib gas project, Council of Europe, Council of State (Ireland), Counties of Ireland, Countries of the United Kingdom, Country dance, County Hall, Cork, County Kildare, Court of Appeal (Ireland), Crannog, Cricket in Ireland, Cricket Ireland, Criminal Courts of Justice (Dublin), Cuban Missile Crisis, Curragh Racecourse, Cycling, Cyprus, Daily Mirror, Dana Rosemary Scallon, David Norris (politician), Dáil Éireann, Dáil Éireann (Irish Republic), Dáil constituencies, Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council, Declaration of independence, Deer, Defence Forces (Ireland), Deforestation, Democratic Left (Ireland), Denis Johnston, Dermot Bolger, Diacritic, Digital terrestrial television, Dissolution of the Monasteries, District Court (Ireland), Dolomite, Dominion, Donegal County Council, Double Irish arrangement, Double monastery, Dracula, Drogheda, Drombeg stone circle, Dublin, Dublin Airport, Dublin Area Rapid Transit, Dublin Bus, Dublin Castle, Dublin City Council, Dublin Connolly railway station, Dublin Docklands, Dublin Docklands Development Authority, Dublin Marathon, Dublin Port Tunnel, Dublin Women's Mini Marathon, Dublinbikes, Dundalk, Eamonn Coghlan, Early Middle Ages, East-Link (Dublin), Easter Rising, Eastern Orthodox Church, Economic liberalism, Edith Somerville, Edna O'Brien, Edward Carson, Edward Lovett Pearce, Eighth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, Electric Ireland, Elizabeth Bowen, Elm, Enda Kenny, Energy in Ireland, English country house, English language, Ennis, Enterprise (train service), Eoin Colfer, Equestrianism, Ervia, EU illegal State aid case against Apple in Ireland, Euro, Euro sign, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Europe, European Court of Human Rights, European Economic Community, European Health Insurance Card, European Union, Eurostat, Eurovision Song Contest, Eurovision Song Contest 1994, Exclusive economic zone, Executive Council of the Irish Free State, Fís Éireann/Screen Ireland, Fertilizer, Feudalism, Fianna Fáil, Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, Figurehead, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial services, Fine Gael, Fingal County Council, Firearm, First Dáil, Flag of Ireland, Football Association of Ireland, Forbes, Formation dance, Four Courts, Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, Franciscans, Frank McGuinness, Frank O'Connor, Fraxinus excelsior, Free trade areas in Europe, Free-to-air, Freedom in the World, Frogman, Full breakfast, Gaelic Athletic Association, Gaelic football, Gaelic games, Gaelic handball, Gaelic Ireland, Gaels, Gaeltacht, Galileo (horse), Galway, Galway City Council, Galway County Council, Garda Síochána, Gender equality, General Post Office, Dublin, General practitioner, Geographic coordinate system, George Bernard Shaw, George Moore (novelist), George VI, Georges Pompidou, Georgetown University, Georgian architecture, Georgian Dublin, Gerald Griffin, Germany, Global Gender Gap Report, Golf, Good Friday Agreement, Gothic architecture, Gothic Revival architecture, Government of Ireland, Government of Ireland Act 1914, Government of the United Kingdom, Governor-General of the Irish Free State, Grand jury, Grand Slam (rugby union), Great Famine (Ireland), Greco-Roman world, Green Ensign, Green Party (Ireland), Greenwich Mean Time, Greyhound racing, Guinness, Gulf Stream, Gulf War, Gulliver's Travels, Gypsum, H. H. Asquith, Hans Place, Hazel, Head of government, Head of state, Headland, Health Consumer Powerhouse, Health Service Executive, Hebrew language, Hedge, Heuston railway station, High Court (Ireland), HighBeam Research, Hinduism in the Republic of Ireland, History of Sinn Féin, History of the Republic of Ireland, Honors music, Horse racing, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, House of Tudor, Hugh Leonard, Human Development Index, Hurling, Iarnród Éireann, Iberian Peninsula, Independent politician, Index of Economic Freedom, Industrial Workers of the World, Inis Cathaigh, InterCity (Iarnród Éireann), International Air Transport Association, International airport, International Financial Services Centre, International Futures, International Monetary Fund, International rules football, Ireland, Ireland and World War I, Ireland cricket team, Ireland in the Eurovision Song Contest, Ireland men's national rugby league team, Ireland National League (rugby league), Ireland national netball team, Ireland–IMF relations, Irish Air Corps, Irish Army, Irish Athletic Boxing Association, Irish breakfast tea, Irish Catholics, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Civil War, Irish coffee, Irish Declaration of Independence, Irish diaspora, Irish Free State, Irish general election, 1918, Irish Home Rule movement, Irish Independent, Irish Land Acts, Irish language, Irish military diaspora, Irish National Land League, Irish nationality law, Irish Naval Service, Irish neutrality during World War II, Irish Parliamentary Party, Irish passport, Irish people, Irish pound, Irish prose fiction, Irish Republic, Irish Republican Army (1919–1922), Irish Republican Army (1922–1969), Irish republicanism, Irish round tower, Irish Rugby Football Union, Irish Sea, Irish stepdance, Irish stew, Irish theatre, Irish traditional music, Irish Travellers, Irish Unionist Alliance, Irish Volunteers, Irish War of Independence, Irish whiskey, Irish Wolfhound, Iron Age, Irreligion, Islam, Islam in the Republic of Ireland, Isle of Man, Jack (flag), Jack Lynch Tunnel, James Connolly, James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon, James Joyce, John B. Keane, John Banim, John Banville, John McGahern, John Redmond, Jonathan Swift, Joseph O'Connor, Judicial review, Junior Certificate, Jury, Kate O'Brien (novelist), Katherine Zappone, Katie Taylor, Kells, County Meath, Kerry County Council, Kerry Group, Kildare County Council, Kilkenny, Kilkenny Castle, Kilkenny County Council, King's Inns, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Kinsale Head gas field, Kitchener's Army, Knightsbridge, Knowledge economy, Labour Party (Ireland), Land reform, Laois County Council, Larger urban zone, Latin, Laurence Sterne, Law of the Republic of Ireland, League of Ireland, Leaving Certificate (Ireland), Lebanon, Left- and right-hand traffic, Leinster House, Leitrim County Council, Leo Varadkar, Leopardstown Racecourse, Leprechaun economics, Library of Congress, Life expectancy, Limerick, Limerick City and County Council, Limerick Tunnel, Limestone, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries by economic freedom, List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, List of Ireland-related topics, List of Irish novelists, List of Irish people, List of monastic houses in Ireland, List of national legal systems, List of towns and villages in the Republic of Ireland, Live birth (human), Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, Local government in the Republic of Ireland, Local Government Reform Act 2014, Local roads in Ireland, London Declaration, Longford, Longford County Council, Longphort, Louth County Council, Lower house, Luas, Macgillycuddy's Reeks, Maeve Binchy, Maria Edgeworth, Markree Castle, Mass in the Catholic Church, Mayo County Council, Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Meath County Council, Mellifont Abbey, Member of parliament, Member state of the European Union, Mesolithic, Methodist Church in Ireland, Michael Collins (Irish leader), Michael D. Higgins, Military aid to the civil power, Military Police Corps (Ireland), Minister for Defence (Ireland), Minister for Education and Skills, Minister for Finance (Ireland), Minister for Health (Ireland), Ministry of Dáil Éireann, Modified gross national income, Monaghan County Council, Montjeu, Motorsport, Motorways in the Republic of Ireland, Mullingar, Municipal district, Naas, National Army (Ireland), National language, National primary road, National Roads Authority, National secondary road, National Volunteers, NATO, Naval Service Reserve, Navan, Neoclassical architecture, Neolithic, Netball, Neutral country, Newbridge, County Kildare, Newstalk, NI Railways, Nobel Prize in Literature, Norsemen, North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North/South Ministerial Council, Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland Executive, Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill, NUTS 3 statistical regions of the Republic of Ireland, Oak, Obel Tower, Oceanic climate, Odyssey, OECD, Offaly County Council, Official residence, Oireachtas, Oireachtas of the Irish Free State, Oliver Goldsmith, Olympic Games, Oscar Wilde, Outline of the Republic of Ireland, Palladian architecture, Paramilitary, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Parliament Act 1911, Parliament House, Dublin, Parliament of Northern Ireland, Parliamentary republic, Parliamentary system, Partnership for Peace, Patricia Lynch, Patrick Kavanagh, Patrick Pearse, Patrol boat, Paul McGinley, Pádraic Ó Conaire, Pádraig Harrington, PDF, Peninsula, Pepper spray, Pesticide, Phase-out of incandescent light bulbs, Pinophyta, Plain tobacco packaging, Plastic shopping bag, Poitín, Polish language, Port Laoise, Portarlington, County Laois, Post-2008 Irish banking crisis, Post-2008 Irish economic downturn, Poulnabrone dolmen, Premier League, Presbyterian Church in Ireland, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, President of Ireland, President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State, Press Freedom Index, Prisoner of war, Proclamation of the Irish Republic, Programme for International Student Assessment, Progressive Democrats, Proportional representation, Protectionism, Protestant Ascendancy, Protestantism, Public broadcasting, Quadrille, Quartering (heraldry), Quaternary glaciation, Raidió Teilifís Éireann, Raisin, Rate of natural increase, Recycling in the Republic of Ireland, Regional road (Ireland), Religious studies, Representative democracy, Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Republic of Ireland national football team, Reserve Defence Forces, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Ringfort, River Lee, River Shannon, Riverdance, Robert Barton, Rococo, Roddy Doyle, Romanesque architecture, Ronan O'Gara, Roscommon County Council, Rounders, Royal assent, Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland, RTÉ 2fm, RTÉ lyric fm, RTÉ News and Current Affairs, RTÉ News Now, RTÉ One, RTÉ Performing Groups, RTÉ Radio, RTÉ Radio 1, RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, RTÉ Television, RTÉ2, RTÉjr, Rugby league, Rugby League European Championship, Rugby League European Federation, Rugby League Ireland, Rugby League World Cup, Rugby union in Ireland, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Ryanair, Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral, Saint Patrick, Saint Patrick's Day, Salmon, Samuel Beckett, Saorview, Saving Private Ryan, Séamus Ó Grianna, Schengen Area, Sea the Stars, Seal of the President of Ireland, Seamus Heaney, Seanad Éireann, Seán Ó Faoláin, Seán Lemass, Seán O'Casey, Seán T. O'Kelly, Sebastian Barry, Second Dáil, Secularism, Shamrock, Shane Ross, Shannon Airport, Shelta, Simon Coveney, Single transferable vote, Sinn Féin, Skellig Michael, Sky Ireland, Sligo County Council, Smoking ban, Smurfit Kappa, Social dance, Social Democrats (Ireland), Soda bread, Softball in Ireland, Solidarity–People Before Profit, Somerville and Ross, Sonia O'Sullivan, South Dublin County Council, Sovereign state, Special economic zone, Spectator sport, Sport of athletics, St Colman's Cathedral, Cobh, St George's Channel, St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, St. James's Gate, St. Patrick's blue, Step dance, Stout, Sultana (grape), Supreme Court of Ireland, Swords, Dublin, Taoiseach, Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, Tax haven, Taxus baccata, Tánaiste, Teachta Dála, Telephone numbers in the Republic of Ireland, Television licence, Temperate climate, TG4, Thatching, The Custom House, The Elysian, The Emergency (Ireland), The Irish Times, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, The Troubles, The Vicar of Wakefield, Third Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, Thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, Thomas Kilroy, Thomas McCarthy (poet), Time in Ireland, Tintern Abbey (County Wexford), Tipperary County Council, Today FM, Tom Murphy (playwright), Tony Gregory, Tourism in the Republic of Ireland, Town Councils in the Republic of Ireland, Track gauge in Ireland, Tralee, Transport 21, Tricolour (flag), Triskelion, Tuairisc.ie, Turners Cross, Cork, Turoe Stone, TV3 (Ireland), Twentieth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, U2, Ulster, Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots people, Ulster Unionist Party, Ulster Volunteers, Ulysses (novel), Unemployment, Union of the Crowns, Unionism in Ireland, Unitary parliamentary republic, Unitary state, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Nations, United Nations Development Programme, United States Department of State, Upper house, Violet Florence Martin, Virgin Media Ireland, W. B. Yeats, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Waterford, Waterford City and County Council, West-Link, Western European Summer Time, Western European Time, Western world, Westmeath County Council, Westport, County Mayo, Wexford County Council, Wexford Festival Opera, Wicklow County Council, William Carleton, William III of England, William Trevor, Wind farm, Wind power, Wind power in the Republic of Ireland, Workers and Unemployed Action, World Values Survey, World War I, World War II, Yeast, Youghal, Young Ireland, .eu, .ie, 10th (Irish) Division, 16th (Irish) Division, 1979 energy crisis, 2000 Rugby League World Cup, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 2007 Cricket World Cup, 2008 Rugby League World Cup, 2009 Six Nations Championship, 36th (Ulster) Division, 3e. Expand index (746 more) » « Shrink index
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Adamstown is the first "new town style development" planned in Ireland since Shannon Town in 1982.
The current Constitution of Ireland came into effect on 29 December 1937, repealing and replacing the Constitution of the Irish Free State, having been approved in a national plebiscite on 1 July 1937 with the support of 56.5% of voters in the then Irish Free State.
Aer Lingus (an anglicisation of the Irish aerloingeas meaning "air fleet") is the flag carrier airline of Ireland and the second-largest airline in the country.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Aidan Patrick O'Brien (born 16 October 1969 in County Wexford, Ireland) is an Irish horse racing trainer.
Air charter is the business of renting an entire aircraft (i.e., chartering) as opposed to individual aircraft seats (i.e., purchasing a ticket through a traditional airline).
SSE Airtricity (previously Eirtricity) was founded in Ireland in 1997 and is now an energy company owned by SSE plc.
"All Kinds of Everything" is a song written by Derry Lindsay and Jackie Smith; as performed by Dana, it won the Eurovision Song Contest 1970.
"All-Ireland" is an attributive term which emphasises the whole of the island of Ireland.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
"Amhrán na bhFiann", called "The Soldier's Song" in English, is the Irish national anthem.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andy Lee (born 11 June 1984) is an Irish former professional boxer who competed from 2006 to 2017.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed in London on 6 December 1921 and Dáil Éireann voted to approve the treaty on 7 January 1922, following a debate through late December 1921 and into January 1922.
The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.
The Anglosphere is a set of English-speaking nations which share common roots in British culture and history, which today maintain close cultural, political, diplomatic and military cooperation.
Annie Mary Patricia Smithson (26 September 1873 – 21 February 1948) was an Irish novelist, poet and Nationalist.
The Army Ranger Wing (ARW) (Sciathán Fiannóglaigh an Airm, "SFA") is the special operations force of the Irish Defence Forces, the military of Ireland.
The Army Reserve (AR) (Cúltaca an Airm) is the land component of Ireland's Reserve Defence Forces (RDF).
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Arthur Joseph Griffith (Art Seosamh Ó Gríobhtha; 31 March 1871 – 12 August 1922) was an Irish politician and writer, who founded and later led the political party Sinn Féin.
Arthur Guinness (Irish: Art Mac Aonasa; b. 28 September 1725 – d. 23 January 1803) was an Irish brewer and the founder of the Guinness brewery business and family.
Article 2 and Article 3 of the Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) were adopted with the constitution as a whole on 29 December 1937, but completely revised by means of the Nineteenth Amendment which took effect on 2 December 1999.
Association football more commonly referred to as football and sometimes soccer to disambiguate it is the team sport with the highest level of participation in the Republic of Ireland (with five-a-side games being included).
Athlone is a town on the River Shannon near the southern shore of Lough Ree in Ireland.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Attorney General v X, IESC 1; 1 IR 1, (more commonly known as the "X Case") was a landmark Irish Supreme Court case which established the right of Irish women to an abortion if a pregnant woman's life was at risk because of pregnancy, including the risk of suicide.
Australian rules football in Ireland is a recently introduced team sport but the country has a long history of interaction with Australian rules leagues.
Áras an Uachtaráin, formerly the Viceregal Lodge, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of Ireland.
Éamon de Valera (first registered as George de Valero; changed some time before 1901 to Edward de Valera; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland.
Bacon and cabbage is a dish traditionally associated with Ireland.
Balbriggan is a town in the northern part of Fingal, Ireland.
Ballinasloe is a town in the easternmost part of County Galway Ireland.
Ballydoyle is a racehorse training facility located in County Tipperary in Ireland.
Ballymun is an area on Dublin's Northside in Ireland, the modern development of which began in the 1960s to accommodate a housing crisis in inner city areas of Dublin.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Barm Brack (bairín breac), also called Barmbrack or often shortened to brack, is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins.
Barryroe is an oil and gas field discovered in the Celtic Sea due south of Cork.
Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.
Baseball Ireland is the governing body of baseball in Ireland, covering both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
A baton or truncheon is a roughly cylindrical club made of wood, rubber, plastic or metal.
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
be3 is a digital television channel in Ireland operated by the TV3 Group, a subsidiary of Virgin Media Ireland.
Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.
Bernard Dunne (born 6 February 1980) is an Irish former professional boxer and a former WBA (Regular), and European Super Bantamweight champion.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Billy Roche (born 11 January 1949) is an Irish playwright and actor.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Blanket bog or blanket mire, also known as featherbed bog, is an area of peatland, forming where there is a climate of high rainfall and a low level of evapotranspiration, allowing peat to develop not only in wet hollows but over large expanses of undulating ground.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
The Bord Gáis Energy Theatre (or Grand Canal Theatre) is Ireland's largest fixed-seat theatre, and is located in Grand Canal Square, Dublin.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Boxty (bacstaí) is a traditional Irish potato pancake.
Boyle Abbey (Mainistir na Búille) was the first successful foundation in Connacht of the Cistercian order which had opened its first Irish house at Mellifont, County Louth, in 1142.
Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula.
Braveheart is a 1995 American epic war film directed by Mel Gibson, who stars as William Wallace, a late 13th-century Scottish warrior who led the Scots in the First War of Scottish Independence against King Edward I of England.
Bray (formerly Brí Chualann) is a coastal town in north County Wicklow, Ireland.
Brú na Bóinne (Palace of the Boyne or Mansion of the Boyne) or Boyne valley tombs, is an area in County Meath, Ireland, located in a bend of the River Boyne.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Brendan Francis Aidan Behan (christened Francis Behan) (Breandán Ó Beacháin; 9 February 1923 – 20 March 1964) was an Irish poet, short story writer, novelist and playwright who wrote in both English and Irish.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
Brian Patrick Friel (9 January 1929 – 2 October 2015), born in Omagh, Northern Ireland, was a dramatist, short story writer and founder of the Field Day Theatre Company.
Brian Gerard O'Driscoll (born 21 January 1979) is a retired Irish professional rugby union player.
Brian O'Nolan (Brian Ó Nualláin; 5 October 1911 – 1 April 1966) was an Irish novelist, playwright and satirist, considered a major figure in twentieth century Irish literature.
Saint Brigid of Kildare or Brigid of Ireland (Naomh Bríd; Brigida; 525) is one of Ireland's patron saints, along with Patrick and Columba.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bunratty Castle is a large 15th-century tower house in County Clare, Ireland.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
In economics, cargo or freight are goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by water, air or land.
Carlow is the county town of County Carlow, in the south-east of Ireland, from Dublin.
Carlow County Council (Comhairle Contae Cheatharlach) is the authority responsible for local government in County Carlow, Ireland.
Carrauntoohil is the highest peak on the island of Ireland.
The Castlestrange stone is located in the grounds of "Castlestrange House" near Athleague in County Roscommon, Ireland.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Europe, also known as Roman Catholic Church in Europe, is part of worldwide Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See in Rome, including represented Eastern Catholic missions.
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.
Cavan County Council (Comhairle Contae an Chabháin) is the authority responsible for local government in County Cavan, Ireland.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The Ceann Comhairle ("head of the council") is the chairperson (or speaker) of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of Ireland.
Ceili dances, or true ceili dances (fíor céili) are a popular form of folk dancing in Ireland.
The Celtic cross is a form of Christian cross featuring a nimbus or ring that emerged in Ireland and Britain in the Early Middle Ages.
Celtic knots, called Icovellavna, (snaidhm Cheilteach, cwlwm Celtaidd) are a variety of knots and stylized graphical representations of knots used for decoration, used extensively in the Celtic style of Insular art.
The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.
The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.
"Celtic Tiger" (An Tíogar Ceilteach) is a term referring to the economy of the Republic of Ireland from the mid-1990s to the late-2000s, a period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Census of Ireland 2011 was held on Sunday, 10 April 2011.
The Central Bank of Ireland (Banc Ceannais na hÉireann) is Ireland's central bank, and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Statistics Office (CSO; An Phríomh-Oifig Staidrimh) is the statistical agency responsible for the gathering of "information relating to economic, social and general activities and conditions" in Ireland, in particular the National Census which is held every five years.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
The practice of charity means the voluntary giving of help to those in need, as a humanitarian act.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Joseph Kickham (9 May 1828 – 22 August 1882) was an Irish revolutionary, novelist, poet, journalist and one of the most prominent members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood.
Charles Stewart Parnell (Cathal Stiúbhard Parnell; 27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish nationalist politician and one of the most powerful figures in the British House of Commons in the 1880s.
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified.
Christianity is and has been the largest religion in Ireland.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
The Circuit Court (An Chúirt Chuarda) of Ireland is an intermediate level court of local and limited jurisdiction in the which hears both civil and criminal matters.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
The Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010 is an Act of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament) which allows same-sex couples to enter into civil partnerships.
Clare County Council (Comhairle Contae an Chláir) is the authority responsible for local government in County Clare, Ireland.
The monastery of Clonmacnoise (Cluain Mhic Nóis in Irish, meaning "Meadow of the Sons of Nós", or perhaps, albeit less likely, Cluain Muccu Nóis "Meadow of the Pigs of Nós") is situated in County Offaly, Ireland on the River Shannon south of Athlone.
Clover or trefoil are common names for plants of the genus Trifolium (Latin, tres "three" + folium "leaf"), consisting of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
The coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as Azure a Celtic Harp Or, stringed Argent (a gold harp with silver strings on a blue background).
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
Coddle (sometimes Dublin coddle) is an Irish dish which is often made to use up leftovers, and therefore without a specific recipe.
Colcannon is a traditional Irish dish of mashed potatoes with kale or cabbage — as well as the name of a song about the dish.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colm Tóibín (born 30 May 1955) is an Irish novelist, short story writer, essayist, playwright, journalist, critic and poet.
Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
The Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB) is a proposal for a common tax scheme for the European Union developed by the European Commission and first proposed in March 2011 which would create a single set of rules for how EU corporations calculate their EU taxes and provide the ability to consolidate EU taxes.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Common Travel Area (CTA; Comhlimistéar Taistil) is an open borders area comprising the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work, or study, and in doing so exceed the boundary of their residential community.
Concert dance (also known as performance dance or theatre dance in the United Kingdom) is dance performed for an audience.
Conduit OFC and Sink OFC is an empirical quantitative method of classifying corporate tax havens, offshore financial centres and tax havens.
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.
The Congo Crisis (Crise congolaise) was a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between 1960 and 1965.
Conor McPherson (born 6 August 1971) is an Irish playwright and director.
The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the British government to impose conscription (military draft) in Ireland in April 1918 during the First World War.
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.
The Constitution of the Irish Free State (Bunreacht Shaorstáit Eireann) was adopted by Act of Dáil Éireann sitting as a constituent assembly on 25 October 1922.
The Convention on the Constitution (An Coinbhinsiún ar an mBunreacht) was established in Ireland in 2012 to discuss proposed amendments to the Constitution of Ireland.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
The Convention Centre Dublin is a convention centre in the Dublin Docklands, Ireland.
Coolmore Stud, in Fethard, County Tipperary in Ireland, is headquarters of the world's largest breeding operation of thoroughbred racehorses.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
Cork Airport (Aerfort Chorcaí) is the second-largest of the three principal international airports in the Republic of Ireland, after Dublin and ahead of Shannon.
Cork City Council (Comhairle Cathrach Chorcaí) is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Cork in Ireland.
Cork County Council (Comhairle Contae Chorcaí) is the authority responsible for local government in County Cork, Ireland.
With 80% of Irish corporation tax ("CT") coming from foreign multinationals, and 14 of Ireland's largest 20 companies being US-based, Ireland is considered to have an advanced corporation tax regime (12.5% rate, broad tax-treaty network, tax-free holding company regimes, advanced intellectual property/knowledge box regimes).
The Corrib gas project (Tionscanamh Ghás Aiceanta na Coiribe) entails the extraction of a natural gas deposit off the northwest coast of Ireland.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of State (an Chomhairle Stáit) is a body established by the Constitution of Ireland to advise the President of Ireland in the exercise of many of his or her discretionary, reserve powers.
The counties of Ireland (contaetha na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: coonties o Airlann) are sub-national divisions that have been, and in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
A country dance is any of a large number of social dances of the British Isles in which couples dance together in a figure or "set", each dancer dancing to his or her partner and each couple dancing to the other couples in the set.
The County Hall is a 17-storey office block, owned by Cork County Council and housing its administrative headquarters.
County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara) is a county in Ireland.
The Court of Appeal (An Chúirt Achomhairc) is a court in Ireland that sits between the High Court and Supreme Court.
A crannog (crannóg; crannag) is typically a partially or entirely artificial island, usually built in lakes, rivers and estuarine waters of Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.
Cricket in Ireland is a long-established sport.
Cricket Ireland, officially the Irish Cricket Union, is the governing body for cricket in Ireland (both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland), and oversees the Ireland cricket team and Ireland women's cricket team.
The Criminal Courts of Justice (Na Cúirteanna Breithiúnais Coiriúla) is the principal courts building for the criminal courts in the Republic of Ireland.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
The Curragh Racecourse, usually referred to as simply The Curragh, is Ireland's most important Thoroughbred racecourse.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903.
Dana Rosemary Scallon (born Rosemary Brown on 30 August 1951), known in her singing career as Dana, is a British-born Irish singer and former politician who served as Member of the European Parliament from 1999 to 2004.
David Patrick Bernard Norris (born 31 July 1944) is an Irish scholar, independent Senator and civil rights activist.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
Dáil Éireann (Assembly of Ireland), also called the Revolutionary Dáil, was the revolutionary, unicameral parliament of the Irish Republic from 1919 to 1922.
There are currently 40 multi-member constituencies, that democratically elect 158 TDs (members of parliament), to Dáil Éireann (Ireland's lower house), usually every five years.
Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council (Comhairle Contae Dhún Laoghaire-Ráth an Dúin) is the authority responsible for local government in the county of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Ireland.
A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
The Defence Forces (Fórsaí Cosanta, officially styled Óglaigh na hÉireann),Óglaigh na hÉireann derives its origins from the Irish Volunteers.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Democratic Left was a left-wing political party in Ireland between 1992 and 1999.
(William) Denis Johnston (18 June 1901 – 8 August 1984) was an Irish writer.
Dermot Bolger (born 1959) is an Irish novelist, playwright and poet born in Finglas, a suburb of Dublin.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT) is a technology for broadcast television in which land-based (terrestrial) television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.
The District Court (An Chúirt Dúiche) is the main court of summary jurisdiction in Ireland.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Donegal County Council (Comhairle Contae Dhún na nGall) is the authority responsible for local government in County Donegal, Ireland.
Double Irish arrangement is a tax scheme used by some U.S. corporations in Ireland (including Apple, Google and Facebook amongst others), to shield non-U.S. income from the pre Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA) U.S. worldwide 35% tax system, and almost all Irish taxes.
A double monastery (also double house) is a monastery combining a separate community of monks and one of nuns, joined in one institution.
Dracula is an 1897 Gothic horror novel by Irish author Bram Stoker.
Drogheda is one of the oldest towns in Ireland.
Drombeg stone circle (also known as The Druid's Altar), is a Recumbent stone circle located east of Glandore, County Cork, Ireland. Drombeg is one of the most visited megalithic sites in Ireland and is protected under the National Monuments Act.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Dublin Airport (Aerfort Bhaile Átha Cliath) is an international airport serving Dublin, the capital city of Ireland.
The Dublin Area Rapid Transit system, officially and popularly known as the DART, is an electrified rapid transit railway network serving the coastline and city centre of Dublin, capital city of the Republic of Ireland.
Dublin Bus (Bus Átha Cliath) is a bus operator providing services in Dublin.
Dublin Castle (Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) off Dame Street, Dublin, Ireland, is a major Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attraction.
Dublin City Council (Comhairle Cathrach Bhaile Átha Cliath) is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Dublin in Ireland.
Dublin Connolly (Stáisiún Uí Chonghaile) is the busiest railway station in Dublin and Ireland, and is a focal point in the Irish route network.
Dublin Docklands (Ceantar Dugaí Átha Cliath) is an area of the city of Dublin, Ireland, on both sides of the River Liffey, roughly from Talbot Memorial Bridge eastwards to the 3Arena.
The Dublin Docklands Development Authority (Údarás Forbartha Dugthailte Bhaile Átha Cliath) (DDDA) was created by the Dublin Docklands Development Authority Act 1997 to lead a major project of physical, social and economic regeneration in the East side of Dublin along both banks of the River Liffey.
The Dublin Marathon is an annual 26.2 mile (42.2 kilometer) marathon in Dublin, Ireland, held on the last Sunday in October.
The Dublin Tunnel (Irish: Tollán Bhaile Átha Cliath), originally and still commonly known as the Dublin Port Tunnel, is a road traffic tunnel in Dublin, Ireland, that forms part of the M50 motorway.
The Dublin Women's Mini Marathon (currently known as the Vhi Women's Mini Marathon, for title sponsor Vhi Healthcare) is an annual 10km charity road race that occurs each June bank holiday weekend in Ireland is the largest Women's event of its kind in the world.
Dublinbikes (styled "dublinbikes") is a public bicycle rental scheme which has operated in the city of Dublin since 2009.
Dundalk is the county town of County Louth, Ireland.
Eamonn Christopher Coghlan (born 21 November 1952) is a former track and field athlete who specialised in middle distance track events and the 5,000 metres.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The Tom Clarke Bridge, formerly and commonly known as the East-Link Toll Bridge, is a toll bridge in Dublin, Ireland, on the River Liffey, owned and operated by Dublin City Council.
The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
Edith Anna Œnone Somerville (2 May 1858 – 8 October 1949) was an Irish novelist who habitually signed herself as "E.
Edna O'Brien, DBE (born 15 December 1930) is an Irish novelist, memoirist, playwright, poet and short story writer.
Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC, PC (Ire), KC (9 February 1854 – 22 October 1935), from 1900 to 1921 known as Sir Edward Carson, was an Irish unionist politician, barrister and judge.
Sir Edward Lovett Pearce (1699 – 7 December 1733) was an Irish architect, and the chief exponent of palladianism in Ireland.
The Eighth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1983 amended the Constitution of Ireland by inserting a subsection recognising the equal right to life of the pregnant woman and the unborn.
Electric Ireland is the supply division of the Electricity Supply Board, the former monopoly electricity company in Ireland.
Elizabeth Bowen, CBE (7 June 1899 – 22 February 1973) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and short story writer, notable for some of the best fiction about life in wartime London.
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.
Enda Patrick Kenny (born 24 April 1951) is an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Taoiseach from 2011 to 2017, Leader of Fine Gael from 2002 to 2017, Minister for Defence from May 2014 to July 2014 and 2016 to 2017, Leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2011, Minister for Tourism and Trade from 1994 to 1997 and Minister of State for Youth Affairs from 1986 to 1987.
Energy in Ireland describes energy and electricity production, consumption and importing in the Republic of Ireland.
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ennis is the county town of County Clare, Ireland.
| Enterprise is the cross-border inter-city train service between in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland, jointly operated by Iarnród Éireann (IE) and NI Railways (NIR).
Eoin Colfer (born 14 May 1965) is an Irish author of children's books.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
Ervia, previously known as Bord Gáis or Bord Gáis Éireann (meaning "Gas Board of Ireland"), is a multi-utility company distributing pipeline natural gas, water services and dark fibre services in Ireland.
On 29 August 2016, after a two-year EU investigation, Margrethe Vestager of the European Commission announced Apple received illegal State aid from Ireland.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).
The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a post-Cold War NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Health Insurance Card (or EHIC) is issued free of charge and allows anyone who is insured by or covered by a statutory social security scheme of the EEA countries and Switzerland to receive medical treatment in another member state free or at a reduced cost, if that treatment becomes necessary during their visit (for example, due to illness or an accident), or if they have a chronic pre-existing condition which requires care such as kidney dialysis.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
The Eurovision Song Contest 1994 was the 39th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on 30 April 1994 in the Point Theatre in Dublin, Ireland.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
The Executive Council (Ard-Chomhairle) was the cabinet and de facto executive branch of government of the 1922–1937 Irish Free State.
Fís Éireann/Screen Ireland (FÉ/SI), formerly Bord Scannán na hÉireann/the Irish Film Board (BSÉ/IFB), is Ireland’s national development agency for the Irish film, television and animation industry.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Fianna Fáil (meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach), is a political party in Ireland.
The Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1995 (previously bill no. 15 of 1995) is an amendment of the Constitution of Ireland which removed the constitutional prohibition on divorce, and allowed for the dissolution of a marriage provided specified conditions were satisfied.
The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1972 is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland which deleted two subsections that recognised the special position of the Catholic Church and that recognised other named religious denominations.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.
Fine Gael (English: Family or Tribe of the Irish) is a liberal-conservative and Christian democratic political party in Ireland.
Fingal County Council (Comhairle Contae Fhine Gall) is the authority responsible for local government in the county of Fingal, Ireland.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
The First Dáil (An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921.
The national flag of Ireland (bratach na hÉireann) – frequently referred to as the Irish tricolour (trídhathach na hÉireann) – is the national flag and ensign of the Republic of Ireland.
The Football Association of Ireland (FAI; Cumann Peile na hÉireann) is the governing body for association football in the Republic of Ireland.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
Formation dance is a style of ballroom dancing.
The Four Courts (Na Ceithre Cúirteanna) is Ireland's main courts building, located on Inns Quay in Dublin.
The Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1992 (previously bill no. 26 of 1992) is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland which specified that the protection of the right to life of the unborn does not limit the right to distribute information about services in foreign countries.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Professor Frank McGuinness (born 1953) is an Irish writer.
Frank O'Connor (born Michael Francis O'Donovan; 17 September 1903 – 10 March 1966) was an Irish writer of over 150 works, best known for his short stories and memoirs.
Fraxinus excelsior, known as the ash, or European ash or common ash to distinguish it from other types of ash, is a flowering plant species in the olive family Oleaceae.
At present, there are four multi-lateral free trade areas in Europe, and one former free trade area in recent history.
Free-to-air (FTA) are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription, other ongoing cost or one-off fee (e.g. Pay-per-view).
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
A frogman is someone who is trained in scuba diving or swimming underwater in a tactical capacity that includes police or military work.
A full breakfast is a breakfast meal that typically includes bacon, sausages, eggs and a beverage such as coffee or tea.
The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA; Cumann Lúthchleas Gael, (CLG)) is an Irish international amateur sporting and cultural organisation, focused primarily on promoting indigenous Gaelic games and pastimes, which include the traditional Irish sports of hurling, camogie, Gaelic football, Gaelic handball and rounders.
Gaelic football (Irish: Peil Ghaelach; short name Peil or Caid), commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport.
Gaelic games are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).
Gaelic handball (known in Ireland simply as handball; liathróid láimhe) is a sport played in Ireland where players hit a ball with a hand or fist against a wall in such a way as to make a shot the opposition cannot return, and that may be played with two (singles) or four players (doubles).
Gaelic Ireland (Éire Ghaidhealach) was the Gaelic political and social order, and associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Gaeltacht (plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish-language word for any primarily Irish-speaking region.
Galileo (foaled 30 March 1998) is a retired Irish Thoroughbred racehorse and active sire.
Galway (Gaillimh) is a city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht.
Galway City Council (Comhairle Cathrach na Gaillimhe) is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Galway in Ireland.
Galway County Council (Comhairle Contae na Gaillimhe) is the authority responsible for local government in County Galway, Ireland.
An Garda Síochána (meaning "the Guardian of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí ("Guardians") or "the Guards", is the police force of the Republic of Ireland.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
The General Post Office (GPO; Ard-Oifig an Phoist) in Dublin is the headquarters of An Post, the Irish Post Office, and Dublin's principal post office.
In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
George Augustus Moore (24 February 1852 – 21 January 1933) was an Irish novelist, short-story writer, poet, art critic, memoirist and dramatist.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 19112 April 1974) was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974.
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830.
Georgian Dublin is a phrase used in terms of the history of Dublin that has two interwoven meanings.
Gerald Griffin (12 December 1803 – 12 June 1840) was an Irish novelist, poet and playwright.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland.
The Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90), also known as the Home Rule Act, and before enactment as the Third Home Rule Bill, was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to provide home rule (self-government within the United Kingdom) for Ireland.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Governor-General (Seanascal) was the official representative of the sovereign of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1936.
A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.
In rugby union, a Grand Slam (Irish: Caithréim Mhór. Welsh: Y Gamp Lawn. French: Grand Chelem) occurs when one team in the Six Nations Championship (or its Five Nations predecessor) manages to beat all the others during one year's competition.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
The Green Ensign is a historical flag flown by some Irish merchant vessels from the 17th century to the early 20th century.
The Green Party (Comhaontas Glas, literally "Green Alliance") is a green political party that operates in Ireland—both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
Greyhound racing is an organized, competitive sport in which greyhound dogs are raced around a track.
Guinness is an Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness (1725–1803) at St. James's Gate brewery in the capital city of Dublin, Ireland.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Gulliver's Travels, or Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916.
Hans Place is a garden square in the Knightsbridge district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, immediately south of Harrods in SW1.
The hazel (Corylus) is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
A headland (or simply head) is a coastal landform, a point of land usually high and often with a sheer drop, that extends into a body of water.
Health Consumer Powerhouse is a Swedish health policy think tank which specialises in comparing healthcare systems throughout Europe.
The Health Service Executive (HSE) (Feidhmeannacht na Seirbhíse Sláinte) is responsible for the provision of health and personal social services for everyone living in Ireland, with public funds.
A hedge or hedgerow is a line of closely spaced shrubs and sometimes trees, planted and trained to form a barrier or to mark the boundary of an area, such as between neighbouring properties.
Heuston Station (Stáisiún Heuston; formerly Kingsbridge Station) also known as Dublin Heuston, is one of Ireland's main railway stations, linking the capital with the south, southwest and west.
The High Court is established by Article 34 of the Constitution of Ireland, which grants it "full original jurisdiction in and power to determine all matters and questions whether of law or fact, civil or criminal", as well as the ability to determine "the validity of any law having regard to the provisions of this Constitution".
HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.
For an article on Hinduism specifically in Northern Ireland, see Hinduism in Northern Ireland Hinduism in the Republic of Ireland is one of the fastest-growing religions by percentage.
Sinn Féin ("We Ourselves", often mistranslated as "Ourselves Alone") is the name of an Irish political party founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith.
The Irish state came into being in 1922 as the Irish Free State, a dominion of the British Commonwealth, having seceded from the United Kingdom under the Anglo-Irish Treaty.
The honors music for a person, office or rank is music played on formal or ceremonial occasions in the presence of the person, office-holder, or rank-holder, especially by a military band.
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
Hugh Leonard (9 November 1926 – 12 February 2009) was an Irish dramatist, television writer and essayist.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Hurling (iománaíocht, iomáint) is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin.
Iarnród Éireann, also known as Irish Rail in English, is the operator of the national railway network of Ireland.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), members of which are commonly termed "Wobblies", is an international labor union that was founded in 1905 in Chicago, Illinois in the United States of America.
Inis Cathaigh or Scattery Island is an island in the Shannon Estuary, Ireland, off the coast of Kilrush, County Clare.
InterCity is the brand name given to rail services operated by Iarnród Éireann that run between Dublin and other major cities in Ireland.
The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
The International Financial Services Centre (or IFSC) began in 1987 as a special economic zone on a derelict 11 hectare site near the centre of Dublin, with EU approval to apply a 10% corporate tax rate for designated financial services activities on the site.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International rules football (Peil na rialacha idirnáisiunta; also known as inter rules in Australia and compromise rules in Ireland) is a team sport consisting of a hybrid of football codes, which was developed to facilitate international representative matches between Australian rules football players and Gaelic football players.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
During World War I (1914–1918), Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which entered the war in August 1914 as one of the Entente Powers, along with France, and the Russian Empire.
The Ireland cricket team represents all of Ireland.
Ireland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 52 times since making its debut at the 1965 Contest in Naples, missing only two contests since then (and). The contest final is broadcast in Ireland on RTÉ One.
The Ireland men's national rugby league team, known as the Wolfhounds, represents Ireland in international rugby league competitions.
The All-Ireland Rugby League Championship (now the McGettigans All-Ireland League for sponsorship reasons) was first played for in 1997 under the title All-Ireland Challenge Cup.
The Ireland national netball team is the national netball team of Ireland.
The Republic of Ireland received an international rescue package from International Monetary Fund (IMF) with a sum total of 22.5 billion euros which was meant to fund programs aimed to restore banking system back to health, and reduce deficit and public debt.
The Air Corps (An tAerchór) is the air component of the Defence Forces of Ireland.
The Irish Army, known simply as the Army (an tArm), is the land component of the Defence Forces of Ireland.
The Irish Athletic Boxing Association Ltd. (IABA) is the national governing body for amateur boxing in Ireland.
Irish breakfast tea is a blend of several black teas, most often Assam teas.
Irish Catholics are an ethnoreligious group native to Ireland that are both Catholic and Irish.
The Irish Citizen Army, or ICA, was a small paramilitary group of trained trade union volunteers from the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU) established in Dublin for the defence of workers' demonstrations from the police.
The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.
Irish coffee (caife Gaelach) is a cocktail consisting of hot coffee, Irish whiskey, and sugar (some recipes specify that brown sugar should be used, specifying brown sugar, and that fresh cream should be floated on top.), stirred, and topped with thick cream.
The Declaration of Independence (Forógra na Saoirse, Déclaration d'Indépendance) was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the Irish Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21 January 1919.
The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael) refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 general election which took place in Ireland.
The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Irish Independent is Ireland's largest-selling daily newspaper, published by Independent News & Media (INM).
The Land Acts were a series of measures to deal with the question of peasant proprietorship of land in Ireland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Irish military diaspora refers to the many people of either Irish birth or extraction (see Irish diaspora) who have served in overseas military forces, regardless of rank, duration of service, or success.
The Irish National Land League (Irish: Conradh na Talún) was an Irish political organisation of the late 19th century which sought to help poor tenant farmers.
Irish nationality law is contained in the provisions of the Irish Nationality and Citizenship Acts 1956 to 2004 and in the relevant provisions of the Irish Constitution.
The Naval Service (an tSeirbhís Chabhlaigh) is the maritime component of the Defence Forces of Ireland and is one of the three branches of the Irish Defence Forces.
The policy of Irish neutrality during World War II was adopted by the Oireachtas at the instigation of the Taoiseach Éamon de Valera upon the outbreak of World War II in Europe.
The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP; commonly called the Irish Party or the Home Rule Party) was formed in 1874 by Isaac Butt, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing the Home Rule League, as official parliamentary party for Irish nationalist Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the House of Commons at Westminster within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland up until 1918.
An Irish passport is the passport issued to citizens of Ireland.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
The Irish pound (punt Éireannach) was the currency of Ireland until 2002.
The first Irish prose fiction, in the form of legendary stories, appeared in the Irish language as early as the seventh century, along with chronicles and lives of saints in Irish and Latin.
The Irish Republic (Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in January 1919.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Óglaigh na hÉireann) was an Irish republican revolutionary paramilitary organisation.
The original Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence between 1919 and 1921.
Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
Irish round towers (Cloigtheach (singular), Cloigthithe (plural) – literally "bell house") are early medieval stone towers of a type found mainly in Ireland, with two in Scotland and one on the Isle of Man.
The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) (Cumann Rugbaí na hÉireann) is the body managing rugby union in the island of Ireland (both Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
Irish stepdance is a style of performance dance with its roots in traditional Irish dance.
Irish stew (stobhach / Stobhach Gaelach) is any variety of meat-and-root vegetables stew native to Ireland.
The history of Irish theatre begins with the rise of the English administration in Dublin at the start of the 17th century.
Irish traditional music (also known as Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland.
Irish Travellers (an lucht siúil, meaning 'the walking people') are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group who maintain a set of traditions.
The Irish Unionist Alliance (IUA), also known as the Irish Unionist Party or simply the Unionists, was a unionist political party founded in Ireland in 1891 from the Irish Loyal and Patriotic Union to oppose plans for Home Rule for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Irish Volunteers (Óglaigh na hÉireann), sometimes called the Irish Volunteer Force or Irish Volunteer Army, was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
Irish whiskey (Fuisce or uisce beatha) is whiskey made on the island of Ireland.
The Irish Wolfhound (Cú Faoil) is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), specifically a very large sighthound from Ireland.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The documented history of Islam in Ireland dates to the 1950s.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
A jack is a national (originally naval) flag flown from a short jackstaff at the bow of a vessel, while the ensign is flown on the stern.
The Jack Lynch Tunnel (Irish: Tollán Sheáin Uí Loingsigh) is an immersed tube tunnel and an integral part of the N40 southern ring road of Cork in Ireland.
James Connolly (Séamas Ó Conghaile; 5 June 1868 – 12 May 1916) was an Irish republican and socialist leader.
James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon, PC, PC (NI) DL (8 January 1871 – 24 November 1940), was a prominent Irish unionist politician, leader of the Ulster Unionist Party and the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.
John Brendan Keane (21 July 1928 – 30 May 2002) was an Irish playwright, novelist and essayist from Listowel, County Kerry.
John Banim (3 April 1798 – 30 August 1842), was an Irish novelist, short story writer, dramatist, poet and essayist, sometimes called the "Scott of Ireland." He also studied art, working as a painter of miniatures and portraits, and as a drawing teacher, before dedicating himself to literature.
William John Banville (born 8 December 1945), who sometimes writes as Benjamin Black, is an Irish novelist, adapter of dramas, and screenwriter.
John McGahern (12 November 1934 – 30 March 2006) is regarded as one of the most important Irish writers of the latter half of the twentieth century.
John Edward Redmond (1 September 1856 – 6 March 1918) was an Irish nationalist politician, barrister, and MP in the British House of Commons.
Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.
Joseph Victor O'Connor is an Irish novelist.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
The Junior Certificate (Teastas Sóisearach) or "Junior Cert" for short, is an educational qualification awarded in Ireland by the Department of Education and Skills to students who have successfully completed the junior cycle of secondary education and achieved a minimum standard in their Junior Certificate Examination (Irish: Scrúdú an Teastais Shóisearaigh).
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
Kate O'Brien (3 December 1897 – 13 August 1974) was an Irish novelist and playwright.
Katherine Alexandra Zappone (born 25 November 1953) is an American-Irish Independent politician who has served as Minister for Children and Youth Affairs since May 2016.
Katie Taylor (born 2 July 1986) is an Irish professional boxer and former footballer.
Kells is a town in County Meath, Ireland.
Kerry County Council (Comhairle Contae Chiarraí) is the authority responsible for local government in County Kerry, Ireland.
Kerry Group is a public food company headquartered in Ireland.
Kildare County Council (Comhairle Contae Chill Dara) is the authority responsible for local government in County Kildare, Ireland.
Kilkenny Castle (Caisleán Chill Chainnigh) is a castle in Kilkenny, Ireland built in 1195 to control a fording-point of the River Nore and the junction of several routeways.
Kilkenny County Council (Comhairle Contae Chill Chainnigh) is the authority responsible for local government in County Kilkenny, Ireland.
The Honorable Society of King's Inns (HSKI) is the institution which controls the entry of barristers-at-law into the justice system of Ireland.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
The Kinsale Head gas field is an offshore natural gas field off the southern coast of Ireland discovered in 1973 near Old Head of Kinsale, in the Celtic Sea and met Ireland's gas need until 1996.
The New Army, often referred to as Kitchener's Army or, disparagingly, as Kitchener's Mob, was an (initially) all-volunteer army of the British Army formed in the United Kingdom from 1914 onwards following the outbreak of hostilities in the First World War in late July 1914.
Knightsbridge is an exclusive residential and retail district in West London, south of Hyde Park.
The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.
The Labour Party (Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a social-democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
Laois County Council (Comhairle Contae Laoise) is the authority responsible for local government in County Laois, Ireland.
The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768) was an Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman.
The law of Ireland consists of constitutional, statute and common law.
The League of Ireland (Sraith na hÉireann), together with the Football Association of Ireland, is one of the two main governing bodies responsible for organising association football in the Republic of Ireland.
The Leaving Certificate Examination (Scrúdú na hArdteistiméireachta), which is commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert (Irish: Ardteist) is the university matriculation examination in the Republic of Ireland and the final exam of the Irish secondary school system.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
Leinster House (Teach Laighean) is the seat of the Oireachtas, the parliament of Ireland.
Leitrim County Council (Comhairle Contae Liatroma) is the authority responsible for local government in County Leitrim, Ireland.
Leo Eric Varadkar (born 18 January 1979) is an Irish politician who has served as Taoiseach, Minister for Defence and Leader of Fine Gael since June 2017.
Leopardstown Racecourse is an Irish horse-racing venue, located in Leopardstown, Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, 8km south of the Dublin city centre.
Leprechaun economics was a term coined by Nobel Prize-winning economist Paul Krugman in a tweet on 12 July 2016 in response to the publication by the Irish Central Statistics Office (CSO) that Irish GDP had grown by 26.3%, and Irish GNP had grown by 18.7%, in the 2015 Irish national accounts.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.
Limerick City and County Council (Comhairle Cathrach agus Contae Luimnigh) is the authority responsible for local government in the City of Limerick and County Limerick in Ireland.
The Limerick Tunnel is a, twin bore road tunnel underneath the River Shannon on the outskirts of Limerick city.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This article includes a partial List of countries by economic freedom that shows the top 50 highest ranking countries from two reports on economic freedom.
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland.
This is a list of novelists either born on the island of Ireland or holding Irish citizenship.
This is a list of notable Irish people who were born on the island of Ireland, in either the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland, and have lived there for most of their lives.
This is a list of the abbeys, priories, friaries and other monastic religious houses in Ireland.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
This is a link page for cities, towns and villages in the Republic of Ireland, including townships or urban centres in Dublin and other major urban areas.
In human reproduction, a live birth occurs when a fetus, whatever its gestational age, exits the maternal body and subsequently shows any sign of life, such as voluntary movement, heartbeat, or pulsation of the umbilical cord, for however brief a time and regardless of whether the umbilical cord or placenta are intact.
The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 (61 & 62 Vict. c. 37) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that established a system of local government in Ireland similar to that already created for England, Wales and Scotland by legislation in 1888 and 1889.
In Ireland, local government functions are mostly exercised by thirty-one local authorities, termed County, City, or City and County Councils.
The Local Government Reform Act 2014 is an act of the Oireachtas providing for a major restructuring of local government in the Republic of Ireland with effect from the 2014 local elections.
A local road (Bóthar Áitiúil) in the Ireland is a public road not classified as a national primary road, national secondary road, or regional road but nevertheless forming a link in the national network of roads.
The London Declaration was a declaration issued by the 1949 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference on the issue of India's continued membership in the Commonwealth of Nations after its transition to a republican constitution.
Longford is the county town of County Longford in Ireland.
Longford County Council (Comhairle Contae an Longfoirt) is the authority responsible for local government in County Longford, Ireland.
A longphort (Ir. plur. longphuirt) is a term used in Ireland for a Viking ship enclosureConnolly S.J (1998).
Louth County Council (Comhairle Contae Lú) is the authority responsible for local government in County Louth, Ireland.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
Luas (Irish pronunciation:; Irish for "speed") is a tram/light rail system in Dublin, Ireland.
MacGillycuddy's Reeks is a mountain range in County Kerry, Ireland.
Maeve Binchy Snell (28 May 1939Born 1939 as per biography, Maeve Binchy by Piers Dudgeon, Thomas Dunne Books 2013; (hardcover), pp. 4, 280, 302; (ebook) – 30 July 2012), known as Maeve Binchy, was an Irish novelist, playwright, short story writer, columnist, and speaker best known for her sympathetic and often humorous portrayal of small-town life in Ireland, her descriptive characters, her interest in human nature, and her often clever surprise endings.
Maria Edgeworth (1 January 1768 – 22 May 1849) was a prolific Anglo-Irish writer of adults' and children's literature.
Markree Castle, in Collooney, County Sligo, Ireland is the ancestral seat of the Cooper family, partially moated by the River Unshin.
The Mass or Eucharistic Celebration is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church where the Eucharist (Communion) is consecrated.
Mayo County council (Comhairle Contae Mhaigh Eo) is the authority responsible for local government in County Mayo, Ireland.
Máirtín Ó Cadhain (1906 – 18 October 1970) was one of the most prominent Irish language writers of the twentieth century.
Meath County Council (Comhairle Contae na Mí) is the authority responsible for local government in County Meath, Ireland.
Mellifont Abbey (An Mhainistir Mhór, literally "the big abbey"), was a Cistercian abbey located close to Drogheda in County Louth, Ireland.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
The Methodist Church in Ireland (Ulster-Scots: Methody Kirk in Airlann) is a Wesleyan Methodist church that operates across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on an all-Ireland basis.
Michael Collins (Mícheál Ó Coileáin; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary, soldier and politician who was a leading figure in the early-20th-century Irish struggle for independence.
Michael Daniel Higgins (Mícheál Dónal Ó hUiginn; born 18 April 1941) is an Irish politician who has served as the 9th President of Ireland since November 2011.
Military aid to the civil power (MACP) (sometimes to the civil authorities) is a term used to describe the use of the armed forces in support of the civil authorities of a state.
The Military Police Corps (MP) (Cór Póiliní an Airm, PA) is the corps of the Irish Army, a branch of the Irish Defence Forces, responsible for the provision of policing service personnel and providing a military police presence to forces while on exercise and deployment.
The Minister for Defence (An tAire Cosanta) is the senior minister at the Department of Defence in the Government of Ireland.
The Minister for Education and Skills (An tAire Oideachais agus Scileanna) is the senior government minister at the Department of Education and Skills in the Government of Ireland.
The Minister for Finance (An tAire Airgeadais) is the senior minister at the Department of Finance in the Government of Ireland.
The Minister for Health (An tAire Sláinte) is the senior minister at the Department of Health in the Government of Ireland and is responsible for healthcare in the Republic of Ireland and related services.
The Ministry of Dáil Éireann (Irish language: Aireacht Dáil Éireann) was the cabinet of the 1919–1922 Irish Republic.
Modified GNI (or GNI*) was created by the Central Bank of Ireland in February 2017 as a way to measure the Irish economy, and Irish indebtedness, due to the increasing distortions that Irish multinational tax schemes, also known as Irish IP-based BEPS tools, were having on Irish GNI, Irish GNP and Irish GDP.
Monaghan County Council (Comhairle Contae Mhuineacháin) is the authority responsible for local government in County Monaghan, Ireland.
Montjeu (1996 – 29 March 2012) was an Irish-bred, French-trained thoroughbred horse racing racehorse and sire.
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.
In Ireland, the highest category of road is a motorway (mótarbhealach, plural: mótarbhealaí), indicated by the prefix M followed by one, two or three digits.
Mullingar is the county town of County Westmeath in Ireland.
A municipal district is an administrative entity comprising a clearly defined territory and its population.
Naas (Nás na Ríogh, or An Nás) is the county town of County Kildare in Ireland.
The National Army, sometimes unofficially referred to as the Free State army or the Regulars, was the army of the Irish Free State from January 1922 until October 1924.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
A national primary road (Bóthar príomha náisiúnta) is a road classification in Ireland.
The National Roads Authority (NRA) (An tÚdarás um Bóithre Náisiúnta) was a state body in Ireland, responsible for the national road network.
A national secondary road (Bóthar Náisiúnta den Dara Grád) is a category of road in Ireland.
The National Volunteers was the name taken by the majority of the Irish Volunteers that sided with Irish Parliamentary Party leader John Redmond after the movement split over the question of the Volunteers' role in World War I.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Naval Service Reserve (NSR) (Cúltaca na Seirbhíse Cabhlaigh) is the reserve force of the Irish Naval Service.
Navan (trans. "the Cave") is the county town of County Meath in Ireland.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
Newbridge, officially known by its Irish name Droichead Nua, is a town in County Kildare, Ireland.
Newstalk (formerly NewsTalk 106) is an independent radio station in Ireland.
NI Railways, also known as Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) and for a brief period Ulster Transport Railways (UTR), is the railway operator in Northern Ireland.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
The North Channel (known in Irish and Scottish Gaelic as Sruth na Maoile, in Scots as the Sheuch and alternatively in English as the Straits of Moyle or Sea of Moyle) is the strait between north-eastern Northern Ireland and south-western Scotland.
The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC) (An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh-Theas, Ulster-Scots: North South Meinisterlie Council) is a body established under the Good Friday Agreement to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain governmental powers across the whole island of Ireland.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature Northern Ireland Assembly.
Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill (born 1952) is an Irish poet.
There are eight regions at NUTS III level in Ireland.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
The Obel Tower is a highrise building in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Offaly County Council (Comhairle Contae Uíbh Fhailí) is the authority responsible for local government in County Offaly, Ireland.
An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor or other senior figure officially resides.
The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.
The Oireachtas of the Irish Free State (Oireachtas Shaorstát Éireann) was the legislature of the Irish Free State from 1922 until 1937.
Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1728 – 4 April 1774) was an Irish novelist, playwright and poet, who is best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770), and his plays The Good-Natur'd Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1771, first performed in 1773).
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Ireland: Ireland (Irish language: Éire) is a sovereign island nation located in Northern Europe.
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
The Parliament Act 1911 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Parliament House in Dublin, Ireland, was home to the Parliament of Ireland, and later housed the Bank of Ireland.
The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the Home Rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended with the introduction of Direct Rule.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
Patricia Lynch (c. 1894 – 1972) was an Irish children's writer and a journalist.
Patrick Kavanagh (21 October 1904 – 30 November 1967) was an Irish poet and novelist.
Patrick Henry Pearse (also known as Pádraig or Pádraic Pearse; Pádraig Anraí Mac Piarais; An Piarsach; 10 November 1879 – 3 May 1916) was an Irish teacher, barrister, poet, writer, nationalist, republican political activist and revolutionary who was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916.
A patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence duties.
Paul Noel McGinley (born 16 December 1966) is an Irish professional golfer who has won four events on the European Tour.
Pádraic Ó Conaire (28 February 1882 – 6 October 1928) was an Irish writer and journalist whose production was primarily in the Irish language.
Pádraig Peter Harrington (born 31 August 1971) is an Irish professional golfer who plays on the European Tour and the PGA Tour.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
Pepper spray (also known as capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and temporary blindness) used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Governments around the world have passed measures to phase out incandescent light bulbs for general lighting in favor of more energy-efficient lighting alternatives.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Plain tobacco packaging, also known as generic, neutral, standardised or homogeneous packaging, refers to packaging that requires the removal of all branding (colours, imagery, corporate logos and trademarks), permitting manufacturers to print only the brand name in a mandated size, font and place on the pack, in addition to the health warnings and any other legally mandated information such as toxic constituents and tax-paid stamps.
Plastic shopping bags, carrier bags, or plastic grocery bags) are a type of plastic bag used as shopping bags and made from various kinds of plastic. In use by consumers worldwide since the 1960s, these bags are sometimes called single-use bags, referring to carrying items from a store to a home. However, reuse for storage or trash is common, and modern plastic shopping bags are increasingly recyclable or biodegradable. In recent decades, numerous countries have introduced legislation restricting the sale of plastic bags, in a bid to reduce littering and plastic pollution. Some reusable shopping bags are made of plastic film, fibers, or fabric.
Poitín, anglicized as potcheen, poteen or potheen, is a traditional Irish distilled beverage (40%–90% ABV).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Port Laoise, or Portlaoise (Irish, anglicised) is the county town of County Laois, Ireland.
Portarlington, historically called Cooletoodera (from), is a town on the border of County Laois and County Offaly, Ireland.
The post-2008 Irish banking crisis was the situation whereby, due to the Great Recession, a number of Irish financial institutions faced almost imminent collapse due to insolvency.
The post-2008 Irish economic downturn in the Republic of Ireland, coincided with a series of banking scandals, followed the 1990s and 2000s Celtic Tiger period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment, a subsequent property bubble which rendered the real economy uncompetitive, and an expansion in bank lending in the early 2000s.
Poulnabrone dolmen (Poll na mBrón in Irish, meaning "hole of the quern stones" (bró in Irish)) is a portal tomb - one of approximately 172 in Ireland - located in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland.
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system.
The Presbyterian Church in Ireland (PCI; Eaglais Phreispitéireach in Éirinn, Ulster-Scots: Prisbytairin Kirk in Airlann) is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Ireland, and the largest Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland.
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
The President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State (Uachtarán ar Ard-Chomhairle Shaorstát Éireann) was the head of government or prime minister of the Irish Free State which existed from 1922 to 1937.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Proclamation of the Republic (Forógra na Poblachta), also known as the 1916 Proclamation or the Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, which began on 24 April 1916.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
The Progressive Democrats (An Páirtí Daonlathach, literally The Democratic Party, PDs) was a conservative-liberal political party in the Republic of Ireland.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service.
The quadrille is a dance that was fashionable in late 18th- and 19th-century Europe and its colonies.
Quartering in is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Raidió Teilifís Éireann (Radio-Television of Ireland; abbreviated as RTÉ) is a semi-state company and the national public service broadcaster of Ireland.
A raisin is a dried grape.
Within the study of demography, the rate of natural increase (RNI) is classified as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Rates of household recycling in Ireland have increased dramatically since the late 1990s.
A regional road (bóthar réigiúnach) in Ireland is a class of road not forming a major route (such as a national primary road or national secondary road), but nevertheless forming a link in the national route network.
Religious studies, alternately known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 (No. 22 of 1948) is an Act of the Oireachtas which declared that Ireland may be officially described as the Republic of Ireland, and vested in the President of Ireland the power to exercise the executive authority of the state in its external relations, on the advice of the Government of Ireland.
The Republic of Ireland national football team (Foireann peile náisiúnta Phoblacht na hÉireann) represents Ireland in association football.
The Reserve Defence Forces (RDF) (Na hÓglaigh Cúltaca) are the reserve components of the Defence Forces of Ireland.
Richard Brinsley Butler Sheridan (30 October 17517 July 1816) was an Irish satirist, a playwright and poet, and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.
Ringforts, ring forts or ring fortresses are circular fortified settlements that were mostly built during the Bronze age up to about the year 1000.
The River Lee (Irish: An Laoi) is a river in Ireland.
The River Shannon (Abha na Sionainne, an tSionainn, an tSionna) is the longest river in Ireland at.
Riverdance is a theatrical show consisting mainly of traditional Irish music and dance.
Robert Childers Barton (14 March 1881 – 10 August 1975) was an Irish nationalist, politician and farmer who participated in the negotiations leading up to the signature of the Anglo-Irish Treaty.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
Roddy Doyle (born 8 May 1958) is an Irish novelist, dramatist and screenwriter.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Ronan John Ross O'Gara (Irish: Rónán Ó Gadhra, born 7 March 1977) is an Irish former rugby union player and current coach.
Roscommon County Council (Comhairle Contae Ros Comáin) is the authority responsible for local government in County Roscommon, Ireland.
Rounders (cluiche corr) is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland (Institiúid Ríoga Ailtirí na hÉireann) founded in 1839, is the "competent authority for architects and professional body for Architecture in the Republic of Ireland." The RIAI’s purpose is "to uphold the highest standards in architecture and to provide impartial and authoritative advice and information in issues affecting architects, the built environment and society." The RIAI’s primary roles are in the areas of: Protecting the consumer; Promoting architecture; Supporting architects and architectural technologists; and Regulating architects.
RTÉ 2fm, or 2FM as it is more commonly referred to, is an Irish radio station operated by RTÉ.
RTÉ lyric fm is an Irish classical-music and arts radio station, owned by the public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ).
RTÉ News and Current Affairs (Nuacht agus Cúrsaí Reatha RTÉ), is a major division of Raidió Teilifís Éireann and provides a range of national and international news and current affairs programming for RTÉ television, radio and online and also for the independent Irish language broadcaster TG4.
RTÉ News Now is a 24-hour news television network in the Republic of Ireland operated by Irish public service broadcaster RTÉ.
RTÉ One (RTÉ a hAon) is the flagship television channel of Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ), and it is the most popular and most watched television channel in Ireland.
RTÉ Performing Groups is a group of five classical ensembles, part of the Irish broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ).
RTÉ Radio is a division of the Irish national broadcasting organisation Raidió Teilifís Éireann.
RTÉ Radio 1 (RTÉ Raidió 1) is the principal radio channel of Irish public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann and is the direct descendant of Dublin radio station 2RN, which began broadcasting on a regular basis on 1 January 1926.
RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta ("Radio of the Gaeltacht"), abbreviated RnaG, is the Irish-language radio service of the public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann.
RTÉ Television is a department of Ireland's national broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ).
RTÉ2 is a free-to-air general entertainment channel operated by Irish national broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann.
RTÉjr is a children's channel operated by Ireland's national broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann, which targets a demographic between 2 – 6 years of age.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
The Rugby League European Championship (formerly known as the European Cup and European Nations Cup) is a rugby league football tournament for European national teams that was first held in 1935.
The Rugby League European Federation (RLEF) is the umbrella body for nations playing the sport of rugby league football across Europe and the Northern Hemisphere.
Rugby League Ireland (RLI) is the internationally recognised governing body for the development of rugby league football in Ireland, having secured official recognition from the RLIF in 2000.
The Rugby League World Cup is an international rugby league tournament, contested by national teams of the Rugby League International Federation, which was first held in France in 1954, the first World Cup in either rugby code.
Rugby union in Ireland is a popular team sport.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline founded in 1984, headquartered in Swords, Dublin, Ireland, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports.
Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral (Ardeaglais Naomh Fionnbarra) is a Gothic revival three spire cathedral in the city of Cork, Ireland.
Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.
Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (AD 385–461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
Saorview is the national digital terrestrial television (DTT) service in Ireland.
Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 American epic war film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Robert Rodat.
Séamus Ó Grianna (17 November 1889–27 November 1969; locally known also as Jimí Fheilimí) was an Irish writer, who used the pen name Máire.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
Sea The Stars (foaled 6 April 2006) is a champion Irish Thoroughbred racehorse.
The Seal of the President of Ireland (Séala Uachtarán na hÉireann) is a seal used by the President of Ireland to be affixed to every "...
Seamus Justin Heaney (13 April 1939 – 30 August 2013) was an Irish poet, playwright and translator.
Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) is the government upper house of the Oireachtas (the Irish legislature), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann (the lower house).
Seán Proinsias Ó Faoláin (22 February 1900 – 20 April 1991) was an Irish short story writer.
Seán Francis Lemass (born John Francis Lemass; 15 July 1899 – 11 May 1971) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach and Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 to 1966, Tánaiste from 1957 to 1959, 1951 to 1954 and 1945 to 1948, Minister for Industry and Commerce from 1957 to 1959, 1951 to 1954, 1945 to 1949 and 1932 to 1939 and Minister for Supplies from 1939 to 1945.
Seán O'Casey (Seán Ó Cathasaigh; born John Casey; 30 March 1880 – 18 September 1964) was an Irish dramatist and memoirist.
Seán Thomas O'Kelly (Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh; 25 August 1882 – 23 November 1966), originally John T. O'Kelly, was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as the 2nd President of Ireland from June 1945 to June 1959.
Sebastian Barry (born 5 July 1955) is an Irish playwright, novelist and poet.
The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16 August 1921 until 8 June 1922.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
A shamrock is a young sprig, used as a symbol of Ireland.
Shane Peter Nathaniel Ross (born 11 July 1949) is an Irish Independent politician who has served as Minister for Transport, Tourism and Sport since May 2016.
Shannon Airport (Aerfort na Sionna) is one of Ireland's three primary airports, along with Dublin and Cork.
Shelta (Irish: Seiltis) is a language spoken by Irish Travellers, particularly in Ireland and the United Kingdom.
Simon Anthony Coveney (born 16 June 1972) is an Irish Fine Gael politician who has served as Tánaiste since November 2017, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade and Deputy Leader of Fine Gael since June 2017.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
Skellig Michael (Sceilig Mhichíl) (or the Great Skellig (Sceilig Mhór) is a twin-pinnacled crag situated west of the Iveragh Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland. The larger of the two Skellig Islands, the island is known for its steep landscape, the Gaelic monastery founded between the 6th and 8th century, and its variety of inhabiting species, including gannets, puffins, a colony of razorbills and a resident population of approximately fifty grey seals.Lavelle (1976), pp. 31–32 The rock contains the remains of a tower house, a megalithic stone row and a cross inscribed slabO'Shea (1981), p. 28 known as the "Wailing Woman". The island, along with some of the Blasket Islands, forms the most westerly part of the Republic of Ireland.S.M. (1913), p. 164 It consists of approximately 44 acres of rock, with its highest point, the Spit, is 714 feet above sea level. The monastery is situated at 550–600 feet, while "Christ's Saddle" is 422 feet and the flagstaff area is 120 feet above sea level.O'Shea (1981), p. 3 The island's slopes are ascended by a flight of stone steps. The name "Skellig" is derived from a Gaelic word for a splinter of stone (sceilig). Its twin island, "Little Skellig" (Sceilig Bheag) is larger but practically inaccessible, and is closed to the public. The island is dedicated to the archangel Michael, who is said to have appeared there to help Saint Patrick banish serpents into the sea.Lavelle (1976), pp. 11–12 The remains of the monastery, which today consists of a small enclosure of beehive huts and oratories, and most of the island, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. Because of the often difficult crossing from the mainland, and the exposed nature of the small landing spot, the island is only accessible to the public during the summer months.
Sky Ireland Limited is a subsidiary of Sky plc and supplies television, internet and telephony services in Ireland.
Sligo County Council (Comhairle Contae Shligigh) is the authority responsible for local government in County Sligo, Ireland.
Smoking bans (or smoke-free laws) are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, that prohibit tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces.
The Smurfit Kappa Group plc is Europe's leading corrugated packaging company and one of the leading paper-based packaging companies in the world.
Social dance is that category of dances that have a social function and context.
The Social Democrats is a political party in Ireland.
Soda bread is a variety of quick bread traditionally made in a variety of cuisines in which sodium bicarbonate (otherwise known as "baking soda") is used as a leavening agent instead of the traditional yeast.
Softball is governed in Ireland by the Softball Ireland, itself a member of the International Softball Federation.
Solidarity–People Before Profit is an electoral alliance in Ireland.
Somerville and Ross (Edith Somerville and Violet Florence Martin, writing under the name Martin Ross) were an Anglo-Irish writing team, perhaps most famous for their series of books that were made into the TV series The Irish R.M..
Sonia O'Sullivan (born 28 November 1969) is an Irish former track and field athlete.
South Dublin County Council (Comhairle Contae Baile Átha Cliath Theas) is the authority responsible for local government in the county of South Dublin, Ireland.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country.
A spectator sport is a sport that is characterized by the presence of spectators, or watchers, at its competitions.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
The Cathedral Church of St Colman, usually known as Cobh Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Cobh, Ireland.
St George's Channel (Sianel San Siôr, Muir Bhreatan) is a sea channel connecting the Irish Sea to the north and the Celtic Sea to the southwest.
Saint Patrick's Cathedral (Ard-Eaglais Naomh Pádraig) in Dublin, Ireland, founded in 1191, is the National Cathedral of the Church of Ireland.
Step dance is the generic term for dance styles in which the footwork is the most important part of the dance.
Stout is a dark beer that includes roasted malt or roasted barley, hops, water and yeast.
The sultana is a "white" (pale green), oval seedless grape variety also called the sultanina, Thompson Seedless (United States), Lady de Coverly (England), and oval-fruited Kishmish (Iran, Turkey, Israel, Palestine).
The Supreme Court of Ireland (Cúirt Uachtarach na hÉireann) is the highest judicial authority in the Republic of Ireland.
Swords is the county town of Fingal and a key satellite of Greater Dublin, Ireland.
The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.
The Act to provide for reconciliation pursuant to titles II and V of the concurrent resolution on the budget for fiscal year 2018,, is a congressional revenue act originally introduced in Congress as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), that amended the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
A tax haven is defined as a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation ("headline" rates may be higher).
Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia.
The Tánaiste is the deputy head of government of Ireland and the second-most senior officer in the Government of Ireland.
A TD (plural TDanna in Irish or TDs in English; full Irish form Teachta Dála,, plural Teachtaí Dála) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (the Irish Parliament).
Numbers on the Irish Telephone Numbering Plan are regulated and assigned to operators by ComReg.
A television licence or broadcast receiving licence is a payment required in many countries for the reception of television broadcasts, or the possession of a television set where some broadcasts are funded in full or in part by the licence fee paid.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
TG4 (TG Ceathair; or) is an Irish public service broadcaster for Irish-language speakers.
Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, heather, or palm fronds, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof.
The Custom House (Teach an Chustaim) is a neoclassical 18th century building in Dublin, Ireland which houses the Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government.
The Elysian is a mixed-use Celtic Tiger-era building at Eglinton Street in Cork, Ireland.
The Emergency (Ré na Práinne / An Éigeandáil) was the state of emergency which existed in the state of Ireland during the Second World War.
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
The Vicar of Wakefield – subtitled A Tale, Supposed to be written by Himself – is a novel by Irish writer Oliver Goldsmith (1728–1774).
The Third Amendment of the Constitution Act 1972 is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland that permitted the State to join the European Communities, which would later become the European Union, and provided that European Community law would take precedence over the constitution.
The Thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution Act 1992 (previously bill no. 25 of 1992) is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland which specified that the protection of the right to life of the unborn does not limit freedom of travel in and out of the state.
Thomas F. Kilroy (born 23 September 1934) is an Irish playwright and novelist.
Thomas McCarthy (born 1954) is an Irish poet, novelist, and critic, born in Cappoquin, Co.
Ireland uses Irish Standard Time (IST, UTC+01:00; Am Caighdeánach Éireannach) in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0; Meán-Am Greenwich) in the winter period.
Tintern Abbey was a Cistercian abbey located on the Hook peninsula, County Wexford, Ireland.
Tipperary County Council (Comhairle Contae Thiobraid Árann) is the authority responsible for local government in County Tipperary, Ireland.
Radio Ireland Ltd, trading as 100-102 Today FM, is a commercial FM radio station which is available nationally in Ireland.
Tom Murphy (23 February 1935 – 15 May 2018) was an Irish dramatist who worked closely with the Abbey Theatre in Dublin and with Druid Theatre, Galway.
Tony Gregory (5 December 1947 – 2 January 2009) was an Irish independent politician, and a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin Central constituency from 1982 to 2009.
Tourism in the Republic of Ireland is one of the biggest contributors to the Economy of the Republic of Ireland, with 8.7 million people visiting the country in 2016, about 1.8 times Ireland's population.
In Ireland, a Town Council was part of the second (or lower) tier of local government.
The track gauge adopted by the mainline railways in Ireland is.
Tralee is the county town of County Kerry in the south-west of Ireland.
Transport 21 was an Irish infrastructure plan, announced in November 2005.
A tricolour or tricolor is a type of flag or banner design with a triband design which originated in the 16th century as a symbol of republicanism, liberty or indeed revolution.
A triskelion or triskele is a motif consisting of a triple spiral exhibiting rotational symmetry.
Tuairisc.ie is an online Irish language newspaper.
Turners Cross is a ward on the south side of Cork City, and home to the Roman Catholic parish of the same name.
The Turoe stone is a granite stone decorated in a Celtic style located in the village of Bullaun, County Galway, Ireland, 6 km north of Loughrea off the R350 regional road.
TV3 is a commercial free-to-air television channel operated within Ireland by the TV3 Group operated by Virgin Media Ireland and owned by Liberty Global.
The Twentieth Amendment of the Constitution Act 2001 is an amendment to the Constitution of Ireland which provided constitutional recognition of local government and required that local government elections occur at least once in every five years.
U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin formed in 1976.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.
The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.
The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
The Ulster Volunteers was a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block domestic self-government (or Home Rule) for Ireland, which was then part of the United Kingdom.
Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.
Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.
A unitary parliamentary republic refers to a unitary state with a republican form of government that is dependent upon the confidence of parliament.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
Violet Florence Martin (11 June 1862 – 21 December 1915) was an Irish author who co-wrote a series of novels with cousin Edith Somerville under the pen name of Martin Ross in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Virgin Media Ireland is Liberty Global's telecommunications operation in Ireland.
William Butler Yeats (13 June 186528 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
Waterford (from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a city in Ireland.
Waterford City and County Council (Comhairle Cathrach agus Contae Phort Láirge) is the authority responsible for local government in the City of Waterford and County Waterford in Ireland.
The West-Link (Droichead an Nascbhóthair Thiar) is a toll bridge (actually twin bridges) on the M50 motorway to the west of Dublin, Ireland, operated by Emovis (trading as eFlow) for Transport Infrastructure Ireland.
Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Westmeath County Council (Comhairle Contae na hIarmhí) is the authority responsible for local government in County Westmeath, Ireland.
Westport (historically anglicised as Cahernamart) is a town in County Mayo in Ireland.
Wexford County Council (Comhairle Contae Loch Garman) is the authority responsible for local government in County Wexford, Ireland.
The Wexford Festival Opera is an opera festival that takes place in the town of Wexford in south-eastern Ireland during the months of October and November.
Wicklow County Council (Comhairle Contae Chill Mhantáin) is the authority responsible for local government in County Wicklow, Ireland.
William Carleton (4 March 1794, Prolusk (often spelt as Prillisk as on his gravestone), Clogher, County Tyrone – 30 January 1869, Sandford Road, Ranelagh, Dublin) was an Irish writer and novelist.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Trevor KBE (24 May 1928 – 20 November 2016) was an Irish novelist, playwright and short story writer.
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
, the Republic of Ireland has 2,878 MegaWatts (3,916 MW all-island) of installed wind power nameplate capacity, and 1 MW of solar power.
Workers and Unemployed Action (WUA) is an Irish political party based in Clonmel in South County Tipperary, set up in 1985 by Séamus Healy.
The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Youghal is a seaside resort town in County Cork, Ireland.
Young Ireland (Éire Óg) was a political, cultural and social movement of the mid-19th century.
.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
.ie is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) which corresponds with the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the Republic of Ireland.
The 10th (Irish) Division, was one of the first of Kitchener's New Army K1 Army Group divisions (formed from Kitchener's 'first hundred thousand' new volunteers), authorized on 21 August 1914, after the outbreak of the Great War.
The 16th (Irish) Division was an infantry division of the British Army, raised for service during World War I. The division was a voluntary 'Service' formation of Lord Kitchener's New Armies, created in Ireland from the 'National Volunteers', initially in September 1914, after the outbreak of the Great War.
The 1979 (or second) oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.
The 2000 Rugby League World Cup was held during October and November of that year in Great Britain, Ireland and France.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2007 Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2007) was the 9th edition of the Cricket World Cup tournament that took place in the West Indies from 13 March to 28 April 2007, using the sport's One Day International (ODI) format.
The 2008 Rugby League World Cup was the thirteenth staging of the Rugby League World Cup since its inauguration in 1954, and the first since the 2000 tournament.
The 2009 Six Nations Championship, known as the 2009 RBS 6 Nations because of the tournament's sponsorship by The Royal Bank of Scotland, was the 10th Six Nations Championship, and the 115th international championship, an annual rugby union competition contested by the six major Northern Hemisphere national teams.
The 36th (Ulster) Division was an infantry division of the British Army, part of Lord Kitchener's New Army, formed in September 1914.
3e (3 entertainment), known prior to its purchase by Doughty Hanson as Channel 6, is the second free-to-air general entertainment channel operated by the TV3 Group a subsidiary of Virgin Media Ireland in Ireland.
26 Counties, 26 counties, Eire Ireland, HÉireann, ISO 3166-1:IE, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), Ireland (Republic of), Ireland (country), Ireland (republic), Ireland (sovereign state), Ireland (state), Ireland Republic, Ireland country, Ireland, Republic of, Ireland, republic of, Ireland/Éire, Irish state, Rep Ire, Rep ireland, Rep of Ireland, Rep of ire, Rep. Ireland, Rep. of Ireland, Republic Ireland, Republic Of Ireland, Republic in Ireland, Republic in ireland, Republic of ireland, Republic, Ireland, Republic, ireland, RepublicofIreland, State of Ireland, Subdivisions of the Republic of Ireland, The 26 Counties, The Republic Of Ireland, The Republic of Ireland, The Twenty Six Counties, The Twenty-Six Counties, Twenty Six Counties, Twenty-Six Counties, Éire Ireland.