637 relations: Abasgoi, Abbasid Caliphate, ABC News, Abies nordmanniana, Abkhaz language, Abkhaz neopaganism, Abkhazia, Abkhazian Armed Forces, Abkhazians, Achaemenid Empire, Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, Adarnase IV of Iberia, Adjara, Adlersky City District, Advertising, Afsharid dynasty, Ailama, Airstrike, Akaki Tsereteli, Akhalkalaki, Akhaltsikhe, Alazani, Alexander I of Russia, Alexander Mikaberidze, Alpine tundra, Ambrolauri, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Andrew the Apostle, Apollonius of Rhodes, Aq Qoyunlu, Arab rule in Georgia, Arabic, Arabika Massif, Architectural style, Architecture, Architecture of Georgia (country), Argonautica, Argonauts, Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian language, Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenians, Arms industry, Ashot I of Iberia, Asian Development Bank, Aslan Abashidze, Aspen, ..., Association football, Assyrian people, August Uprising, Autocephaly, Autonomy, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Azerbaijani language, Azerbaijanis, Bachkovo Monastery, Bagrat III of Georgia, Bagrati Cathedral, Bagrationi dynasty, Baku, Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline, Baku–Tbilisi–Kars railway, Balanced budget, Basil Mkalavishvili, Basilica, Basketball, Battle of Didgori, Battle of Krtsanisi, Battle of the Kodori Valley, Batumi, BBC News, BC Dinamo Tbilisi, Beech, Birch, Black Sea, Black Sea Fleet, Borjomi, Borjomi Gorge, Boundaries between the continents of Earth, Brown bear, Brussels, Buxus, Byzantine Empire, Cabinet of Georgia, Cambridge University Press, Capital city, Cappadocia, Carnivore, Caspian Sea, Cassius Dio, Castanea sativa, Castle, Catholic Church in Georgia, Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia, Caucasus, Caucasus Mountains, Caucasus University, Ceasefire, Ceyhan, Chairperson of the Parliament of Georgia, Chakrulo, Chosroid dynasty, Christian-Democratic Movement (Georgia), Christianization of Iberia, Church (building), Church architecture, Classical antiquity, Classical Greece, Classics, Coalition casualties in Afghanistan, Colchis, Common pheasant, Community of Democratic Choice, Concordat of 2002, Constantine VII, Constitution of Georgia (country), Controlled-access highway, Corruption Perceptions Index, Council of Europe, Cyril Toumanoff, Darial Gorge, David III of Tao, David IV of Georgia, David Marshall Lang, De Administrando Imperio, De-Stalinization, Deficit spending, Defrocking, Demetrius II of Georgia, Democratic Republic of Georgia, Deutsche Mark, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dmitry Medvedev, Dome, Dzala ertobashia, E-government, Ease of doing business index, Eastern Anatolia Region, Eastern Europe, Eastern Front (World War II), Eastern Georgia (country), Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiology, Economic growth, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Eduard Kokoity, Eduard Shevardnadze, Ehsan Yarshater, Elene Akhvlediani, Elm, Emergency telephone number, Emirate of Tbilisi, Encyclopædia Britannica, Enlargement of NATO, Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in South Ossetia, Eurasia, EuroBasket, EuroLeague, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Neighbourhood Policy, European Russia, European Union, European Union Association Agreement, European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia, Fagus orientalis, Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, Filipp Makharadze, Financial Times, First five-year plan, Flat tax, Folklore, Fortification, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Fraxinus, Free market, Free University of Tbilisi, Freedom House, Fungus, Future enlargement of the European Union, Gagra Range, Galaktion Tabidze, Galliformes, Gelati Monastery, George Balanchine, George V of Georgia, George W. Bush, George XII of Georgia, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, Georgetown University Press, Georgia national basketball team, Georgia Train and Equip Program, Georgia within the Russian Empire, Georgia–Russia relations, Georgian Air Force, Georgian Airways, Georgian Armed Forces, Georgian Civil War, Georgian cuisine, Georgian Dream, Georgian feudalism, Georgian Golden Age, Georgian independence referendum, 1991, Georgian Intelligence Service, Georgian Labour Party, Georgian language, Georgian lari, Georgian Orthodox Church, Georgian parliamentary election, 2008, Georgian parliamentary election, 2012, Georgian presidential election, 2013, Georgian Railways, Georgian scripts, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, Georgian Technical University, Georgian wine, Georgian–Armenian War, Georgians, Georgiy Daneliya, Germans, Giorgi Kvirikashvili, Giorgi Margvelashvili, Giorgi Mazniashvili, Giorgi Shermadini, Glaciers of Georgia, Global Gender Gap Report, Globalization, Golden Fleece, Golden State Warriors, Good Country Index, Gori, Georgia, Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile, Gray wolf, Greater Caucasus, Greco-Roman wrestling, Greek language, Greek Muslims, Greek mythology, Greeks in Georgia, Grigol Orbeliani, Grigol Peradze, Gross enrolment ratio, GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, Guaramid dynasty, Gudauta, Guria, Hazelnut, Heinrich Böll Foundation, Helmand province campaign, Hemshin peoples, Heraclius II of Georgia, Herodotus, Higher education, History of the Jews in Georgia, Homer, Homo erectus, Hornbeam, Human Development Index, Hydropower, Ilia Chavchavadze, Imereti, Immigration, Imperial Crown of Russia, Index of Economic Freedom, Index of Georgia (country)-related articles, Indiana University Press, Indigenous peoples, Indo-European languages, International Affairs (journal), International Monetary Fund, International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, International Security Assistance Force, Invertebrate, Irakli Kobakhidze, Iran, Iraq War, Iron ore, Islam, Islam in Georgia (country), Israel, Ivane Javakhishvili, Iviron, Jaba Ioseliani, Jacques de Vitry, Jake Tsakalidis, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, Jamestown Foundation, Japheth, Jason, Javakheti Plateau, Jean Chardin, Jehovah's Witnesses, Joseph Stalin, Judo, Kakheti, Kara Koyunlu, Kartli, Kartlos, Kartvelian languages, Kartvelian peoples, Köppen climate classification, Khachapuri, Khevi, Khevsureti, Khinkali, Khwarazmian dynasty, Kingdom of Abkhazia, Kingdom of Georgia, Kingdom of Iberia, Kingdom of Imereti, Kingdom of Kartli, Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, Kist people, Klarjeti, Kobuleti, Kommersant, Krubera Cave, Kutaisi, Kvemo Kartli, Lado Asatiani, Lado Gudiashvili, Lake Paliastomi, Lala Mustafa Pasha's Caucasian campaign, Laz language, Lazica, Legatum Prosperity Index, Legends car racing, Legislature, Lelo burti, Leon I of Abkhazia, Leon II of Abkhazia, Lesser Caucasus, Levan Moseshvili, Likhi Range, List of cities and towns in Georgia (country), List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of heads of the Georgian Orthodox Church, List of municipalities in Georgia (country), List of rivers of Georgia (country), Livy, Lynx, Mamuka Bakhtadze, Manuchar Markoishvili, Maple, Marwan ibn Muhammad's invasion of Georgia, Median income, Mensheviks, Mepe (title), Meskheti, Meskheti Range, Meskhetian Turks, Metallurgy, Metres above sea level, Middle Ages, Mikhail Korkia, Mikheil Saakashvili, Mingrelian language, Ministry of Defense of Georgia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Soviet Union), Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia, Mirian III of Iberia, Mithraism, Mkhedrioni, Monarchism in Georgia, Monastery of the Cross, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasions of Georgia, Montane ecosystems, Moscow State University, Mount Kazbek, Mtskheta, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Mukhran Machavariani, Multi-National Force – Iraq, Nader Shah, National Bank of Georgia, National Basketball Association, National epic, NATO, Nazi Germany, Near East, Networked Readiness Index, Nicolas Sarkozy, Nikita Khrushchev, Niko Pirosmani, Nikolay Chkheidze, Nikoloz Baratashvili, Nikoloz Tskitishvili, Nina Ananiashvili, Nino Burjanadze, Noe Zhordania, North Atlantic Council, North Caucasus, North Ossetia-Alania, Oak, Oblast, Occupied territories of Georgia, Old Tbilisi, Olympic weightlifting, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, Operation Barbarossa, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, Ossetians, Otar Iosseliani, Otar Korkia, Ottoman Empire, Outline of Georgia (country), Oxford University Press, Ozurgeti, Paganism, Paleolithic, Palgrave Macmillan, Parliament of Georgia, Parthian Empire, Partnership for Peace, Passportization, Paul I of Russia, Pavel Felgenhauer, PDF, Peace enforcement, Peace of Amasya, Peoples of the Caucasus, Per capita, Perestroika, Persian Empire, Persian Expedition of 1796, Persian language, Persian leopard, Pharnavaz I of Iberia, Picea orientalis, Planned economy, Plutarch, Polo, Polyphony, Pompey's Georgian campaign, Pontic Greek, Pontic Greeks, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Post-Soviet states, Poti, President of France, President of Georgia, Press Freedom Index, Pretext, Primary sector of the economy, Prime Minister of Georgia, Primitivism, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, Principality of Iberia, Principality of Tao-Klarjeti, Public Radio International, Pyotr Bagration, Qajar dynasty, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Real gross domestic product, Red Army invasion of Georgia, Representative democracy, Republic, Republican Party of Georgia, Republics of the Soviet Union, Rioni River, Robert Sturua, Roki Tunnel, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Roman–Iranian relations, Roman–Persian Wars, Romanticism, Romilly James Heald Jenkins, Ronald Asmus, Ronald Grigor Suny, Rose Revolution, Rugby union, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Revolution, Russians, Russians in Georgia, Russo-Georgian War, Russo-Persian War (1804–13), Rustaveli Avenue, Rustavi, Rustavi International Motorpark, Rutgers University Press, Safavid dynasty, Safavid Georgia, Saint Nino, Saint Petersburg, Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary, Samegrelo, Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe–Javakheti, Sasanian Empire, Scots pine, Second Chechen War, Secularism and irreligion in Georgia (country), Self-proclaimed, Semi-presidential system, Semitic languages, Senaki, Separatism, Sergo Ordzhonikidze, Service economy, Shatili, Shia Islam, Shida Kartli, Shkhara, Shota Rustaveli, Shulaveri-Shomu culture, Silk Road, Sochi, Social Democratic Party of Georgia, Social Progress Index, Solomon II of Imereti, South Caucasus Pipeline, South Korea, South Ossetia, South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, Soviet (council), Soviet Occupation Day (Georgia), Soviet Union national basketball team, Speleology, Spider, Spring (hydrology), Sri Lanka, Standard-gauge railway, State Ministry for Reconciliation and Civic Equality of Georgia, State of World Liberty Index, STC Delta, Strabo, Subscription business model, Sukhumi, Sunni Islam, Supra (feast), Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, Suzerainty, Svan language, Svaneti, Syriac language, Tacitus, Tamada, Tamar of Georgia, Tao (historical region), Tao-Klarjeti (historical region), Tavisupleba, Taxus baccata, Tbilisi, Tbilisi International Airport, Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral, Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi State University, Telavi, Telephone numbers in Georgia (country), Temperate rainforest, Tengiz Abuladze, Tengiz Kitovani, Territorial dispute, The Georgian Chronicles, The Independent, The Knight in the Panther's Skin, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Thomas Goltz, Timur, Timur's invasions of Georgia, Tornike Shengelia, Tower, Transcaucasia, Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Transition economy, Treaty of Georgievsk, Treaty of Gulistan, Tsar, Tskhinvali, Tuapse, Turkic languages, Turkmen incursions into Georgia, Tusheti, Ukraine, Ukrainians, Unemployment, UNESCO, Unitary state, United National Movement (Georgia), United Nations, United Nations Development Programme, United States Department of State, United States dollar, University of Georgia (Tbilisi), Ushba, Vakhtang Chabukiani, Vazha-Pshavela, Vertebrate, Viktor Sanikidze, Vladimir Stepania, Volcano, Voyager 2, Voyager Golden Record, War in Abkhazia (1992–1993), War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Western Asia, White movement, Wine, World Bank, World Heritage site, World Justice Project, World Trade Organization, Wrestling, Yale University Press, Yazidis, Zand dynasty, Zaza Pachulia, Zoroastrianism, Zugdidi, Zurab Sakandelidze, Zurab Zhvania, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, .ge, 1961–62 FIBA European Champions Cup, 1999 Istanbul summit, 2004 Adjara crisis, 2006 Russian ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines, 2008 Russo-Georgian diplomatic crisis, 2011 Georgian protests, 40th meridian east, 41st parallel north, 44th parallel north, 47th meridian east. Expand index (587 more) » « Shrink index
The Abasgoi (აბაზგები; Greek: Αβασγοί, Abasgoi; compare Abkhaz Абазаа "the Abaza people") were one of the ancient tribes inhabiting western Abkhazia, who originally inhabited lands north of Apsilae, corresponding to today's Ochamchira District.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Abies nordmanniana, the Nordmann fir or Caucasian fir, is a fir indigenous to the mountains south and east of the Black Sea, in Turkey, Georgia and the Russian Caucasus.
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
Abkhaz neopaganism, or the Abkhaz native religion, is the contemporary re-emergence of the ethnic religion of the Abkhaz people in Abkhazia, a revitalisation which started in the 1980s.
Abkhazia (Аҧсны́; აფხაზეთი; p) is a territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia.
The Abkhazian Armed Forces are the military of Abkhazia.
Abkhazians or the Abkhaz (Abkhaz: Аҧсуа, Apswa; აფხაზები) are a Northwest Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty is a post–Cold War adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), signed on November 19, 1999, during the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe's (OSCE) 1999 Istanbul summit.
Adarnase IV (ადარნასე) (died 923) was a member of the Georgian Bagratid dynasty of Tao-Klarjeti and prince of Iberia/Kartli, responsible for the restoration of kingship, which had been in abeyance since it had been abolished by Iran in the sixth century, in 888.
Adjara (აჭარა), officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia.
Adlersky City District (А́длерский райо́н) is the southernmost of four city districts of the city of Sochi in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, lying along the Black Sea coast near the southern Russian border with Georgia.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Ailama or Ahlama (აილამა, აჰლამა) is a peak in the central part of the Svaneti section of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range, located in the Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti region of Georgia, at the source of the river Koruldashi.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft.
Prince Akaki Tsereteli (აკაკი წერეთელი) (1840–1915), often mononymously known as Akaki, was a prominent Georgian poet and national liberation movement figure.
Akhalkalaki (ახალქალაქი, for New City (from Georgian ɑxɑli meaning "new" and kʰɑlɑkʰi meaning "city" or "town"); Ախալքալաք; Ahılkelek) is a town in Georgia's southern region of Samtskhe-Javakheti.
Akhaltsikhe (ახალციხე, literally "new castle"; formerly known as Lomsia) is a small city in Georgia's southwestern region (mkhare) of Samtskhe-Javakheti.
The Alazani (ალაზანი, Qanıx) is a river that flows through the Caucasus.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexander Mikaberidze (ალექსანდრე მიქაბერიძე; born 27 January 1978) is a Georgian lawyer, author and historian who specializes in Napoleonic studies, Russian history and Georgian history.
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
Ambrolauri (ამბროლაური) is a city in Georgia, located in the western part of the country, on both banks of the Rioni river, at the elevation of 550 m above sea level.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας; ⲁⲛⲇⲣⲉⲁⲥ, Andreas; from the early 1st century BC – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called (Πρωτόκλητος, Prōtoklētos), was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter.
Apollonius of Rhodes (Ἀπολλώνιος Ῥόδιος Apollṓnios Rhódios; Apollonius Rhodius; fl. first half of 3rd century BCE), was an ancient Greek author, best known for the Argonautica, an epic poem about Jason and the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece.
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
Arab rule in Georgia refers to the period in the History of Georgia when all or part of the country was under political domination of Muslim Arab rulers, from the first Arab incursions in the mid-7th century until the final defeat of the Emirate of Tbilisi at the hands of King David IV in 1122.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabika Massif is a glacially eroded karst outcropping of the Gagra Range, Abkhazia in the West Caucasus, by the city of Gagra.
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
The Architecture of Georgia refers to the styles of architecture found in Georgia.
The Argonautica (translit) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC.
The Argonauts (Ἀργοναῦται Argonautai) were a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who in the years before the Trojan War, around 1300 BC, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenia (translit,; Армения; Armeniya), officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; translit; translit), also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
Ashot I the Great (აშოტ I დიდი) (died 826) was a presiding prince of Iberia (modern Georgia), first of the Bagratid family to have attained to this office c. 813.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Aslan Abashidze (ასლან აბაშიძე) (born in Batumi, July 20, 1938) was the leader of the Ajarian Autonomous Republic in western Georgia from 1991 to May 5, 2004.
Aspen is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section ''Populus'', of the Populus genus.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
The August Uprising (აგვისტოს აჯანყება, agvistos adjanq’eba) was an unsuccessful insurrection against Soviet rule in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic from late August to early September 1924.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Azerbaijan (Азәрбајҹан; Azərbaycan), officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR; Азәрбајҹан Совет Сосиалист Республикасы, Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist Respublikası, Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Azerbajdžanskaja Sovetskaja Socialističeskaja Respublika) and the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası, Азәрбајҹан Республикасы), also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Bachkovo Monastery Dormition of the Holy Mother of God (Бачковски манастир "Успение Богородично", Bachkovski manastir, პეტრიწონის მონასტერი, Petritsonis Monasteri), archaically the Petritsoni Monastery or Monastery of the Mother of God Petritzonitissa in Bulgaria is an important monument of Christian architecture and one of the largest and oldest Eastern Orthodox monasteries in Europe.
Bagrat III (ბაგრატ III) (c. 960 – 7 May 1014), of the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty, was King of Abkhazia from 978 on (as Bagrat II) and King of Georgia from 1008 on.
The Cathedral of the Dormition, or the Kutaisi Cathedral, more commonly known as Bagrati Cathedral (ბაგრატი; ბაგრატის ტაძარი, or Bagratis tadzari), is an 11th-century cathedral in the city of Kutaisi, in the Imereti region of Georgia.
The Bagrationi dynasty (bagrat’ioni) is a royal family that reigned in Georgia from the Middle Ages until the early 19th century, being among the oldest extant Christian ruling dynasties in the world. In modern usage, this royal line is often referred to as the Georgian Bagratids (a Hellenized form of their dynastic name), also known in English as the Bagrations. The common origin with the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty has been accepted by several scholars Toumanoff, Cyril, "Armenia and Georgia", in The Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge, 1966, vol. IV, p. 609. Accessible online at (Although, other sources claim, that dynasty had Georgian roots). Early Georgian Bagratids through dynastic marriage gained the Principality of Iberia after succeeding Chosroid dynasty at the end of the 8th century. In 888, the Georgian monarchy was restored and united various native polities into the Kingdom of Georgia, which prospered from the 11th to the 13th century. This period of time, particularly the reigns of David IV the Builder (1089–1125) and his great granddaughter Tamar the Great (1184–1213) inaugurated the Georgian Golden Age in the history of Georgia.Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke’s Royal Families of the World: Volume II Africa & the Middle East, 1980, pp. 56-67 After fragmentation of the unified Kingdom of Georgia in the late 15th century, the branches of the Bagrationi dynasty ruled the three breakaway Georgian kingdoms, Kingdom of Kartli, Kingdom of Kakheti, and Kingdom of Imereti, until Russian annexation in the early 19th century. While the Treaty of Georgievsk's 3rd Article guaranteed continued sovereignty for the Bagrationi dynasty and their continued presence on the Georgian Throne, the Russian Imperial Crown later broke the terms of the treaty, and their treaty became an illegal annexation. The dynasty persisted within the Russian Empire as an Imperial Russian noble family until the 1917 February Revolution. The establishment of Soviet rule in Georgia in 1921 forced some members of the family to accept demoted status and loss of property in Georgia, others relocated to Western Europe, although some repatriated after Georgian independence in 1991.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is a long crude oil pipeline from the Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Kars (BTK), or Baku-Tbilisi-Akhalkalaki-Kars railway (BTAK), became operational on October 30, 2017.
A balanced budget (particularly that of a government) is a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures.
Basili Mkalavishvili (ბასილ მკალავიშვილი) – also known as Vasili Mkalavishvili (ვასილ მკალავიშვილი) – is a defrocked Georgian Orthodox priest, the eponymous leader of the Basilist sect (Independent Eparchy of Gldani), in the Republic of Georgia, a Eurasian country that was formerly part of the Soviet bloc.
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Didgori was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the Great Seljuq Empire at the narrow place of Didgori, 40 km west of the Tbilisi, on August 12, 1121.
The Battle of Krtsanisi (კრწანისის ბრძოლა, k'rts'anisis brdzola) was fought between the Qajars of Iran and the Georgian armies of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and Kingdom of Imereti at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi, Georgia, from September 8 to September 11, 1795, as part of Qajar Emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's war in response to King Heraclius II of Georgia’s alliance with the Russian Empire.
The Battle of the Kodori Valley was a military operation during the Russo-Georgian War in the Upper Kodori Valley of Abkhazia, a breakaway region of Georgia.
Batumi (ბათუმი) is the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BC Dinamo Tbilisi (საკალათბურთო კლუბი,,დინამო’’) is a professional basketball club that is based in Tbilisi, that plays in the Georgian Superliga.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Black Sea Fleet (Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea.
Borjomi (ბორჯომი) is a resort town in south-central Georgia with a population of 10,546.
Borjomi Gorge (ბორჯომის ხეობა) is a picturesque canyon of the Kura River in central Georgia.
The boundaries between the continents of Earth are generally a matter of geographical convention.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Cabinet of Georgia is an executive council of government ministers in Georgia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Castanea sativa, or sweet chestnut, is a species of flowering plant in the family Fagaceae, native to Southern Europe and Asia Minor, and widely cultivated throughout the temperate world.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The Catholic Church in Georgia, since the 11th-century East–West Schism, has been composed mainly of Latin-Rite Catholics; Catholic communities of the Armenian Rite have existed in the country since the 18th century.
Catholicos-Patriarch has been the title of the heads of the Georgian Orthodox Church since 1010.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
Caucasus University is a privately held university in Georgia, Caucasus.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
Ceyhan is a city and a district in the Adana Province, in southern Turkey, east of Adana.
The Chairperson of the Parliament of Georgia (საქართველოს პარლამენტის თავმჯდომარე, sak'art'velos parlamentis t'avmjdomare) is the Speaker of the House in the Parliament of Georgia.
Chakrulo (ჩაკრულო, transliterated: chak'rulo) is a Georgian polyphonic choral folk song.
The Khosroianni (ხოსროიანები; ხოსროიანნი), Latinized as Chosroids, also known as the Iberian Mihranids or Mihranids of Iberia, were a dynasty of the kings and later of the presiding princes of the early Georgian state of Iberia, natively known as Kartli, from the 4th to the 9th centuries.
The Christian-Democratic Movement (ქრისტიანულ-დემოკრატიული მოძრაობა, k’ristianul-demokratiuli modzraoba, KDM) is a political party in Georgia, founded in February 2008 and led by Giorgi Targamadze, formerly an Imedi TV anchor who had once been a Member of the Parliament of Georgia and a close ally of Aslan Abashidze, then a regional leader of Adjara.
The Christianization of Iberia (ქართლის გაქრისტიანება kartlis gakrist'ianeba) refers to the spread of Christianity in an early 4th century by the sermon of Saint Nino in an ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in Classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King Mirian III of Iberia.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
Church architecture refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
, there have been 3,407 coalition deaths in Afghanistan as part of ongoing coalition operations (Operation Enduring Freedom and ISAF) since the invasion in 2001.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
The common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) is a bird in the pheasant family (Phasianidae).
The Community of Democratic Choice is an intergovernmental organization established on December 2, 2005, by nine states of Northern, Central and Eastern Europe in Kiev.
The Constitutional Agreement between the Georgian state and the Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Georgia (კონსტიტუციური შეთანხმება საქართველოს სახელმწიფოსა და საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალურ მართლმადიდებელ ეკლესიას შორის), informally referred to as the Concordat, is an agreement between the Georgian Orthodox Church (GOC) and the state that defines relations between the two entities.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
The Constitution of Georgia (საქართველოს კონსტიტუცია, sakartvelos k'onstitutsia) is the supreme law of Georgia.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Cyril Leo Heraclius, Prince Toumanoff (Кирилл Львович Туманов; 13 October 1913 – 4 February 1997) was a Russian-born American historian and genealogist who mostly specialized in the history and genealogies of medieval Georgia, Armenia, Iran and the Byzantine Empire.
The Darial Gorge (დარიალის ხეობა, Darialis Kheoba; Дарьяльское ущелье; Арвыком, Arvykom; Башлоам-Чу) is a river gorge on the border between Russia and Georgia.
David III Kuropalates (Davit’ III Kuropalati) or David III the Great (დავით III დიდი, Davit’ III Didi), also known as David II, (c. 930s – 1001) was a Georgian prince of the Bagratid family of Tao, a historic region in the Georgian–Armenian marchlands, from 966 until his murder in 1001.
David IV, also known as David the Builder (დავით აღმაშენებელი) (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Georgia from 1089 until his death in 1125.
David Marshall Lang (6 May 1924 – 20 March 1991), was a Professor of Caucasian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power.
Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.
Defrocking, unfrocking, or laicization of clergy is the removal of their rights to exercise the functions of the ordained ministry.
Demetrius II the Self-Sacrificer or the Devoted (დემეტრე II თავდადებული) (1259–12 March 1289) of the Bagrationi dynasty, was king of Georgia in 1270–1289.
The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia. The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its established borders were with the Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, the Ottoman Empire and the First Republic of Armenia in the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast. It had a total land area of roughly 107,600 km2 (by comparison, the total area of today's Georgia is 69,700 km2), and a population of 2.5 million. The republic's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian. Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Georgian Social Democratic Party (also known as the Georgian Menshevik Party). Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies, and collapsed between February and March 1921 to become a Soviet republic.
The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
Dzala ertobashia (Georgian: ძალა ერთობაშია,, "Strength is in Unity") is the official motto of Georgia.
E-government (short for electronic government) is the use of electronic communications devices, computers and the Internet to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Eastern Georgia (აღმოსავლეთ საქართველო, aghmosavlet' sak'art'velo) is a geographic area encompassing the territory of the Caucasian nation of Georgia to the east and south of the Likhi and Meskheti Ranges, but excluding the Black Sea region of Adjara.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoity (Кокойты Джабейы фырт Эдуард, Kokojty Džabejy fyrt Eduard; born 31 October 1964) is the former President of South Ossetia.
Eduard Ambrosiyevich Shevardnadze (ედუარდ ამბროსის ძე შევარდნაძე, Eduard Ambrosis dze Šewardnadze; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Georgian politician and diplomat.
Ehsan Yarshater (احسان يارشاطر, born April 3, 1920) is the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University.
Elene Akhvlediani (b. 1898 in Telavi – d. 1975 in Tbilisi) was a 20th-century Georgian painter, graphic artist, and theater decorator.
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.
In many countries the public switched telephone network has a single emergency telephone number (sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or the emergency services number) that allows a caller to contact local emergency services for assistance.
The Emirs of Tbilisi (თბილისის საამირო, إمارة تفليسي) ruled over the parts of today’s eastern Georgia from their base in the city of Tbilisi, from 736 to 1080 (nominally to 1122).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the process of including new member states in NATO.
Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in South Ossetia was the removal of Georgians, which was conducted in South Ossetia and other territories occupied by Russian and South Ossetian forces, which happened during and after the 2008 Russia–Georgia war.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
EuroBasket, also commonly referred to as the European Basketball Championship, is the main international basketball competition that is contested biannually, by the senior men's national teams that are governed by FIBA Europe, which is the European zone within the International Basketball Federation.
The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
A European Union Association Agreement (for short, Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them.
The European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia (EUMM Georgia) is an unarmed peacekeeping mission operated by the European Union in Georgia.
Fagus orientalis, commonly known as the Oriental beech, is a deciduous tree in the beech family Fagaceae.
The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA, English: International Automobile Federation) is an association established as the Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus (AIACR, English: 'International Association of Recognized Automobile Clubs') on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users.
Filipp Makharadze (ფილიპე მახარაძე, Филипп Махарадзе; 9 March 1868 – 10 December 1941) was a Georgian Bolshevik revolutionary and government official.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The first five-year plan (I пятилетний план, первая пятилетка) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a list of economic goals, created by General Secretary Joseph Stalin and based on his policy of Socialism in One Country.
A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) is a multilateral treaty of the Council of Europe aimed at protecting the rights of minorities.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
The Free University of Tbilisi is a private university established in 2007 via the merge of ESM Tbilisi and the Tbilisi Institute of Asia and Africa.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
There are five recognised candidates for future membership of the European Union: Turkey (applied in 14 April 1987), Macedonia (applied in 22 March 2004), Montenegro (applied in 2008), Albania (applied in 2009), and Serbia (applied in 2009).
Gagra Range (გაგრის ქედი) is a mountain range of the Greater Caucasus in Abkhazia.
Galaktion Tabidze (გალაკტიონ ტაბიძე), simply referred to as Galaktioni (გალაკტიონი) (November 17, 1892 – March 17, 1959), was a leading Georgian poet of the twentieth century whose writings profoundly influenced all subsequent generations of Georgian poets.
Galliformes is an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding birds that includes turkey, grouse, chicken, New World quail and Old World quail, ptarmigan, partridge, pheasant, junglefowl and the Cracidae.
Gelati (გელათის მონასტერი) is a medieval monastic complex near Kutaisi, in the Imereti region of western Georgia.
George Balanchine (born Georgiy Melitonovich Balanchivadze; January 22, 1904April 30, 1983) was a choreographer.
George V the Brilliant (გიორგი V ბრწყინვალე, Giorgi V Brtskinvale; also translated as the Illustrious, or Magnificent; 1286/1289–1346) was King of Georgia from 1299 to 1302 and again from 1314 until his death.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
George XII (გიორგი XII, Giorgi XII), sometimes known as George XIII (November 10, 1746 – December 28, 1800), of the House of Bagrationi, was the second and last King of the Kingdom of Kartli and Kakheti (eastern Georgia) from 1798 until his death in 1800.
Georges-Eugène Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann (27 March 180911 January 1891), was a prefect of the Seine Department of France chosen by Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive urban renewal program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris that is commonly referred to as Haussmann's renovation of Paris.
Georgetown University Press is a university press affiliated with Georgetown University that publishes about forty new books a year.
The Georgia men's national basketball team (Georgian: საქართველოს ეროვნული საკალათბურთო ნაკრები) represents the country of Georgia in international basketball competitions.
The Georgia Train and Equip Program (GTEP) was an American-sponsored 18-month, $64-million program aimed at increasing the capabilities of the Georgian armed forces by training and equipping four 600-man battalions with light weapons, vehicles and communications.
The country of Georgia became part of the Russian Empire in the 19th century.
The relations between Georgia and Russia date back hundreds of years and remain complicated despite certain religious and historical ties that exist between the two countries and their people.
The Georgian Air Force (sak’art’velos sahaero dzalebi) was the air force of the Georgian Armed Forces from its establishment in 1992 until 2010, when it was incorporated into the Georgian Land Forces.
Georgian Airways (ჯორჯიან ეარვეისი), formerly Airzena, is the privately owned flag carrier of Georgia, with its headquarters in Tbilisi.
The Georgian Armed Forces (tr) is the name of the unified armed forces of Georgia.
The Georgian Civil War comprised inter-ethnic and intranational conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993), as well as the violent military coup d'état of December 22, 1991 – December 31, 1993, against the first democratically elected President of Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1993). While the Gamsakhurdia rebellion was eventually defeated, the South Ossetia and Abkhazia conflicts resulted in the de facto secession of both regions from Georgia. As a result, both conflicts have lingered on, with occasional flare-ups.
Georgian cuisine (kartuli samzareulo) refers to the cooking styles and dishes created by Georgian people.
Georgian Dream – Democratic Georgia (ქართული ოცნება – დემოკრატიული საქართველო, K’art’uli ots’neba – demokratiuli Sak’art’velo) is the governing party of Georgia.
Georgian feudalism, or patronqmoba (პატრონყმობა from patroni, "lord", and qmoba, "slavery", "serfdom"), as the system of personal dependence or vassalage in ancient and medieval Georgia is referred to, arose from a tribal-dynastic organization of society upon which was imposed, by royal authority, an official hierarchy of regional governors, local officials and subordinates.
The Georgian Golden Age (tr) describes a historical period in the High Middle Ages, spanning from roughly the late 11th to 13th centuries, during which the Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its power and development.
An independence referendum was held in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic on 31 March 1991.
The Georgian Intelligence Service (GIS) (საქართველოს დაზვერვის სამსახური, sakartvelos dazvervis samsakhuri) is a national intelligence agency of Georgia, with its headquarters in Tbilisi.
The Georgian Labour Party (საქართველოს ლეიბორისტული პარტია, Sakartvelos Leiboristuli Partia, SLP) is a political party in Georgia.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The lari (ლარი; ISO 4217: GEL) is the currency of Georgia.
The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, sakartvelos samotsikulo avt’ok’epaluri martlmadidebeli ek’lesia) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.
Parliamentary elections were held in Georgia on May 21, 2008.
The Georgian parliamentary election of 2012 was held on 1 October 2012 in Georgia.
Presidential elections were held in Georgia on 27 October 2013, the sixth presidential elections since the country's restoration of independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
Georgian Railway LLC (საქართველოს რკინიგზა, Sakartvelos Rkinigza) is the national railway company of Georgia.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; tr; Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.
Georgian Technical University (GTU, formerly V.I. Lenin Georgian Polytechnical Institute) is the main and largest technical university of Georgia.
Georgia is one of the oldest wine regions in the world.
The Georgian–Armenian War was a short border dispute fought in December 1918 between the newly-independent Democratic Republic of Georgia and the First Republic of Armenia, largely over the control of former districts of Tiflis Governorate, in Borchaly (Lori) and Akhalkalaki.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Georgiy Daneliya (გიორგი დანელია Giorgi Danelia; Гео́ргий Никола́евич Дане́лия; born 25 August 1930), also known as Giya Daneliya, is a Soviet and Russian film director and screenwriter known throughout the Soviet Union for his "lyric (or sad) comedies" (as he styles them).
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Giorgi Kvirikashvili (გიორგი კვირიკაშვილი; born 20 July 1967) is a Georgian politician who was Prime Minister of Georgia from 30 December 2015 to 13 June 2018.
Giorgi Margvelashvili (გიორგი მარგველაშვილი; born 4 September 1969) is a Georgian academic and politician who has been the fourth President of Georgia since 17 November 2013.
Giorgi Mazniashvili (გიორგი მაზნიაშვილი) (6 April, 1870 – 16 December, 1937) was a Georgian general and one of the most prominent military figures in the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921).
Giorgi Shermadini (გიორგი შერმადინი) is a Georgian professional basketball player, who plays for Unicaja of the Spanish Liga ACB.
The glaciers of Georgia are mainly located along the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range.
The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
In Greek mythology, the Golden Fleece (χρυσόμαλλον δέρας chrysómallon déras) is the fleece of the gold-haired winged ram, which was held in Colchis.
The Golden State Warriors are an American professional basketball team based in the San Francisco Bay Area in Oakland, California.
The Good Country Index measures how much each of the 163 countries on the list contribute to the planet, and to the human race, through their policies and behaviors.
Gori (გორი) is a city in eastern Georgia, which serves as the regional capital of Shida Kartli and the centre of the homonymous administrative district.
The Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia (tr) is an administration recognized by Georgia as the legal and only government of Abkhazia.
After the Soviet Russian Red Army invaded Georgia and the Bolsheviks took over the country early in 1921, the Parliament of the Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG) decided the Government went to exile and continued to function as the National Government of Georgia, NGG.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
Greater Caucasus (Böyük Qafqaz, Бөјүк Гафгаз, بيوک قافقاز; დიდი კავკასიონი, Didi K’avk’asioni; Большой Кавказ, Bolshoy Kavkaz, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Major", "Big Caucasus" or "Large Caucasus") is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains.
Greco-Roman (US) or Graeco-Roman (UK) wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin whose adoption of Islam (and often the Turkish language and identity) dates to the period of Ottoman rule in the southern Balkans.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The Greek diaspora in Georgia, which in academic circles is often considered part of the broader, historic community of Pontic Greeks or—more specifically in this region—Caucasus Greeks, is estimated at between 15,000 and 20,000 people to 100,000 (15,166 according to the latest census) down from about 100,000 in 1989.
Prince Grigol Orbeliani or Jambakur-Orbeliani (გრიგოლ ორბელიანი; ჯამბაკურ-ორბელიანი) (October 2, 1804 – March 21, 1883) was a Georgian Romanticist poet and general in Imperial Russian service.
Saint Grigol Peradze (გრიგოლ ფერაძე) (St. Priest Martyr Grigol), (September 13, 1899 – December 6, 1942) was a famous Georgian ecclesiastic figure, theologian, historian, Archimandrite, PhD of History, Professor.
Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) or Gross Enrollment Index (GEI) is a statistical measure used in the education sector, and formerly by the UN in its Education Index, to determine the number of students enrolled in school at several different grade levels (like elementary, middle school and high school), and use it to show the ratio of the number of students who live in that country to those who qualify for the particular grade level.
The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (Организация за демократию и экономическое развитие — ГУАМ) is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: '''G'''eorgia, '''U'''kraine, '''A'''zerbaijan, and '''M'''oldova.
The Guaramid Dynasty or Guramiani (გურამიანი) was the younger branch of the Chosroid royal house of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia).
Gudauta (გუდაუთა,; Гәдоуҭа, Gwdowtha; Гудаута, Gudauta) is a town in Abkhazia, Georgia and a centre of the eponymous district.
Guria (გურია) is a region (mkhare) in Georgia, in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea.
The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana.
The Heinrich Böll Foundation (German: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung e.V., hbs) is a German, legally independent political foundation.
The Helmand province campaign was a series of military operations conducted by the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) forces against Taliban insurgents in the Helmand Province of Afghanistan.
The Hemshin people (Համշենցիներ, Hamshentsiner; Hemşinliler), also known as Hemshinli or Hamshenis or Homshetsi, are a diverse group of peoples who in the past or present have been affiliated with the Hemşin district in the province of Rize, Turkey.
Heraclius II (ერეკლე II), also known as Erekle II and The Little Kakhetian (პატარა კახი) (7 November 1720 or 7 October 1721 – 11 January 1798), was a Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi dynasty, reigning as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Georgian Jews (ქართველი ებრაელები kartveli ebraelebi) are one of the oldest communities in Georgia, tracing their migration into the country during the Babylonian captivity in 6th century BC.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Prince Ilia Chavchavadze (ილია ჭავჭავაძე; 8 November 1837 — 12 September 1907) was a Georgian writer, political figure, poet, and publisher who spearheaded the revival of the Georgian national movement in the second half of the 19th century, during the Russian rule of Georgia.
Imereti (Georgian: იმერეთი) is a region in Georgia situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni River.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The Imperial Crown of Russia, also known as the Great Imperial Crown, was used by the monarchs of Russia from 1762 until the monarchy's abolition in 1917.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
For articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Georgia, see:Category:Georgia (country).
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
International Affairs is a leading peer-reviewed academic journal of international relations.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Abkhazia and South Ossetia are partially recognised republics in the Caucasus, claiming independence from Georgia.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Irakli Kobakhidze (georgian იულიუს კობახას ძე; born 25 September 1978) is a Georgian politician who was elected as the Chairperson of the Parliament of Georgia on 18 November 2016.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in Georgia was introduced in 654 when an army sent by the Third Caliph of Islam, Uthman, conquered Eastern Georgia and established Muslim rule in Tbilisi.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Prince Ivane Javakhishvili (ივანე ჯავახიშვილი, 11 April 1876 – 18 November 1940) was a Georgian historian and a linguist whose voluminous works heavily influenced the modern scholarship of the history and culture of Georgia.
Monastery of Iviron or Iveron (ივერთა მონასტერი, iverta monast'eri; Μονή Ιβήρων, Monḗ Ibḗrōn) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery in the monastic state of Mount Athos in northern Greece.
Jaba (or Dzhaba) Ioseliani (July 10, 1926 – March 4, 2003) was a Georgian politician, writer, thief-in-law and leader of the paramilitary Mkhedrioni organisation.
Jacques de Vitry (Jacobus de Vitriaco, c. 1160/70 – 1 May 1240) was a French canon regular who was a noted theologian and chronicler of his era.
Iakovos "Jake" Tsakalidis (Ιάκωβος Τσακαλίδης, იაკოვოს წაკალიდას, born June 10, 1979) is a former Georgian-born Greek professional basketball player.
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu (Persian: جلال الدین خوارزمشاه; Turkmen: Jelaleddin Meňburun or Jelaleddin Horezmşa; full name: Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Manguberdi ibn Muhammad) or Manguberdi (Turkic for "Godgiven"), also known as Jalâl ad-Dîn Khwârazmshâh, was the last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire.
The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors.
Japheth (Ἰάφεθ; Iafeth, Iapheth, Iaphethus, Iapetus), is one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis, where he plays a role in the story of Noah's drunkenness and the curse of Ham, and subsequently in the Table of Nations as the ancestor of the peoples of Europe and Anatolia.
Jason (Ἰάσων Iásōn) was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature.
Javalkheti Plateau (ჯავახეთის პლატო) is a volcanic plateau within the Caucasus Mountains that covers the Samtskhe-Javakheti region of Georgia, along the border with Turkey and Armenia.
Jean Chardin (16 November 1643 – 5 January 1713), born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, and also known as Sir John Chardin, was a French jeweller and traveller whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia and the Near East in general.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).
Kakheti (კახეთი) is a region (Georgian: Mkhare) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti.
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.
Kartli (ქართლი) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.
Kartlos is the eponymous ancestor of the Georgians (Kartvelians) in Georgian mythology, more specifically of the nation of Kartli (Caucasian Iberia).
The Kartvelian languages (ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of Turkey.
The Kartvelian peoples are the ethno-linguistic groups of speakers of Kartvelian languages.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Khachapuri (ხაჭაპური from ხაჭო xach'o "curds" + პური p'uri "bread") is a traditional Georgian dish of cheese-filled bread.
Khevi (ხევი) is a small historical-geographic area in northeastern Georgia.
Khevsureti (Georgian: ხევსურეთი, a land of valleys) is a historical-ethnographic region in eastern Georgia.
Khinkali (ხინკალი) is a Georgian dumpling, which originated in the Georgian mountain regions of Pshavi, Mtiuleti and Khevsureti.
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.
The Kingdom of Abkhazia (აფხაზთა სამეფო) was a medieval feudal state in the Caucasus which lasted from the 780s until being united, through dynastic succession, with the Kingdom of Georgia in 1008.
The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
The Kingdom of Imereti (იმერეთის სამეფო) was a Georgian monarchy established in 1455 by a member of the house of Bagrationi when the Kingdom of Georgia was dissolved into rival kingdoms.
The Kingdom of Kartli (ქართლის სამეფო) was a feudal Georgian state that existed from 1466/84 to 1762, with the city of Tbilisi as its capital.
The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (ქართლ-კახეთის სამეფო) (1762–1801) was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti.
The Kists (ქისტები kist'ebi, Kistoj, Kisti) are a Chechen in Georgia.
The Klarjeti (კლარჯეთი) was a province of ancient and medieval Georgia, which is now part of the Turkey's Artvin Province.
Kobuleti (ქობულეთი) is a town in Adjara, western Georgia, situated on the eastern coast of the Black Sea.
Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.
Krubera Cave (კრუბერის გამოქვაბული or კრუბერის ღრმული; Also known as Voronya Cave, sometimes spelled Voronja Cave) is the second deepest known cave on Earth after the Veryovkina Cave.
Kutaisi (ქუთაისი; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kotais, Kutatisi, Kutaïsi) is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city.
Kvemo Kartli (Lower Kartli, ქვემო ქართლი) is a historic province and current administrative region (Mkhare) in southeastern Georgia.
Vladimir (Lado) Asatiani (ვლადიმერ ასათიანი) (14 January 1917 – 23 June 1943) was a Georgian poet.
Lado Gudiashvili (ლადო გუდიაშვილი) (March 30, 1896 – July 20, 1980) was a 20th-century Georgian painter.
Lake Paliastomi (პალიასტომი, also transliterated as Paleaostom) is a small lake near the city of Poti, Georgia, connected to the Black Sea by a narrow channel.
Lala Mustafa Pasha's Caucasian campaign was a military expedition launched in 1578 by Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha, a grand-vizier of the expanding Ottoman Empire.
The Laz language (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena; ლაზური ენა, lazuri ena, or ჭანური ენა, ç̌anuri ena / chanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by the Laz people on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.
Lazica (ეგრისის სამეფო, Egrisi; ლაზიკა, Laziǩa; Λαζική, Lazikē; لازستان, Lazistan; Եգեր, Yeger) was the Latin name given to the territory of Colchis during the Roman/Byzantine period, from about the 1st century BC.
The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking developed by the Legatum Institute, a division of the private investment firm Legatum.
Legends car racing is a style of race car, designed primarily to promote exciting racing and to keep costs down.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lelo or lelo burti (ლელო ბურთი), literally a "field ball ", is a Georgian folk sport, which is a full contact ball game, and very similar to rugby.
Leon I of Abkhazia, hereditary prince (Eristavi) of Abkhazia, ruling between 720–740 and a vassal to the Byzantine Emperor.
Leon II of Abkhazia (ლეონ II) was King of Abkhazia, a country in the southern Caucasus Mountains, from 767/68–811/12.
Lesser Caucasus (Փոքր Կովկաս Pʿokʿr Kovkas, Azerbaijani: Kiçik Qafqaz Dağları, მცირე კავკასიონი, Малый Кавказ, Persian: Arankuh, Küçük Kafkasya, sometimes translated as "Caucasus Minor") is second of the two main mountain ranges of Caucasus mountains, of length about.
Levan Moseshvili (ლევან მოსეშვილი; Леван Мосешвили; born 23 May 1940) is a retired Georgian basketball player.
Likhi Range (tr) or Surami Range (tr) is a mountain range in Georgia, a part of the Caucasus mountains.
The following list of Georgian cities is divided into three separate lists for Georgia itself, and the disputed territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This is a list of heads of the Georgian Orthodox Church and its predecessors in the ancient Georgian kingdom of Iberia (i.e. Kartli).
A municipality (მუნიციპალიტეტი, munits'ipaliteti) is a subdivision of Georgia, consisting of a settlement or a group of settlements, which enjoys local self-government.
The rivers of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus, include.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
A lynx (plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, Bobcat) within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx.
Mamuka Bakhtadze (მამუკა ბახტაძე; born June 9, 1982) is a Georgian politician who has served as the Prime Minister since 20 June 2018.
Manuchar "Manu" Markoishvili (მანუჩარ მარკოიშვილი, born November 17, 1986) is a Georgian professional basketball player for Pallacanestro Reggiana of the Italian Lega Basket Serie A (LBA).
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
Marwan ibn Muhammad's invasion of Georgia took place from 735 to 737.
Median income is the amount that divides the income distribution into two equal groups, half having income above that amount, and half having income below that amount.
The Mensheviks (меньшевики) were a faction in the Russian socialist movement, the other being the Bolsheviks.
Mepe (მეფე) is a title used to designate the Georgian monarch, whether it is a King or a Queen regnant.
Meskheti (მესხეთი), also known as Samtskhe (სამცხე), is in a mountainous area of Moschia in southwestern Georgia.
Meskheti Range (მესხეთის ქედი) (Meskh/Meskhet/Meskhetian Range, Adzhar-Imereti Range, Adzhar-Akhaltsikh Range also Moschian Mountains) is a part of the Lesser Caucasus mountain range in Meskheti region, in southwestern Georgia.
Meskhetian Turks also known as Ahiska Turks (მესხეთის თურქები Meskhetis t'urk'ebi) are an ethnic subgroup of Turks formerly inhabiting the Meskheti region of Georgia, along the border with Turkey.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikheil Korkia (მიხეილ ქორქია) (September 10, 1948 – February 7, 2004) was a Soviet basketball player who won gold with the Soviet basketball team in Basketball at the 1972 Summer Olympics.
Mikheil Saakashvili (მიხეილ სააკაშვილი, Mixeil Saak'ašvili; Міхеіл Саакашвілі, Michejil Saakašwili; born 21 December 1967) is a Georgian and Ukrainian politician.
Mingrelian or Megrelian (მარგალური ნინა margaluri nina) is a Kartvelian language spoken in Western Georgia (regions of Samegrelo and Abkhazia), primarily by Mingrelians.
The Ministry of Defense of Georgia (sakartvelos tavdatsvis saministro) is the Georgian government ministry in charge of the Georgian Armed Forces and regulating activities in defence of the country from external threats, preserving territorial integrity and waging wars on behalf of Georgia.
The Ministry of External Relations (MER) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Министерство иностранных дел СССР), formed on 16 July 1923, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia (საქართველოს შინაგან საქმეთა სამინისტრო), abbreviated MIA (შსს), is a state law enforcement agency of Georgia.
Mirian III (მირიან III) was a king of Iberia or Kartli (Georgia), contemporaneous to the Roman emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337).
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
The Mkhedrioni was a paramilitary group and political organisation in the Republic of Georgia, outlawed since 1995 but subsequently reconstituted as the Union of Patriots political party.
Georgia has a monarchic tradition that traces its origins to the Hellenistic period.
The Monastery of the Cross (מנזר המצלבה, ჯვრის მონასტერი, jvris monast'eri) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery near the Nayot neighborhood of Jerusalem, Israel.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongol conquests of Kingdom of Georgia, which at that time consisted of Georgia proper, Armenia, and much of the Caucasus, involved multiple invasions and large-scale raids throughout the 13th century.
Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
Mount Kazbek (მყინვარწვერი, Mqinvartsveri; Сæна, Sæna; Башлам, Bashlam; Казбек, Kazbek), is a dormant stratovolcano and one of the major mountains of the Caucasus located on the border of Georgia's Kazbegi District and Russia's Republic of North Ossetia–Alania.
Mtskheta (მცხეთა) is a city in Mtskheta-Mtianeti province of Georgia.
Mtskheta-Mtianeti (Georgian: მცხეთა-მთიანეთი) is a region (Mkhare) in eastern Georgia comprising the town of Mtskheta, which serves as a regional capital, together with its district and the adjoining mountainous areas.
Mukhran Machavariani (მუხრან მაჭავარიანი; April 12, 1929 – May 17, 2010) was a Georgian poet, a member of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia (Georgian Parliament) from 1990 until 1992, and a recipient of the Shota Rustaveli State Prize of Georgia.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.
National Bank of Georgia (საქართველოს ეროვნული ბანკი, Sakartvelos Erovnuli Bank’i) is the central bank of Georgia.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The World Economic Forum's Networked Readiness Index (NRI), also referred to as Technology Readiness, measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology (ICT).
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Niko Pirosmani (ნიკო ფიროსმანი), simply referred to as Nikala (ნიკალა) (1862–1918), was a Georgian primitivist painter who posthumously rose to prominence.
Nikoloz Semyonovich Chkheidze (ნიკოლოზ (კარლო) ჩხეიძე; Никола́й (Карло) Семёнович Чхеи́дзе), commonly known as Karlo Chkheidze (9 March 1864 – 13 June, 1926), was a Georgian social democratic politician.
Prince Nikoloz "Tato" Baratashvili (ნიკოლოზ "ტატო" ბარათაშვილი; 4 December 1817 – 21 October 1845) was a Georgian poet.
Nikoloz Tskitishvili (ნიკოლოზ ცქიტიშვილი; born April 14, 1983) is a Georgian professional basketball player for Byblos Club of the Lebanese Basketball League.
Nina Ananiashvili (born: Nino Ananiashvili, ნინო ანანიაშვილი; born March 19, 1963) is a Georgian ballerina and artistic director of the State Ballet of Georgia.
Nino Burjanadze (Georgian: ნინო ბურჯანაძე, also romanized Burdzhanadze or Burdjanadze, born 16 July 1964) is a Georgian politician and lawyer who served as Chairperson of the Parliament of Georgia from November 2001 to June 2008.
Noe Zhordania (ნოე ჟორდანია; Ной Никола́евич Жорда́ния; born — January 11, 1953) was a Georgian journalist and Menshevik politician.
The North Atlantic Council (NAC) is the principal political decision-making body of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), consisting of Permanent Representatives from its member countries.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (p; Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон-Алани, Respublikæ Cægat Iryston-Alani) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Occupied territories of Georgia (საქართველოს ოკუპირებული ტერიტორიები) are the territories occupied by Russia after the Russo-Georgian War in 2008.
Old Tbilisi (ძველი თბილისი, dzveli t'bilisi) was an administrative district (raioni) in Tbilisi, capital of Georgia, from 2007 to 2013.
Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях», «O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives aimed at fostering cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region.
The Ossetians or Ossetes (ир, ирæттæ,; дигорæ, дигорæнттæ) are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the region known as Ossetia.
Otar Iosseliani (ოთარ იოსელიანი, born 2 February 1934) is a Georgian-film maker.
Otar Korkia (Georgian: ოთარ ქორქია, Отар Михайлович Коркия; May 10, 1923 in Kutaisi – March 15, 2005 in Tbilisi) was a Georgian professional basketball player and coach.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Georgia: Georgia (country) – country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia, located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Ozurgeti (ოზურგეთი) is the capital of the western Georgian province of Guria.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
The Parliament of Georgia (საქართველოს პარლამენტი, sakartvelos p'arlament'i) is the supreme legislature of Georgia.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
Passportization is a process by which Russian authorities have induced persons, usually holders of former Soviet passports, to apply for Russian passports.
Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801.
Pavel Eugenievich Felgenhauer (born 6 December 1951) is a Russian military analyst known for his publications about Russia's political and military leadership.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Peace enforcement is the use of military force to compel peace in a conflict, generally against the will of those combatants.
The Peace of Amasya (پیمان آماسیه ("Qarārdād-e Amasiyeh"); Amasya Antlaşması) was a treaty agreed to on May 29, 1555 between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Amasya, following the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555.
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
The Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great, alongside the Persian Expedition of Peter the Great, was one of the Russo-Persian Wars of the 18th century which did not entail any lasting consequences for either belligerent.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana syn. P. p. ciscaucasica and P. p. saxicolor) is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List; the population is estimated at fewer than 871–1,290 mature individuals and considered declining.
Pharnavaz I (ფარნავაზ I) was a king of Kartli, an ancient Georgian kingdom known as Iberia in the Classical antiquity.
Picea orientalis, commonly known as the Oriental spruce or Caucasian spruce, is a species of spruce native to the Caucasus and adjacent northeast Turkey.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Pompey's campaign in Iberia and Colchis took place in 65 BC and was a consequence of the Mithridatic Wars.
Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Poti (ფოთი; Mingrelian: ფუთი; Laz: ჶაში/Faşi or ფაში/Paşi) is a port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti in the west of the country.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of Georgia (საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი, sakartvelos prezidenti) is the head of state and supreme commander-in-chief.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
A pretext (adj: pretextual) is an excuse to do something or say something that is not accurate.
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
The Prime Minister of Georgia is the most senior minister within the Cabinet of Georgia, appointed by the President of Georgia.
Primitivism is a mode of aesthetic idealization that either emulates or aspires to recreate "primitive" experience.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
Principality of Iberia (tr) was an early medieval aristocratic regime in a core Georgian region of Kartli, i.e. Iberia per classical authors.
Principality of Tao-KlarjetiValeri Silogava, Kakha Shengelia.
Public Radio International (PRI) is an American public radio organization.
Pyotr Bagration (10 July 1765 – 24 September 1812) was a Russian general and prince of Georgian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti (რაჭა-ლეჩხუმი და ქვემო სვანეთი, Raç̇a-Leçxumi da Kvemo Svaneti) is a region (Mkhare) in northwestern Georgia which includes the historical provinces of Racha, Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti (i.e., Lower Svaneti).
Real Gross Domestic Product (real GDP) is a macroeconomic measure of the value of economic output adjusted for price changes (i.e., inflation or deflation).
The Red Army invasion of Georgia (15 February – 17 March 1921), also known as the Soviet–Georgian War or the Soviet invasion of Georgia,Debo, R. (1992).
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republican Party of Georgia (საქართველოს რესპუბლიკური პარტია, sak’art’velos respublikuri partia), commonly known as the Republicans (რესპუბლიკელები, respublikelebi), is a political party in Georgia active since 1978.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
The Rioni or Rion River (რიონი Rioni, Φᾶσις Phasis) is the main river of western Georgia.
Robert Sturua (რობერტ სტურუა; born 31 July 1938, Tbilisi) is a Georgian theater director, who gained international acclaim for his original interpretation of the works of Brecht, Shakespeare, and Chekhov.
The Roki Tunnel (also called Roksky Tunnel, როკის გვირაბი; Ossetic: Ручъы тъунел; Рокский туннель) is a mountain tunnel of the Transkam road through the Greater Caucasus Mountains, north of the village Upper Roka.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Relations between the Rome and Iranian states were established c. 96 BCE.
The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Romilly James Heald Jenkins (Hitchin, Hertfordshire, 1907 – 30 September 1969) was a British scholar in Byzantine and Modern Greek studies.
Ronald Dietrich Asmus (June 29, 1957 – April 30, 2011) was a United States diplomat and political analyst.
Ronald Grigor Suny (born September 25, 1940) is director of the Eisenberg Institute for Historical Studies, the Charles Tilly Collegiate Professor of Social and Political History at the University of Michigan, and Emeritus Professor of political science and history at the University of Chicago.
The Revolution of Roses, often translated into English as the Rose Revolution (ვარდების რევოლუცია vardebis revolutsia), describes a pro-Western peaceful change of power in Georgia in November 2003.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
There is no substantial Russian population in Georgia.
The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War, was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute.
Rustaveli Avenue (რუსთაველის გამზირი, Rust'avelis Gamziri), formerly known as Golovin Street, is the central avenue in Tbilisi named after the medieval Georgian poet, Shota Rustaveli.
Rustavi (რუსთავი) is a city in the southeast of Georgia, in the province of Kvemo Kartli, situated southeast of the capital Tbilisi.
The Rustavi International Motorpark is a motor racing venue located south-east of Tbilisi, Georgia.
Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The province of Georgia was a velayat (province) of the Safavid Empire located in the area of present-day Georgia.
Saint Nino (წმინდა ნინო, ts'minda nino; Սուրբ Նունե, Surb Nune; Αγία Νίνα, Agía Nína; sometimes St. Nune or St. Ninny) Equal to the Apostles and the Enlightener of Georgia (c. 296 – c. 338 or 340) was a woman who preached Christianity in Georgia, that resulted from the Christianization of Iberia.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (SVOTS) is an Orthodox Christian seminary in Crestwood, Yonkers, New York, in the United States.
Samegrelo (სამეგრელო Samegrelo; სამარგალო Samargalo; მარგალონა Margalona, Segān) is a historic province in the western part of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi.
Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti (Georgian: სამეგრელო-ზემო სვანეთი) is a region (Mkhare) in western Georgia which includes the historical Georgian provinces of Samegrelo (Mingrelia) and Zemo Svaneti (i.e., Upper Svaneti) and has Zugdidi as its capital.
Samtskhe–Javakheti (სამცხე-ჯავახეთი), is a region (Mkhare) formed in 1995 in southern Georgia from the historical provinces of Meskheti (Samtskhe), Javakheti and Tori (Borjomi gorge).
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a species of pine that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia.
Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.
Secularism and irreligion in Georgia was most popular in the 20th century when the country was part of the Soviet Union.
Self proclaimed—or, in French, soi-disant—describes a legal title that is recognized by the declaring person but not necessarily by any recognized legal authority.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Senaki (სენაკი; სანაკი) is a town in Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti region, western Georgia.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.
Grigory Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze (გრიგოლ კონსტანტინეს ძე ორჯონიკიძე Grigol Konstantines dze Orjonikidze; Григо́рий Константи́нович Орджоники́дзе Grigori Konstantinovich Ordzhonikidze), generally known as Sergo Ordzhonikidze (სერგო ორჯონიკიძე; Серго́ Орджоники́дзе);, Kutais Governorate – 18 February 1937, Moscow) was a Georgian Bolshevik, later member of the CPSU Politburo and close associate of Joseph Stalin. Ordzhonikidze, Stalin and Anastas Mikoyan comprised what was jokingly referred to as the "Caucasian Clique.".
Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments.
Shatili (შატილი) is a historic highland village in Georgia, near the border with Chechnya.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shida Kartli (შიდა ქართლი) is a landlocked administrative region (Mkhare) in eastern Georgia.
Shkhara (შხარა), is the highest point in the nation of Georgia.
Shota Rustaveli (შოთა რუსთაველი, c. 1160—after c. 1220), mononymously known simply as Rustaveli, was a medieval Georgian poet.
Shulaveri-Shomu culture (შულავერი-შომუთეფეს კულტურა) is a Late Neolithic/Eneolithic culture that existed on the territory of present-day Georgia, Azerbaijan and the Armenian Highlands.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.
The Social Democratic Party of Georgia (საქართველოს სოციალ-დემოკრატიული პარტია, sakartvelos sotsial-demok'rat'iuli p'art'ia), also known as the Georgian Menshevik Party, was a Georgian Marxist, and later, social democratic political party.
The Social Progress Index (SPI) measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens.
Solomon II (სოლომონ II) (1772 – February 7, 1815), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was the last King of Imereti (western Georgia) from 1789 to 1790 and from 1792 until his deposition by the Imperial Russian government in 1810.
The South Caucasus Pipeline (also known as Baku–Tbilisi–Erzurum Pipeline, BTE pipeline, or Shah Deniz Pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline from the Shah Deniz gas field in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea to Turkey.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
South Ossetia or Tskhinvali Region, is a disputed territory in the South Caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised Georgian territory.
The South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast (Юго-Осетинская автономная область, სამხრეთ ოსეთის ავტონომიური ოლქი, Хуссар Ирыстоны автономон бӕстӕ) was an autonomous oblast of the Soviet Union created within the Georgian SSR on April 20, 1922.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
Soviet Occupation Day (საბჭოთა ოკუპაციის დღე, sabch'ot'a okupats'iis dge) is a holiday in the country of Georgia.
The Soviet national basketball team was the basketball side that represented the Soviet Union in international competitions.
Speleology is the scientific study of caves and other karst features, their make-up, structure, physical properties, history, life forms, and the processes by which they form (speleogenesis) and change over time (speleomorphology).
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.
The State Ministry for Reconciliation and Civic Equality (შერიგებისა და სამოქალაქო თანასწორობის საკითხებში სახელმწიფო მინისტრის აპარატი) is a governmental agency within the Cabinet of Georgia in charge of coordination and monitoring of activities undertaken towards Georgian–Ossetian and Georgian–Abkhazian conflict resolution, generating new peace initiatives and reintegrating the conflict regions and their population with the rest of Georgia.
The State of World Liberty Index was a ranking of countries according to the degree of economic and personal freedoms that their citizens enjoy.
The State Military Scientific-Technical Center “Delta” (SMSTC Delta) is a Georgian government-owned, autonomous R&D and production center for military and civilian hardware.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to a product or service.
Sokhumi or Sukhumi (Аҟәа, Aqwa; სოხუმი,; Сухум(и), Sukhum(i)) is a city on the Black Sea coast.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A supra (Georgian: სუფრა) is a traditional Georgian feast and an important part of Georgian social culture.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia (საქართველოს რესპუბლიკის უზენაესი საბჭო, sakartvelos respublikis uzenaesi sabcho) was the highest unicameral legislative body in Georgia elected in the first democratic, multiparty elections in the Caucasus on October 28, 1990 while the country was still part of the Soviet Union.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The Svan language (Svan: ლუშნუ ნინ lušnu nin; სვანური ენა svanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken in the western Georgian region of Svaneti primarily by the Svan people.
Svaneti or Svanetia (Suania in ancient sources) (სვანეთი Svaneti) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
A tamada (თამადა) is a Georgian toastmaster at a Georgian supra (feast) or at a wedding, corresponding to the symposiarch at the Greek symposion or the thyle at the Anglo-Saxon sumbel.
Tamar the Great (თამარი) (1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as the Queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.
Tao (ტაო) is a historical Georgian district and part of historic Tao-Klarjeti region, today part of the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Tao-Klarjeti (ტაო-კლარჯეთი) is a part of Georgian historical region of Upper Kartli and the term is based on the names of two most important provinces of the region — Tao and Klarjeti.
"Tavisupleba" (თავისუფლება) is the national anthem of Georgia.
Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Shota Rustaveli Tbilisi International Airport (თბილისის შოთა რუსთაველის სახელობის საერთაშორისო აეროპორტი) formerly Novo Alexeyevka International Airport, is the main international airport in Georgia, located southeast of the capital Tbilisi.
The Sioni Cathedral of the Dormition is a Georgian Orthodox cathedral in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.
Tbilisi State Medical University (TSMU) (თბილისის სახელმწიფო სამედიცინო უნივერსიტეტი (თსსუ)) is a leading medical university in Tbilisi, Georgia.
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი Ivane Javaxishvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmts'ipo universit'et'i, often shortened to its historical name, Tbilisi State University or TSU), is a public research university established on 8 February 1918 in Tbilisi, Georgia.
Telavi (თელავი) is the main city and administrative center of Georgia's eastern province of Kakheti.
There were changes to the telephone numbering plan in Georgia which were expected to be completed by the end of 2011.
Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.
Tengiz Abuladze (თენგიზ აბულაძე; January 31, 1924 in Kutaisi – March 6, 1994 in Tbilisi) was a Georgian film director, screenwriter, theatre teacher and People's Artist of the USSR.
Tengiz Kitovani (თენგიზ კიტოვანი) (born June 9, 1938) is a retired Georgian politician and military commander with high-profile involvement in the Georgian Civil War early in the 1990s when he commanded the National Guard of Georgia and served as a Defense Minister until being gradually sidelined by Eduard Shevardnadze who had earlier been invited to lead the nation after a successful coup d'etat launched by Kitovani and his allies against President Zviad Gamsakhurdia.
A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more territorial entities or over the possession or control of land, usually between a new state and the occupying power.
The Georgian Chronicles is a conventional English name for the principal compendium of medieval Georgian historical texts, natively known as Kartlis Tskhovreba (ქართლის ცხოვრება), literally "Life of Kartli", Kartli being a core region of ancient and medieval Georgia, known to the Classical and Byzantine authors as Iberia.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Knight in the Panther's Skin (ვეფხისტყაოსანი literally "one with a skin of a tiger") is a Georgian medieval epic poem, written in the 12th century by Georgia's national poet Shota Rustaveli.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thomas Goltz (born October 11, 1954) is an American author and journalist best known for his accounts of conflict in the Caucasus region during the 1990s.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Georgia, a Christian kingdom in the Caucasus, was subjected, between 1386 and 1403, to several disastrous invasions by the armies of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, whose vast empire stretched, at its greatest extent, from Central Asia into Anatolia.
Tornike Shengelia (თორნიკე შენგელია; born October 5, 1991) is a Georgian professional basketball player who plays for Baskonia of the Liga ACB and the EuroLeague.
A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR; Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР); Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika (ZKDFR); 22 April28 May 1918), also known as the Transcaucasian Federation, was a short-lived South Caucasian state extending across what are now the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, plus parts of Eastern Turkey as well as Russian border areas.
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Transcaucasian SFSR or TSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a market economy.
The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат, Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი, georgievskis trakt'at'i) was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783.
The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tskhinvali (Tskhinval,; r; ცხინვალი) is a city in the cultural region of South Ossetia, Transcaucasia and the capital of the de facto independent Republic of South Ossetia (which has been recognised by the Russian Federation and three other UN member states) and the former Soviet Georgian South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.
Tuapse (Туапсе́; Тӏуапсэ) is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the northeast shore of the Black Sea, south of Gelendzhik and north of Sochi.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
After the devastating invasions by Timur and subsequent enfeeblement of the Kingdom of Georgia, it soon faced a new threat.
Tusheti (თუშეთი) is an historic region in northeast Georgia.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
United National Movement (ერთიანი ნაციონალური მოძრაობა, Ertiani Natsionaluri Modzraoba, ENM) is the main opposition political party in the nation of Georgia.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The University of Georgia (tr) is a university founded in 2002 in Tbilisi, Georgia.
Ushba (უშბა) is one of the most notable peaks of the Caucasus Mountains.
Vakhtang Mikheilis dze Chabukiani (ვახტანგ ჭაბუკიანი) (February 27, 1910 (julian calendar) / 12/03/1910 (Gregorian calendar) – April 5, 1992), HSL, PAU, was a Georgian ballet dancer, choreographer and teacher highly regarded in his native country as well as abroad.
Vazha-Pshavela (ვაჟა-ფშაველა), simply referred to as Vazha (ვაჟა) (26 July 1861 – 10 July 1915), is the pen name of the Georgian poet and writer Luka Razikashvili (ლუკა რაზიკაშვილი), noted Georgian patriot and author of the highest calibre in the field of Georgian literature.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Viktor Sanikidze (alternate spelling: Victor) (born April 1, 1986) is a Georgian professional basketball player who last played for Aris Thessaloniki of the Greek Basket League.
Vladimir Stepania (born 8 May 1976) is a retired Georgian professional basketball player.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
The Voyager Golden Records are two phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.
The War in Abkhazia from 1992 to 1993 was fought between Georgian government forces for the most part, and Abkhaz separatist forces, Russian armed forces and North Caucasian militants.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Justice Project (WJP) is an American independent, multidisciplinary organization with the stated mission of "working to advance the rule of law around the world".
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.
Zaza Pachulia, Aug.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Zugdidi (ზუგდიდი; ზუგდიდი or ზუგიდი) is a city in the Western Georgian historical province of Samegrelo (Mingrelia).
Zurab Aleksandrovich Sakandelidze (ზურაბ საკანდელიძე; Зураб Александрович Саканделидзе; born August 9, 1945 in Kutaisi – January 25, 2004 in Tbilisi) was a Georgian basketball player who won gold with the Soviet basketball team in Basketball at the 1972 Summer Olympics.
Zurab Zhvania (ზურაბ ჟვანია, Zurab Žwania; 9 December 1963 – 3 February 2005) was a Georgian politician, who served as Prime Minister of Georgia and Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia.
Zviad Gamsakhurdia (ზვიად გამსახურდია, tr. Zviad K'onst'ant'ines dze Gamsakhurdia; Звиа́д Константи́нович Гамсаху́рдия, tr. Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdiya; March 31, 1939 – December 31, 1993) was a Georgian politician, dissident, scholar, and writer who became the first democratically elected President of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.
.ge is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Georgia.
The 1961–62 FIBA European Champions Cup season was the fifth season of the European top-tier level professional basketball club competition FIBA European Champions Cup (now called EuroLeague).
The 1999 Istanbul Summit was the 6th Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) summit and was held in Istanbul, Turkey from November 18 until November 19, resulting in the adoption of the Istanbul Summit Declaration and the signing of the Charter for European Security.
The Adjara crisis refers to a political crisis in Georgia’s Adjaran Autonomous Republic, then led by Aslan Abashidze, who refused to obey the central authorities after President Eduard Shevardnadze’s ousting during the Rose Revolution of November 2003.
The 2006 Russian import ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines began in late March 2006 and created a diplomatic conflict between the Republic of Moldova and Georgia on the one hand and Russia on the other.
An international diplomatic crisis between Georgia and Russia began in 2008, when Russia announced that it would no longer participate in the Commonwealth of Independent States economic sanctions imposed on Abkhazia in 1996 and established direct relations with the separatist authorities in Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
The 2011 Georgian protests were a series of anti-government protests in Georgia against President Mikheil Saakashvili.
The meridian 40° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 41st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 41 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 44th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 44 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 47° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Country of Georgia, Etymology of Georgia, Former Soviet Georgia, Former Soviet republic of Georgia, Georgia (Caucasus), Georgia (Country), Georgia (Eurasian state), Georgia (Europe), Georgia (Nation), Georgia (Republic), Georgia (Sakartvelo), Georgia (West Asia), Georgia (Western Asia), Georgia (countrey), Georgia (country, Georgia (nation), Georgia (republic), Georgia (sovereign state), Georgia Republic, Georgia country, Georgia proper, Georgia(country), Georgia, Asia, Georgia, Caucasus, Georgia, West Asia, Georgia, Western Asia, Georgian Republic, Gheorghia, Gorjestan, Gorjistan, Gruziya, Gurcistan, Gurjestan, Gurjistan, Gürcistan, ISO 3166-1:GE, Kartvelebistan, Languages of Georgia, Republic of Georgia (1991), Sak'art'velo, Sakartvelo, Sakartvelobantustan, Saqartvelo, Virshan, Vrastan, საქართველო.