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Nitrous oxide

Index Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula. [1]

236 relations: Acute coronary syndrome, Addiction, Adiabatic process, Adipic acid, Agriculture, Air Liquide, Aircraft engine, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor, Amateur rocketry, Ammonia, Ammonium nitrate, Ammonium sulfate, AMPA receptor, Amphetamine, Anaesthetic machine, Anaesthetic vaporizer, Analgesic, Anesthesia, Anesthetic, Antibody, Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Australia, Auto racing, Azide, Bacteria, Benzodiazepine, Beta-Endorphin, Bismuth(III) oxide, Blood–gas partition coefficient, Boston, Brainstem, C. L. Blood, California, Catalysis, Catarrh, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, Chicago Inter Ocean, Childbirth, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chloroform, Christmas and holiday season, CHRNB2, Clinical trial, Cocaine, Combustibility and flammability, Concentration, Conditioned place preference, ..., Cooking spray, Coordinate covalent bond, Critical point (thermodynamics), DayCent, Debye, Deflagration, Denitrification, Dental extraction, Dentistry, Desflurane, Detonation, Diethyl ether, Dinitrogen pentoxide, Dinitrogen tetroxide, Dinitrogen trioxide, Dissociative, Dopamine, Dopaminergic, Drug Enforcement Administration, Edgar Allan Poe, Emulsion, Encephalopathy, Enthalpy of vaporization, Ethanol, Ether, Euphoria, Excitotoxicity, Fertilizer, Fink effect, Florida, Food additive, Food and Drug Administration, Fungus, GABAA receptor, GABAA-rho receptor, Gardner Quincy Colton, Gas, General anaesthetic, George Poe, Global warming potential, Glycine receptor, GM-1, Greenhouse effect, Greenhouse gas, Half-life, Hallucination, Hallucinogen, Hartford, Connecticut, High-power rocketry, Horace Wells, Hotwells, Humphry Davy, Hybrid-propellant rocket, Hydrazine, Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, Hydroxylammonium chloride, Hyponitrous acid, Hypoxia (medical), India, Inhalation, Injury, Inlet manifold, Interceptor aircraft, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, James Watt, John Mankey Riggs, Joseph Priestley, Joseph Thomas Clover, Kainate receptor, Ketamine, Lambeth London Borough Council, Laughing gas (disambiguation), Lecithin, Ligand-gated ion channel, Liquid-propellant rocket, Local anesthetic, London Borough of Lambeth, Luftwaffe, Manganese dioxide, Mechanism of action, Medical ventilator, Mesolimbic pathway, Methanol, Microorganism, Minimum alveolar concentration, Ministry of Health (New Zealand), Monopropellant rocket, Morphine, MW 50, Myelopathy, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural philosophy, Neuron, Neurotoxicity, New Haven, Connecticut, New York City, New Zealand, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nitric oxide, Nitrification, Nitrite, Nitrogen, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, Nitrolic acid, Nitrous oxide (disambiguation), Nitrous oxide (medication), Nitrous oxide engine, Nitrous oxide fuel blend, Nitrous-oxide reductase, NMDA receptor, NMDA receptor antagonist, Norepinephrine, NOx, Nucleus accumbens, Occupational hazard, Olney's lesions, Operating temperature, Organic compound, Ostwald process, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Parts-per notation, Patent medicine, Paul J. Crutzen, Peripheral neuropathy, Petrol engine, Pharmacodynamics, Phlogiston theory, Phosphate, Pneumatic Institution, Potato chip, Propane, Propellant, Psychomotor learning, Quackery, Racing, Rancidification, Receptor antagonist, Recommended exposure limit, Reconnaissance aircraft, Recreational drug use, Recreational use of nitrous oxide, Relative analgesia machine, Respiratory system, Robert H. Goddard, Rocket, Rocket propellant, Scavenger system, Schnellbomber, Sevoflurane, Sewage, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium nitrate, Sodium nitrite, SpaceShipOne, Specific impulse, Spinal cord, Splint (laboratory equipment), Substance abuse, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Surgery, The Washington Post, Thomas Beddoes, Tonne, Tuberculosis, Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis, Two-pore-domain potassium channel, United Kingdom, United States, Ventilation (architecture), Ventral tegmental area, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Water injection (engine), Whipped cream, Whipped-cream charger, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World War II, 5-HT3 receptor. Expand index (186 more) »

Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome (set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.

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Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.

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Adiabatic process

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.

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Adipic acid

Adipic acid or hexanedioic acid is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)4(COOH)2.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Air Liquide

Air Liquide S.A. (literally "liquid air"), is a French multinational company which supplies industrial gases and services to various industries including medical, chemical and electronic manufacturers.

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Aircraft engine

An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.

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Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.

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Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2B adrenergic receptor (α2B adrenoceptor), is a G-protein coupled receptor.

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Amateur rocketry

Amateur rocketry, sometimes known as experimental rocketry or amateur experimental rocketry, is a hobby in which participants experiment with fuels and make their own rocket motors, launching a wide variety of types and sizes of rockets.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Ammonium nitrate

Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound, the nitrate salt of the ammonium cation.

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Ammonium sulfate

Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulphate in British English); (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.

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AMPA receptor

The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Anaesthetic machine

The anaesthetic machine (UK English) or anesthesia machine (US English) or Boyle's machine is used independently by physician anaesthesiologists and nurse anaesthetists.

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Anaesthetic vaporizer

An anaesthetic vaporizer is a device generally attached to an anaesthetic machine which delivers a given concentration of a volatile anaesthetic agent.

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An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.

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An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Auto racing

Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.

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Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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β-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid neuropeptide and peptide hormone that is produced in certain neurons within the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.

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Bismuth(III) oxide

Bismuth(III) oxide is perhaps the most industrially important compound of bismuth.

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Blood–gas partition coefficient

Blood–gas partition coefficient, also known as Ostwald coefficient for blood–gas, is a term used in pharmacology to describe the solubility of inhaled general anesthetics in blood.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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C. L. Blood

Charles Lewis Blood (September 8, 1835 – September 27, 1908; alias C. H. Lewis et al.) was an American con artist and self-styled physician who operated in Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Catarrh, or catarrhal inflammation, is inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body, usually with reference to the throat and paranasal sinuses.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chicago Inter Ocean

The Chicago Inter Ocean, also known as the Chicago Inter-Ocean, is the name used for most of its history for a newspaper published in Chicago, Illinois, from 1865 until 1914.

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Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB2 gene.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

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Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Combustibility and flammability

Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.

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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Conditioned place preference

Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a form of Pavlovian conditioning used to measure the motivational effects of objects or experiences.

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Cooking spray

Cooking spray is a spray form of an oil as a lubricant, lecithin as an emulsifier, and a propellant such as food-grade alcohol, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide or propane.

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Coordinate covalent bond

A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.

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Critical point (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.

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Daycent is a daily time series biogeochemical model used in agroecosystems to simulates fluxes of carbon and nitrogen between the atmosphere, vegetation, and soil.

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The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.

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Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.

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Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process where nitrate is reduced and ultimately produces molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.

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Dental extraction

A dental extraction (also referred to as tooth extraction, exodontia, exodontics, or informally, tooth pulling) is the removal of teeth from the dental alveolus (socket) in the alveolar bone.

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Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.

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Desflurane (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anesthesia.

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Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.

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Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).

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Dinitrogen pentoxide

Dinitrogen pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O5.

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Dinitrogen tetroxide

Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.

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Dinitrogen trioxide

Dinitrogen trioxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O3.

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Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.

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Drug Enforcement Administration

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.

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Edgar Allan Poe

Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.

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An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).

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Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.

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Enthalpy of vaporization

The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.

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Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.

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Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.

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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Fink effect

The Fink effect, also known as "diffusion anoxia", "diffusion hypoxia", or the "third gas effect", is a factor that influences the pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) within the alveolus.

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Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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Food additive

Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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GABAA receptor

The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.

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GABAA-rho receptor

The GABAA-rho receptor (previously known as the GABAC receptor) is a subclass of GABAA receptors composed entirely of rho (ρ) subunits.

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Gardner Quincy Colton

Gardner Quincy Colton (February 17, 1814, Georgia, Vermont – August 9, 1898, Rotterdam, Netherlands) was an American showman, medicine man, lecturer, and former medical student who pioneered the use of nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, in dentistry.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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General anaesthetic

General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.

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George Poe

George Poe, Jr. (May 8, 1846 – February 3, 1914) was a pioneer of mechanical ventilation of asphyxiation victims.

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Global warming potential

Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.

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Glycine receptor

The glycine receptor (abbreviated as GlyR or GLR) is the receptor of the amino acid neurotransmitter glycine.

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GM-1 (Göring Mischung 1) was a system for injecting nitrous oxide (laughing gas) into aircraft engines that was used by the Luftwaffe in World War II.

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Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.

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A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.

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Hartford, Connecticut

Hartford is the capital of the U.S. state of Connecticut.

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High-power rocketry

High-power rocketry is a hobby similar to model rocketry.

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Horace Wells

Horace Wells (January 21, 1815 – January 24, 1848) was an American dentist who pioneered the use of anesthesia in dentistry, specifically nitrous oxide (or laughing gas).

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Hotwells is a district of the English port city of Bristol.

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

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Hybrid-propellant rocket

A hybrid-propellant rocket is a rocket with a rocket motor which uses rocket propellants in two different phases.

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Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.

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Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene

Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is an oligomer of butadiene terminated at each end with a hydroxyl functional group.

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Hydroxylammonium chloride

Hydroxylammonium chloride is the hydrochloric acid salt of hydroxylamine.

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Hyponitrous acid

Hyponitrous acid is a chemical compound with formula or HON.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.

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Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.

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Inlet manifold

In automotive engineering, an inlet manifold or intake manifold (in American English) is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders.

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Interceptor aircraft

An interceptor aircraft, or simply interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to attack enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft, as they approach.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.

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James Watt

James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.

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John Mankey Riggs

John Mankey Riggs (October 25, 1811 – November 11, 1885) was the leading authority on periodontal disease and its treatment in the United States, to the point that periodontal disease was known as "Riggs' disease."Shklar, G; Carranza, FA: The Historical Background of Periodontology.

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Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.

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Joseph Thomas Clover

Joseph Thomas Clover (28 February 1825; baptised 7 May 1825 – 27 September 1882) was an English doctor and pioneer of anaesthesia.

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Kainate receptor

Kainate receptors, or kainic acid receptors (KARs), are ionotropic receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter glutamate.

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Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.

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Lambeth London Borough Council

Lambeth London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Lambeth in Greater London, England.

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Laughing gas (disambiguation)

Laughing gas, or nitrous oxide, is a colorless, non-flammable gas.

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Lecithin (from the Greek lekithos, "egg yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic – they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifying), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials.

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Ligand-gated ion channel

Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.

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Liquid-propellant rocket

A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.

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Local anesthetic

A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.

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London Borough of Lambeth

Lambeth is a London borough in south London, England, which forms part of Inner London.

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The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.

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Manganese dioxide

Manganese(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.

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Mechanism of action

In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.

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Medical ventilator

A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a mechanical ventilator, a machine designed to move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.

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Mesolimbic pathway

The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Minimum alveolar concentration

Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is the concentration of a vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent movement (motor response) in 50% of subjects in response to surgical (pain) stimulus.

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Ministry of Health (New Zealand)

The Ministry of Health (Māori: Manatū Hauora) is the public service department of New Zealand responsible for healthcare in New Zealand.

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Monopropellant rocket

A monopropellant rocket (or "monoprop rocket") is a rocket that uses a single chemical as its propellant.

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Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.

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MW 50

MW 50 (Methanol-Wasser 50) was a 50-50 mixture of methanol and water (German: Wasser) that was often sprayed into the supercharger of World War II aircraft engines primarily for its anti-detonant effect, allowing the use of increased boost pressures.

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Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.

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New Haven, Connecticut

New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

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Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.

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The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Nitrogen oxide

Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.

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Nitrolic acid

Nitrolic acids are organic compounds with the functional group RC(NO2).

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Nitrous oxide (disambiguation)

Nitrous oxide is a colorless, non-flammable gas, commonly known as laughing gas.

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Nitrous oxide (medication)

Nitrous oxide, sold under the brand name Entonox among others, is an inhaled gas used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia.

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Nitrous oxide engine

A nitrous oxide engine is an engine in which the oxygen required for burning the fuel to create power mainly stems from the decomposition of nitrous oxide (N2O) rather than air.

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Nitrous oxide fuel blend

Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend propellants are a class of liquid rocket propellants intended to replace hydrazine as the standard rocket fuel.

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Nitrous-oxide reductase

In enzymology, a nitrous oxide reductase also known as nitrogen:acceptor oxidoreductase (N2O-forming) is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in bacterial denitrification, the reduction of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen.

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NMDA receptor

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.

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NMDA receptor antagonist

NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.

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Nucleus accumbens

The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.

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Occupational hazard

An occupational hazard is a hazard experienced in the workplace.

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Olney's lesions

Olney's lesions, also known as NMDA receptor antagonist neurotoxicity (NAN), are a potential form of brain damage due to drugs that have been studied experimentally and have produced neuronal damage, yet are administered by doctors to humans in the settings of pharmacotherapy and of anesthesia.

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Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Ostwald process

The Ostwald process is a chemical process for making nitric acid (HNO3).

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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Patent medicine

A patent medicine, also known as a nostrum (from the Latin nostrum remedium, or "our remedy") is a commercial product advertised (usually heavily) as a purported over-the-counter medicine, without regard to its effectiveness.

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Paul J. Crutzen

Paul Jozef Crutzen (born 3 December 1933) is a Dutch, Nobel Prize-winning, atmospheric chemist.

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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

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Petrol engine

A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in American English) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels.

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Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).

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Phlogiston theory

The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Pneumatic Institution

The Pneumatic Institution (also referred to as Pneumatic Institute) was a medical research facility in Bristol, England, in 1799–1802.

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Potato chip

Potato chips or crisps are thin slices of potato that have been deep fried or baked until crunchy.

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Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

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A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.

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Psychomotor learning

Psychomotor learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement.

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Quackery or health fraud is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices.

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In sport, racing is a competition of speed, against an objective criterion, usually a clock or to a specific point.

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Rancidity is the complete or incomplete oxidation or hydrolysis of fats and oils when exposed to air, light, moisture or by bacterial action, resulting in unpleasant taste and odor, which may be described as rancidity.

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Receptor antagonist

A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.

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Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.

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Reconnaissance aircraft

A reconnaissance aircraft is a military aircraft designed or adapted to perform aerial reconnaissance.

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

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Recreational use of nitrous oxide

Recreational use of nitrous oxide is the inhalation of nitrous oxide gas for its euphoriant effects.

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Relative analgesia machine

A relative analgesia machine is used by dentists to induce inhalation sedation in their patients.

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

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Robert H. Goddard

Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.

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A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

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Rocket propellant

Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.

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Scavenger system

A scavenger system is a medical device used in hospitals.

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A Schnellbomber (German; literally "fast bomber") is a bomber that relies upon speed to avoid enemy fighters, rather than having defensive armament and armor.

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Sevoflurane (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane; synonym, fluoromethyl hexafluoroisopropyl ether), is a sweet-smelling, nonflammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.

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Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Sodium nitrate

Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.

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Sodium nitrite

Sodium nitrite is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2.

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SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with sub-orbital spaceflight capability at speeds of up to 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s), using a hybrid rocket motor.

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Specific impulse

Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Splint (laboratory equipment)

A splint is a simple piece of equipment used in scientific laboratories.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thomas Beddoes

Thomas Beddoes (13 April 1760 – 24 December 1808) was an English physician and scientific writer.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis

Mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis, also known as scrofula, scrophula, struma, or the King's evil, refers to a lymphadenitis of the cervical lymph nodes associated with tuberculosis as well as nontuberculous (atypical) mycobacteria.

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Two-pore-domain potassium channel

The two-pore-domain potassium channel is a family of 15 members that form what is known as "leak channels" which possess Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (open) rectification.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Ventilation (architecture)

Ventilation is the intentional introduction of ambient air into a space and is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification.

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Ventral tegmental area

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

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Vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.

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Water injection (engine)

In internal combustion engines, water injection, also known as anti-detonant injection (ADI), can spray water into the incoming air or fuel-air mixture, or directly into the cylinder to cool certain parts of the induction system where "hot points" could produce premature ignition.

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Whipped cream

Whipped cream is cream that is whipped by a whisk or mixer until it is light and fluffy.

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Whipped-cream charger

A whipped cream charger (sometimes colloquially called a whippit, whippet, nossy, nang or charger) is a steel cylinder or cartridge filled with nitrous oxide (N2O) that is used as a whipping agent in a whipped cream dispenser.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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5-HT3 receptor

The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.

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Redirects here:

ATC code N01AX13, ATCvet code QN01AX13, Dinitrogen Monoxide, Dinitrogen monoxide, E942, Effects of nitrous oxide on the body, Factitious airs, Happy gas, Hippie crack, Hippy crack, Hyponitrous oxide, Inhaling Nitrous Oxide, Laugh-making gas, Laughing Gas, Laughing gas, Laughy gas, N 2 O, N2O, N2O-N, N2o, Nitrogen protoxide, Nitrogen(I) oxide, Nitros, Nitrous Oxide, Nitrous oxide system, Nitrouse oxide, Nitroux oxide, Nitrus oxide, N₂O, Phlogisticated nitrous air, Protoxide of nitrogen.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrous_oxide

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