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Index Sustainability

Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations. [1]

437 relations: Acid rain, Adaptation, Aerosol, Agenda 21, Agenda 21 for culture, Agrarian society, Agribusiness, Agriculture, Air pollution, Airborne wind turbine, AK Press, Albedo, American Planning Association, American Public Health Association, Antarctic ice sheet, Applied sustainability, Appropriate technology, Arne Næss, Artificial photosynthesis, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Best practice, Bibliography of sustainability, Bioaccumulation, Biocapacity, Biodiversity loss, Biogeochemical cycle, Biomass, Biophysics, Bioregionalism, Biosphere, Bourgeoisie, Bridges to Prosperity, Brundtland Commission, Capital accumulation, Capitalism, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon cycle, Carbon neutrality, Carbon-neutral fuel, Carfree city, Carrying capacity, Charcoal, Chemical engineering, Chemical synthesis, Child mortality, Chlorofluorocarbon, Circles of Sustainability, Circular economy, ..., Circular flow land use management, Civilization, Classical architecture, Climate, Climate change, Climate change mitigation, Climate engineering, Closed system, Coal, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Colorado State University, Commodity, Community currency, Compressed air energy storage, Computational sustainability, Conservation biology, Consumption (economics), Context-Based Sustainability, Copenhagen Climate Council, Corporate capitalism, Cradle-to-cradle design, Crime, CSIRO, Cuba, Cultural governance, Cultural sustainability, Dam, Dangerous goods, Daniel Bromley, Decent work, Decoupling (utility regulation), Deep ecology, Deforestation, Demand management, Dematerialization (economics), Desertification, Developed country, Developing country, Dissipation, Distribution of wealth, Earth, Earth Charter, Earth science, Earth System Research Laboratory, Earthscan, Eco-municipality, Eco-socialism, Ecodesign, Ecolabel, Ecological collapse, Ecological debt, Ecological economics, Ecological footprint, Ecological indicator, Ecological resilience, Ecology, Economic growth, Economics, Economy, Ecopsychology, Ecosystem, Ecosystem services, Ecotax, Ecovillage, Educational equity, Edward Elgar Publishing, Effects of global warming, Egalitarianism, Emerging technologies, Empowerment, Encyclopedia of Earth, Energy, Energy conversion efficiency, Energy crisis, Energy flow (ecology), Engineering, Environmental degradation, Environmental economics, Environmental issue, Environmental justice, Environmental law, Environmental movement, Environmental Performance Index, Environmental policy, Environmental protection, Environmental quality, Environmental racism, Environmental resource management, Environmental science, Environmental security, Environmental technology, Environmentally friendly, Equator Principles, Ethical consumerism, European environmental research and innovation policy, Externality, Extinction, Extreme poverty, Fair Wear Foundation, Fairtrade certification, Fat, Fertilizer, Fisheries management, Fishery, Food, Food chain, Food security, Footbridge, Foresight (psychology), Forest, Forestry Commission, Fossil fuel, Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Fresh water, Fruit, Fusion power, Gantry crane, Gender equality, Generation IV reactor, Geopolitics, Gift economy, Global dimming, Global Footprint Network, Global hectare, Global warming, Grassland, Green building, Green chemistry, Green computing, Green economy, Green Seal, Green-collar worker, Greenhouse effect, Greenhouse gas, Greenwashing, Gross domestic product, Heavy metals, Herman Daly, HIV/AIDS, Housing estate, Human Development Index, Human impact on the environment, Human overpopulation, Human rights, I = PAT, Inclusion (education), Index of sustainability articles, Industrial ecology, Industrial metabolism, Industrial Revolution, Industry, Infrastructure, Innovation, Intensive farming, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International Institute for Sustainable Development, International law, International organization, International Resource Panel, International Style (architecture), International Union for Conservation of Nature, Introduced species, Irradiance, Island Press, Jared Diamond, Jason Lewis (adventurer), Jevons paradox, Journal of Animal Science, Juncture, Lake, Land degradation, Latin, Law, Legume, Life-cycle assessment, Lifelong learning, Lifestyle (sociology), List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens, List of international environmental agreements, List of people considered father or mother of a scientific field, Local exchange trading system, Local food, Longevity, Malaria, Market (economics), Market failure, Material flow accounting, Material flow analysis, Maternal health, Meat, Member states of the United Nations, Micro-sustainability, Millennium Development Goals, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Millennium Summit, Modern architecture, Monounsaturated fat, Monthly Review, Murray Bookchin, Nadya Zhexembayeva, Naomi Klein, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Natural capital, Natural environment, Nature, Neolithic Revolution, New Classical architecture, New Urbanism, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, Nitrogen, Nitrogen oxide, NSF International, Nuclear power, Obesity, Ocean, Ocean current, Olive oil, Open-source appropriate technology, Organic certification, Organic farming, Organic food, Organic horticulture, Organism, Organizing principle, Our Common Future, Outline of sustainability, Overconsumption, Overexploitation, Overfishing, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Ozone layer, Particulates, Pasture, Payment for ecosystem services, Permaculture, Persistent organic pollutant, Pesticide, Phosphorus, Photosynthesis, Planetary boundaries, Plastic, Plastic recycling, Policy, Political corruption, Pollutant, Polyethylene terephthalate, Population, Population growth, Power-to-gas, Precautionary principle, Price, Primary producers, Product stewardship, Productivity, Profit motive, Pumped-storage hydroelectricity, Quality of life, Radioactive waste, Rainforest Alliance, Random House, Rebound effect (conservation), Recycling, Regenerative design, Renewable energy, Renewable energy commercialization, Resource, Resource consumption, Resource depletion, Resource efficiency, Resource intensity, Resource productivity, Revolution, Right to a fair trial, River, Robert Costanza, Romanian Americans, Ronald Wright, Royal Geographical Society, Sanitation, Saturated fat, Science, Second law of thermodynamics, Self-sustainability, Simple living, Slow Food, Smart growth, Smog, Social ecology, Social inequality, Social movement, Social stratification, Social sustainability, Societal collapse, Society, Society for Organizational Learning, Sociocultural evolution, Solar energy, Solar power, Solar water disinfection, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard of living, Steady-state economy, Stern Review, Stewardship, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sulfur dioxide, Sumac Kawsay, Sun, Sustainability and systemic change resistance, Sustainability reporting, Sustainability science, Sustainability standards and certification, Sustainability studies, Sustainable agriculture, Sustainable architecture, Sustainable business, Sustainable capitalism, Sustainable city, Sustainable design, Sustainable development, Sustainable Development Commission, Sustainable Development Goals, Sustainable distribution, Sustainable forest management, Sustainable gardening, Sustainable industries, Sustainable living, Sustainable sanitation, Sustainable seafood, Sustainable transport, Sustainable yield, System, Technology, The Limits to Growth, The Nation, Time-based currency, Tragedy of the commons, Transition town, Transport, Triple bottom line, Uneconomic growth, Unemployment, UNESCO, United Cities and Local Governments, United Nations, United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Global Compact, United Nations Millennium Declaration, Universal Primary Education, Urban horticulture, Urban planning, Urban sprawl, Urbanization, Utilization, UTZ Certified, Vegetable, Venn diagram, Vernacular architecture, Volatile organic compound, Walmart, War, Waste minimisation, Water, Water cycle, Water efficiency, Water quality, Water security, Water supply, Water treatment, Weather, Weatherhead School of Management, Well-being, Wetland, Woodland, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, World Cities Summit, World Health Assembly, World Health Organization, World population, World Resources Institute, World Wide Fund for Nature, Zero carbon housing, Zoological Society of London, 2005 World Summit. Expand index (387 more) »

Acid rain

Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.

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Agenda 21

Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development.

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Agenda 21 for culture

Agenda 21 for culture (now also known as Culture 21) is a program for cultural governance developed in 2002–2004 and organized by United Cities and Local Governments.

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Agrarian society

An agrarian society (or agricultural society) is any society whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.

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Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Airborne wind turbine

An airborne wind turbine is a design concept for a wind turbine with a rotor supported in the air without a tower, thus benefiting from more mechanical and aerodynamic options, the higher velocity and persistence of wind at high altitudes, while avoiding the expense of tower construction, or the need for slip rings or yaw mechanism.

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AK Press

AK Press is a worker-managed, independent publisher and book distributor that specialises in radical left and anarchist literature.

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Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).

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American Planning Association

The American Planning Association (APA) is a professional organization representing the field of urban planning in the United States.

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American Public Health Association

The American Public Health Association (APHA) is a Washington, D.C.-based professional organization for public health professionals in the United States.

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Antarctic ice sheet

The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth.

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Applied sustainability

Applied sustainability is the application of science and innovation, including the insights of the social sciences, to meet human needs while indefinitely preserving the life support systems of the planet.

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Appropriate technology

Appropriate technology is a movement (and its manifestations) encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally autonomous.

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Arne Næss

Arne Dekke Eide Næss (27 January 1912 – 12 January 2009) was a Norwegian philosopher who coined the term "deep ecology" and was an important intellectual and inspirational figure within the environmental movement of the late twentieth century.

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Artificial photosynthesis

Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen; as an imitation of a natural process it is biomimetic.

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An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Best practice

A best practice is a method or technique that has been generally accepted as superior to any alternatives because it produces results that are superior to those achieved by other means or because it has become a standard way of doing things, e.g., a standard way of complying with legal or ethical requirements.

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Bibliography of sustainability

This is a bibliography of sustainability publications.

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Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.

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The biocapacity or biological capacity of an ecosystem is an estimate of its production of certain biological materials such as natural resources, and its absorption and filtering of other materials such as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

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Biodiversity loss

Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.

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Biogeochemical cycle

In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.

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Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.

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Bioregionalism is a political, cultural, and ecological system or set of views based on naturally defined areas called bioregions, similar to ecoregions.

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The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.

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The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.

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Bridges to Prosperity

Bridges to Prosperity is a United States-based nonprofit organization that partners with local governments to connect their rural last mile via pedestrian bridges.

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Brundtland Commission

Formerly known as the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), the mission of the Brundtland Commission is to unite countries to pursue sustainable development together.

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Capital accumulation

Capital accumulation (also termed the accumulation of capital) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit, rent, interest, royalties or capital gains.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

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Carbon neutrality

Carbon neutrality, or having a net zero carbon footprint, refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount sequestered or offset, or buying enough carbon credits to make up the difference.

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Carbon-neutral fuel

The term "carbon-neutral fuel" can refer to a variety of energy fuels or energy systems which have no net greenhouse gas emissions or carbon footprint.

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Carfree city

A car-free city or car free city is a population center that relies primarily on public transport, walking, or cycling for transport within the urban area.

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Carrying capacity

The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment.

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Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.

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Chemical engineering

Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.

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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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Child mortality

Child mortality, also known as child death, refers to the death of children under the age of 14 and encompasses neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and mortality of children aged 5-14.

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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Circles of Sustainability

Circles of Sustainability is a method for understanding and assessing sustainability, and for managing projects directed towards socially sustainable outcomes.

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Circular economy

A circular economy is a regenerative system in which resource input and waste, emission, and energy leakage are minimised by slowing, closing, and narrowing energy and material loops.

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Circular flow land use management

Circular flow land use management, or CircUse, is a name for a particular process in which neglected land in urban areas is put to better uses.

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A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Classical architecture

Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Climate change mitigation

Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change.

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Climate engineering

Climate engineering or climate intervention, commonly referred to as geoengineering, is the deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system, usually with the aim of mitigating the adverse effects of global warming.

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Closed system

A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed

Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (titled Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive for the British edition) is a 2005 book by academic and popular science author Jared Diamond, in which Diamond first defines collapse: "a drastic decrease in human population size and/or political/economic/social complexity, over a considerable area, for an extended time." He then reviews the causes of historical and pre-historical instances of societal collapse — particularly those involving significant influences from environmental changes, the effects of climate change, hostile neighbors, trade partners, and the society's response to the foregoing four challenges— and considers the success or failure different societies have had in coping with such threats.

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Colorado State University

Colorado State University (also referred to as Colorado State, State, and CSU) is a public research university located in Fort Collins, in the U.S. state of Colorado.

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In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

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Community currency

A community currency is a type of complementary currency that is used by groups with a common bond, like members of a locality, or association, and designed to meet their needs.

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Compressed air energy storage

Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a way to store energy generated at one time for use at another time using compressed air.

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Computational sustainability

Computational sustainability is a broad field that attempts to optimize societal, economic, and environmental resources using methods from mathematics and computer science fields.

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Conservation biology

Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.

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Consumption (economics)

Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.

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Context-Based Sustainability

Context-Based Sustainability (CBS) is a performance accounting method that measures and reports the impacts of organizations (and other human social systems) against norms, standards or thresholds for what they (the impacts) would have to be in order to be sustainable.

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Copenhagen Climate Council

The Copenhagen Climate Council is a global collaboration between international business and science founded by the leading independent think tank in Scandinavia,, based in Copenhagen.

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Corporate capitalism

Corporate capitalism is a term used in social science and economics to describe a capitalist marketplace characterized by the dominance of hierarchical, bureaucratic corporations.

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Cradle-to-cradle design

Cradle-to-cradle design (also referred to as Cradle to Cradle, C2C, cradle 2 cradle, or regenerative design) is a biomimetic approach to the design of products and systems that models human industry on nature's processes viewing materials as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms.

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In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cultural governance

Cultural governance is governance of culture.

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Cultural sustainability

Cultural sustainability as it relates to sustainable development (to sustainability), has to do with the maintaining of cultural beliefs, cultural practices, heritage conservation, culture as its own entity, and attempts to answer the question of whether or not any given cultures will exist in the context of the future.

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A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.

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Dangerous goods

Dangerous goods or hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.

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Daniel Bromley

Daniel W. Bromley (born 1940) is an economist, the former Anderson-Bascom Professor of applied economics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and since 2009, Emeritus Professor.

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Decent work

The United Nations Economic and Social Council has given a General Comment that defines "decent work" and requires satisfaction of Article 7 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: decent work is employment that "respects the fundamental rights of the human person as well as the rights of workers in terms of conditions of work safety and remuneration.

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Decoupling (utility regulation)

In public utility regulation, decoupling refers to the disassociation of a utility's profits from its sales of the energy commodity.

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Deep ecology

Deep ecology is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas.

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Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Demand management

Demand management is a planning methodology used to forecast, plan for and manage the demand for products and services.

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Dematerialization (economics)

In economics, dematerialization refers to the absolute or relative reduction in the quantity of materials required to serve economic functions in society.

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Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dissipation is the result of an irreversible process that takes place in homogeneous thermodynamic systems.

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Distribution of wealth

--> The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth Charter

The Earth Charter is an international declaration of fundamental values and principles considered useful by its supporters for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century.

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Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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Earth System Research Laboratory

The Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR).

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Earthscan is an English-language publisher of books and journals on climate change, sustainable development and environmental technology for academic, professional and general readers.

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An eco-municipality or eco-town is a local government area that has adopted ecological and social justice values in its charter.

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Eco-socialism, green socialism or socialist ecology is an ideology merging aspects of socialism with that of green politics, ecology and alter-globalization or anti-globalization.

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Ecodesign is an approach to designing products with special consideration for the environmental impacts of the product during its whole lifecycle.

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Eco-labels and Green Stickers are labeling systems for food and consumer products.

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Ecological collapse

Ecological collapse refers to a situation where an ecosystem suffers a drastic, possibly permanent, reduction in carrying capacity for all organisms, often resulting in mass extinction.

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Ecological debt

Ecological debt refers to the accumulated debt of wealthier countries (from a defined date in the past until present) for having plundered poorer countries by the exploitation of their resources, the degradation of their natural habitat, the beggaring of local people and/or the free occupation of environmental space for waste discharge.

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Ecological economics

Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.

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Ecological footprint

The ecological footprint measures human demand on nature, i.e., the quantity of nature it takes to support people or an economy.

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Ecological indicator

Ecological indicators are used to communicate information about ecosystems and the impact human activity has on ecosystems to groups such as the public or government policy makers.

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Ecological resilience

In ecology, resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Economic growth

Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Ecopsychology studies the relationship between human beings and the natural world through ecological and psychological principles.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Ecosystem services

Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.

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An Ecotax (short for ecological taxation) is a tax levied on activities which are considered to be harmful to the environment and is intended to promote environmentally friendly activities via economic incentives.

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Ecovillages are traditional or intentional communities whose goal is to become more socially, culturally, economically and ecologically sustainable.

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Educational equity

Educational equity, also referred to as equity in education, is a measure of achievement, fairness, and opportunity in education.

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Edward Elgar Publishing

Edward Elgar Publishing is a global publisher of academic books, journals and online resources in the social sciences and law.

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Effects of global warming

The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.

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Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Emerging technologies

Emerging technologies are technologies that are perceived as capable of changing the status quo.

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The term empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority.

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Encyclopedia of Earth

The Encyclopedia of Earth (abbreviated EoE) is an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Energy conversion efficiency

Energy conversion efficiency (η) is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms.

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Energy crisis

An energy crisis is any significant bottleneck in the supply of energy resources to an economy.

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Energy flow (ecology)

Left: Energy flow diagram of a frog.

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Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Environmental degradation

Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.

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Environmental economics

Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics that is concerned with environmental issues.

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Environmental issue

Environmental issues are harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment.

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Environmental justice

Environmental justice emerged as a concept in the United States in the early 1980s.

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Environmental law

Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.

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Environmental movement

The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues.

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Environmental Performance Index

The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.

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Environmental policy

Environmental policy is the commitment of an organization to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues.

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Environmental protection

Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans.

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Environmental quality

Environmental quality is a set of properties and characteristics of the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings and other organisms.

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Environmental racism

Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice within a racialized context.

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Environmental resource management

Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.

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Environmental science

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

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Environmental security

Environmental security examines threats posed by environmental events and trends to individuals, communities or nations.

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Environmental technology

Environmental technology (envirotech), green technology (greentech) or clean technology (cleantech) is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement.

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Environmentally friendly

Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.

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Equator Principles

The is a risk management framework, adopted by financial institutions, for determining, assessing and managing environmental and social risk in project finance.

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Ethical consumerism

Ethical consumerism (alternatively called ethical consumption, ethical purchasing, moral purchasing, ethical sourcing, ethical shopping or green consumerism) is a type of consumer activism that is based on the concept of dollar voting.

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European environmental research and innovation policy

The European environmental research and innovation policy is a set of strategies, actions and programmes to promote more and better research and innovation for building a resource-efficient and climate resilient society and economy in sync with the natural environment.

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In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Extreme poverty

Extreme poverty, abject poverty, absolute poverty, destitution, or penury, was originally defined by the United Nations in 1995 as "a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information.

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Fair Wear Foundation

Fair Wear Foundation (FWF) is a European multi-stakeholder initiative working to improve workplace conditions in the garment and textile industry.

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Fairtrade certification

The Fairtrade certification initiative was created to form a new method for economic trade.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Fisheries management

Fisheries management is the activity of protecting fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible, drawing on fisheries science, and including the precautionary principle.

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Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.

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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.

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A footbridge (also called a pedestrian bridge, pedestrian overpass, or pedestrian overcrossing) is a bridge designed for pedestrians and in some cases cyclists, animal traffic, and horse riders, instead of vehicular traffic.

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Foresight (psychology)

Foresight is the ability to predict, or the action of predicting, what will happen or what is needed in the future.

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A forest is a large area dominated by trees.

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Forestry Commission

The Forestry Commission is a non-ministerial government department responsible for forestry in England and Scotland (on 1 April 2013 Forestry Commission Wales merged with other agencies to become Natural Resources Wales).

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Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

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Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development

The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA).

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

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Fusion power

Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.

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Gantry crane

A gantry crane is a crane built atop a gantry, which is a structure used to straddle an object or workspace.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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Generation IV reactor

Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of nuclear reactor designs currently being researched for commercial applications by the Generation IV International Forum, with Technology readiness levels varying between the level requiring a demonstration, to economical competitive implementation.

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Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.

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Gift economy

A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards.

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Global dimming

Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in the 1950s.

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Global Footprint Network

Global Footprint Network, founded in 2003, is an independent think tank originally based in the United States, Belgium and Switzerland.

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Global hectare

The global hectare (gha) is a measurement unit for the ecological footprint of people or activities and the biocapacity of the earth or its regions.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.

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Green building

Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition.

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Green chemistry

Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances.

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Green computing

Green computing, green ICT as per International Federation of Global & Green ICT "IFGICT", green IT, or ICT sustainability, is the study and practice of environmentally sustainable computing or IT.

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Green economy

The green economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment.

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Green Seal

Green Seal is a non-profit environmental standard development and certification organization.

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Green-collar worker

A green-collar worker is a worker who is employed in the environmental sectors of the economy.

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Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Greenwashing (a compound word modelled on "whitewash"), also called "green sheen", is a form of spin in which green PR or green marketing is deceptively used to promote the perception that an organization's products, aims or policies are environmentally friendly.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Herman Daly

Herman Edward Daly (born July 21, 1938) is an American ecological and Georgist economist and emeritus professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park in the United States.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Housing estate

A housing estate (or sometimes housing complex) is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Human impact on the environment

Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.

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Human overpopulation

Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Inclusion (education)

Inclusion, in education refers to the a model wherein special needs students spend most or all of their time with non-special (general education) needs students.

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Index of sustainability articles

This page is an index of sustainability articles.

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Industrial ecology

Industrial ecology (IE) is the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems.

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Industrial metabolism

Industrial metabolism is a concept to describe the material and energy turnover of industrial systems.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

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Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".

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Intensive farming

Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.

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International Institute for Sustainable Development

The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) is an independent think tank founded in 1990.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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International organization

An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.

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International Resource Panel

The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.

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International Style (architecture)

The International Style is the name of a major architectural style that developed in the 1920s and 1930s and strongly related to Modernism and Modern architecture.

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International Union for Conservation of Nature

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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Introduced species

An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.

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In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.

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Island Press

Island Press is a nonprofit, environmental publisher based in Washington, D.C., that specializes in natural history, ecology, conservation, and the built environment.

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Jared Diamond

Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).

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Jason Lewis (adventurer)

Jason Lewis FRSGS (born 13 September 1967) is an English award-winning author, explorer and sustainability campaigner credited with being the first person to circumnavigate the globe by human power.

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Jevons paradox

In economics, the Jevons paradox (sometimes Jevons effect) occurs when technological progress increases the efficiency with which a resource is used (reducing the amount necessary for any one use), but the rate of consumption of that resource rises because of increasing demand.

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Journal of Animal Science

The Journal of Animal Science is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of animal science.

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Juncture, in linguistics, is the manner of moving (transition) or mode of relationship between two consecutive sounds.

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A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

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Land degradation

Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Life-cycle assessment

Life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling.

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Lifelong learning

Lifelong learning is the "ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated"Department of Education and Science (2000).

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Lifestyle (sociology)

Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.

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List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.

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List of international environmental agreements

This is a list of international environmental agreements.

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List of people considered father or mother of a scientific field

The following is a list of people who are considered a "father" or "mother" (or "founding father" or "founding mother") of a scientific field.

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Local exchange trading system

A local exchange trading system (also local employment and trading system or local energy transfer system; abbreviated LETS) is a locally initiated, democratically organised, not-for-profit community enterprise that provides a community information service and records transactions of members exchanging goods and services by using locally created currency.

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Local food

Local food (local food movement or locavore) is a movement of people who prefer to eat foods which are grown or farmed relatively close to the places of sale and preparation.

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The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Market (economics)

A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

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Market failure

In economics, market failure is a situation in which the allocation of goods and services by a free market is not efficient, often leading to a net social welfare loss.

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Material flow accounting

Material flow accounting (MFA) is the study of material flows on a national or regional scale.

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Material flow analysis

Material flow analysis (MFA) (also referred to as substance flow analysis (SFA)) is an analytical method to quantify flows and stocks of materials or substances in a well-defined system.

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Maternal health

Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.

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Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.

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Member states of the United Nations

The United Nations member states are the sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly.

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Micro-sustainability focuses on the small environmental actions that collectively result in a large environmental impact.

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Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

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Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) is a major assessment of the human impact on the environment, called for by the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2000, launched in 2001 and published in 2005 with more than $14 million of grants.

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Millennium Summit

The Millennium Summit was a meeting among many world leaders lasting three days from 6 September to 8 September 2000 at the United Nations headquarters in New York City.

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Modern architecture

Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.

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Monounsaturated fat

In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fatty acids (abbreviated MUFAs, or more plainly monounsaturated fats) are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded.

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Monthly Review

The Monthly Review, established in 1949, is an independent socialist magazine published monthly in New York City.

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Murray Bookchin

Murray Bookchin (January 14, 1921 – July 30, 2006)was an American social theorist, author, orator, historian, and political philosopher.

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Nadya Zhexembayeva

Nadya Zhexembayeva is an author, educator and business owner.

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Naomi Klein

Naomi Klein (born May 8, 1970) is a Canadian author, social activist, and filmmaker known for her political analyses and criticism of corporate globalization and of capitalism.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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Natural capital

Natural capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms.

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.

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New Classical architecture

New Classical architecture is a contemporary movement in architecture that continues the practice of classical and traditional architecture.

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New Urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types.

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Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen

Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen (born Nicolae Georgescu, 4 February 1906 – 30 October 1994) was a Romanian American mathematician, statistician and economist.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrogen oxide

Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.

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NSF International


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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Ocean current

An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.

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Olive oil

Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.

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Open-source appropriate technology

Open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) is appropriate technology designed in the same fashion as free and open-source software.

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Organic certification

Organic certification is a certification process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products.

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Organic farming

Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.

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Organic food

Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming.

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Organic horticulture

Organic horticulture is the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants by following the essential principles of organic agriculture in soil building and conservation, pest management, and heirloom variety preservation.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Organizing principle

An organizing principle is a core assumption from which everything else by proximity can derive a classification or a value.

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Our Common Future

Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report in recognition of former Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland's role as Chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), was published in 1987 by the United Nations through the Oxford University Press.

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Outline of sustainability

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sustainability: Sustainability – capacity to endure.

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Overconsumption is a situation where resource use has outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem.

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Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.

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Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.

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Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.

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Payment for ecosystem services

Payments for ecosystem services (PES), also known as payments for environmental services (or benefits), are incentives offered to farmers or landowners in exchange for managing their land to provide some sort of ecological service.

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Permaculture is a system of agricultural and social design principles centered around simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems.

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Persistent organic pollutant

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Planetary boundaries

Planetary boundaries is a concept of nine Earth system processes which have boundaries proposed in 2009 by a group of Earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University.

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Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.

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Plastic recycling

Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products.

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A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes.

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Political corruption

Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.

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A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.

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Polyethylene terephthalate

Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.

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In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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Population growth

In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

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Power-to-gas (often abbreviated P2G) is a technology that converts electrical power to a gas fuel.

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Precautionary principle

The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.

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In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.

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Primary producers

Primary producers take energy from other organisms and turn it into energy that is used.

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Product stewardship

Product stewardship is where environmental, health, and safety protection centers on the product itself, and everyone involved in the lifespan of the product is called upon to take up responsibility to reduce its environmental, health, and safety impacts.

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Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.

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Profit motive

In economics, the profit motive is the motivation of firms that operate so as to maximize their profits.

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Pumped-storage hydroelectricity

Pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH), or pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES), is a type of hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Radioactive waste

Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.

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Rainforest Alliance

The Rainforest Alliance is a non-governmental organization (NGO) working to conserve biodiversity and ensure sustainable livelihoods by transforming land-use practices, business practices and consumer behavior.

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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Rebound effect (conservation)

In conservation and energy economics, the rebound effect (or take-back effect, RE) is the reduction in expected gains from new technologies that increase the efficiency of resource use, because of behavioral or other systemic responses.

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Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.

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Regenerative design

Regenerative design is a process-oriented systems theory based approach to design.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Renewable energy commercialization

Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years.

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A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced.

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Resource consumption

Resource consumption is about the consumption of non-renewable, or less often, renewable resources.

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Resource depletion

Resource depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished.

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Resource efficiency

Resource efficiency is the maximising of the supply of money, materials, staff, and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization in order to function effectively, with minimum wasted (natural) resource expenses.

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Resource intensity

Resource intensity is a measure of the resources (e.g. water, energy, materials) needed for the production, processing and disposal of a unit of good or service, or for the completion of a process or activity; it is therefore a measure of the efficiency of resource use.

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Resource productivity

Resource productivity is the quantity of good or service (outcome) that is obtained through the expenditure of unit resource.

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In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).

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Right to a fair trial

A trial which is observed by trial judge or by jury without being partial is a fair trial.

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A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.

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Robert Costanza

Robert Costanza (born September 14, 1950) is an ecological economist and Professor of Public Policy at the Crawford School of Public Policy at The Australian National University.

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Romanian Americans

Romanian Americans (Romanian: Români americani) are Americans who have Romanian ancestry.

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Ronald Wright

Ronald Wright (born 1948, London, United Kingdom) is a Canadian author who has written books of travel, history and fiction.

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Royal Geographical Society

The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences.

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Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Saturated fat

A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.

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Self-sustainability (also called self-sufficiency) is the state of not requiring any aid, support, or interaction for survival; it is a type of personal or collective autonomy.

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Simple living

Simple living encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to simplify one's lifestyle.

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Slow Food

Slow Food is an organization that promotes local food and traditional cooking.

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Smart growth

Smart growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in compact walkable urban centers to avoid sprawl.

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Smog is a type of air pollutant.

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Social ecology

Social ecology is a critical social theory founded by American anarchist and libertarian socialist author Murray Bookchin.

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Social inequality

Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons.

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Social movement

A social movement is a type of group action.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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Social sustainability

Social life is the least defined and least understood of the different ways of approaching sustainability and sustainable development.

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Societal collapse

Societal collapse is the fall of a complex human society.

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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Society for Organizational Learning

The Society for Organizational Learning (SoL) is an American organization founded in 1997 by Peter Senge.

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Sociocultural evolution

Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time.

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Solar energy

Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.

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Solar power

Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.

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Solar water disinfection

Solar water disinfection (SoDis) is a type of portable water purification that uses solar energy to make biologically-contaminated (e.g. bacteria, viruses, protozoa and worms) water safe to drink.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Standard of living

Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.

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Steady-state economy

A steady-state economy is an economy consisting of a constant stock of physical wealth (capital) and a constant population size.

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Stern Review

The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change is a 700-page report released for the Government of the United Kingdom on 30 October 2006 by economist Nicholas Stern, chair of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at the London School of Economics (LSE) and also chair of the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP) at Leeds University and LSE.

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Stewardship is an ethic that embodies the responsible planning and management of resources.

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Stockholm Environment Institute

The Stockholm Environment Institute, or SEI, is a non-profit, independent research and policy institute specialising in sustainable development and environmental issues.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sumac Kawsay

Sumac Kawsay Buen Vivir ("good living") rooted in the cosmovisión (or worldview) of the Quechua peoples of the Andes, sumak kawsay – or buen vivir, to give it its Spanish name – describes a way of doing things that is community-centric, ecologically-balanced and culturally-sensitive.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Sustainability and systemic change resistance

The environmental sustainability problem has proven difficult to solve.

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Sustainability reporting

A sustainability report is an organizational report that gives information about economic, environmental, social and governance performance.

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Sustainability science

Sustainability science emerged in the 21st century as a new academic discipline.

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Sustainability standards and certification

Sustainability standards and certifications are voluntary, usually third party-assessed, norms and standards relating to environmental, social, ethical and food safety issues, adopted by companies to demonstrate the performance of their organizations or products in specific areas.

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Sustainability studies

Sustainability studies focus on the interdisciplinary perspective of the sustainability concept.

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Sustainable agriculture

Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment.

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Sustainable architecture

Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space and the ecosystem at large.

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Sustainable business

Sustainable business, or a green business, is an enterprise that has minimal negative impact on the global or local environment, community, society, or economy—a business that strives to meet the triple bottom line.

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Sustainable capitalism

Sustainable capitalism is a conceptual form of capitalism based upon sustainable practices that seek to preserve humanity and the planet, while reducing externalities and bearing a resemblance of capitalist economic policy.

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Sustainable city

Sustainable cities, urban sustainability, or eco-city (also "ecocity") is a city designed with consideration for social, economic, environmental impact, and resilient habitat for existing populations, without compromising the ability of future generations to experience the same.

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Sustainable design

Sustainable design (also called environmentally sustainable design, environmentally conscious design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability.

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Sustainable development

Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.

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Sustainable Development Commission

The Sustainable Development Commission (SDC) was a non-departmental public body responsible for advising the UK Government, Scottish Government, Welsh Assembly Government, and Northern Ireland Executive on sustainable development.

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Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.

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Sustainable distribution

Sustainable distribution refers to any means of transportation / hauling of goods between vendor and purchaser with lowest possible impact on the ecological and social environment, and includes the whole distribution process from storage, order processing and picking, packaging, improved vehicle loadings, delivery to the customer or purchaser and taking back packaging.

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Sustainable forest management

Sustainable forest management is the management of forests according to the principles of sustainable development.

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Sustainable gardening

Sustainable gardening includes the more specific sustainable landscapes, sustainable landscape design, sustainable landscaping, sustainable landscape architecture, resulting in sustainable sites.

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Sustainable industries

The phrase sustainable industries is related to the development of industrial processes in a sustainable way.

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Sustainable living

Sustainable living is a lifestyle that attempts to reduce an individual's or society's use of the Earth's natural resources and personal resources.

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Sustainable sanitation

Sustainable sanitation is a sanitation system designed to meet certain criteria and to work well over the long-term.

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Sustainable seafood

Sustainable seafood is seafood that is either caught or farmed in ways that consider the long-term vitality of harvested species and the well-being of the oceans, as well as the livelihoods of fisheries-dependent communities.

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Sustainable transport

Sustainable transport refers to the broad subject of transport that is sustainable in the senses of social, environmental and climate impacts and the ability to, in the global scope, supply the source energy indefinitely.

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Sustainable yield

The sustainable yield of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i.e. the surplus required to maintain ecosystem services at the same or increasing level over time.

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A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.

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Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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The Limits to Growth

The Limits to Growth (LTG) is a 1972 report on the computer simulation of exponential economic and population growth with a finite supply of resources.

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The Nation

The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.

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Time-based currency

In economics, a time-based currency is an alternative currency or exchange system where the unit of account/value is the person-hour or some other time unit.

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Tragedy of the commons

The tragedy of the commons is a term used in social science to describe a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action.

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Transition town

The terms transition town, transition initiative and transition model refer to grassroot community projects that aim to increase self-sufficiency to reduce the potential effects of peak oil, climate destruction, and economic instability.

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Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.

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Triple bottom line

Triple bottom line (or otherwise noted as TBL or 3BL) is an accounting framework with three parts: social, environmental (or ecological) and financial.

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Uneconomic growth

Uneconomic growth, in human development theory, welfare economics (the economics of social welfare), and some forms of ecological economics, is economic growth that reflects or creates a decline in the quality of life.

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Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Cities and Local Governments

United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG); French: Cités et Gouvernements Locaux Unis (CGLU); Spanish: Ciudades y Gobiernos Locales Unidos (CGLU); is an umbrella organisation for cities, local and regional governments, and municipal associations throughout the world.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

The Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) 2005-2014 was an Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) initiative of the United Nations.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations Global Compact

The United Nations Global Compact is a United Nations initiative to encourage businesses worldwide to adopt sustainable and socially responsible policies, and to report on their implementation.

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United Nations Millennium Declaration

On 8 September 2000, following a three-day Millennium Summit of world leaders at the headquarters of the United Nations, the General Assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration (Resolution 55/2).

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Universal Primary Education

The second goal in the United Nations Millennium Development Goal is to achieve Universal Primary Education, more specifically, to "ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling." Education is vital to meeting all other Millennium Development Goals: " gives the next generation the tools to fight poverty and prevent disease, including malaria and AIDS." Despite the significance of investing in education, the recent report, —produced by UNESCO Institute for Statistics and UNICEF found that the world has missed this 2015 target of universal primary education, and there are currently 58 million children, of primary school age, worldwide.

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Urban horticulture

Horticulture is the science and art of growing fruits and vegetables and also flowers or ornamental plants.

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Urban planning

Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.

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Urban sprawl

Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.

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Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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In engineering utilization or operational stage of a system or equipment life-cycle is a period of time when their quality is realized in practical use to achieve intended objectives and supported by accomplishment of storage, maintenance, repair, etc.

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UTZ Certified

UTZ Certified is a program and a label for sustainable farming.

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Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.

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Venn diagram

A Venn diagram (also called primary diagram, set diagram or logic diagram) is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets.

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Vernacular architecture

Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions.

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Volatile organic compound

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.

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Walmart Inc. (formerly branded as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores.

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War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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Waste minimisation

Waste minimisation is a set of processes and practices intended to reduce the amount of waste produced.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Water cycle

The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

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Water efficiency

Water efficiency is reducing water wastage by measuring the amount of water required for a particular purpose and the amount of water used or delivered.

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Water quality

Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.

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Water security

Water security has been defined as "the reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks".

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Water supply

Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.

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Water treatment

Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.

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Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.

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Weatherhead School of Management

The Weatherhead School of Management is a private business school of Case Western Reserve University located in Cleveland, Ohio.

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Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.

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A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.

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Woodland, is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.

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World Business Council for Sustainable Development

The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a CEO-led, global advocacy association of some 200 international companies dealing exclusively with business and sustainable development.

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World Cities Summit

The World Cities Summit is an international conference series on public governance and the sustainable development of cities.

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World Health Assembly

The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 194 member states.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.

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World Resources Institute

The World Resources Institute (WRI) is a global research non-profit organization that was established in 1982 with funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation under the leadership of James Gustave Speth.

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World Wide Fund for Nature

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.

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Zero carbon housing

Zero Carbon Housing and Zero Energy Housing are terms used interchangeably to define single family dwellings with a very high energy efficiency rating.

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Zoological Society of London

The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) is a charity devoted to the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats.

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2005 World Summit

The 2005 World Summit, 14–16 September 2005, was a follow-up summit meeting to the United Nations' 2000 Millennium Summit, which led to the Millennium Declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

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Eco-products, Ecological sustainability, Economic dimensions of sustainability, Environmental Sustainability, Environmental sustainability, Environmentally sustainable, Non-sustainable, Resource sustainability, Soil sustainability, Sustainability governance, Sustainabilly, Sustainable, Sustainable eating, Sustainable economy, Sustainable food system, Sustainable food systems, Sustainable systems, Sustainable use, Sustainablility, Sustainablist, Sustainably, Sustainably produced, Theory of sustainability, Unsustainability, Unsustainable, Water sustainability.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainability

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